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Sample records for reduces alcohol involvement

  1. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  2. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  3. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  4. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  5. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Gezondheidszorg [GGZ] Nederland ), which together represent most of the institutions involved in addiction care and counselling, the majority of which are...Jaarverslag GGZ Nederland 2006”, (2006), http://741620.websites.xs4all.nl/Jaarverslag_GGZ_Nederland.pdf (accessed April 2008). RAND Europe 31...2007. 92 E.W. de Bekker-Grob, J.J. Polder, K. Witte, J.P. Mackenbach and W.J. Meerding, “Kosten van preventie in Nederland 2003: Zorg voor euro’s

  6. Ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixin Wang; Tongxing Deng; Jiexin Deng; Jinbo Deng; Xiaoqun Gao; Yuanyuan Shi; Bin Liu; Zhanyou Ma; Haixiao Jin

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure, especial y during early pregnancy, can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. The pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of ethanol are related to the effects of ceramide. In this study, we established an alcohol exposure model in wild-type mice and in knockout mice for the key enzyme involved in ceramide metabolism, sphingomyelin synthase 2. This model received daily intragastric administration of 25%ethanol, and pups were used at postnatal days 0, 7, 14, 30 for experiments. Serology and immunofluorescence staining found that ethanol exposure dose-dependently reduced blood sphingomyelin levels in two genotypes of pups, and increased neural cel proliferation and the number of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression level of protein kinase C α increased in two notypes of pups after ethanol exposure. Compared with wild-type pups, the expression level of the important activator protein of the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway, protein kinase Cα, was reduced in the hippocampus of sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockouts. Our findings il ustrate that ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of pups after prenatal ethanol exposure, and the mechanism may be associated with increased pression of protein kinase Cαactivating the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway.

  7. Community Alcohol Partnerships with the alcohol industry: what is their purpose and are they effective in reducing alcohol harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Douglas, N; D'Souza, P; Shi, Y M; Durand, M A; Knai, C; Eastmure, E; Mays, N

    2017-01-09

    Local initiatives to reduce alcohol harms are common. One UK approach, Community Alcohol Partnerships (CAPs), involves partnerships between the alcohol industry and local government, focussing on alcohol misuse and anti-social behaviour (ASB) among young people. This study aimed to assess the evidence of effectiveness of CAPs. We searched CAP websites and documents, and databases, and contacted CAPs to identify evaluations and summarize their findings. We appraised these against four methodological criteria: (i) reporting of pre-post data; (ii) use of comparison area(s); (iii) length of follow-up; and (iv) baseline comparability of comparison and intervention areas. Out of 88 CAPs, we found three CAP evaluations which used controlled designs or comparison areas, and further data on 10 other CAPs. The most robust evaluations found little change in ASB, though few data were presented. While CAPs appear to affect public perceptions of ASB, this is not a measure of the effectiveness of CAPs. Despite industry claims, the few existing evaluations do not provide convincing evidence that CAPs are effective in reducing alcohol harms or ASB. Their main role may be as an alcohol industry corporate social responsibility measure which is intended to limit the reputational damage associated with alcohol-related ASB. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Familial and social factors of involving teenagers into alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many authors discuss factors which influence involving adolescence into alcohol use. This study was aimed to assess contribution of factors related to alcohol use in the family, getting into situations of alcohol use as well as preventive work in teenage establishments.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 373 adolescents attending teenage clubs was conducted in Kazan, Russia, with questions related to alcohol use in the family and among peers, age and circumstances of first alcohol use. The outcome measure was whether respondents were current alcohol users. Associations were explored through logistic regression models.RESULTS: Alcohol use by teenagers did not differ by gender. Odds of using alcohol increased with age (OR=1.46 95%CI 1.19-1.80 per year. Risk of alcohol use was lower if no family members used alcohol (OR=0.3 95%CI 0.2-0.5 compared to those teenagers who have any family members who used alcohol. After adding to the model variables related to the first alcohol use, most significant was association with the response that no one has ever proposed to drink alcohol (OR=0.014 95%CI 0.005-0.041 compared to any situations of alcohol use, while the association with familial factors was attenuated. This shows that impact of familial factors could be mediated through the occasions of alcohol use. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are proposed to drink in a peer group (12% vs. 24% or at a party (18% vs. 25%.Adolescents who expressed negative attitude to alcohol-related work in youth clubs more likely were alcohol users themselves (OR=21.1 95%CI 2.6-170.3, which is better applicable for diagnostics than for program evaluation.CONCLUSION: Absence of alcohol in the family predetermines alcohol use by adolescents. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are suggested to drink alcohol.

  9. Transactional Models Between Personality and Alcohol Involvement: A Further Examination

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Although correlated changes between personality and alcohol involvement have been shown, the functional relation between these constructs is also of theoretical and clinical interest. Using bivariate latent difference score models, we examined transactional relations (i.e., personality predicting changes in alcohol involvement, which in turn predicts changes in personality) across two distinct but overlapping developmental time frames (i.e., across college and during young adulthood) using tw...

  10. Alcohol-induced histone acetylation reveals a gene network involved in alcohol tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ghezzi

    Full Text Available Sustained or repeated exposure to sedating drugs, such as alcohol, triggers homeostatic adaptations in the brain that lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. These adaptations involve long-term changes in the transcription of drug-responsive genes as well as an epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions that is thought to signal and maintain the altered transcriptional state. Alcohol-induced epigenetic changes have been shown to be important in the long-term adaptation that leads to alcohol tolerance and dependence endophenotypes. A major constraint impeding progress is that alcohol produces a surfeit of changes in gene expression, most of which may not make any meaningful contribution to the ethanol response under study. Here we used a novel genomic epigenetic approach to find genes relevant for functional alcohol tolerance by exploiting the commonalities of two chemically distinct alcohols. In Drosophila melanogaster, ethanol and benzyl alcohol induce mutual cross-tolerance, indicating that they share a common mechanism for producing tolerance. We surveyed the genome-wide changes in histone acetylation that occur in response to these drugs. Each drug induces modifications in a large number of genes. The genes that respond similarly to either treatment, however, represent a subgroup enriched for genes important for the common tolerance response. Genes were functionally tested for behavioral tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol and benzyl alcohol using mutant and inducible RNAi stocks. We identified a network of genes that are essential for the development of tolerance to sedation by alcohol.

  11. Social Support, Religious Involvement and Alcohol Use among Students at a Conservative Religious University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wendy E

    2017-05-24

    The misuse of alcohol among college students remains a significant public health concern in the United States. Excessive drinking among college students has been linked to numerous negative consequences, including rape, impaired academic performance, absenteeism from work and school and damaged social relations. This study examined whether religious involvement and social support played a role in reducing the frequency of alcohol use. A non-random convenience sample of 364 students from a larger study of 760 college students-18 years old and older-were recruited over a 2 month period. The survey used in this study consisted of 124 items and collected information on areas such as substance misuse, sexual activity, use of pornography, relationships, personal religious practices, and social support. A descriptive analysis and chi-square were performed to determine if there was a relationship between frequency of alcohol use and gender, marital status, student class, GPA, religion, ethnicity and age. Linear regression was conducted to determine if social support and religious involvement were predictors of frequency of alcohol misuse. Multivariate regression analysis was used for predicting religious involvement when including social support while controlling for gender, age, ethnicity and grade. The present study revealed that religious involvement was a predictor for reduced frequency of alcohol use, while social support was not a predictor of lower frequency of alcohol use.

  12. Religious factors associated with alcohol involvement: results from the Mauritian Joint Child Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Prescott, Carol A; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion's alcohol norms and an individual's religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1.795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Involvement and the Experience of Social Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Paul A.; Philbin, John; Richards, Maryse H.; Crawford, Isiaah

    1998-01-01

    Studied alcohol involvement (AI) in high school adolescents. Found that AI was related to spending more time with peers and less time with family. Indicated that greater AI was related to lower affect, greater negative mood, and feelings of social isolation with family; almost no difference in the experience of time spent with peers; and lower…

  14. Mechanisms of behavior change in alcoholics anonymous: does Alcoholics Anonymous lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J Scott; Pagano, Maria E

    2010-04-01

    Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA's effects. Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol-dependent adults (n = 1706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was mediated partially by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA's proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. AA attendance was associated both concurrently and predictively with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was associated additionally with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional wellbeing which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change.

  15. Ivermectin reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Megan; Wyatt, Letisha; Khoja, Sheraz; Asatryan, Liana; Ramaker, Marcia J.; Finn, Deborah A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Huynh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of therapeutic failure in the management of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) underscores the urgent need for novel and effective strategies that can deter ethanol consumption. Recent findings from our group showed that ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic with high tolerability and optimal safety profile in humans and animals, antagonized ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that IVM may reduce alcohol consumption; thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of this agent on several models of alcohol self-administration in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Overall, IVM (1.25–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) significantly reduced 24-h alcohol consumption and intermittent limited access (4-h) binge drinking, and operant alcohol self-administration (1-h). The effects on alcohol intake were dose-dependent with the significant reduction in intake at 9 h after administration corresponding to peak IVM concentrations (Cmax) in the brain. IVM also produced a significant reduction in 24-h saccharin consumption, but did not alter operant sucrose self-administration. Taken together, the findings indicate that IVM reduces alcohol intake across several different models of self-administration and suggest that IVM may be useful in the treatment of AUDs. PMID:22465817

  16. The Status of Parental Notification Policy and Practice for Students Involved with Alcohol Abuse at a Private University in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaore, Augusta; Olaore, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Parental notification policies and practices have been found to reduce alcohol and drug use at universities in the United States of America. This study examined the status of parental notification policy and practice at a faith-based private university in Nigeria for students involved with alcohol use. The study revealed that the absence of a…

  17. Economics of alcohol-involved traffic crashes in the USA: an input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R; Lawrence, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Preventing traffic crashes reduces crash costs paid by employers and employees. The related savings filter through the economy, impacting its performance. This study is the first to measure the impact of traffic crash reduction on a national economy. It focuses on impaired driving crashes. We analysed the impact of the almost 50% alcohol-involved driving crash rate reduction from 1984-1986 to 2010 and the impact if such crashes in 2010 had not occurred. The analysis entered published estimates of costs that employers, consumers and governments paid because of US impaired-driving crashes as production costs and demand changes in Rutgers University's input-output model of the US economy. For example, reducing medical costs paid by employers lowers the cost of labour inputs to production while reducing vehicle repairs raises demand for other goods. Running the model at current and alternative crash rates revealed the impacts of crash reductions on economic output, gross domestic product (GDP), national income and employment. Alcohol-involved crash reductions since 1984-1986 increased economic output in 2010 by an estimated $20 billion, raised GDP by $10 billion, increased US income by $6.5 billion, and created 215 000 jobs. GDP gains from alcohol-involved crash reduction contributed 5% of the $200 million compounded average annual growth in US GDP from 1985 to 2013. Eliminating remaining alcohol-involved crashes would result in similar economic gains. Alcohol-involved crashes drag down the US economy. On average, each of the 25.5 billion miles Americans drove impaired in 2010 reduced economic output by $0.80. Those losses are preventable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  19. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  20. Do flexible alcohol trading hours reduce violence? A theory-based natural experiment in alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, David K; Eisner, Manuel P

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-related violence is a pressing public health concern. In 2005, the government of England and Wales took a controversial approach to preventing violence by removing restrictions on opening hours for alcohol outlets, thus increasing the availability of alcohol. The policy aimed to remove fixed closing times, which it claimed was contributing to urban violence occurring at peak closing times. It proposed to reduce violence and disorder by installing systems of 'staggered closing times'. This policy was criticised for overlooking established public health principles prioritising the control of alcohol availability in the prevention of alcohol-related harm. In this study, we treated the removal of trading hour restrictions as a natural experiment to test competing theoretical principles about the relationship between alcohol availability and violence. Our study took place in the City of Manchester over a four-year period 2004-2008. Detailed trading records for over 600 alcohol outlets were obtained, as were police records for all violent incidents. We found considerable variation in the implementation of extended trading hours across the city, which affected area-level exposure of changes in alcohol availability and staggered closing times. To isolate the effect of these changes on violence, we performed a dose-response analysis to examine whether improved staggering of closing hours (or increased alcohol availability) was associated with decreases in violence. We found no evidence to support the government-proposed hypothesis that staggered closing reduces violence. We also found no support for the alternative hypothesis; that increase alcohol availability would result in increased violence. This study provides an example of how better evidence can be generated from natural experiments by placing added emphasis on theory, causal mechanisms and implementation science.

  1. Salford alcohol assertive outreach team: a new model for reducing alcohol-related admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Neill R; Houghton, Natalie; Nadeem, Haitham; Bell, Jackie; McDonald, Suzanne; Glynn, Noel; Scarfe, Christopher; Mackay, Bev; Rogers, Anthony; Walters, Melanie; Smith, Martin; McDonald, Andrew; Dalton, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alcohol-related admissions are increasing. A significant number of these admissions are attributable to a small number of complex patients with other comorbidities who do not engage well with mainstream services. Assertive outreach teams have been used in the field of psychiatry to engage patients who are poorly compliant. This study examines whether an alcohol assertive outreach team (AAOT) can engage with this group and reduce hospital admissions. Design The AAOT is a multidiscipl...

  2. Reducing Risky Alcohol Use: What Health Care Systems Can Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Amity E; Brolin, Mary; Stewart, Maureen T; Evans, Brooke; Horgan, Constance

    2016-04-27

    Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al., 2015; Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, & Gerberding, 2004; Rehm et al., 2009). Excessive alcohol use is one of the top causes of death, and over 240 alcohol-related deaths occur daily in the US (Mokdad et al., 2004; Stahre, Roeber, Kanny, Brewer, & Zhang, 2014). In comparison, 78 people die from an opioid overdose each day (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Excessive drinking is estimated to cost over $249 billion annually in the US and $5.6 billion in the Commonwealth (Sacks, Gonzales, Bouchery, Tomedi, & Brewer, 2015). This issue brief describes the scope of the risky drinking problem in the US and associated costs and consequences. The brief then examines the evidence base for tools to address risky drinking and outlines policy strategies that health care system stakeholders may employ to address further this critical public health issue. Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is an evidence-based, cost-effective practice to address risky alcohol use, typically using a short validated screening tool followed by a brief counseling session if a patient screens positive. Research shows SBI conducted in primary care outpatient settings significantly reduces alcohol use (Bertholet, Daeppen, Wietlisbach, Fleming, & Burnand, 2005b; Bien, Miller, & Tonigan, 1993; Kaner et al., 2009; Saitz, 2010a), hospitalizations (Fleming, Barry, Manwell, Johnson, & London, 1997b

  3. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  4. User characteristics of a smartphone app to reduce alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

    2017-03-17

    Digital interventions are available to help people reduce their alcohol consumption, but it is not known who uses these interventions and how this treatment-seeking group compares with the general population of drinkers. The study objective was to compare the socio-demographic and drinking characteristics of users of the 'Drinks Meter' smartphone app with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Data were used from the Drinks Meter app and website, and a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in England (Alcohol Toolkit Study). Participants were drinkers aged 16+ in England. Data were collected on participants' age, gender, region, sexual orientation, social grade and AUDIT score. Regression analyses were conducted to assess differences in socio-demographic and drinking characteristics between samples. Drinks Meter app users, compared with drinkers of the general population, were younger, more likely to be from the South, not heterosexual, less likely to be of a lower social grade and had a higher mean AUDIT score. Drinks Meter app users were younger than website users and reported greater alcohol consumption and related harms. Drinkers using the Drinks Meter app are more likely to be younger and report greater alcohol consumption and related harms compared with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Apps that provide feedback on drinking appear to be reaching those who report greater alcohol consumption and related harms.

  5. Alcoholics Anonymous and reduced impulsivity: a novel mechanism of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Timko, Christine; Moos, Rudolf H

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Reduced impulsivity is a novel, yet plausible, mechanism of change associated with the salutary effects of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Here, the authors review their work on links between AA attendance and reduced impulsivity using a 16-year prospective study of men and women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) who were initially untreated for their drinking problems. Across the study period, there were significant mean-level decreases in impulsivity, and longer AA duration was associated with reductions in impulsivity. In turn, decreases in impulsivity from baseline to Year 1 were associated with fewer legal problems and better drinking and psychosocial outcomes at Year 1, and better psychosocial functioning at Year 8. Decreases in impulsivity mediated associations between longer AA duration and improvements on several Year 1 outcomes, with the indirect effects conditional on participants' age. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential implications for research on AA and, more broadly, interventions for individuals with AUDs.

  6. Mechanism of alcohol-induced impairment in renal development: Could it be reduced by retinoic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen P; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-09-01

    1. Prenatal alcohol exposure impairs kidney development, resulting in a reduced nephron number. However, the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt renal development is largely unknown. Retinoic acid (RA) is critically involved in kidney development and it has been proposed that a diminished concentration of RA is a contributing factor to fetal alcohol syndrome. 2. In the present study we proposed that the ethanol-induced inhibition of ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development in the cultured rat kidney would be ameliorated by coculture with exogenous RA and that examining the expression profile of key genes involved in the development of the kidney would provide insights into the potential molecular pathways involved. 3. Whole rat metanephroi cultured in the presence of exogenous RA (10-20 nmol/L) without ethanol appeared larger and had significantly more ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli than metanephroi cultured in control media. Those cultured in the presence of ethanol alone (0.2%) had 20% fewer ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli, which was ameliorated by coculture with retinoic acid. 4. Gene expression analysis identified changes in the expression of enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol in conjunction with changes in key regulators of kidney development, including cRET. 5. These results demonstrate that the teratogenic effects of alcohol in vitro on kidney development resulting in reduced ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development can be ameliorated through coculture with RA. These results provide the foundation for future research into the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt kidney development.

  7. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-07-08

    Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  8. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-08-05

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  10. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (May 2014); CENTRAL (Issue 5, 2014); MEDLINE (1966 to 28 May 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 28 May 2014); PsychINFO (June 2013); and five alcohol and marketing databases in October 2013. We also searched seven conference databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ in October 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified and those of relevant systematic reviews or guidelines, and contacted researchers, policymakers and other experts in the field for published or unpublished data, regardless of language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the restriction or banning of alcohol advertising via any format including advertising in the press, on the television, radio, or internet, via billboards, social media or product placement in films. The data could be at the individual (adults or adolescent) or population level. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one small RCT (80 male student participants conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2009) and three ITS studies (general population studies in Canadian provinces conducted in the 1970s and 80s).The RCT

  11. Measuring social reactions to female survivors of alcohol-involved sexual assault: The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    For women who disclose sexual assault, social reactions can affect post-assault adjustment. Approximately half of the sexual assaults of adult women involve alcohol use. Experimental studies indicate that people put more blame on women who were drinking before the assault, yet no studies have assessed how often actual survivors receive social reactions specific to their alcohol use. This study presents a new measure to assess alcohol-specific social reactions for survivors of sexual assault (The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol, SRQ-A). Factor analyses of a large community sample indicated that women often receive both positive and negative alcohol-specific reactions when disclosing assault. Discriminant validity confirmed that such reactions are distinct from other types of assault-related social reactions. Against predictions, alcohol-specific reactions were not associated with depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, binge drinking, or intoxication. However, in support of the hypotheses, alcohol-specific reactions were related to increased characterological self-blame and alcohol problems. Notably, such reactions had both positive and negative relationships with self-blame, indicating a potential avenue for intervention. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  12. Do parents still matter? Parent and peer influences on alcohol involvement among recent high school graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark D; Read, Jennifer P; Mitchell, Roger E; Brand, Nancy H

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the influences of peer and parent variables on alcohol use and problems in a sample of late adolescents in the summer immediately prior to entry into college. Participants (N = 556) completed a mail survey assessing peer influences (alcohol offers, social modeling, perceived norms), parental behaviors (nurturance, monitoring), and attitudes and values (disapproval for heavy drinking, permissiveness for drinking), and alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated significant associations between both peer and parental influences and alcohol involvement, and showed that parental influences moderated peer-influence-drinking behavior, such that higher levels of perceived parental involvement were associated with weaker relations between peer influences and alcohol use and problems. These findings suggest that parents continue to exert an influential role in late adolescent drinking behavior.

  13. Collateral Informant Assessment in Alcohol Use Research Involving College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.; Noel, Nora E.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between college students' self-reported alcohol use and corresponding collateral reports and identified factors that influence agreement between both sets of reports. Participants/Methods: Subject-collateral pairs (N = 300) were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Results: Data yielded…

  14. Stimulus preexposure reduces generalization of conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol flavors in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotro, M Gabriela; Alonso, Gumersinda

    2003-02-01

    Results of 3 experiments showed that infant rats (age 13-17 days) generalize conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol tastes such as a mixture of sucrose and quinine, apple cider vinegar, or coffee. Nonreinforced preexposure to those tastes reduced generalized aversions between them. Generalization between alcohol and sucrose-quinine was reduced not only after preexposure to both tastes, but also when only the nonconditioned taste was preexposed, whereas with alcohol and vinegar, both tastes had to be preexposed to obtain that effect. In no case was generalization reduced when only the to-be-conditioned taste was preexposed. Previous experience with alcohol alone, as well as with similar gustatory stimuli, may enhance subjects' ability to differentiate them during infantile stages in rats.

  15. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  16. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  17. How have people who have stopped or reduced their alcohol consumption incorporated this into their social rituals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Ashlea; Eliott, Jaklin; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Crabb, Shona

    2017-06-01

    Limiting alcohol consumption is beneficial for health, but can be challenging given the role alcohol plays in the rituals of many social occasions. We examined how people who stopped or reduced their alcohol consumption incorporated this change within their social rituals. We conducted 16 semi-structured one-on-one interviews with adults aged 25-65 years, who lived in Australia and had stopped or significantly reduced their alcohol consumption in the previous year. Through thematic analysis, we identified four approaches to adapting drinking rituals: replacing alcohol with other drinks, replacing drinking with other social activities, changing the meaning of drinking rituals and replacing drinking occasions with activities that achieve different goals. These approaches varied in the extent to which they reflected a low or high change in the meanings and/or behaviours attached to the ritual. Approaches involving little change, such as using alternative drinks, were more readily accepted by participants' social companions than approaches involving more substantial changes such as replacing drinking with activities achieving different goals. Considering both the role and meaning alcohol carries in social interactions, and how else these might be achieved, may assist people to stop or reduce their drinking, without sacrificing their social lives.

  18. Alcohol-Related Aviation Accidents Involving Pilots With Previous Alcohol Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Drug Abuse/Alcohol and Drug Related Offenses The pilot’s failure to maintain sufficient altitude above the surface of water during an intentional...vely.and.has.made.tremendous.strdes.n.develop- ng.programs.to.help.plots.wth.substance.abuse. ssues .. Per.“Alcohol.Rehabltaton.of.Arlne.Plots... ssues . rEfErENCEs 1 .. Natonal.Transportaton.Safety.Board,.Safety.Rec- ommendaton.A-07-41 ..(2007) . 2 .. Avaton.Safety.Research.Act.of.1988,.Publ

  19. Alcohol dehydrogenases and an alcohol oxidase involved in the assimilation of exogenous fatty alcohols in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2015-05-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate hydrophobic substrates, including n-alkanes and fatty alcohols. Here, eight alcohol dehydrogenase genes, ADH1-ADH7 and FADH, and a fatty alcohol oxidase gene, FAO1, were analyzed to determine their roles in the metabolism of hydrophobic substrates. A mutant deleted for all of these genes (ALCY02 strain) showed severely defective growth on fatty alcohols, and enhanced sensitivity to fatty alcohols in glucose-containing media. The ALCY02 strain grew normally on n-tetradecane or n-hexadecane, but exhibited slightly defective growth on n-decane or n-dodecane. It accumulated more 1-dodecanol and less dodecanoic acid than the wild-type strain when n-dodecane was fed. Expression of ADH1, ADH3 or FAO1, but not that of other ADH genes or FADH, in the ALCY02 strain restored its growth on fatty alcohols. In addition, a triple deletion mutant of ADH1, ADH3 and FAO1 showed similarly defective growth on fatty alcohols and on n-dodecane to the ALCY02 strain. Microscopic observation suggests that Adh1p and Adh3p are localized in the cytosol and Fao1p is in the peroxisome. These results suggest that Adh1p, Adh3p and Fao1p are responsible for the oxidation of exogenous fatty alcohols but play less prominent roles in the oxidation of fatty alcohols derived from n-alkanes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Do managed alcohol programs change patterns of alcohol consumption and reduce related harm? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernie; Chow, Clifton; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Perkin, Kathleen; Zhao, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Background Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, and other supports. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related harms among MAP participants and controls from a homeless shelter in Thunder Bay, Ontario, were investigated in 2013. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with 18 MAP and 20 control participants assessed as...

  1. Differential DNA methylation of genes involved in fibrosis progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeybel, Müjdat; Hardy, Timothy; Robinson, Stuart M.; Fox, Christopher; Anstee, Quentin M.; Ness, Thomas; Masson, Steven; Masson, Steven; French, Jeremy; White, Steve; Mann, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Differential DNA methylation of genes involved in fibrosis progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease Müjdat Zeybel1, Timothy Hardy1, Stuart M Robinson1, Christopher Fox1, Quentin M Anstee1, Thomas Ness2, Steven Masson1, John C Mathers1, Jeremy French1, Steve White1 and Jelena Mann1* Abstract Background: Chronic liver injury can lead to the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis but only in a minority of patie...

  2. Trait-based affective processes in alcohol-involved "risk behaviors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Simons, Jeffrey S; Dvorak, Robert D; Gaher, Raluca M

    2012-11-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would primarily exhibit relationships with alcohol use and problems through behavioral dysregulation occurring during extreme affective states. To evaluate these hypotheses, we tested a SEM with three alcohol-related outcomes: "Typical" alcohol use, "blackout" drinking, and risk behavior. High trait negative affect and low tolerance for affective distress contribute to difficulty controlling behavior when negatively aroused and this is directly associated with increased risk behavior when drinking. In contrast, associations between positive urgency and risk behaviors are indirect via increased alcohol consumption. Positive affectivity exhibited both inverse and positive effects in the model, with the net effect on alcohol outcomes being insignificant. These findings contribute important information about the distinct pathways between affect, alcohol use, and alcohol-involved risk behavior among college students.

  3. High- and low-dose expectancies as mediators of personality dimensions and alcohol involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; O'Connor, Roisin M

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined the influences of personality dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism) on college alcohol involvement both (1) directly and (2) mediated by positive and negative alcohol expectancies across two imagined (high and low) alcohol doses. Participants (N = 339; 176 women) were regularly drinking college students who completed a questionnaire battery on demographic characteristics, personality, expectancies, and alcohol use and problems. Structural equation modeling analysis of low- and high-dose models revealed partial support for the Social Learning Theory conceptualization of expectancies as mediators of more distal (personality) influences. Interestingly, patterns of association differed by dose. At high-expectancy doses, positive alcohol expectancies fully mediated the extraversion-use association. At low doses, positive expectancies did not play a critical role. Two distinct pathways from neuroticism to alcohol use were observed: a direct pathway, whereby neuroticism is a protective factor for alcohol use, and an indirect pathway, through positive expectancies, whereby neuroticism is a risk factor. The protective pathway was evident regardless of expectancy doses, whereas the risk pathway was evident only at high doses. Negative expectancies partially mediated the association between neuroticism and alcohol problems at both high- and low-expectancy doses. These data underscore the unique role of both positive and negative expectancies in the association between personality and drinking behavior and point to the importance of considering alcohol dose when assessing expectancies. Findings suggest that it may be beliefs about the effects resulting from heavy (rather than moderate) drinking that may be the active mechanism underlying drinking behavior.

  4. Evaluation of an educational policing strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime associated with licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan

    2012-02-01

    Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.

  5. Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Alcoholics Anonymous: Does AA lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pagano, Maria E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically-supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA’s effects. Method Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol dependent adults (N = 1,706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged, mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was partially mediated by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA’s proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was both concurrently and predictively associated with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was additionally associated with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional well-being, which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. PMID:20102345

  6. Law Enforcement Officers' Involvement Level in Hurricane Katrina and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavey, Sarah Cercone; Homish, Gregory G; Andrew, Michael E; McCanlies, Erin; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between alcohol use and level of involvement during Hurricane Katrina among law enforcement officers, and to investigate whether marital status or previous military training offer resilience against negative outcomes. Officers in the immediate New Orleans geographic area completed surveys that assessed their involvement in Hurricane Katrina and alcohol use (Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyze level of hazardous alcohol use; interactions were tested to examine protective influences of marriage and prior military training (controlling for age and gender). There was a significant association between heavy involvement in Hurricane Katrina and having a greater AUDIT score (exp(β)[EB]=1.81; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.17; p0.05). These results illustrate an association between law enforcement officers' heavy involvement during Hurricane Katrina and greater levels of hazardous alcohol use when compared to officers with low or moderate involvement. This has important treatment implications for those with high involvement in disasters as they may require targeted interventions to overcome the stress of such experiences.

  7. Marital Therapy and Spouse Involvement in the Treatment of Depression, Agoraphobia, and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines literature on marital therapy and spouse involvement as treatments for major psychopathology, focusing on depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism. For each disorder, examines relation between marital dynamics and disorder and discusses empirical efforts to evaluate impact of marital therapy or spouse involvement on disorder. Summarizes…

  8. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy

    2013-04-11

    Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.

  9. Do managed alcohol programs change patterns of alcohol consumption and reduce related harm? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernie; Chow, Clifton; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Perkin, Kathleen; Zhao, Jinhui

    2016-05-09

    Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, and other supports. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related harms among MAP participants and controls from a homeless shelter in Thunder Bay, Ontario, were investigated in 2013. Structured interviews were conducted with 18 MAP and 20 control participants assessed as alcohol dependent with most using non-beverage alcohol (NBA). Qualitative interviews were conducted with seven participants and four MAP staff concerning perceptions and experiences of the program. Program alcohol consumption records were obtained for MAP participants, and records of police contacts and use of health services were obtained for participants and controls. Some participants' liver function test (LFT) results were available for before and after MAP entry. Compared with periods off the MAP, MAP participants had 41 % fewer police contacts, 33 % fewer police contacts leading to custody time (x (2) = 43.84, P NBA use was significantly less frequent for MAP participants versus controls (t = -2.34, P NBA consumption, and decreases in some alcohol-related harms. These encouraging trends are being investigated in a larger national study.

  10. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  11. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature.

  12. Qualitative analysis of factors that increase and reduce involvement in gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the rapid development of gambling business, the number of pathological gamblers is increasing as well. The problem of pathological gambling is just as important as alcoholism or drug addiction. However, there is a lack of information and research of this topicin Lithuania. The aim of work: to investigate and analyse the factors that increase or reduce involvement in gambling. Research questions: 1 What factors increase involvement in gambling? 2 What factors reduce involvement in gambling? Critical case sampling was used for selection of the participants. Subjects were required to a have experience of involvement in gambling for at least one year; b have experience of negative impact of gambling on quality of life; c have at least 6 months of gambling abstinence. Five individuals participated in the research; all of them were males who live in Vilnius. Age of the participants varied from 19 to 45. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The matic analysis of the data led to the identification of four major the matic categories: psychological factors; social relations; material well being; quality of life. There search results show that negatyve childhood experience, gambling friends, escaping from various troubles, disputes in family and high financial needs can increase involvement in gambling. Factors that reduce involvement in gambling are: feeling support of social environment, proper evaluation of financial position, awareness of one‘s own addiction to gambling and desire to change life.

  13. Psychological Evaluation of Animal-assisted Intervention (AAI) Programs Involving Visiting Dogs and Cats for Alcohol Dependents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Narita, Shin; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation method for animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs involving Mood Check List-Short form.2 (MCL-S.2) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for psychiatric daycare of Japanese alcohol. dependents. A total of 36 alcohol dependents completed the study and questionnaires assessing their state. A single session of AAI reduced both subjective and physiological measures of state anxiety (A-State); and this program induced a significant reduction in the anxiety after an AAI program session with the dogs and cats involved in the intervention (p = 0.001). The Wilcoxon t-test showed that there were also significant differences in the "anxiety", "pleasantness", and "relaxation". scores for MCL-S.2 among the alcohol dependents, before and after AAI; a significantly decreased "anxiety" score (p = 0.006), and increased "pleasantness" (p = 0.002) and "relaxation" (p=0.012) scores for MCL-S.2 after AAI. The results of this study indicated that alcohol dependents who experienced a group AAI session-program exhibited significant improvements in their feeling; decreased anxiety, and increased pleasantness and relaxation.

  14. Patient preferences and perspectives regarding reducing alcohol consumption: role of nalmefene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luquiens A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amandine Luquiens, Henri-Jean Aubin INSERM U669, Université Paris Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP, Villejuif, France Abstract: Alcohol use disorder is a major public health issue. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable death has increased over the last 20 years. However, access to care remains very poor and many people with alcohol use disorder are untreated. The main limiting factor for access to care in alcohol use disorder appears to be the reluctance to engage in abstinence. Risk reduction is a developing approach in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, drawing its inspiration, with quite a delay, from the decades-long dominant approach in other substance use disorders. A paradigm shift has recently occurred that places more of an emphasis on reducing alcohol as a therapeutic strategy for patients with alcohol use disorder, to better meet the patients’ preferences and needs. The development and recent approval of nalmefene, in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level, contributes to enlarging the therapeutic arsenal for alcohol dependence, strengthening the legitimacy of alcohol reduction strategies. Keywords: harm reduction, alcohol use disorder, therapeutic goal, patients’ satisfaction

  15. Facilitating involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous during out-patient treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Dermen, Kurt H; Barrick, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated two strategies to facilitate involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)--a 12-Step-based directive approach and a motivational enhancement approach--during skills-focused individual treatment. Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline, end of treatment and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND INTERVENTION: A total of 169 alcoholic out-patients (57 women) assigned randomly to one of three conditions: a directive approach to facilitating AA, a motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA or treatment as usual, with no special emphasis on AA. Self-report of AA meeting attendance and involvement, alcohol consumption (percentage of days abstinent, percentage of days heavy drinking) and negative alcohol consequences. Participants exposed to the 12-Step directive condition for facilitating AA involvement reported more AA meeting attendance, more evidence of active involvement in AA and a higher percentage of days abstinent relative to participants in the treatment-as-usual comparison group. Evidence also suggested that the effect of the directive strategy on abstinent days was mediated partially through AA involvement. The motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA had no effect on outcome measures. These results suggest that treatment providers can use a 12-Step-based directive approach to effectively facilitate involvement in AA and thereby improve client outcome.

  16. Facilitating Involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous During Outpatient Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.; Barrick, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    AIM This study evaluated two strategies to facilitate involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) – a 12-step-based directive approach and a motivational enhancement approach – during skills-focused individual treatment. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline, end of treatment, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, and INTERVENTION 169 alcoholic outpatients (57 women) randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a directive approach to facilitating AA, a motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA, or treatment as usual with no special emphasis on AA. MEASUREMENTS Self-report of AA meeting attendance and involvement, alcohol consumption (percent days abstinent, percent days heavy drinking), and negative alcohol consequences. FINDINGS Participants exposed to the 12-step directive condition for facilitating AA involvement reported more AA meeting attendance, more evidence of active involvement in AA, and a higher percent days abstinent relative to participants in the treatment-as-usual comparison group. Evidence suggested also that the effect of the directive strategy on abstinent days was partially mediated through AA involvement. The motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA had no effect on outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that treatment providers can use a 12-step-based directive approach to effectively facilitate involvement in AA and thereby improve client outcome. PMID:19207347

  17. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms.

  18. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shakeshaft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community, and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000, and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI; feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009 were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre

  19. Reducing Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    to be pitted against one another within the confines of a military courtroom. I am convinced that these types of sexual assaults—those driven by...most compelling testimony came from Ms. T herself: She testified that she only drank about two to three alcoholic drinks of Red Bull mixed

  20. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at -70 mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC-NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs.

  1. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at −70 mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC–NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs. PMID:25801502

  2. Parenting strategies for reducing adolescent alcohol use: a Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Amy J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International concern regarding the increase in preventable harms attributed to adolescent alcohol consumption has led to growing political and medical consensus that adolescents should avoid drinking for as long as possible. For this recommendation to be adopted, parents and guardians of adolescents require information about strategies that they can employ to prevent or reduce their adolescent's alcohol use that are supported by evidence. Methods The Delphi method was used to obtain expert consensus on parenting strategies effective in preventing and reducing adolescent alcohol consumption. A literature search identified 457 recommendations for parents to reduce their adolescent child's alcohol use. These recommendations were presented to a panel of 38 Australian experts who were asked to rate their importance over three survey rounds. Results There were 289 parenting strategies that were endorsed as important or essential in reducing adolescent alcohol use by ≥90% of the panel. These strategies were categorised into 11 sub-headings: things parents should know about adolescent alcohol use, delaying adolescent's introduction to alcohol, modelling responsible drinking and attitudes towards alcohol, talking to adolescents about alcohol, establishing family rules, monitoring adolescents when unsupervised, preparing adolescents for peer pressure, unsupervised adolescent drinking, what to do when an adolescent has been drinking without parental permission, hosting adolescent parties, and establishing and maintaining a good parent-child relationship. The endorsed strategies were written into a document suitable for parents. Conclusions A comprehensive set of parenting strategies for preventing or reducing adolescent alcohol consumption were identified. These strategies can be promoted to parents to help them implement national recommendations for use of alcohol by young people.

  3. Parent-Child Communication to Reduce Heavy Alcohol Use among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken

    2008-01-01

    With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…

  4. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant

  5. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant ag

  6. Low alcohol alternatives: a promising strategy for reducing alcohol related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, David S; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-03-01

    Less than 1% of the beer market in British Columbia comprises beers with an alcohol content below 4%, despite the success of low alcohol beers in other countries, e.g. Australia. A small experimental study is described in which male students were given either unmarked low alcohol beer (3.8%) or regular strength beer (5.3%) to investigate their enjoyment and subjective intoxication. Thirty-four male students who reported drinking 5 or more beers in 1 day at least once in the last month volunteered for the study. In each drinking session, small groups of between 6 and 10 students consumed two servings of beer while playing dominoes. Each subject was his own control in the experiment by attending two group-drinking sessions, drinking a different beverage each time. The different beers were given in balanced order with half the subjects in each group drinking each type of beer. Standard measures of subjective intoxication and enjoyment were used. Blood alcohol levels were tested before, during and after drinking. Although significantly higher blood alcohol levels were obtained with the higher strength beer (means of 0.026 versus 0.033 mg/100 ml at the end of the study, p beer session, (ii) most did not report feeling different between the two sessions and (iii) only about half correctly guessed which was the higher alcohol content beer. There was a preference, however, for the taste of the stronger beer. We conclude beer drinkers cannot readily distinguish low and regular strength beers and can enjoy socializing equally with either. We recommend taxation strategies to create incentives for the manufacture, marketing and consumption of low alcohol alternatives.

  7. Neonatal vitamin K might reduce vulnerability to alcohol dependence in Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim;

    2005-01-01

    . The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, diagnosis of alcohol dependence and a measure of lifetime problem drinking served as the 30-year outcome variables. RESULTS: Vitamin K treatment, inherited risk and low birth weight each independently predicted alcohol dependence...... of alcohol dependence later in life. METHOD: Subjects were approximately full-term male infants, selected from a large Danish birth cohort. Two thirds of the original 330 subjects in this study were high-risk sons of alcoholic fathers; 241 of the total completed the 30-year follow-up. Of subjects reported...... and problem drinking at age 30. Vitamin K treatment was associated with significantly lower rates of alcohol dependence and fewer symptoms of problem drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K treatment at birth might protect against the development of alcoholism in adults by reducing early postnatal hemorrhage...

  8. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  9. High School Drinker Typologies Predict Alcohol Involvement and Psychosocial Adjustment during Acclimation to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Matthew A.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences among distinct types of high school drinkers on their alcohol involvement and psychosocial adjustment during the first semester of college. Participants were 147 college freshmen (66% female; 86% Caucasian) from a large Southeastern public university who reported on high school drinking and college stress, affect,…

  10. Resident Assistants' Perceptions of Their Behavior in Situations Involving Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, sequential mixed-methods study was to describe resident assistants' (RAs) perceptions of their behaviors when dealing with situations involving alcohol and underage, undergraduate resident-students. Specifically, Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to analyze RAs' reports of…

  11. Acute alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce drinking among injured patients in a Swedish emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Anna; Festin, Karin; Bendtsen, Preben; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Nilsen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem. Millions of people are injured each year, and acute drinking is a well-known risk factor for injuries. Research suggests that acknowledgment of alcohol as a factor in an injury enhances willingness to change drinking behavior, possibly because the patient becomes aware of the negative consequences of their drinking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of acute alcohol consumption (drinking before the event) among injury patients and to examine the importance of factors potentially associated with motivation to reduce alcohol consumption among these patients. All patients aged 18-69 years were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touchscreen computer. Fifteen percent of injured patients were categorized as acute drinkers, and of these, 64% reported that their injury was connected to alcohol. There were significant differences for all sociodemographic and drinking characteristics between acute drinkers and nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were categorized as risky drinkers to a much higher extent than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had a considerably higher average weekly alcohol consumption and engaged far more frequently in heavy episodic drinking than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were motivated to reduce their alcohol intake to a greater extent than nonacute drinkers; 51% were in the action, preparation, and contemplation stages, compared with 19% of the nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had considerably more detrimental alcohol consumption than nonacute drinkers, and the acute drinkers were more motivated to reduce their drinking than the nonacute drinkers.

  12. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati; Said, Hamid M

    2014-11-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5'-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na(+) dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms.

  13. Review article: Effectiveness of ultra-brief interventions in the emergency department to reduce alcohol consumption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnes, Rosemary A; Hutton, Jennie E; Weiland, Tracey J; Fatovich, Daniel M; Egerton-Warburton, Diana

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ultra-brief interventions (ultra-BI) or technology-involved preventive measures in the ED to reduce alcohol harm and risky drinking. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EBM reviews were searched for articles published between 1996 and 2015. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, which compared an ultra-BI with screening, standard care or minimal intervention for adults and adolescents at risk for alcohol-related harm presenting to an ED, were included. Outcomes of interest were frequency of alcohol consumption, quantity of alcohol consumed, binge drinking and ED representation. Thirteen studies (nine single centre and four multicentre) were included. Six studies showed a significant reduction in the quantity consumed with intermediate effect size at 3 months (d = -0.40) and small effect size at 12 months (d = -0.15). Two studies showed a significant reduction in binge drinking with small effect size at 3 months (d = -0.12) and 12 months (d = -0.09). No studies showed an effect on frequency of alcohol consumption or ED representation. Heterogeneity in study design, definition of risky, harmful or hazardous alcohol use, intervention types, outcomes, outcome timeframes and outcome measures prevented the performance of quantitative meta-analysis. Despite its limited effectiveness in reducing alcohol use in the short-term, with the large number of people attending EDs with risky drinking, the use of an effective ultra-BI would have the potential to have a measurable population effect. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  16. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  17. Reduced Dopamine Transporter Availability and Neurocognitive Deficits in Male Patients with Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hung Yen

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays an important role in the development of alcohol dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and is regulated via dopamine transporter activity. Although dopamine transporter activity is critically involved in alcohol dependence, studies observing this relationship are limited. Thus the current study examined whether dopamine transporter availability is associated with developing of alcohol dependence and cognitive dysfunction. Brain imaging with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure dopamine transporter availability among 26 male patients with pure alcohol dependence and 22 age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ were administered to assess neurocognitive functioning and personality traits, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, patients with alcohol dependence showed a significant reduction in dopamine transporter availability (p < 0.001, as well as diminished performance on the WCST (p < 0.001. Dopamine transporter availability was negatively correlated with both total and perseverative WCST errors among healthy controls, but only patients with alcohol dependence showed a positive correlation between dopamine transporter availability and a harm avoidance personality profile. Thus, reductions in dopamine transporter availability may play a pathophysiological role in the development of pure alcohol dependence, given its association with neurocognitive deficits. Moreover, personality may influence the development of pure alcohol dependence; however, additional clinical subgroups should be examined to confirm this possibility.

  18. A pilot study of an interactive web site in the workplace for reducing alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Robert A; Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Winzelberg, Andrew J; Whitsell, Shelly D; Westrup, Darrah; Futa, Kristine; Clayton, Justin B; Mussman, Lisa; Taylor, C Barr

    2007-01-01

    An interactive web-site-based intervention for reducing alcohol consumption was pilot tested. Participants were 145 employees of a work site in the Silicon Valley region of California, categorized as low or moderate risk for alcohol problems. All participants were given access to a web site that provided feedback on their levels of stress and use of coping strategies. Participants randomized to the full individualized feedback condition also received individualized feedback about their risk for alcohol-related problems. Some evidence was found for greater alcohol reduction among participants who received full individualized feedback, although due to difficulties in recruiting participants, the sample size was inadequate for evaluating treatment effects on drinking. The results provide preliminary support for using an interactive web site to provide individualized feedback for persons at risk for alcohol problems. However, the low participation rate (2.7%) suggests that such an intervention must address the challenges of recruiting employees through their work site.

  19. The road to a world health organization global strategy for reducing the harmful use of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maristela G

    2011-01-01

    Harmful alcohol use and the related health effects are a global problem and therefore need to be addressed not only by individual nations but also on an international level. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) noted that harmful alcohol use is the third leading risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in the world, accounting for approximately 2.5 million deaths worldwide (corresponding to 3.8 percent of all deaths) in 2004 (WHO 2010). Moreover, harmful alcohol use was considered responsible for 4.5 percent of the global burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life-years lost in the same year. Given this scope of the impact, the WHO initiated a series of efforts that culminated in the development of a global strategy for reducing the harmful use of alcohol. This article reviews the alcohol-related activities of the WHO over the years and summarizes the central issues addressed by the global strategy.

  20. Ethical Issues in a Stage 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Feasibility Study and Trial to Reduce Alcohol Use Among HIV-Infected Outpatients in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J.; Meslin, Eric M.; Sidle, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multina...

  1. Excitability of jcBNST neurons is reduced in alcohol-dependent animals during protracted alcohol withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szücs

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence and withdrawal has been shown to cause neuroadaptive changes at multiple levels of the nervous system. At the neuron level, adaptations of synaptic connections have been extensively studied in a number of brain areas and accumulating evidence also shows the importance of alcohol dependence-related changes in the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. At the same time, it is still largely unknown how such neural adaptations impact the firing and integrative properties of neurons. To address these problems, here, we analyze physiological properties of neurons in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST in animals with a history of alcohol dependence. As a comprehensive approach, first we measure passive and active membrane properties of neurons using conventional current clamp protocols and then analyze their firing responses under the action of simulated synaptic bombardment via dynamic clamp. We find that most physiological properties as measured by DC current injection are barely affected during protracted withdrawal. However, neuronal excitability as measured from firing responses under simulated synaptic inputs with the dynamic clamp is markedly reduced in all 3 types of jcBNST neurons. These results support the importance of studying the effects of alcohol and drugs of abuse on the firing properties of neurons with dynamic clamp protocols designed to bring the neurons into a high conductance state. Since the jcBNST integrates excitatory inputs from the basolateral amygdala (BLA and cortical inputs from the infralimbic and the insular cortices and in turn is believed to contribute to the inhibitory input to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA the reduced excitability of the jcBNST during protracted withdrawal in alcohol-dependent animals will likely affect ability of the jcBNST to shape the activity and output of the CeA.

  2. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States); Totah, Rheem A., E-mail: rtotah@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  3. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power.

  4. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Riaz Ahmad; chatton,Anne; Nallet, Audrey; Broers, Barbara; Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Poznyak, Vladimir; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Five Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductases Are Involved in the Biosynthesis of Primary Alcohols in Aegilops tauschii Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The diploid Aegilops tauschii is the D-genome donor to hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum and represents a potential source for genetic study in common wheat. The ubiquitous wax covering the aerial parts of plants plays an important role in protecting plants against non-stomatal water loss. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, primary and/or secondary alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, triterpenes, sterols, and flavonoids. In the present work, primary alcohols were identified as the major components of leaf cuticular wax in Ae. tauschii, with C26:0-OH being the dominant primary alcohol. Analysis by scanning electron microscope revealed that dense platelet-shaped wax crystals were deposited on leaf surfaces of Ae. tauschii. Ten putative wax biosynthetic genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR were identified in the genome of Ae. tauschii. Five of these genes, Ae.tFAR1, Ae.tFAR2, Ae.tFAR3, Ae.tFAR4, and Ae.tFAR6, were found expressed in the leaf blades. Heterologous expression of the five Ae.tFARs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Ae.tFAR1, Ae.tFAR2, Ae.tFAR3, Ae.tFAR4, and Ae.tFAR6 were predominantly responsible for the accumulation of C16:0, C18:0, C26:0, C24:0, and C28:0 primary alcohols, respectively. In addition, nine Ae.tFAR paralogous genes were located on D chromosome of wheat and the wheat nullisomic–tetrasomic lines with the loss of Ae.tFAR3 and Ae.tFAR4 paralogous genes had significantly reduced levels of primary alcohols in the leaf blades. Collectively, these data suggest that Ae.tFAR1, Ae.tFAR2, Ae.tFAR3, Ae.tFAR4, and Ae.tFAR6 encode alcohol-forming FARs involved in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols in the leaf blades of Ae. tauschii. The information obtained in Ae. tauschii enables us to better understand wax biosynthesis in common wheat.

  8. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism.

  9. PAT (2009)—Revisions to the Paddington Alcohol Test for Early Identification of Alcohol Misuse and Brief Advice to Reduce Emergency Department Re-attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touquet, Robin; Brown, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT) has evolved over 15 years as a clinical tool to facilitate emergency physicians and nurses giving brief advice and the offer of an appointment for brief intervention by an alcohol nurse specialist. Previous work has shown that unscheduled emergency department re-attendance is reduced by ‘making the connection’ between alcohol misuse and resultant problems necessitating emergency care. The revised ‘PAT (2009)’ now includes education on clinical signs of alcohol misuse and advice on when to request a blood alcohol concentration. PMID:19329654

  10. PAT (2009)--revisions to the Paddington Alcohol Test for early identification of alcohol misuse and brief advice to reduce emergency department re-attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touquet, Robin; Brown, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT) has evolved over 15 years as a clinical tool to facilitate emergency physicians and nurses giving brief advice and the offer of an appointment for brief intervention by an alcohol nurse specialist. Previous work has shown that unscheduled emergency department re-attendance is reduced by 'making the connection' between alcohol misuse and resultant problems necessitating emergency care. The revised 'PAT (2009)' now includes education on clinical signs of alcohol misuse and advice on when to request a blood alcohol concentration.

  11. Extended-release naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption among released prisoners with HIV disease as they transition to the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sandra A; Di Paola, Angela; Azar, Marwan M; Barbour, Russell; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLH) within the criminal justice system (CJS). Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) has not been previously evaluated among CJS-involved PLH with AUDs. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 100 HIV+ prisoners with AUDs. Participants were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX or placebo starting one week prior to release. Using multiple imputation strategies for data missing completely at random, data were analyzed for the 6-month post-incarceration period. Main outcomes included: time to first heavy drinking day; number of standardized drinks/drinking day; percent of heavy drinking days; pre- to post-incarceration change in average drinks/day; total number of drinking days; and a composite alcohol improvement score comprised of all 5 parameters. There was no statistically significant difference overall between treatment arms for time-to-heavy-drinking day. However, participants aged 20-29 years who received XR-NTX had a longer time to first heavy drinking day compared to the placebo group (24.1 vs. 9.5days; p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for other individual drinking outcomes. A sub-analysis, however, found participants who received ≥4 XR-NTX were more likely (p<0.005) to have improved composite alcohol scores than the placebo group. Post-hoc power analysis revealed that despite the study being powered for HIV outcomes, sufficient power (0.94) was available to distinguish the observed differences. Among CJS-involved PLH with AUDs transitioning to the community, XR-NTX lengthens the time to heavy drinking day for younger persons; reduces alcohol consumption when using a composite alcohol consumption score; and is not associated with any serious adverse events. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, E; Hazeleger, W C; Koopmans, M; Zwietering, M H; Duizer, E; Beumer, R R

    2015-07-01

    Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant against human enteric and respiratory viruses and to compare efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant and handwashing with soap and water against norovirus. Efficacies of a propanol and an ethanol-based hand disinfectant against human enteric and respiratory viruses were tested in carrier tests. Efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant and handwashing with soap and water against noroviruses GI.4, GII.4, and MNV1 were tested using finger pad tests. The alcohol-based hand disinfectant reduced the infectivity of rotavirus and influenza A virus completely within 30s whereas poliovirus Sabin 1, adenovirus type 5, parechovirus 1, and MNV1 infectivity were reduced soap and water for 30s (>3.0 ± 0.4 log10) was significantly higher than treating hands with alcohol (2.8 ± 1.5 log10). Washing with soap and water for 30s removed genomic copies of MNV1 (>5 log10), noroviruses GI.4 (>6 log10), and GII.4 (4 log10) completely from all finger pads. Treating hands with propanol-based hand disinfectant showed little or no reduction to complete reduction with mean genomic copy reduction of noroviruses GI.4, GII.4, and MNV1 being >2.6, >3.3, and >1.2 log10 polymerase chain reaction units respectively. Washing hands with soap and water is better than using alcohol-based hand disinfectants in removing noroviruses from hands. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  14. Involvement in alcohol-related verbal or physical aggression. Does social status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1 assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD, (2 tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3 investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011; N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51 to 38%. Alcohol-related aggression was defined as involvement in a quarrel or physical fight while drinking. Social status was defined as the highest education, monthly income and marital status. RESULTS - The associations between social status variables and aggression showed mixed results. Verbal aggression was associated with education in males and with marital status in both genders. Physical aggression was associated with education in both genders. No associations with aggression were found for income. With few exceptions, these associations remained significant when controlling for drinking patterns; social status did not moderate the association between drinking and aggression; EHD moderated the effect of volume on physical aggression in males. CONCLUSIONS - Groups of lower educated and nonmarried individuals experience verbal or physical aggression over and above different levels of consumption. Individual differences in aggression vulnerability rather than differences in aggression predisposition account for higher risks of aggression in these groups.

  15. Effectiveness of an email-based intervention helping parents to enhance alcohol-related parenting skills and reduce their children's alcohol consumption: A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Wolstein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Developing and evaluating an email-based intervention (EBI) to enhance alcohol-related parenting skills and reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Over four weeks, participating parents received a weekly email containing scientific findings, practical advice and exercises in

  16. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  17. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. A [11C]Ro15 4513 PET study suggests that alcohol dependence in man is associated with reduced α5 benzodiazepine receptors in limbic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Reid, Alastair G; Myers, James; Feeney, Adrian; Hammers, Alexander; Taylor, Lindsay G; Rosso, Lula; Turkheimer, Federico; Brooks, David J; Grasby, Paul; Nutt, David J

    2012-02-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests the α5 subtype of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor is involved in some of the actions of alcohol and in memory. The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [(11)C]Ro15 4513 shows relative selectivity in labelling the α5 subtype over the other GABA-benzodiazepine receptor subtypes in limbic regions of the brain. We used this tracer to investigate the distribution of α5 subtype availability in human alcohol dependence and its relationship to clinical variables. Abstinent (>6 weeks) alcohol-dependent men and healthy male controls underwent an [(11)C]Ro15 4513 PET scan. We report [(11)C]Ro15 4513 brain uptake for 8 alcohol-dependent men and 11 healthy controls. We found a significant reduction in [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding in the nucleus accumbens, parahippocampal gyri, right hippocampus and amygdala in the alcohol-dependent compared with the healthy control group. Levels of [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding in both hippocampi were significantly and positively associated with performance on a delayed verbal memory task in the alcohol-dependent but not the control group. We speculate that the reduced limbic [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding seen here results from the effects of alcohol, though we cannot currently distinguish whether they are compensatory in nature or evidence of brain toxicity.

  19. In vitro expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenase genes involved in acetaldehyde metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, M M; Rich, A M; Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for oral cancer, possibly via its conversion to acetaldehyde, a known carcinogen. The oral commensal yeast Candida albicans may be one of the agents responsible for this conversion intra-orally. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) family of enzymes are involved in acetaldehyde metabolism in yeast but, for C. albicans it is not known which family member is responsible for the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. In this study we determined the expression of mRNAs from three C. albicans Adh genes (CaADH1, CaADH2 and CaCDH3) for cells grown in different culture media at different growth phases by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CaADH1 was constitutively expressed under all growth conditions but there was differential expression of CaADH2. CaADH3 expression was not detected. To investigate whether CaAdh1p or CaAdh2p can contribute to alcohol catabolism in C. albicans, each gene from the reference strain C. albicans SC5314 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts from an CaAdh1p-expressing S. cerevisiae recombinant, but not an CaAdh2p-expressing recombinant, or an empty vector control strain, possessed ethanol-utilizing Adh activity above endogenous S. cerevisiae activity. Furthermore, expression of C. albicans Adh1p in a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain in which the endogenous ScADH2 gene (known to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde in this yeast) had been deleted, conferred an NAD-dependent ethanol-utilizing, and so acetaldehyde-producing, Adh activity. We conclude that CaAdh1p is the enzyme responsible for ethanol use under in vitro growth conditions, and may contribute to the intra-oral production of acetaldehyde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Liquid Mixtures Involving Hydrogenated and Fluorinated Alcohols: Thermodynamics, Spectroscopy, and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Garcia, Ana Rosa; Ilharco, Laura M; Marcos, João; Anastácio, Martim; Martins, Luís F G; Filipe, Eduardo J M

    2016-09-19

    This article reports a combined thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and computational study on the interactions and structure of binary mixtures of hydrogenated and fluorinated substances that simultaneously interact through strong hydrogen bonding. Four binary mixtures of hydrogenated and fluorinated alcohols have been studied, namely, (ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)), (ethanol + 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol), (1-butanol (BuOH) + TFE), and (BuOH + 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol). Excess molar volumes and vibrational spectra of all four binary mixtures have been measured as a function of composition at 298 K, and molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. The systems display a complex behavior when compared with mixtures of hydrogenated alcohols and mixtures of alkanes and perfluoroalkanes. The combined analysis of the results from different approaches indicates that this results from a balance between preferential hydrogen bonding between the hydrogenated and fluorinated alcohols and the unfavorable dispersion forces between the hydrogenated and fluorinated chains. As the chain length increases, the contribution of dispersion increases and overcomes the contribution of H-bonds. In terms of the liquid structure, the simulations suggest the possibility of segregation between the hydrogenated and fluorinated segments, a hypothesis corroborated by the spectroscopic results. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the infrared spectra reveals that the presence of fluorinated groups induces conformational changes in the hydrogenated chains from the usually preferred all-trans to more globular arrangements involving gauche conformations. Conformational rearrangements at the CCOH dihedral angle upon mixing are also disclosed by the spectra.

  1. Theory content of digital interventions for reducing alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Garnett; Eileen Kaner; Matthew Hickman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of theory in design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Aim: To assess the extent to which digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption have used theory in their design and evaluation. Method: Use of theory within the digital interventions evaluated in randomised controlled trials was investig...

  2. Alcohol Synthesis over Pre-Reduced Activated Carbon-Supported Molybdenum-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin L. Kugler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC-supported molybdenum catalysts, either with or without a potassium promoter, were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis (DTA and temperature programmed reduction (TPR, and were used for mixed alcohol synthesis from syngas (CO+H2. DTA results showed that a new phase, related to the interaction between Mo species and the AC support, is formed during the calcination of the Mo/AC catalyst, and the introduction of a K promoter has noticeable effect on the interaction. TPR results indicated that the Mo is more difficult to reduce after being placed onto the AC support, and the addition of a K promoter greatly promotes the formation of Mo species reducible at relatively low temperatures, while it retards the generation of Mo species that are reducible only at higher temperatures. These differences in the reduction behavior of the catalysts are atributed to the interaction between the active components (Mo and K and the support. Potassium-doping significantly promotes the formation of alcohols at the expense of CO conversion, especially to hydrocarbons. It is postulated that Mo species with intermediate valence values (averaged around +3.5 are more likely to be the active phase(s for alcohol synthesis from CO hydrogenation, while those with lower Mo valences are probably responsible for the production of hydrocarbons.

  3. Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-11-16

    Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other

  4. Restraint stress enhances alcohol intake in adolescent female rats but reduces alcohol intake in adolescent male and adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille-Bille, Aranza; Ferreyra, Ana; Sciangula, Martina; Chiner, Florencia; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2017-08-14

    Adolescents may be more sensitive to stress-induced alcohol drinking than adults, which would explain the higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in late adolescence than in adulthood. The present study analyzed the impact of restraint stress on the initiation of alcohol intake across 2 weeks of intermittent, two-bottle choice intake in male and female adolescent rats and adult female rats. Restraint stress significantly increased alcohol intake and preference in female adolescent rats but decreased alcohol intake and preference in male adolescent and female adult rats. The effects of restraint stress on alcohol intake were mitigated in adolescent females following administration of the κ opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine. Adolescent but not adult female rats that were subjected to restraint stress spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Female adolescents exposed to stress also exhibited greater risk-taking behaviors in a concentric square field test compared with non-stressed controls. These results indicate age- and sex-related differences in the sensitivity to alcohol-stress interactions that may facilitate the initiation of alcohol use in female adolescents. The facilitatory effect of stress on alcohol intake was related to greater exploratory and risk-taking behaviors in young females after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  6. Starch-g-poly (vinyl alcohol)as Compatibilizer for Reducing the Phase Separation Rates of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Cornstarch Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝志峰; 周永元

    2001-01-01

    Starch- g-poly(vinyl alcohol) as a compatibilizing agent for reducing the phase separation rates of polyvinyl alcohol/starch pastes has been investigated by blending and dissolving the two polymers in distilled water. The separation rates were quantitatively evaluated by the term of initiul demixing time. The grafted starches, with a series of grafting ratios, were prepared by grafting a number of vinyl acetate onto granular cornstarch in aqueous dispersion and then alcoholating in methanol. It was found that the addition of small amounts of starch- g poly (vinyl alcohol ) in the size compositions can effectively decrease the separation rates of the blended pastes in comparison to pure starch/PVA ones.Moreover, the influence of the grafting ratio, starch content, and PVA variety on the separation rates was also studied.

  7. Study of the Chemical Mechanism Involved in the Formation of Tungstite in Benzyl Alcohol by the Advanced QEXAFS Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olliges‐Stadler, Inga; Stötzel, Jan; Koziej, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the complex chemical mechanism for the formation of tungstite nanoparticles obtained by the reaction of tungsten hexachloride with benzyl alcohol is presented herein. The organic and inorganic species involved in the formation of the nanoparticles were studied by time‐dependent gas...

  8. Interventions in sports settings to reduce risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John H; Vashum, Khanrin P; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-01-21

    Elevated levels of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm have been reported for sportspeople and supporters compared to non-sporting populations. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions targeting such behaviours. A review was undertaken to determine if interventions implemented in sports settings decreased alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies were included that implemented interventions within sports settings; measured alcohol consumption or alcohol-related injury or violence and were either randomised controlled trials, staggered enrollment trials, stepped-wedged trials, quasi-randomised trials, quasi-experimental trials or natural experiments. Studies without a parallel comparison group were excluded. Studies from both published and grey literature were included. Two authors independently screened potential studies against the eligibility criteria, and two authors independently extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. The results of included studies were synthesised narratively. The title and abstract of 6382 papers and the full text of 45 of these papers were screened for eligibility. Three studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. One of the included studies was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a cognitive-behavioural intervention with athletes within an Olympic training facility in the USA. The study reported a significant change in alcohol use between pre-test and follow-up between intervention and control groups. The other two studies were RCTs in community sports clubs in Ireland and Australia. The Australian study found a significant intervention effect for both risky alcohol consumption at sports clubs and overall risk of alcohol-related harm. The Irish study found no significant intervention effect. A limited number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions implemented in sports settings on alcohol consumption and related

  9. Th17 involvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackelevicius, Carla Melisa; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Tiribelli, Claudio; Rosso, Natalia

    2016-11-07

    The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis. During the last years, Th17 cells have been involved in the development of inflammation not only in liver but also in other organs, such as adipose tissue or lung. Differentiation of a naïve T cell into a Th17 cell leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production with subsequent myeloid cell recruitment to the inflamed tissue. Th17 response can be mitigated by T regulatory cells that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines. Both T cell subsets need TGF-β for their differentiation and a characteristic plasticity in their phenotype may render them new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the role of the Th17 pathway in NAFLD progression to NASH and to liver fibrosis analyzing different animal models of liver injury and human studies.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex reduces cue-reactivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietschorke, Katharina; Lippold, Julian; Jacob, Christian; Polak, Thomas; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol craving has been shown to be an important factor for relapses in alcohol-dependent patients. Furthermore, brain activity in reward-related areas in response to alcohol-related cues is positively related to the amount of post-relapse alcohol consumption. On the other hand, it has been shown that cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) leads to larger decrease of striatal and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) cue-induced activation compared to standard clinical day-care treatment, but the effect sizes are relatively small. The question of this study was, whether it is possible to change cue-reactivity and subjective craving by applying bilateral prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We stimulated 30 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (50 % with a sham and 50 % with left cathodal/right anodal stimulation) and presented emotional as well as alcohol-related pictures. We measured the emotional startle modulation and found significantly increased startle amplitudes in the verum stimulation condition for alcohol-related cues, indicating a more negative processing of this cues in alcohol-dependent patients after verum tDCS stimulation. Additionally we found tendencies for stronger reduction in subjective craving in verum-stimulated patients. Therefore our study underscores the positive value of DCS in reducing craving and might help to improve the understanding and therapy of alcohol dependence.

  11. Advising depression patients to reduce alcohol and drug use: factors associated with provider intervention in outpatient psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satre, Derek D; Leibowitz, Amy S; Mertens, Jennifer R; Weisner, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Mental health clinicians have an important opportunity to help depression patients reduce co-occurring alcohol and drug use. This study examined demographic and clinical patient characteristics and service factors associated with receiving a recommendation to reduce alcohol and drug use from providers in a university-based outpatient psychiatry clinic. The sample consisted of 97 participants ages 18 and older who reported hazardous drinking (≥3 drinks/occasion), illegal drug use (primarily cannabis) or misuse of prescription drugs, and who scored ≥15 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Participants were interviewed at intake and 6 months. At 6-month telephone interview, 30% of participants reported that a clinic provider had recommended that they reduce alcohol or drug use. In logistic regression, factors associated with receiving advice to reduce use included greater number of drinks consumed in the 30 days prior to intake (p = .035); and greater depression severity on the BDI-II (p = .096) and hazardous drinking at 6 months (p = .05). While participants with greater alcohol intake and depression symptom severity were more likely to receive advice to reduce use, the low overall rate of recommendation to reduce use highlights the need to improve alcohol and drug use intervention among depression patients, and potentially to address alcohol and drug training and treatment implementation issues among mental health providers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Sabine; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers) or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when') was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting') were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti-smoking campaigns

  13. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie L Connor

    Full Text Available Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs, from 26-32 and 32-38 years of age.Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years.Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported "usually/always", and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to "use alcohol to make it easier to have sex" and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32-38.Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour.

  14. Alcohol facilitates CD1d loading, subsequent activation of NKT cells, and reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Buschard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethanol ('alcohol' is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules. METHODS: The study included cellular in vitro tests using α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer, and in vivo NOD mice experiments detecting diabetes incidence and performing behavioural and bacterial analyses. RESULTS: Alcohol in concentrations from 0.6% to 2.5% increased IL-2 production from NKT cells stimulated with αGalCer by 60% (p<0.05. CD1d expressed on HeLa cells contained significantly increasing amounts of αGalCer with increasing concentrations of alcohol, suggesting that alcohol facilitated the passive loading of αGalCer to CD1d. NOD mice were found to tolerate 5% ethanol in their drinking water without signs of impairment in liver function. Giving this treatment, the diabetes incidence declined significantly. Higher numbers of CD3+CD49b+ NKT cells were found in spleen and liver of the alcohol treated compared to the control mice (p<0.05, whereas the amount of CD4+Foxp3+ regulator T cells did not differ. Increased concentrations of IFN-γ were detected in 24-hour blood samples of alcohol treated mice. Behavioural studies showed no change in attitude of the ethanol-consuming mice, and bacterial composition of caecum samples was not affected by alcohol, disqualifying these as protective mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Alcohol facilitates the uptake of glycolipids and the stimulation of NKT cells, which are known to counteract Type 1 diabetes development. We propose that this is the acting mechanism by which treatment with alcohol reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice. This is corroborated by epidemiology showing beneficial effect of alcohol to reduce the severity of atherosclerosis and related diseases.

  15. A comprehensive examination of U.S. laws enacted to reduce alcohol-related crashes among underage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Scherer, Michael; Fell, James; Taylor, Eileen

    2015-12-01

    To effectively address concerns associated with alcohol-related traffic laws, communities must apply comprehensive and well-coordinated interventions that account for as many factors as possible. The goal of the current research article is to examine and evaluate the simultaneous contribution of 20 underage drinking laws and 3 general driving safety laws, while accounting for demographic, economic, and environmental variables. Annual fatal crash data (1982 to 2010), policies, and demographic, economic, and environmental information were collected and applied to each of the 51 jurisdictions (50 states and the District of Columbia). A structural equation model was fit to estimate the relative contribution of the variables of interest to alcohol-related crashes. As expected, economic factors (e.g., unemployment rate, cost of alcohol) and alcohol outlet density were found highly relevant to the amount of alcohol teens consume and therefore to teens' impaired driving. Policies such as those regulating the age of bartenders, sellers, or servers; social host civil liability laws; dram shop laws; internal possession of alcohol laws; and fake identification laws do not appear to have the same impact on teens' alcohol-related crash ratios as other types of policies such as those regulating alcohol consumption or alcohol outlet density. This effort illustrates the need for comprehensive models of teens' impaired driving. After simultaneously accounting for as many factors as possible, we found that in general (for most communities) further reductions in alcohol-related crashes among teens might be more rapidly achieved from efforts focused on reducing teens' drinking rather than on reducing teens' driving. Future efforts should be made to develop models that represent specific communities. Based on this and community-specific models, simulation programs can be developed to help communities understand and visualize the impact of various policy alternatives. Copyright © 2015

  16. Functional analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase involved in lignin biosynthesis in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing-Hu

    2010-06-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignols. In the present study, a cDNA encoding a CAD was isolated from wheat, designated as TaCAD1. A genome-wide data mining in the wheat EST database revealed another 10 CAD-like homologues, namely TaCAD2 to TaCAD11. A phylogenetic analysis showed that TaCAD1 belonged to the bona fide CAD group involved in lignin synthesis. Two other putative CADs from the wheat genome (TaCAD2 and TaCAD4) also belonged to this group and were very close to TaCAD1, but lacked C-terminal domain, suggesting that they are pseudogenes. DNA gel blot analysis for the wheat genome showed two to three copies of CAD related to TaCAD1, but RNA gel blot analysis revealed only single band for TaCAD1, which was highly expressed in stem, with quite low expression in leaf and undetectable expression in root. The predicted three-dimension structure of TaCAD1 resembled that of AtCAD5, but two amino acid substitutions were identified in the substrate binding region. Recombinant TaCAD1 protein used coniferyl aldehyde as the most favoured substrate, also showed high efficiencies toward sinapyl and p-coumaryl aldehydes. TaCAD1 was an enzyme being pH-dependent and temperature-sensitive, and showing a typical random catalysing mechanism. At the milky stage of wheat, TaCAD1 mRNA abundance, protein level and enzyme activity in stem tissues were higher in a lodging-resistant cultivar (H4546) than in lodging-sensitive cultivar (C6001). These properties were correlated to the lignin contents and lodging indices of the two cultivars. These data suggest that TaCAD1 is the predominant CAD in wheat stem for lignin biosynthesis and is critical for lodging resistance.

  17. Social norms interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in university or college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria Teresa; Smith, Lesley A; Foxcroft, David

    2009-07-08

    Drinking is influenced by youth (mis)perceptions of how their peers drink. If misperceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. To determine whether social norms feedback reduces alcohol misuse in university or college students. Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Register of Trials; Central; MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsyInfo; CINAHL (up to March 2008). RCT or cluster RCT that evaluate social normative intervention with no intervention, alcohol education leaflet or other non-normative feedback intervention 2/3 authors extracted data. Included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Twenty-two studies were included (7,275 participants).Alcohol related problems: Significant reduction with Web/computer feedback (WF) (SMD -0.31 95% Cl -0.59 to -0.02), three studies, 278 participants. No significant effect of mailed feedback (MF), individual face-to-face feedback (IFF) or group face-to-face feedback (GFF).Peak Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) : Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.77 95% Cl -1.25 to -0.28), two studies, 198 participants. No significant effect of MF or IFF.Drinking Frequency: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.38 95% Cl -0.63 to -0.13), two studies, 243 participants and IFF (SMD -0.39 95% Cl -0.66 to -0.12), two studies, 217 participants. No significant effect of MF.Drinking Quantity: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.35 95% Cl -0.51 to -0.18), five studies, 556 participants and GFF (SMD -0.32 95% Cl -0.63 to -0.02) three studies, 173 participants. No significant effect of MF or IF.Binge drinking: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.47 95% Cl -0.92 to -0.03) one study, 80 participants, IFF (SMD -0.25 95% Cl -0.49 to -0.02) three studies, 278 participants and and GFF (SMD -0.38 95% Cl -0.62 to -0.14) four studies, 264 participants. No significant effect for MF.BAC: No significant effect of MF and IFFDrinking norms: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.75 95% Cl -0.98 to -0.52 ) three studies

  18. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would prima...

  19. Involvement in alcohol-related verbal or physical aggression. Does social status matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus Ludwig; Tryggvesson Kalle; Pabst Alexander; Room Robin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1) assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD), (2) tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3) investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011); N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51...

  20. Comparative effects of balm hydro alcoholic extract and diazepam on reducing anxiety of in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Anxiety is a normal feeling which is experienced in threatening situations and can affect neural system. Wide spread of anxiety forces many people to permanent use of anti-stress drugs especially benzodiazepines. This study was carried out to compare the effects of balm extract and diazepam on anxiety adjustment. Methods: In this experimental study 70 female mice weighing approximately 25 to 30 g were studied in seven treatments groups including control, placebo, anxiety, diazepam, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of balm’s hydro-alcoholic extract. Drug and extract doses were injected IP. After receiving the last dose, anxiety was induced using dark box and was evaluated by an elevated plus-maze. In order to increase the activity, the animals were kept in a box with black walls for 5 minutes. Then, in order to evaluate the response of anxiety in elevated plus maze transferred and count the time spent in the open arms for 5 minutes (as an indicator of anxiety were observed and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The results of tests on the treatment showed that the hydro alcoholic extract in 200 mg/kg dose increased the time of presence in open arms significantly which shows anxiety reduction. Also, movement activities of mice were significantly higher in this dose in proportion to diazepam. Conclusion: According to results, hydro alcoholic extract of balm in 200 mg/kg dose can be a suitable replacement for diazepam in reducing anxiety reflexes.

  1. Comparison of alcohol, povidone-iodine and octenidine dihydrochloride as skin disinfectants to reduce bacterial count prior to peripheral venous catheter insertions in newborn infants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lily Rundjan; Rinawati Rohsiswatmo; Sarah Rafika; Enty Enty; Lucky H. Moehario

    2011-01-01

    .... Objective To compare the effectiveness of 70% alcohol (BD alcohol swabs ®), 10% povidone-iodine (Pharma-RSUPNCM), and octenidine (Octenisept ®) as antiseptics for reducing skin bacteria for pre-invasive procedures in neonates...

  2. Effects of a Web-Based Tailored Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela N Schulz; Candel, Math JJM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Reinwand, Dominique A; Jander, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based tailored interventions provide users with information that is adapted to their individual characteristics and needs. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of tailored alcohol self-help programs among adults are scarce. Furthermore, it is a challenge to develop programs that can hold respondents’ attention in online interventions. Objective To assess whether a 3-session, Web-based tailored intervention is effective in reducing alcohol intake in high-risk adult...

  3. Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Louise; Ohlin, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec could reduce the incidence of neonatal sepsis in a level-three neonatal intensive care unit. We studied the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) for 16.5 months before the initiative was launched on May 15, 2012 and then for a further 8.5 months after it was introduced. The hub routine was applied to all intravenous catheters. During the control period before the initiative was launched, there were nine cases of CoNS sepsis compared with no cases after it was introduced, resulting in a decrease in sepsis incidence from 1.5% to 0% with a risk reduction of 1.5% (0.53-2.58%) (p = 0.06). In the preterm infant population, the incidence of sepsis decreased from 3.6% to 0% (1.1-6.0%) (p = 0.11). Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec seemed to be an efficient way of preventing sepsis caused by CoNS in newborn infants. However, the evidence for the benefits will remain weak until a large randomised trial has been completed. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda;

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  5. Transcriptional activator Cat8 is involved in regulation of xylose alcoholic fermentation in the thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchala, Justyna; Kurylenko, Olena O; Soontorngun, Nitnipa; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2017-02-28

    Efficient xylose alcoholic fermentation is one of the key to a successful lignocellulosic ethanol production. However, regulation of this process in the native xylose-fermenting yeasts is poorly understood. In this work, we paid attention to the transcriptional factor Cat8 and its possible role in xylose alcoholic fermentation in Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, organism, which does not metabolize xylose, gene CAT8 encodes a Zn-cluster transcriptional activator necessary for expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, respiration, glyoxylic cycle and ethanol utilization. Xylose is a carbon source that could be fermented to ethanol and simultaneously could be used in gluconeogenesis for hexose synthesis. This potentially suggests involvement of CAT8 in xylose metabolism. Here, the role of CAT8 homolog in the natural xylose-fermenting thermotolerant yeast O. polymorpha was characterized. The CAT8 ortholog was identified in O. polymorpha genome and deleted both in the wild-type strain and in advanced ethanol producer from xylose. Constructed cat8Δ strain isolated from wild strain showed diminished growth on glycerol, ethanol and xylose as well as diminished respiration on the last substrate. At the same time, cat8Δ mutant isolated from the best available O. polymorpha ethanol producer showed only visible defect in growth on ethanol. CAT8 deletant was characterized by activated transcription of genes XYL3, DAS1 and RPE1 and slight increase in the activity of several enzymes involved in xylose metabolism and alcoholic fermentation. Ethanol production from xylose in cat8Δ mutants in the background of wild-type strain and the best available ethanol producer from xylose increased for 50 and 30%, respectively. The maximal titer of ethanol during xylose fermentation was 12.5 g ethanol/L at 45 °C. Deletion of CAT8 did not change ethanol production from glucose. Gene CAT8 was also overexpressed under control of the strong constitutive

  6. Theory content of digital interventions for reducing alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of theory in design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Aim: To assess the extent to which digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption have used theory in their design and evaluation. Method: Use of theory within the digital interventions evaluated in randomised controlled trials was investigated using an amended Theory Coding Scheme developed by Michie and Prestwich (2010. Composite scores were calculated for six different areas of theory use. Frequency counts and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: Of 53 interventions reported in 55 trials, a theory or model was mentioned in 27 (51%, theory or theoretical predictors were used to select or develop intervention techniques in only 21 (40%, and targeted constructs were mentioned as a predictor of behaviour in 20 (36%. The two most commonly mentioned theories or models were the Transtheoretical model (8/27 and Social Norms theory (8/27. No studies used the results of the intervention to refine theory and only one study used theory to select recipients or tailor the intervention. Conclusions: There is very limited use of theory in the development or evaluation of current digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption and its reporting is often unclear when it is present. Almost half of all interventions made no reference to any theories or models of behaviour and only a little over a third used them to develop the intervention.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2 and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a. When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells.

  8. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Barcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes.

  9. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcia, Jorge M; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Muriach, Maria; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Lopez-Malo, Daniel; Urdaneta, Alba C; Martinez-Gil, Natalia; Atienzar-Aroca, Sandra; Romero, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes.

  10. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups.It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  11. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deen, Nasr A M N; Eid, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups. It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  12. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K; Tomasi, Pernell; Dyer, John M; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Parsons, Eugene P; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou

    2017-02-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4's principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation's effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem.

  13. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  14. Predictors of and reasons for attempts to reduce alcohol intake: A population survey of adults in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the predictors among high-risk drinkers in England of attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, the reasons given for these attempts and the association between the various reasons and alcohol consumption. Method Data came from 2,800 high-risk drinkers taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) between March 2014 and November 2016 who were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were asked questions regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to cut down and reasons for doing so. Results Those cutting down were significantly older (OR 1.01, pAUDIT-C scores (OR 1.12, pAUDIT-C scores than those who did not report these reasons: a concern about further health problems (β 0.20, pAUDIT-C scores were noted among those who reported that they knew someone who was cutting down (β -0.67, prisk drinkers in England report trying to reduce their drinking, particularly older, high-socioeconomic female drinkers from the south of England. Attempts to cut down appear to be driven by a desire to improve health, advice from others and cutting down on the cost of drinking. PMID:28278218

  15. Characterization of an Arxula adeninivorans alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the metabolism of ethanol and 1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Jakub; Rauter, Marion; Riechen, Jan; Worch, Sebastian; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Schauer, Frieder; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-05-01

    In this study, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 from Arxula adeninivorans (Aadh1p) was identified and characterized. Aadh1p showed activity with short and medium chain length primary alcohols in the forward reaction and their aldehydes in the reverse reaction. Aadh1p has 64% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adh1p, is localized in the cytoplasm and uses NAD(+) as cofactor. Gene expression analysis showed a low level increase in AADH1 gene expression with ethanol, pyruvate or xylose as the carbon source. Deletion of the AADH1 gene affects growth of the cells with 1-butanol, ethanol and glucose as the carbon source, and a strain which overexpressed the AADH1 gene metabolized 1-butanol more rapidly. An ADH activity assay indicated that Aadh1p is a major enzyme for the synthesis of ethanol and the degradation of 1-butanol in A. adeninivorans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Use of protective behavioral strategies and reduced alcohol risk: examining the moderating effects of mental health, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)-previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students-may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past-month incidence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences, use of PBS, and depression and anxiety symptomatology. Overall, results demonstrated that among participants experiencing depression or anxiety, greater PBS utilization was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol-related consequences, even after controlling for drinking and other predictors. However, findings also revealed important distinctions in the potential effectiveness of PBS by depression/anxiety severity and racial-gender subgroup, such that Asian men with poor mental health appeared to garner unique and substantial benefit (i.e., lesser consequences) from increased PBS use. Further, PBS were found to offer substantial protective benefit for White females, irrespective of mental health. This study points to the potential for targeted PBS-specific skills training and interventions to minimize alcohol-related risks faced by the growing subpopulation of college students experiencing psychological distress, and further highlights important race and gender differentials.

  17. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved

    OpenAIRE

    Barcia, Jorge M.; Miguel Flores-Bellver; Maria Muriach; Javier Sancho-Pelluz; Daniel Lopez-Malo; Urdaneta, Alba C.; Natalia Martinez-Gil; Sandra Atienzar-Aroca; Romero, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affec...

  18. Structure of a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase involved in bioethanol generation in Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Jonathan; Crennell, Susan J; Eley, Kirstin; Cripps, Roger; Hough, David W; Danson, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADHE) enzymes are found within many fermentative microorganisms. They catalyse the conversion of an acyl-coenzyme A to an alcohol via an aldehyde intermediate; this is coupled to the oxidation of two NADH molecules to maintain the NAD(+) pool during fermentative metabolism. The structure of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) domain of an ADHE protein from the ethanol-producing thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius has been determined to 2.5 Å resolution. This is the first structure to be reported for such a domain. In silico modelling has been carried out to generate a homology model of the aldehyde dehydrogenase domain, and this was subsequently docked with the ADH-domain structure to model the structure of the complete ADHE protein. This model suggests, for the first time, a structural mechanism for the formation of the large multimeric assemblies or `spirosomes' that are observed for this ADHE protein and which have previously been reported for ADHEs from other organisms.

  19. Involvement of autophagy in alcoholic liver injury and hepatitis C pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia A Osna; Paul G Thomes; Terrence M Donohue Jr

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the principal pathways of macroautophagy (i.e. autophagy), microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy as they are currently known to occur in mammalian cells. Because of its crucial role as an accessory digestive organ, the liver has a particularly robust autophagic activity that is sensitive to changes in plasma and dietary components. Ethanol consumption causes major changes in hepatic protein and lipid metabolism and both are regulated by autophagy, which is significantly affected by hepatic ethanol metabolism. Ethanol exposure enhances autophagosome formation in liver cells, but suppresses lysosome function. Excessive ethanol consumption synergizes with hepatitis C virus (HCV) to exacerbate liver injury, as alcohol-consuming HCV patients frequently have a longer course of infection and more severe manifestations of chronic hepatitis than abstinent HCV patients. Alcohol-elicited exacerbation of HCV infection pathogenesis is related to modulation by ethanol metabolism of HCV replication. Additionally, as part of this mechanism, autophagic proteins have been shown to regulate viral (HCV) replication and their intracellular accumulation. Because ethanol induces autophagosome expression, enhanced levels of autophagic proteins may enhance HCV infectivity in liver cells of alcoholics and heavy drinkers.

  20. Alleviation of alcoholic liver injury by betaine involves an enhancement of antioxidant defense via regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, Do Young; Ahn, Chul Won; Kim, Young Soon; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Young Chul

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that the hepatoprotective activity of betaine is associated with its effects on sulfur amino acid metabolism. We examined the mechanism by which betaine prevents the progression of alcoholic liver injury and its therapeutic potential. Rats received a liquid ethanol diet for 6 wk. Ethanol consumption elevated serum triglyceride and TNFα levels, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and lipid accumulation in liver. The oxyradical scavenging capacity of liver was reduced, and expression of CD14, TNFα, COX-2, and iNOS mRNAs was induced markedly. These ethanol-induced changes were all inhibited effectively by betaine supplementation. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione levels, reduced in the ethanol-fed rats, were increased by betaine supplementation. Methionine adenosyltransferase and cystathionine γ-lyase were induced, but cysteine dioxygenase was down-regulated, which appeared to account for the increment in cysteine availability for glutathione synthesis in the rats supplemented with betaine. Betaine supplementation for the final 2 wk of ethanol intake resulted in a similar degree of hepatoprotection, revealing its potential therapeutic value in alcoholic liver. It is concluded that the protective effects of betaine against alcoholic liver injury may be attributed to the fortification of antioxidant defense via improvement of impaired sulfur amino acid metabolism.

  1. Effect of a brief motivational intervention in reducing alcohol consumption in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Gomez, Cristina; Ngantcha, Marcus; Le Garjean, Nathalie; Brouard, Nadine; Lasbleiz, Muriel; Perennes, Mathieu; Kerdiles, François J; Le Lan, Caroline; Moirand, Romain; Bellou, Abdelouahab

    2017-07-12

    Introduction to alcohol consumption early in life increases the risk of alcohol dependency and hence motivational interventions are needed in young patients visiting the emergency department (ED). This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a brief motivational intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among young ED patients. This was a blind randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months. Patients were stratified on the basis of age and blood alcohol level of 0.5 g/l or more. A total of 263 patients aged 16-24 were randomized, with 132 patients in the brief motivational intervention group and 131 in the control group, with data collection at 3 months. From September 2011 to July 2012, a psychologist performed the brief motivational intervention 5 days after the patients' discharge. A phone call was made at 1 and 2 months. The control group received a self-assessment leaflet. The reduction in consumption was determined on the basis of the number of drinks consumed in the last week prior to the survey. The mean reduction between number of drinks at baseline and number of drinks at 3 months in the control group was 0.3 and that in the intervention group was 0.9. This reduction in alcohol use in the brief motivational intervention group was not significant. The study did not show an association between brief motivational intervention and repeated drunkenness [relative risk (RR): 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.24], alcohol consumption at least once a month (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.31-2.10) and alcohol consumption at least 10 times during the month (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.96-1.26). We did not observe a significant decrease in alcohol consumption among the youth. Further studies are needed to confirm the positive impact of a brief motivational intervention in the ED.

  2. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  3. Alcohol-Mediated Missplicing of Mcl-1 Pre-mRNA is Involved in Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Rahsan; De-Simone, Francesca I; Donadoni, Martina; Hoek, Jan B; Chang, Sulie L; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret

    2017-08-11

    Heavy and chronic ethanol (EtOH) exposure can cause significant structural and functional damage to the adult brain. The most devastating consequence of EtOH exposure is the neurotoxicity associated with the depletion of neurons. Regulation of splice variants in the brain can modulate protein functions, which may ultimately affect behaviors associated with alcohol dependence and EtOH-mediated neurotoxicity. As alcohol consumption is associated with neurotoxicity, it is possible that altered splicing of survival and pro-survival factors during the development of alcoholism may contribute to the neurotoxicity. Primary human neurons and a neuroblastoma cell line were exposed to different concentrations of EtOH for various time periods. Cell viability and neuronal marker expression were analyzed by MTT assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Effect of EtOH exposure on splicing regulatory protein expression and alternative splicing of candidate genes was analyzed by a biochemical approach. Transcriptional activity of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) gene was determined by reporter gene analysis. Our results suggest that EtOH exposure to neuronal cells at 25 mM and higher concentrations are detrimental. In addition, EtOH exposure caused a dramatic reduction in SRSF1 expression levels. Furthermore, EtOH exposure led to pre-mRNA missplicing of Mcl-1, a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family, by down-regulating the expression levels of SRSF1. Moreover, ectopic expression of both SRSF1 and Mcl-1L isoform was able to recover EtOH-mediated neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that EtOH exposure can lead to pre-mRNA missplicing of Mcl-1 in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that EtOH exposure of neurons leads to a decrease in the ratio of Mcl-1L/Mcl-1S by favoring pro-apoptotic Mcl-1S splicing over anti-apoptotic Mcl-1L isoform suggesting that Mcl-1S may play a crucial role in neurotoxicity associated with alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 by the Research

  4. Acupuncture reduces memory impairment and oxidative stress and enhances cholinergic function in an animal model of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunchago, Nattaporn; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the therapeutic strategy against memory deficit induced by alcoholism is not satisfactory and is expensive. Therefore, an effective, low-cost strategy is required. On the basis of the memory-enhancing effect of stimulation of the HT7 acupoint, we aimed to determine whether acupuncture at the HT7 acupoint can reduce alcoholism-induced memory impairment. The possible underlying mechanism was also explored. Alcoholism was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g. The alcoholic rats received either acupuncture at HT7 or sham acupuncture for 1 minute bilaterally once daily for 14 days. Their spatial memory was assessed after 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days of treatment. At the end of the study, the malondialdehyde level and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the hippocampus were determined using colorimetric assays. The results showed that acupuncture at HT7 significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity and the malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the hippocampus. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 can effectively reduce the alcoholism-induced memory deficit. However, further studies concerning the detailed relationships between the location of the HT7 acupoint and the changes in the observed parameters are required.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2016-07-08

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (2(5)) experimental conditions after downloading the 'Drink Less' app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatment app and evaluated against a minimal control in a definitive randomised

  6. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  7. Reducing alcohol-related interpretation biases in young hazardous drinkers by Cognitive Bias Modification-Interpretation training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutschemaekers, M.H.M.; Woud, M.L.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study examined whether alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs) can be reduced by means of cognitive bias modification-interpretation (CBM-I) training. Also, the training's generalization effects and the moderating role of executive control (EC) were examined. Methods: Participants wer

  8. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  9. A Dual-Focus Motivational Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Sobell, Mark B.; Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Linda Carter; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Project CHOICES developed an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Settings included primary care, university-hospital based obstetrical/gynecology practices, an urban jail, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large…

  10. Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV/STDs in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, Diane M.; Choi, Y. Joon; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Svikis, Dace S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) examined effectiveness of HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Building + Alcohol (SSB+A) intervention for women with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) in a residential treatment setting. Method: After randomizing thirty-six women with AUDs and reporting having intercourse with a male partner in the past 180 days…

  11. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  12. Do Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain an Abortion Help Reduce STIs Among Minors?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Thomas Dee

    2011-01-01

    This issue brief evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  13. Associations between Electronic Media Use and Involvement in Violence, Alcohol and Drug Use among United States High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denniston, Maxine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We identified associations between time spent watching television and time spent playing video or computer games or using computers and involvement in interpersonal violence, alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of United States high school students.Methods: We analyzed data from the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exposure variables were time spent watching television and time spent playing computer or video games or using computers (hereafter denoted as “computer/video game use” on an average school day; outcome variables included multiple measures assessing involvement in violence and alcohol or drug use. Chi-square tests were used to identify statistically significant associations between each exposure variable and each of the outcome variables. We used logistic regression to obtain crude odds ratios for outcome variables with a significant chi-square p-value and to obtain adjusted odds ratios controlling for sex, race, and grade in school.Results: Overall, 35.4% (95% CI=33.1%-37.7% of students reported frequent television (TV use and 24.9% (95% CI=22.9%-27.0% reported frequent computer/video game use. A number of risk behaviors, including involvement in physical fights and initiation of alcohol use before age 13, were significantly associated with frequent TV use or frequent computer/video game use, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity and grade.Conclusion: Findings highlight the need for additional research to better understand the mechanisms by which electronic media exposure and health-risk behaviors are associated and for the development of strategies that seek to understand how the content and context (e.g., watching with peers, having computer in common area of media use influence risk behaviors among youth. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:310-315.

  14. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  15. Chronic Binge Alcohol Administration Dysregulates Hippocampal Genes Involved in Immunity and Neurogenesis in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUD exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+ patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA administration (13–14 g EtOH/kg/wk prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2 macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2 macaques. Transcriptomes of hippocampal samples dissected from brains obtained at necropsy (16 months post-SIV inoculation were analyzed to determine differentially expressed genes. MetaCore from Thomson Reuters revealed enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, immune responses, and neurodevelopment. Functional relevance of these alterations was examined in vitro by exposing murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs to ethanol (EtOH and HIV trans-activator of transcription (Tat protein. EtOH impaired NPC differentiation as indicated by decreased βIII tubulin expression. These findings suggest a role for neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in CBA/SIV neuropathogenesis and warrant further investigation of their potential contribution to CBA-mediated neurobehavioral deficits.

  16. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Faiella, Eliodoro; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Giurazza, Francesco [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy); Borzomati, Domenico; Coppola, Roberto [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of General Surgery (Italy); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is a rare condition. Most patients are asymptomatic or alternatively may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Traditionally, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice; however, alternative approaches, such as transcatheter embolization (TAE), may be proposed. We report a case of a 48-year-old man with a pancreatic head AVM, presenting with upper abdominal pain and slight anemia. The patient refused surgery and underwent TAE by means of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). At 3 months follow-up, the patient was able to eat regularly, with no residual pain and no signs of anemia.

  17. KCNJ6 is Associated with Adult Alcohol Dependence and Involved in Gene × Early Life Stress Interactions in Adolescent Alcohol Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Desrivieres, Sylvane,; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a b...

  18. Adolescent alcohol exposure reduces behavioral flexibility, promotes disinhibition, and increases resistance to extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Justin T; Glen, William Bailey; McGonigal, Justin T; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Yaxley, Richard; Floresco, Stan B; Chandler, L Judson

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region that is critically involved in cognitive function and inhibitory control of behavior, and adolescence represents an important period of continued PFC development that parallels the maturation of these functions. Evidence suggests that this period of continued development of the PFC may render it especially vulnerable to environmental insults that impact PFC function in adulthood. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when binge-like consumption of large quantities is common. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated cycles of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (postnatal days 28-42) by vapor inhalation on different aspects of executive functioning in the adult rat. In an operant set-shifting task, AIE-exposed rats exhibited deficits in their ability to shift their response strategy when the rules of the task changed, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. There were no differences in progressive ratio response for the reinforcer suggesting that AIE did not alter reinforcer motivation. Examination of performance on the elevated plus maze under conditions designed to minimize stress revealed that AIE exposure enhanced the number of entries into the open arms, which may reflect either reduced anxiety and/or disinhibition of exploratory-like behavior. In rats that trained to self-administer ethanol in an operant paradigm, AIE increased resistance to extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. This resistance to extinction was reversed by positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 during extinction training, an effect that is thought to reflect promotion of extinction learning mechanisms within the medial PFC. Consistent with this, CDPPB was also observed to reverse the deficits in behavioral flexibility. Finally, diffusion tensor imaging with multivariate analysis of 32 brain areas revealed that while there were no differences in the total brain volume, the volume of

  19. Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, D L; Shinder, A; Shinder, F

    2000-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: A substantial percentage of school absenteeism among children is related to transmissible infection. Rates of transmission can be reduced by hand washing with soap and water, but such washing occurs infrequently. This study tested whether an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer (CleanHands) could reduce illness absenteeism in school-age children. A 10-week, open-label, crossover study was performed on 420 elementary school-age children (ages 5-12). Students were given a brief orientation immediately prior to the start of the study on the relationship of germs, illness, and hand washing. Each student in the treatment group then received the test product in individual bottles, with instructions to apply one to two sprays to the hands after coming into the classroom, before eating, and after using the restroom, in addition to their normal hand washing with soap and water. The control group was instructed to continue hand washing as normal with non-medicated soap. After 4 weeks of treatment and a 2-week wash-out period, the control and experimental groups were reversed. Data gathered on absenteeism were classified as gastrointestinal or respiratory related and normalized for nonillness-related absenteeism and school holidays. Compared to the hand washing-only control group, students using CleanHands were found to have 41.9% fewer illness-related absence days, representing a 28.9% and a 49.7% drop in gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. Likewise, absence incidence decreased by 31.7%, consisting of a 44.2% and 50.2% decrease in incidence of gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. No adverse events were reported during the study. Daily use of the instant hand sanitizer was associated with significantly lower rates of illness-related absenteeism.

  20. Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xing CHEN; Chuan-qin XU; Shao-hua CHEN; Gen-yun XU; Huai-zhuang YE

    2012-01-01

    .05),while there were no significant differences between the latter two treatments.The results of this study suggest that citric acid could reduce the decline in ERP P300 amplitude and cognitive ability induced by acute alcohol consumption.It may also affect some blood biochemical indicators,but the specific mechanisms need further research.

  1. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  2. Development of country-wide strategies to reduce the alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarjam, Ali; Memaryan, Nadereh; Damari, Behzad; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

  3. Development of country-wide strategies to reduce the alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikfarjam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

  4. Very brief, web-based interventions for reducing alcohol use and related problems among college students: A review

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    Robert F Leeman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Very brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students’ stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized, controlled trials (RCTs. Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students’ patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and it is possible that methodological limitations of some of the studies could have had an impact on their results. This review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol-related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy and potential public health benefit.

  5. The safety and efficacy of baclofen to reduce alcohol use in veterans with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Peter; Fuller, Bret; Ho, Samuel B; Thuras, Paul; Kern, Shira; Dieperink, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are common among people with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and accelerate the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by HCV. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) beta-receptor agonist, differs from medications for AUDs currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as it is metabolized primarily through the kidneys. The primary outcome of this study was to compare baclofen with a placebo in the percentage of days abstinent from alcohol. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Hepatology clinics in four separate US Veteran Affairs Medical Centers in the United States. One hundred and eighty Veteran men and women older than 18 years with chronic HCV, a comorbid AUD and current alcohol use. Oral baclofen was given at dosages of 0 (placebo) or 30 mg/day over 12 weeks with concomitant manual-guided counseling. The primary measurement was percentage of days abstinent during the 12-week study period between the baclofen and placebo groups [measured by time-line follow-back (TLFB)]. Secondary measurements were the percentage of Veterans who achieved complete abstinence, the percentage of Veterans who achieved no heavy drinking between weeks 4 and 12 of the study, alcohol craving, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary outcome: compared with placebo, baclofen did not improve the percentage of days abstinent. For all subjects there were significant reductions from baseline to 12 weeks in percentage of days abstinent from 37.0% [standard error (SE) = 2.7] to 68.6% (SE = 2.8, F(1151.1)  = 66.1, P appear to be superior to placebo in increasing abstinence or in reducing alcohol use, cravings for alcohol or anxiety among people with alcohol use disorder. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Application of Deviance Regulation Theory to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Women During Spring Break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M

    2017-02-20

    Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Should Parents Allow Their Adolescent Children to Drink at Home? Family Factors as Predictors of Alcohol Involvement Trajectories Over 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Cooper, M Lynne

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined familial risk and protective factors as moderators of parents allowing their adolescent children to drink at home on longitudinal alcohol involvement trajectories. A total of 772 community adolescents and their parents provided data beginning in 1989 and at four subsequent time points over 15 years; Black adolescents were intentionally oversampled (50% at baseline). Outcomes related to allowing adolescents to drink at home depended on family structure: Adolescents from intact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the lowest levels of alcohol use and problems over time, whereas those from nonintact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the highest levels of involvement. These results controlled for family history of alcohol problems, consistent parenting styles, and demographic characteristics. Results suggest that allowing adolescents to drink at home is neither inherently protective nor risky but depends on the family context. Implications for the development of adolescent alcohol involvement are discussed.

  9. 'Why can't I just not drink?' A qualitative study of adults' social experiences of stopping or reducing alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Ashlea; Eliott, Jaklin; Crabb, Shona

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol is ingrained in Australian culture, playing an important role in many social occasions. This can make reducing or stopping alcohol consumption challenging, as one risks rejecting, not just a drink but also the valued social norms that drink represents. This study aimed to investigate the social experiences of adults who stop or reduce their alcohol consumption. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with people aged over 25 years who had stopped or significantly reduced their alcohol consumption for at least 3 months in the past year and were thematically analysed. Participants found themselves stigmatised for violating expectations around alcohol consumption when they tried to stop or reduce their own drinking. Although most were able to either conceal their change in alcohol consumption or present it so that it did not challenge norms around drinking, this approach was seen as a temporary measure and not one to employ with people with whom they socialised regularly. Instead, many participants sought to change their interactions with their social group to focus on activities with which alcohol consumption was not strongly associated. Reducing or stopping alcohol consumption can have positive consequences for health, yet it can also raise social challenges that individuals need to negotiate in order to maintain their social well-being. This tension suggests a need for health promotion campaigns to address the social as well as health consequences of reducing alcohol consumption. [Bartram A, Eliott J, Crabb S. 'Why can't I just not drink?' A qualitative study of adults' social experiences of stopping or reducing alcohol consumption. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;26:449-455]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Involvement of AMPK in alcohol dehydrogenase accentuated myocardial dysfunction following acute ethanol challenge in mice.

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    Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I; Ren, Jun

    2010-06-23

    Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-gamma, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Calpha and PGC-1alpha, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 microM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade.

  11. Involvement of the TAGE-RAGE system in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Novel treatment strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayoshi; Takeuchi; Jun-ichi; Takino; Akiko; Sakasai-Sakai; Takanobu; Takata; Tadashi; Ueda; Mikihiro; Tsutsumi; Hideyuki; Hyogo; Sho-ichi; Yamagishi

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)is a major cause of liver disease around the world.It includes a spectrum of conditions from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)and can lead to fibrosis,cirrhosis,liver failure,and/or hepatocellular carcinoma.NAFLD is also associated with other medical conditions such as obesity,diabetes mellitus(DM),metabolic syn-drome,hypertension,insulin resistance,hyperlipidemia,and cardiovascular disease(CVD).In diabetes,chronic hyperglycemia contributes to the development of both macro-and microvascular conditions through a variety of metabolic pathways.Thus,it can cause a variety of metabolic and hemodynamic conditions,including upregulated advanced glycation end-products(AGEs)synthesis.In our previous study,the most abundant type of toxic AGEs(TAGE);i.e.,glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs,were found to make a significant contribution to the pathogenesis of DM-induced angiopathy.Furthermore,accumulating evidence suggests that the binding of TAGE with their receptor(RAGE)induces oxidative damage,promotes inflammation,and causes changes in intracellular signaling and the expression levels of certain genes in various cell populations including hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells.All of these effects could facilitate the pathogenesis of hypertension,cancer,diabetic vascular complications,CVD,dementia,and NASH.Thus,inhibiting TAGE synthesis,preventing TAGE from binding to RAGE,and downregulating RAGE expression and/or the expression of associated effector molecules all have potential as therapeutic strategies against NASH.Here,we examine the contributions of RAGE and TAGE to various conditions and novel treatments that target them in order to prevent the development and/or progression of NASH.

  12. fMRI Guided rTMS Evidence for Reduced Left Prefrontal Involvement after Task Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, Johan Martijn; van Raalten, Tamar R.; Boessen, Ruud; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Kahn, René S.; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive tasks that do not change the required response for a stimulus over time (‘consistent mapping’) show dramatically improved performance after relative short periods of practice. This improvement is associated with reduced brain activity in a large network of brain regions, including left prefrontal and parietal cortex. The present study used fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has been shown to reduce processing efficacy, to examine if the reduced activity in these regions also reflects reduced involvement, or possibly increased efficiency. Methods First, subjects performed runs of a Sternberg task in the scanner with novel or practiced target-sets. This data was used to identify individual sites for left prefrontal and parietal peak brain activity, as well as to examine the change in activity related to practice. Outside of the scanner, real and sham rTMS was applied at left prefrontal and parietal cortex to examine their involvement novel and practiced conditions. Results Prefrontal as well as parietal rTMS significantly reduced target accuracy for novel targets. Prefrontal, but not parietal, rTMS interference was significantly lower for practiced than novel target-sets. rTMS did not affect non-target accuracy, or reaction time in any condition. Discussion These results show that task practice in a consistent environment reduces involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that prefrontal cortex is predominantly involved in target maintenance and comparison, as rTMS interference was only detectable for targets. Findings support process switching hypotheses that propose that practice creates the possibility to select a response without the need to compare with target items. Our results also support the notion that practice allows for redistribution of limited maintenance resources. PMID:24376494

  13. fMRI guided rTMS evidence for reduced left prefrontal involvement after task practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Martijn Jansma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cognitive tasks that do not change the required response for a stimulus over time ('consistent mapping' show dramatically improved performance after relative short periods of practice. This improvement is associated with reduced brain activity in a large network of brain regions, including left prefrontal and parietal cortex. The present study used fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, which has been shown to reduce processing efficacy, to examine if the reduced activity in these regions also reflects reduced involvement, or possibly increased efficiency. METHODS: First, subjects performed runs of a Sternberg task in the scanner with novel or practiced target-sets. This data was used to identify individual sites for left prefrontal and parietal peak brain activity, as well as to examine the change in activity related to practice. Outside of the scanner, real and sham rTMS was applied at left prefrontal and parietal cortex to examine their involvement novel and practiced conditions. RESULTS: Prefrontal as well as parietal rTMS significantly reduced target accuracy for novel targets. Prefrontal, but not parietal, rTMS interference was significantly lower for practiced than novel target-sets. rTMS did not affect non-target accuracy, or reaction time in any condition. DISCUSSION: These results show that task practice in a consistent environment reduces involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that prefrontal cortex is predominantly involved in target maintenance and comparison, as rTMS interference was only detectable for targets. Findings support process switching hypotheses that propose that practice creates the possibility to select a response without the need to compare with target items. Our results also support the notion that practice allows for redistribution of limited maintenance resources.

  14. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context.

  15. Fetal alcohol exposure reduces responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal chemosensory neurons to ethanol and its flavor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Tang, Joyce; Morales Allende, Ana Paula; Bryant, Bruce P; Youngentob, Lisa; Youngentob, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) leads to increased intake of ethanol in adolescent rats and humans. We asked whether these behavioral changes may be mediated in part by changes in responsiveness of the peripheral taste and oral trigeminal systems. We exposed the experimental rats to ethanol in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet; we exposed the control rats to an isocaloric and isonutritive liquid diet. To assess taste responsiveness, we recorded responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves to lingual stimulation with ethanol, quinine, sucrose, and NaCl. To assess trigeminal responsiveness, we measured changes in calcium levels of isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during stimulation with ethanol, capsaicin, mustard oil, and KCl. Compared with adolescent control rats, the adolescent experimental rats exhibited diminished CT nerve responses to ethanol, quinine, and sucrose and GL nerve responses to quinine and sucrose. The reductions in taste responsiveness persisted into adulthood for quinine but not for any of the other stimuli. Adolescent experimental rats also exhibited reduced TG neuron responses to ethanol, capsaicin, and mustard oil. The lack of change in responsiveness of the taste nerves to NaCl and the TG neurons to KCl indicates that FAE altered only a subset of the response pathways within each chemosensory system. We propose that FAE reprograms development of the peripheral taste and trigeminal systems in ways that reduce their responsiveness to ethanol and surrogates for its pleasant (i.e., sweet) and unpleasant (i.e., bitterness, oral burning) flavor attributes.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pregnant mothers are advised to avoid alcohol. This is because even small amounts of alcohol can alter fetal brain development and increase the risk of adolescent alcohol abuse. We asked how fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) produces the latter effect in adolescent rats by measuring responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal

  16. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells display impaired cytotoxic functions and reduced activation in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

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    Støy, Sidsel; Dige, Anders; Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard; Laursen, Tea Lund; Buus, Christian; Hokland, Marianne; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-02-15

    The dynamics and role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells in the life-threatening inflammatory disease alcoholic hepatitis is largely unknown. These cells directly kill infected and damaged cells through, e.g., degranulation and interferon-γ (IFNγ) production, but cause tissue damage if overactivated. They also assist tissue repair via IL-22 production. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the frequency, functionality, and activation state of such cells in alcoholic hepatitis. We analyzed blood samples from 24 severe alcoholic hepatitis patients followed for 30 days after diagnosis. Ten healthy abstinent volunteers and 10 stable abstinent alcoholic cirrhosis patients were controls. Using flow cytometry we assessed cell frequencies, NK cell degranulation capacity following K562 cell stimulation, activation by natural killer group 2 D (NKG2D) expression, and IL-22 and IFNγ production. In alcoholic hepatitis we found a decreased frequency of CTLs compared with healthy controls (P cells (P = 0.089). The NK cell degranulation capacity was reduced by 25% compared with healthy controls (P = 0.02) and by 50% compared with cirrhosis patients (P = 0.04). Accordingly, the NKG2D receptor expression was markedly decreased on NK cells, CTLs, and NKT cells (P cells were doubled compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05, all) but not different from cirrhosis patients. This exploratory study for the first time showed impaired cellular cytotoxicity and activation in alcoholic hepatitis. This is unlikely to cause hepatocyte death but may contribute toward the severe immune incompetence. The results warrant detailed and mechanistic studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. KCNJ6 is associated with adult alcohol dependence and involved in gene × early life stress interactions in adolescent alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a brain expressed potassium channel with inhibitory effects on dopaminergic tone. The properties of GIRK2 have been shown to be enhanced by the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Therefore, we sought to examine the role of KCNJ6 polymorphisms in adult alcohol dependence and stress-related alcohol abuse in adolescents. We selected 11 SNPs in the promoter region of KCNJ6, which were genotyped in 1152 adult alcohol dependents and 1203 controls. One SNP, rs2836016, was found to be associated with alcohol dependence (p=0.01, false discovery rate). We then assessed rs2836016 in an adolescent sample of 261 subjects, which were characterized for early life stress and adolescent hazardous drinking, defined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to examine gene-environment interactions. In the adolescent sample, the risk genotype of rs2836016 was significantly associated with increased AUDIT scores, but only in those individuals exposed to high levels of psychosocial stress in early life (p=0.01). Our findings show that KCNJ6 is associated with alcohol dependence and may moderate the effect of early psychosocial stress on risky alcohol drinking in adolescents. We have identified a candidate gene for future studies investigating a possible functional link between the response to stress and alcohol reinforcement.

  19. Clozapine Reconstructed: Haloperidol’s Ability To Reduce Alcohol Intake In The Syrian Golden Hamster Can Be Enhanced Through Noradrenergic Modulation By Desipramine And Idazoxan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Chau, David T.; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia. Most antipsychotic drugs do not lessen alcohol use; although the atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been shown to reduce alcohol use in patients with schizophrenia, its toxicity severely limits its use in patients. With an eye toward creation of a safer clozapine-like drug, we have investigated the pharmacological basis of the clozapine’s effects on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster. In this animal, as in patients with schizophrenia, clozapine reduces alcohol drinking while the typical antipsychotic haloperidol does not. We have suggested that clozapine decreases alcohol drinking due to its weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade, its potent norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonism, as well as its ability to elevate plasma norepinephrine. Methods We recreated a clozapine-like drug to reduce alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster by combining low dose haloperidol with a norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) and were treated daily with each drug or with the three-drug combination for 23 days. Results The drug combination reduced alcohol drinking and preference significantly as compared to vehicle or to haloperidol, idazoxan or desipramine, while not altering food-intake or bodyweight. Conclusion These findings suggest that that haloperidol, which does not reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia or the hamster, if combined with idazoxan and desipramine (producing a drug combination that mimics aspects of clozapine’s pharmacology) is able to reduce alcohol drinking in the hamster. PMID:25979645

  20. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism.

  1. A self-reducible and alcohol-soluble copper-based metal-organic decomposition ink for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hun; Woo, Seunghee; Yem, Hyesuk; Cha, Minjeong; Cho, Sanghun; Kang, Mingyu; Jeong, Sooncheol; Kim, Yoonhyun; Kang, Kyungtae; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2014-03-12

    We report a novel method for the synthesis of a self-reducible (thermally reducible without a reducing atmosphere) and alcohol-soluble copper-based metal-organic decomposition (MOD) ink for printed electronics. Alcohol-solvent-based conductive inks are necessary for commercial printing processes such as reverse offset printing. We selected copper(II) formate as a precursor and alkanolamine (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) as a ligand to make an alcohol-solvent-based conductive ink and to assist in the reduction reaction of copper(II) formate. In addition, a co-complexing agent (octylamine) and a sintering helper (hexanoic acid) were introduced to improve the metallic copper film. The specific resistivity of copper-based MOD ink (Cuf-AMP-OH ink) after heat treatment at 350 °C is 9.46 μΩ·cm, which is 5.5 times higher than the specific resistivity of bulk copper. A simple stamping transfer was conducted to demonstrate the potential of our ink for commercial printing processes.

  2. Features of alcohol harm reduction advertisements that most motivate reduced drinking among adults: an advertisement response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2017-04-20

    To improve the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction mass media campaigns, this study aimed to (1) identify existing advertisements (ads) with greatest potential to motivate reduced alcohol consumption, (2) assess consistency across audience subgroups in ad effectiveness and (3) identify ad features associated with effectiveness. Cross-sectional online ad response study with random assignment to view ads. 2174 Australian adult weekly drinkers recruited from an online panel. Participants were randomly assigned to view three of 83 English-language alcohol harm reduction ads. Each ad was viewed and rated by a mean of 79 participants. After viewing each ad, participants reported the extent to which they felt motivated to reduce their drinking. Ads were ranked from most to least motivating using predicted means adjusted for demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption. We compared the characteristics of the top-ranked 15% of ads (most motivating) with the middle 70% and bottom 15%. An ad about the link between alcohol and cancer ('Spread') was most motivating, whereas an ad that encouraged drinking water instead of beer ('Add nothing') was least motivating. Top-ranked ads were more likely than other ads to feature a 'why change' message and less likely to carry a 'how to change' message; more likely to address long-term harms; more likely to be aimed at the general adult drinking population and more likely to include drinking guidelines. There was substantial overlap in top-ranked ads for younger versus older adults, men versus women and high-risk versus low-risk drinker subgroups. The effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction campaigns may be improved by directly communicating alcohol's long-term harms to the general adult population of drinkers along with drinking guidelines. By doing so, campaigns can also efficiently influence high-risk drinkers and key demographic subgroups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  3. Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L M; Koseniauskas, R; Burak, E S; Moskal, T J; Gombar, C T; Phillips, J M; Sansone, E B; Keimig, S; Magee, P N; Rice, J M

    1992-03-15

    Low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competitively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with N-nitrosodimethylamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahepatic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine were measured in male patas monkeys. Ethanol, 1.2 g/kg given p.o. before i.v. N-nitrosodimethylamine (1 mg/kg) or concurrently with an intragastric dose resulted in a 10-50-fold increase in the area under the blood concentration versus time curves and a 4-13-fold increase in mean residence times for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Isopropyl alcohol, 3.2 g/kg 24 h before N-nitrosodimethylamine, also increased these parameters 7-10-fold; this effect was associated with persistence of isopropyl alcohol and its metabolic product acetone, both IIE1 inhibitors, in the blood. While no N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in expired air, trace amounts were found in urine. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pretreatment increased the maximum urinary N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration 15-50-fold and the percentage of the dose excreted in the urine by 100-800-fold. Thus ethanol and isopropyl alcohol greatly increase systemic exposure of extrahepatic organs to N-nitrosodimethylamine in a primate.

  4. Involving stakeholders in the evaluation of community alcohol projects: finding a balance between subjective insight and objective facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Kevin; Midford, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The role played by key community representatives in the evaluation of community alcohol projects differs according to the evaluation paradigm adopted. In evaluations that adopt a positivist, experimental design they are cast in the role of independent informants. In post-positivist evaluations they are seen as having an interest in the evaluation and accordingly are considered active stakeholders. However, the degree to which stakeholders can be actively engaged in an evaluation varies considerably along a number of dimensions. Four dimensions of the stakeholder role--stakeholder inclusiveness, participation mode, participation frequency, and evaluation role--are examined in the context of eight evaluation theories. This is integrated into a model that links these dimensions to an object-subject continuum of stakeholder involvement. The model facilitates systematic consideration of these dimensions and will assist evaluators in achieving their desired balance of subjective insight and objective fact.

  5. Dynamic Solvent Effects in Alcohol Solutions for Electron Transfer Reactions Involving the Metallocenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-15

    Transfer Reactions Involving the Metallocenes by W.R. Fawcett and C.A. Foss, Jr. Prepared for Presentation at The Electrochemical Society Meeting...Technical 800 N. Quincy Arlington, VA 22217-5000 &UL OWaep "W" Prepared for presentation at The" Electrochemical Society Meeting, Montreal Canada, tlay...Extended Abstract must be submitted with the 75-Ward Abstract by December 1, 1969 Montreal, Quebec, Canada-May 6-11, 1990 Submit to: The Electrochemical

  6. Environmental Management: A Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Vince-Whitman, Cheryl; Colthurst, Tom; Cretella, Maggie; Gilbreath, Michael; Rosati, Michael; Zweig, Karen

    This guide presents a comprehensive strategy, called "environmental management," for alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention in institutions of higher education. The environmental management approach utilizes, in addition to educational programs, changes in the physical, social, economic, and legal environment accomplished through a…

  7. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally...... late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume....

  8. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  9. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub.

  10. Negative Affect, Relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Does AA Work by Reducing Anger?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Method: Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results: Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Conclusions: Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger. PMID:20409438

  11. Negative affect, relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): does AA work by reducing anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E

    2010-05-01

    Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger.

  12. Third-Party Cooperation: How Reducing Material Involvement Enhances Contributions to the Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B; Heerema, Roeland L; Sanfey, Alan G

    2016-03-01

    Decisions to cooperate are often delegated to a third party. We examined whether cooperation differs when decisions are made for a third party compared with ourselves and specified which motives are important for third-party cooperation. Participants played multiple rounds of a public goods game (PGG). In Study 1, we varied personal involvement from high to low; participants played for themselves (Self), for themselves and a third party (Shared), and solely for a third party (Third Party). Participants contributed most when personal involvement was lowest (i.e., Third Party) and least when personal involvement was high (i.e., Self). Study 2 explored if social motives underlie third-party cooperation by comparing cooperation with social (human) and non-social (computer) group members. Reducing personal involvement in the PGG (i.e., Third Party) increased cooperation in social contexts compared with non-social contexts, indicating enhanced collective interest. Increased cooperation for a third party may result from taking the other's perspective, thereby increasing social norm preferences. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  14. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  15. Reducing physical restraint use in alcohol withdrawal patients: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainier, Nicole C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal patients experience symptoms ranging from mild anxiety and disorientation to severe agitation and hallucinations. The most critical of these patients are treated in intensive care units. Physical restraints are often required to maintain patient safety until symptoms resolve. The use of physical restraints is contradictory to nursing values and is unsupported by evidenced-based literature. A literature review was conducted to see what, if any, alternatives have been tested to improve patient care for this complicated patient population.

  16. Effectiveness of a walnut-enriched diet on murine sperm: involvement of reduced peroxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffua, Lauren S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    A walnut supplement for a Western-style diet in men was shown to improve sperm motility, vitality, and morphology. To gain further insights into factors underlying this improvement, we administered a parallel walnut-enriched diet to mice [including those with a defect in sperm motility due to deletion of Plasma Membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 4 (Pmca4(-/-) )] to determine if there is a similar improvement that is accompanied by reduced sperm membrane peroxidative damage. Although sperm vitality and acrosome reaction rate were unaffected, the diet led to a significant improvement in motility (P wild-type sperm and in morphology (P walnuts on sperm quality, associated with reduced peroxidative damage; and suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism(s) underlying male reproductive defects in Pmca4(-/-) .

  17. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  18. Offspring of parents with an alcohol use disorder prefer higher levels of brain alcohol exposure in experiments involving computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Mick, Inge; Laucht, Manfred; Vitvitskiy, Victor; Plawecki, Martin H; Mann, Karl F; O'Connor, Sean

    2009-03-01

    Acute alcohol effects may differ in social drinkers with a positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FHP) compared to FH negative (FHN) controls. To investigate whether FHP subjects prefer higher levels of brain alcohol exposure than do FHN controls. Twenty-two young healthy nondependent social drinkers participated in two identical sessions of computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE); the first for practicing the procedures, the second to test hypotheses. All 12 FHP (four women) and ten FHN (three women) participants received a priming exposure, increasing arterial blood alcohol concentration (aBAC) to 30 mg% at 10 min and decreasing it to 15 mg% at 25 min. A 2-h self-administration period followed, during which only the subjects could increase their aBAC by pressing a button connected to a computer controlling the infusion pump. Infusion rate profiles were calculated instantaneously to increase aBAC by precisely 7.5 mg% within 2.5 min after each button press, followed by a steady descent. Subjects were instructed to produce the same alcohol effects as they would do at a weekend party. The mean and maximum aBAC during the self-administration period and the number of alcohol requests (NOAR) were significantly higher in the FHP vs. FHN participants. This is the first laboratory experiment demonstrating higher alcohol self-administration in FHP compared to FHN subjects. A practice session increases the sensitivity of CASE experiments for detection of subtle differences in human alcohol self-administration.

  19. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  20. Alcohol facts labels on Four Loko: will the Federal Trade Commission's order be effective in reducing hazardous drinking among underage youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Siegel, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Underage drinking accounts for 4400 alcohol-attributable deaths in the US each year. After several reports of the deaths of young people due to the consumption of the flavored-alcoholic beverage (FAB) Four Loko, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) examined whether Phusion Projects violated federal law by using deceptive marketing. In 2013, the FTC responded by ordering alcohol facts labels on Four Loko disclosing the number of standard drinks contained in the product. This paper aims to discuss whether the FTC's order for alcohol facts labels on Four Loko cans will effectively reduce the hazardous consumption of FABs among youth. The authors discuss the existing research that relates to the FTC's order, including studies on the effectiveness of serving size labeling for reducing youth drinking, research on the brand-specific consumption of FABs among underage youth, and the associations between youth drinking and exposure to alcohol marketing. After synthesizing the evidence, the authors conclude that simply requiring the disclosure of the number of standard drinks on supersized Four Loko cans is not likely to adequately address the hazardous consumption of this beverage among underage drinkers. Instead, if the FTC addresses the marketing of these products and its potential to encourage the excessive use of alcohol, as the Attorneys General did recently in a settlement with the same company, it is possible that there would be a greater impact on reducing youth alcohol consumption. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of alcohol facts labels in changing underage drinking behaviors.

  1. Synergistic Interaction of Light Alcohol Administration in the Presence of Mild Iron Overload in a Mouse Model of Liver Injury: Involvement of Triosephosphate Isomerase Nitration and Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanxia; Zhao, Jie; Gao, Zhonghong

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that iron overload promotes alcoholic liver injury, but the doses of iron or alcohol used in studies are usually able to induce liver injury independently. Little attention has been paid to the coexistence of low alcohol consumption and mild iron overload when either of them is insufficient to cause obvious liver damage, although this situation is very common among some people. We studied the interactive effects and the underlining mechanism of mild doses of iron and alcohol on liver injury in a mouse model. Forty eight male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, iron (300 mg/kg iron dextran, i.p.), alcohol (2 g/kg/day ethanol for four weeks i.g.), and iron plus alcohol group. After 4 weeks of treatment, mice were sacrificed and blood and livers were collected for biochemical analysis. Protein nitration level in liver tissue was determined by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Although neither iron overload nor alcohol consumption at our tested doses can cause severe liver injury, it was found that co-administration of the same doses of alcohol and iron resulted in liver injury and hepatic dysfunction, accompanied with elevated ratio of NADH/NAD+, reduced antioxidant ability, increased oxidative stress, and subsequent elevated protein nitration level. Further study revealed that triosephosphate isomerase, an important glycolytic enzyme, was one of the targets to be oxidized and nitrated, which was responsible for its inactivation. These data indicate that even under low alcohol intake, a certain amount of iron overload can cause significant liver oxidative damage, and the modification of triosephosphate isomerasemight be the important underlining mechanism of hepatic dysfunction. PMID:28103293

  2. Targeting Alcohol Misuse: A Promising Strategy for Reducing Military Sexual Assaults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Biopsychosocial Conceptualization,” Clinical Psychology Review , Vol. 17, No. 6, September 1997, 621–649. Combs-Lane, Amy M., and Daniel W. Smith, “Risk of Sexual...and the Misperception of Sexual Intent,” Clinical Psychology Review , Vol. 28, No. 1, January 2008, pp. 48–66. Fisher, Bonnie S., John J. Sloan, Francis...The Impact of Men’s Alcohol Consumption on Perpetration of Sexual Aggression,” Clinical Psychology Review , Vol. 22, No. 8, November 2002, pp. 1239

  3. Facile fabrication of graphene/nickel oxide composite with superior supercapacitance performance by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Peng [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Yiming [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Zhenghui; Huang, Zhikun; Xu, Xingfa [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • G/NiO was synthesized by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. • G/NiO presents a globule-on-sheet structure and reveals a synergistic effect. • G/NiO displays high specific capacitance and superior cycling stability. - Abstract: Graphene/nickel oxide composite (G/NiO) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method and subsequently microwave thermal treatment by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. The as-prepared G/NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the graphene oxide has been successfully reduced to graphene, and NiO nanoparticles are homogeneous anchored on the surface of graphene, forming a globule-on-sheet structure. The loading content of NiO nanoparticles anchoring on the surface of graphene nanosheets can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature. The G/NiO displays superior electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 530 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} in 2 M of NaOH. After 5000 cycles, the supercapacitor still maintains a specific capacitance of 490 F g{sup −1} (92% retention of the initial capacity), exhibiting excellent cycling stability.

  4. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational

  5. Factors Influencing Usability of a Smartphone App to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Consumption: Think Aloud and Interview Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. To optimize engagement and reduce the high rates of attrition associated with the use of digital interventions, it is necessary to ensure that an app's design and functionality is appropriate for its intended purposes and target population. To understand the usability of an app to help people reduce their alcohol consumption. The app, Drink Less, contains a core module focusing on goal setting, supplemented by five additional modules: self-monitoring and feedback, identity change, cognitive bias re-training, action planning, and social comparison. Two studies were conducted, a "think aloud" study performed with people using the app for the first time and a semistructured interview study performed after users had had access to the app for at least 2 weeks. A thematic analysis of the "think aloud" and interview transcripts was conducted by one coder and verified by a second. Twenty-four participants, half of whom were women and half from disadvantaged groups, took part in the two studies. Three main themes identified in the data were "Feeling lost and unsure of what to do next," "Make the app easy to use," and "Make the app beneficial and rewarding to use." These themes reflected participants' need for (i) guidance, particularly when first using the app or when entering data; (ii) the data entry process to be simple and the navigation intuitive; (iii) neither the amount of text nor range of options to be overwhelming; (iv) the app to reward them for effort and progress; and (v) it to be clear how the app could help alcohol reduction goals be reached. First-time and experienced users want an alcohol reduction app to be easy, rewarding, and beneficial to use. An easy-to-use app would reduce user burden, offer ongoing help, and be esthetically pleasing. A rewarding and beneficial app would provide positive reinforcement, give feedback about progress

  6. Reducing alcohol-impaired driving crashes through the use of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Michael L; Mastin, Beth; Miller, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Over the past decade there has been little decrease in the number of alcohol-related driving fatalities. During this time most interventions have been educational or legal. This paper presents the results of a field experiment that used social marketing to introduce a new ride program into three rural communities. Almost all people in the 21-34-year-old target know that they should not drive while impaired, and most agree it is not a good thing to do, but for many the opportunity to behave properly does not exist. The Road Crew program was developed using new product development techniques and implemented by developing broad coalitions within the communities. A key feature of the program included rides to, between, and home from bars in older luxury vehicles. Results showed a significant shift in riding/driving behavior, especially among 21-34-year olds, a projected 17% decline in alcohol-related crashes in the first year, no increase in drinking behavior, and large savings between the reactive cost of cleaning up after a crash and the proactive cost of avoiding a crash. Programs have become self-sustaining based on fares and tavern contributions, and have become part of the life style in the treatment communities.

  7. Validation of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K; Stein, Dan J; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Given the high prevalence and detrimental consequences of alcohol or other drug (AOD) use in low- and middle-income countries, a screening tool for early detection in health care, including emergency care, is critical. We set out to validate the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for the South African context. We interviewed emergency centre patients (n = 200) in Cape Town for this cross-sectional study conducted from January to March 2013 utilising a questionnaire battery, including the ASSIST and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and screening properties of the ASSIST (receiver operating characteristic analysis) were examined utilising the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview AOD use modules as the gold standard. Cronbach's alpha for alcohol and illicit drugs ranged from 0.81 to 0.95 indicating good internal consistency. ASSIST cut-off scores show a good sensitivity and specificity for discrimination particularly when distinguishing between substance use and abuse, rather than dependence. For alcohol, the area under the curve was 0.94 for distinguishing between use and abuse, and this dropped to 0.68 for distinguishing between abuse and dependence, while the statistic remained high for both use/abuse and abuse/dependence for illicit drugs: 0.95 and 0.96. AOD abuse was associated with cut-off scores below the World Health Organization recommended levels, in keeping with various international studies suggesting that individuals with lower scores be offered interventions. The ASSIST was found to be useful for South African health care and holds promise for cost-effective task-shifting approaches in lower resourced settings. [van der Westhuizen C, Wyatt G, Williams JK, Stein DJ, Sorsdahl K. Validation of  the  Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016

  8. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  9. Aptitude of Saccharomyces yeasts to ferment unripe grapes harvested during cluster thinning for reducing alcohol content of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Vendramini, Chiara; Fernandes Lemos Junior, Wilson Josè; Carlot, Milena; Skelin, Andrea; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-11-07

    Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes. Moreover, four S. paradoxus were considered, as previous works demonstrated that strains belonging to this species were able to degrade high malic acid amounts in standard musts. The industrial strain S. cerevisiae 71B was added as reference. Sugar and malic acid contents were modified in synthetic musts in order to understand the effect of their concentrations on alcoholic fermentation and malic acid degradation. S. cerevisiae fermentation performances improved when glucose concentration decreased and malic acid level increased. The conditions that simulate unripe grape must, i.e. low glucose and high malic acid content were found to enhance S. cerevisiae ability to degrade malic acid. On the contrary, S. paradoxus strains were able to degrade high amounts of malic acid only in conditions that resemble ripe grape must, i.e. high glucose and low malic acid concentration. In fermentation trials when low glucose concentrations were used, at high malic acid levels S. cerevisiae strains produced higher glycerol than at low malic acid condition. Malic acid degradation ability, tested on the best performing S. cerevisiae strains, was enhanced in fermentation trials when unripe grape must was used.

  10. The efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol misuse in patients with HIV in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huis in ’t Veld Diana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol abuse comes with risks for increased morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV. This study aims to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and other risk factors in a sample of primary care patients with HIV in South Africa and to assess a brief intervention to reduce the use of alcohol in this group. Methods/Design A single-blinded randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol use in patients with HIV. The study will be carried out on out-patients with HIV in two primary healthcare HIV clinics near Pretoria, South Africa. Alcohol use will be assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. Other data that will be collected relate to health-related quality of life, depression, sexual behavior, internalized AIDS stigma, HIV-related information and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (self-reported 7-day recall of missed doses, Visual Analog Scale and pill count. The intervention consists of a brief counseling session to reduce alcohol risk; the control group receives a health education leaflet. Discussion The findings will be important in the public health setting. If the intervention proves to be efficient, it could potentially be incorporated into the HIV care policy of the Ministry of Health. Trial registration Pan African Clinical trial Registry: PACTR201202000355384

  11. Efficacy of Brief Interventions in Reducing Hazardous or Harmful Alcohol Use in Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jaison; Basu, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically review the efficacy of alcohol brief intervention in middle-income countries. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of face-to-face brief motivational intervention aimed at reducing heavy alcohol use conducted in middle-income countries were identified through electronic databases: Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library published up to and including 2015. Methodological quality assessment of the RCTs was made by using two validated tools. Nine RCTs of alcohol brief intervention in middle-income countries met the review's inclusion criteria. The results of five trials suggest a benefit for brief intervention in reducing self-reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Methodological quality was found to be adequate using a standard tool, without any serious methodological issues or biases in more than half of the selected trials. The content of brief intervention was based on the principles of motivational interviewing and was delivered by trained nurses in almost all the trials. This systematic review of RCTs on alcohol brief intervention conducted in middle-income countries suggests that brief intervention can help reduce self-reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use in primary-care population. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor.

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  14. Effectiveness of a walnut-enriched diet on murine sperm: involvement of reduced peroxidative damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Coffua

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A walnut supplement for a Western-style diet in men was shown to improve sperm motility, vitality, and morphology. To gain further insights into factors underlying this improvement, we administered a parallel walnut-enriched diet to mice [including those with a defect in sperm motility due to deletion of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 (Pmca4−/−] to determine if there is a similar improvement that is accompanied by reduced sperm membrane peroxidative damage. Although sperm vitality and acrosome reaction rate were unaffected, the diet led to a significant improvement in motility (P < 0.05 and morphology (P < 0.04 in wild-type sperm and in morphology (P < 0.01 in Pmca4−/−, confirming the diet’s efficacy, which appeared to be more modest in mice than in humans. In both strains of mice, the diet resulted in a significant decrease in sperm lipid peroxidation (oxidative stress levels, but did not rescue the significantly increased apoptotic levels seen in the testis and epididymis of Pmca4 nulls. Our findings support the effectiveness of walnuts on sperm quality, associated with reduced peroxidative damage; and suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism(s underlying male reproductive defects in Pmca4−/−.

  15. Polymorphisms of XRCC4 are involved in reduced colorectal cancer risk in Chinese schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors related to the regulation of apoptosis in schizophrenia patients may be involved in a reduced vulnerability to cancer. XRCC4 is one of the potential candidate genes associated with schizophrenia which might induce colorectal cancer resistance. Methods To examine the genetic association between colorectal cancer and schizophrenia, we analyzed five SNPs (rs6452526, rs2662238, rs963248, rs35268, rs2386275 covering ~205.7 kb in the region of XRCC4. Results We observed that two of the five genetic polymorphisms showed statistically significant differences between 312 colorectal cancer subjects without schizophrenia and 270 schizophrenia subjects (rs6452536, p = 0.004, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.86; rs35268, p = 0.028, OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.26. Moreover, the haplotype which combined all five markers was the most significant, giving a global p = 0.0005. Conclusions Our data firstly indicate that XRCC4 may be a potential protective gene towards schizophrenia, conferring reduced susceptibility to colorectal cancer in the Han Chinese population.

  16. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, J; Gallagher, S; Mayton, A; Srednicki, J

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards.

  17. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  18. Involving patients in reducing decision uncertainties around orphan and ultra-orphan drugs: a rare opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Devidas; Stafinski, Tania; Dunn, Andrea; Short, Hilary

    2015-02-01

    -world' examples of patient involvement explicitly related to rare diseases centered around 11 different themes. Seven fell within the research and development or clinical trial stages of a drug's lifecycle. Of the remaining four, three were associated with education and advocacy. All of the proposed roles identified focused on greater involvement in (1) the design and conduct of clinical trials, or (2) the 'valuation' of evidence during reimbursement decision making. When mapped onto the matrix of decision uncertainties, almost all of the existing and proposed roles addressed 'clinical benefit'. Roles for patients in reducing 'value for money', affordability, or adoption/diffusion uncertainties were mainly indirect, and a result of patient involvement in activities aimed at generating information on clinical benefit, which is then used to inform discussions around these uncertainties. While patient involvement in activities that directly address uncertainties in clinical benefit may not be 'rare', opportunities for reducing those related to 'value for money', affordability, and adoption/diffusion remain scarce.

  19. Aadh2p: an Arxula adeninivorans alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the first step of the 1-butanol degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Marion; Kasprzak, Jakub; Becker, Karin; Riechen, Jan; Worch, Sebastian; Hartmann, Anja; Mascher, Martin; Scholz, Uwe; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Schauer, Frieder; Matthias Vorbrodt, H; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-10-12

    The non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninivorans uses 1-butanol as a carbon source and has recently attracted attention as a promising organism for 1-butanol production. Alcohol dehydrogenases (adhp) are important catalysts in 1-butanol metabolism, but only Aadh1p from Arxula has been characterized. This enzyme is involved in ethanol synthesis but has a low impact on 1-butanol degradation. In this study, we identified and characterized a second adhp from A. adeninivorans (Aadh2p). Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADHs' (ScAdh) protein sequences it originates from the same ancestral node as ScAdh6p, 7p and 4p. It is also localized in the cytoplasm and uses NAD(H) as cofactor. The enzyme has its highest activity with medium chain-length alcohols and maximum activity with 1-butanol with the catalytic efficiency of the purified enzyme being 42 and 43,000 times higher than with ethanol and acetaldehyde, respectively. Arxula adeninivorans strain G1212/YRC102-AADH2, which expresses the AADH2 gene under the control of the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter was constructed. It achieved an ADH activity of up to 8000 U/L and 500 U/g dry cell weight (dcw) which is in contrast to the control strain G1212/YRC102 which had an ADH activity of up to 1400 U/L and 200 U/g dcw. Gene expression analysis showed that AADH2 derepression or induction using non-fermentable carbon-sources such as ethanol, pyruvate, glycerol or 1-butanol did occur. Compared to G1212/YRC102 AADH2 knock-out strain had a slower growth rate and lower 1-butanol consumption if 1-butanol was used as sole carbon source and AADH2-transformants did not grow at all in the same conditions. However, addition of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine allowed the transformants to use 1-butanol as carbon source. The addition of these amino acids to the control strain and Δaadh2 mutant cultures had the effect of accelerating 1-butanol consumption. Our results confirm that Aadh2p plays a major

  20. Parasympathetic activation is involved in reducing epileptiform discharges when listening to Mozart music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Lee, Mei-Wen; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    discharges in children with epilepsy. The majority of these patients showed an increase in parasympathetic tone during music exposure. Our results suggested that Mozart music stimuli induced parasympathetic activation which may be involved in the effect of music in reducing epileptiform discharges and the recurrence rate of seizures. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  2. Can the blood alcohol concentration be a predictor for increased hospital complications in trauma patients involved in motor vehicle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) 200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0-20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4-27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5-49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification.

  3. Application of lower aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents for increasing efficiency of the LCLD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenok, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    A method is described that is promising for application metal conductors on ceramic substrates during printed-circuit boards (PCBs) production without masking plate. The main idea of laser-induced metal deposition from solution (LCLD) consists of implementation of chemical micro reactor by using a focused laser beam. In this reactor the red/ox reaction would be initiated due to heating of a reaction medium. We used a 532 nm DPSS laser (power: 2100 mW) and water solutions of organic alcohols with low molecular weight, ethanol and isopropanol as reductants. The results of deposition were studied using the SEM, EDX methods and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent resistance-capacitance circuit of copper tracks was constructed. The experiments showed that increasing the rate of deposition of nanostructured copper tracks up to 50 μm/s with electrical resistivity 5 Ohm/cm is possible by replacing the well-known reductants such as formaldehyde and D-sorbitol with iso-propanol.

  4. Characteristics of adults involved in alcohol-related intimate partner violence: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Connell, Nadine M; Businelle, Michael S; Jennings, Wesley G; Chartier, Karen G

    2014-05-17

    More than 12 million women and men are victims of partner violence each year. Although the health outcomes of partner violence have been well documented, we know very little about specific event-level characteristics that may provide implications for prevention and intervention of partner violence situations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate substance abuse and dependence as risk factors for event-level alcohol-related intimate partner violence (IPV). Data were derived from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Eligible participants (N = 2,255) reported IPV the year before the survey. Negative binomial and ordinal regression methods were used to assess risk factors for alcohol use during IPV. Respondent PTSD was the only mental health diagnosis related to alcohol use during IPV (OR = 1.45). Marijuana use was related to respondents' use of alcohol during IPV (OR = 2.68). Respondents' meeting the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence was strongly associated with respondent drinking (OR = 10.74) and partner drinking (OR = 2.89) during IPV. Results indicate that PTSD, marijuana use disorders, alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with more frequent alcohol use during IPV. In addition, it is important to consider that the patient who presents in emergency settings (e.g., hospitals or urgent care facilities) may not be immediately identifiable as the victim or the perpetrator of partner violence. Therefore, screening and intervention programs should probe to further assess the event-level characteristics of partner violence situations to ensure the correct service referrals are made to prevent partner violence.

  5. Involvement of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases in the production of fusel alcohols during fermentation in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, A.; Drukker, M.; Benvenisty, N. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Genetics; Nedervelde, L. van; Debourg, A. [Haute Ecole Lucia de Brouckere, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Brewing Sciences and Fermentation Technology

    2001-07-01

    Organoleptic compounds produced by yeast during the fermentation of wort have a great impact on beer smell and taste. Among them, fusel alcohols are the major abundant volatile compounds. The availability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants in which the genes coding for the two branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases have been deleted offers the possibility of further defining the role of these enzymes in the formation of higher alcohols. Comparing the production profiles of different strains, it is clear that they are not all influenced in the same way by branched-chain amino acid aminostransferase mutations. First of all, as propanol is synthesised from {alpha}-ketobutyrate, the first metabolic intermediate in the anabolic pathway of isoleucine, neither the eca39 nor eca40 mutations have any effect on the production of this higher alcohol. On the other hand, it can be concluded that the eca40 mutation has a drastic effect on the production of isobutanol. To a certain extent, the same conclusion can be made for the production of active amyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol, although the results suggest that another route could lead to the formation of these two higher alcohols. (orig.)

  6. Reduced cyclooxygenase involvement in vascular endothelial function in rat renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Van Oosten, Annemieke; Boonstra, Arnold H.; Navis, Gerjan; Van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death following renal transplantation. Mechanisms leading to vascular dysfunction outside the transplanted organ involve common risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria, but immune-mediated factors may also be involve

  7. Reduced cyclooxygenase involvement in vascular endothelial function in rat renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Van Oosten, Annemieke; Boonstra, Arnold H.; Navis, Gerjan; Van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death following renal transplantation. Mechanisms leading to vascular dysfunction outside the transplanted organ involve common risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria, but immune-mediated factors may also be involve

  8. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Iversen, Jens S; Krag, Aleksander

    2010-01-01

    of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). BRS is reduced at exposure to chronic hypoxia such as during sojourn in high altitudes. In this study, we assessed the relation of BRS to pulmonary dysfunction and cardiovascular characteristics and the effects of hyperoxia. Forty-three patients with cirrhosis and 12 healthy...... to presence of HPS, Pa(O(2)), Dl(CO), or Child-Turcotte score, but BRS correlated with metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. After 100% oxygen inhalation, BRS and the QT interval remained unchanged in the cirrhotic patients. In conclusion, BRS is significantly reduced in patients with cirrhosis compared...

  9. Integrated ternary artificial nacre via synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide/double-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Wu, Mengxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-07-01

    The synergistic toughening effect of building blocks and interface interaction exists in natural materials, such as nacre. Herein, inspired by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibrillar chitin and two-dimensional (2D) calcium carbonate platelets of natural nacre, we have fabricated integrated strong and tough ternary bio-inspired nanocomposites (artificial nacre) successfully via the synergistic effect of 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and 1D double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and hydrogen bonding cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, the crack mechanics model with crack deflection by 2D rGO nanosheets and crack bridging by 1D DWNTs and PVA chains induces resultant artificial nacre exhibiting excellent fatigue-resistance performance. These outstanding characteristics enable the ternary bioinspired nanocomposites have many promising potential applications, for instance, aerospace, flexible electronics devices and so forth. This synergistic toughening strategy also provides an effective way to assemble robust graphene-based nanocomposites.

  10. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid.

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Guang Wang; Li-Hui Wei; Ling-Hui Huang; Jian-Liu Wang; Shi-Jun Wang; Xiao-Ping Li

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT),which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors,has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer.NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer.To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervicat cancer,we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or without NACT at the People's Hospital of Peking University between January 2006 and December 2010.Of 110 patients,68 underwent platinum-based NACT prior to surgery (NACT group) and 42 underwent pdmary surgery treatment (PST group).Our results showed 48 of 68 (70.6%) patients achieved a complete response or partial response to NACT.Estimated blood loss,operation time,and number of removed lymph nodes during surgery,as well as complication rates during and after surgery were not significantly different between the NACT group and the PST group.The rates of deep stromal invasion,positive parametria,positive surgical vaginal margins,and lymph node metastasis were not significantly different between the two groups.However,the rate of lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI) was significantly lower in the NACT group than in the PST group (P = 0.021).In addition,the response rate of NACT was significantly higher in the patients with chemotherapeutic drugs administrated via artery than via vein.Our results suggest that NACT is a safe and effective treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer and significantly decreases the rate of LVSI.

  12. New insight into phase equilibria involving imidazolium bistriflamide ionic liquids and their mixtures with alcohols and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereiro, Ana B; Deive, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Ana; Ruivo, Diana; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Rebelo, Luís P N

    2010-07-15

    The fluid phase equilibria (liquid-liquid demixing behavior (LLE)) of mixtures of ionic liquids of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide family, [C(n)mim][NTf(2)], with 2-methylpropanol or n-octanol were investigated. Binary mixtures of [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] + alcohol and [C(6)mim][NTf(2)] + alcohol were compared to pseudobinary mixtures of (0.5[C(2)mim] + 0.5[C(6)mim])[NTf(2)] + alcohol and (0.5[C(2)mim] + 0.5[C(10)mim])[NTf(2)] + alcohol, respectively. Additionally, the presence of water in the studied alcohols or as a third component in the system was analyzed in order to check any possible deviation from the LLE observed for the anhydrous systems. Systems containing small fractions of ionic liquid show similar LLE between the corresponding binary and pseudobinary systems; however, large differences are observed in the presence of water when the IL mass fraction is increased.

  13. Use of abnormal and health psychology as topics in a classroom format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among college students at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, W M

    2001-12-01

    This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.

  14. The effectiveness of brief personalized normative feedback in reducing alcohol-related problems amongst University students: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foxcroft David R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that university/college students tend to have an exaggerated view of the quantities of alcohol being consumed by their peers. Making students aware of this misperception may help change behaviour and reduce problem drinking. Methods/Design A Solomon Three Group Design will be used. There is one intervention group and two control groups, controlling separately for measurement and for intervention effects. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcomes are AUDIT Score, weekly consumption, perceived social norms, and alcohol related problems; secondary outcomes include alcohol expectancies and other health behaviours. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of an on-line personalized normative feedback intervention for alcohol misuse in university students. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN30784467

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of brain involvement in alcoholic and nonalcoholic Wernicke’s encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacia, Gianvincenzo; Anastasi, Andrea; Speciale, Claudia; Agnello, Francesco; Banco, Aurelia

    2017-01-01

    AIM To present the typical and atypical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Wernicke’s encephalopathy. METHODS This study included 7 patients with Wernicke’s encephalopathy (2 men, 5 women; mean age, 52.3 years) that underwent brain MR examination between January 2012 and March 2016 in a single institution. Three patients were alcoholics and 4 patients were non-alcoholics. MR protocol included a T2-weighted sequence, a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, a diffusion-weighted sequence (b = 0 and 1000 s/mm2), and a contrast-enhanced MR sequence. All MR images were retrospectively reviewed at baseline and follow-up by two radiologists. RESULTS All patients with Wernicke’s encephalopathy had bilateral areas showing high signal intensity on both T2-weighted and FLAIR MR images in the typical sites (i.e., the periaqueductal region and the tectal plate). Signal intensity abnormalities in the atypical sites (i.e., the cerebellum and the cerebellar vermis) were seen in 4 patients, all of which had no history of alcohol abuse. Six patients had areas with restricted diffusion in the typical and atypical sites. Four patients had areas showing contrast-enhancement in the typical and atypical sites. Follow-up MR imaging within 6 mo after therapy (intravenous administration of thiamine) was performed in 4 patients, and demonstrated a complete resolution of all the signal intensities abnormalities previously seen in all patients. CONCLUSION MR imaging is valuable in the diagnosis of Wernicke’s encephalopathy particularly in patients presenting with atypical clinical symptoms, or with no history of alcohol abuse.

  16. Suppressing effect of COR659 on alcohol, sucrose, and chocolate self-administration in rats: involvement of the GABAB and cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Lorrai, Irene; Zaru, Alessandro; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Brizzi, Antonella; Mugnaini, Claudia; Corelli, Federico

    2017-05-24

    COR659 [methyl2-(4-chlorophenylcarboxamido)-4-ethyl-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxylate] is a new, positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the GABAB receptor. This study evaluated whether COR659 shared with previously tested GABAB PAMs the capacity to reduce alcohol self-administration in rats. Treatment with non-sedative doses of COR659 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg; i.p.) suppressed lever-responding for alcohol (15% v/v) in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats under the fixed ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement; COR659 was more potent and effective than the reference GABAB PAM, GS39783. Treatment with COR659, but not GS39783, suppressed (a) lever-responding for a sucrose solution (1-3% w/v) in sP rats under the FR4 and PR schedules, (b) lever-responding for a chocolate solution [5% (w/v) Nesquik®] in Wistar rats under the FR10 and PR schedules, and (c) cue-induced reinstatement of chocolate seeking in Wistar rats. Treatment with COR659 was completely ineffective on lever-responding (FR10) for regular food pellets in food-deprived Wistar rats. Pretreatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist, SCH50911, partially blocked COR659-induced reduction of alcohol self-administration, being ineffective on reduction of chocolate self-administration. Pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM4113, fully blocked COR659-induced reduction of chocolate self-administration, being ineffective on reduction of alcohol self-administration. COR659 might exert its behavioral effects via a composite mechanism: (i) positive allosteric modulation of the GABAB receptor, responsible for a large proportion of reduction of alcohol self-administration; (ii) an action at other receptor system(s), including the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, through which COR659 affects seeking and consumption of highly palatable foods.

  17. Electroacupuncture decreases excessive alcohol consumption involving reduction of FosB/ΔFosB levels in reward-related brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for alcohol abuse, a major public health problem in the U.S. and worldwide. There are only three FDA-approved drugs for treatment of alcohol abuse (naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfuram. On average these drugs yield only moderate success in reducing long-term alcohol consumption. Electroacupuncture has been shown to alleviate various drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Although previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture reduced alcohol consumption, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors implicated in neural plasticity in drug addiction; a connection between electroacupuncture's treatment of alcohol abuse and the Fos family has not been established. In this study, we trained rats to drink large quantities of ethanol in a modified intermittent access two-bottle choice drinking procedure. When rats achieved a stable baseline of ethanol consumption, electroacupuncture (100 Hz or 2 Hz, 30 min each day was administered at Zusanli (ST36 for 6 consecutive days. The level of FosB/ΔFosB in reward-related brain regions was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We found that the intake of and preference for ethanol in rats under 100 Hz, but not 2 Hz electroacupuncture regiment were sharply reduced. The reduction was maintained for at least 72 hours after the termination of electroacupuncture treatment. Conversely, 100 Hz electroacupuncture did not alter the intake of and preference for the natural rewarding agent sucrose. Additionally, FosB/ΔFosB levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatal region and the posterior region of ventral tegmental area were increased following excessive ethanol consumption, but were reduced after six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture. Thus, this study demonstrates that six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture treatment effectively reduces ethanol consumption and preference in rats that chronically drink excessive amount of

  18. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Iversen, J.S.; Krag, A.

    2010-01-01

    matched controls underwent hemodynamic and pulmonary investigations. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. A 100% oxygen test was performed with the assessment of arterial oxygen tensions (Pa(O(2))) and alveolar-arterial oxygen......Patients with cirrhosis exhibit impaired regulation of the arterial blood pressure, reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and prolonged QT interval. In addition, a considerable number of patients have a pulmonary dysfunction with hypoxemia, impaired lung diffusing capacity (Dl(CO)), and presence...

  19. Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P<0.01 reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.. When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose produced an inhibition (P<0.05 of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  20. Fenofibrate Administration Reduces Alcohol and Saccharin Intake in Rats: Possible Effects at Peripheral and Central Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivera-Meza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the administration of fenofibrate to high-drinker UChB rats markedly reduces voluntary ethanol intake. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonist, which induces the proliferation of peroxisomes in the liver, leading to increases in catalase levels that result in acetaldehyde accumulation at aversive levels in the blood when animals consume ethanol. In these new studies, we aimed to investigate if the effect of fenofibrate on ethanol intake is produced exclusively in the liver (increasing catalase and systemic levels of acetaldehyde or there might be additional effects at central level. High drinker rats (UChB were allowed to voluntary drink 10% ethanol for 2 months. Afterward, a daily dose of fenofibrate (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (as control was administered orally for 14 days. Voluntary ethanol intake was recorded daily. After that time, animals were deprived of ethanol access for 24 h and administered with an oral dose of ethanol (1 g/kg for acetaldehyde determination in blood. Fenofibrate reduced ethanol voluntary intake by 60%, in chronically drinking rats, at the three doses tested. Acetaldehyde in the blood rose up to between 80 μM and 100 μM. Considering the reduction of ethanol consumption, blood acetaldehyde levels and body weight evolution, the better results were obtained at a dose of 50 mg fenofibrate/kg/day. This dose of fenofibrate also reduced the voluntary intake of 0.2% saccharin by 35% and increased catalase levels 2.5-fold in the liver but showed no effects on catalase levels in the brain. To further study if fenofibrate administration changes the motivational properties of ethanol, a conditioned-place preference experiment was carried out. Animals treated with fenofibrate (50 mg/kg/day did not develop ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP.In an additional experiment, chronically ethanol-drinking rats underwent two cycles of ethanol

  1. Cardiac involvement in primary systemic vasculitis and potential drug therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Shenoy, Sajjan N

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is common in primary systemic vasculitides and may be due to direct effect of the disease on the heart or due to therapy. We shall review involvement of the heart in the various forms of primary systemic vasculitis. Among anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis most commonly involves the heart. Involvement of the heart confers poorer prognosis in AAV, which is also complicated by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Kawasaki's disease (KD) is the most common form of medium-vessel vasculitis to affect the heart, with coronary artery aneurysms being the most common manifestation. These predispose patients with KD to develop premature ischemic heart disease. Takayasu's arteritis is the most common large-vessel vasculitis to involve the heart and can result in aortic incompetence, myocarditis, or coronary heart disease. Involvement of the heart in Behcet's disease is usually in the form of intracardiac mass lesions, thrombosis, or endomyocardial fibrosis. Drugs used in the treatment of systemic vasculitis influence the risk of developing cardiovascular events. Corticosteroid therapy has been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, and anti-tumor necrosis alpha agents favorably modulate the risk of cardiovascular events, predominantly by dampening systemic inflammation. Awareness of cardiac involvement in vasculitis and accelerated cardiovascular risk in these patients should help clinicians to maximize the modulation of modifiable risk factors for heart disease in these individuals.

  2. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Ren, Tingting; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG). AFLD mice models were established with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with different treatments: MG (model), SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA]), BJ (blueberry juice), BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA), BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics), and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA). Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Oil Red O (ORO) staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6), BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (Pprobiotics reduces apoptosis in AFLD by suppressing FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2 via the upregulation of SIRT1.

  3. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K.; Dyer, John M.; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4’s principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation’s effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem. PMID:28069670

  4. Reducing sexual risk behaviors: secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based alcohol intervention for underage, heavy episodic drinking college women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountress, Kaitlin E.; Metzger, Isha W.; Maples-Keller, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Amanda K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) are significant problems on college campuses. College women are at particularly high risk for negative consequences associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy. Methods The current study (n = 160) examined the effect of a brief, web-based alcohol intervention (n = 53) for college women on reducing SRBs compared to an assessment only control (n = 107) with a randomized controlled trial. Outcome measures included condom use assertiveness and number of vaginal sex partners and data were collected at baseline and three-month follow-up. Results Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol intervention was associated with higher levels of condom use assertiveness at a three-month follow-up. Additionally, more alcohol use was associated with less condom use assertiveness for those with more significant sexual assault histories. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol interventions may impact college women’s beliefs but not behavior, and future interventions should more explicitly target both alcohol and sexual risk to decrease risky behaviors. PMID:28428737

  5. Reduced alcohol intake and reward associated with impaired endocannabinoid signaling in mice with a deletion of the glutamate transporter GLAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Adermark, Louise; Molander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    mice with a deletion of GLAST to test this prediction. WT and GLAST KO mice were tested for alcohol consumption using two-bottle free-choice drinking. Alcohol reward was evaluated using conditioned place preference (CPP). Sensitivity to depressant alcohol effects was tested using the accelerating...... rotarod, alcohol-induced hypothermia, and loss of righting reflex. Extracellular glutamate was measured using microdialysis, and striatal slice electrophysiology was carried out to examine plasticity of the cortico-striatal pathway as a model system in which adaptations to the constitutive GLAST deletion...

  6. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (PMethane emissions were similar for CON and IMP treated cattle. Nitrous oxide emissions were similar across CON, MON, and IMP treated cattle and were higher in BAA treated cattle (Papplication of growth

  7. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, F; Disse, E; Laville, M

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration....

  9. Reduced cortical thickness of brain areas involved in pain processing in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frokjaer, J.B.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Lundager, F.H.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) might have abnormal brain function. We assessed cortical thickness in brain areas involved in visceral pain processing. METHODS: We analyzed brain morphologies of 19 patients with painful CP and compared them with 15 healthy individu

  10. Alcohol facilitates CD1d loading, subsequent activation of NKT cells, and reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Jensen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol ('alcohol') is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules.......Ethanol ('alcohol') is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules....

  11. Do Research Intermediaries Reduce Perceived Coercion to Enter Research Trials Among Criminally Involved Substance Abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Croft, Jason R; Arabia, Patricia L; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2011-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of including a research intermediary (RI) during the consent process in reducing participants' perceptions of coercion to enroll in a research study. Eighty-four drug court clients being recruited into an ongoing study were randomized to receive a standard informed consent process alone (standard condition) or with an RI (intermediary condition). Before obtaining consent, RIs met with clients individually to discuss remaining concerns. Findings provided preliminary evidence that RIs reduced client perceptions that their participation might influence how clinical and judicial staff view them. This suggests that using RIs may improve participant autonomy in clinical studies.

  12. Protein aggregation with poly(vinyl) alcohol surfactant reduces double emulsion-encapsulated mammalian cell-free expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Jin Woo; Durand, Grégory; Majumder, Sagardip

    2017-01-01

    Development of artificial cell models requires encapsulation of biomolecules within membrane-bound compartments. There have been limited studies of using mammalian cell-free expression (CFE) system as the ‘cytosol’ of artificial cells. We exploit glass capillary droplet microfluidics for the encapsulation of mammalian CFE within double emulsion templated vesicles. The complexity of the physicochemical properties of HeLa cell-free lysate poses a challenge compared with encapsulating simple buffer solutions. In particular, we discovered the formation of aggregates in double emulsion templated vesicles encapsulating mammalian HeLa CFE, but not with bacterial CFE. The aggregates did not arise from insolubility of the proteins made from CFE nor due to the interaction of mammalian CFE with the organic solvents in the middle phase of the double emulsions. We found that aggregation is dependent on the concentration of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) surfactant, a critical double emulsion-stabilizing surfactant, and the lysate concentration in mammalian CFE. Despite vesicle instability and reduced protein expression, we demonstrate protein expression by encapsulating mammalian CFE system. Using mass spectrometry and Western blot, we identified and verified that actin is one of the proteins inside the mammalian CFE that aggregated with PVA surfactant. Our work establishes a baseline description of mammalian CFE system encapsulated in double emulsion templated vesicles as a platform for building artificial cells. PMID:28358875

  13. Protein aggregation with poly(vinyl) alcohol surfactant reduces double emulsion-encapsulated mammalian cell-free expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Jin Woo; Durand, Grégory; Majumder, Sagardip; Liu, Allen P

    2017-01-01

    Development of artificial cell models requires encapsulation of biomolecules within membrane-bound compartments. There have been limited studies of using mammalian cell-free expression (CFE) system as the 'cytosol' of artificial cells. We exploit glass capillary droplet microfluidics for the encapsulation of mammalian CFE within double emulsion templated vesicles. The complexity of the physicochemical properties of HeLa cell-free lysate poses a challenge compared with encapsulating simple buffer solutions. In particular, we discovered the formation of aggregates in double emulsion templated vesicles encapsulating mammalian HeLa CFE, but not with bacterial CFE. The aggregates did not arise from insolubility of the proteins made from CFE nor due to the interaction of mammalian CFE with the organic solvents in the middle phase of the double emulsions. We found that aggregation is dependent on the concentration of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) surfactant, a critical double emulsion-stabilizing surfactant, and the lysate concentration in mammalian CFE. Despite vesicle instability and reduced protein expression, we demonstrate protein expression by encapsulating mammalian CFE system. Using mass spectrometry and Western blot, we identified and verified that actin is one of the proteins inside the mammalian CFE that aggregated with PVA surfactant. Our work establishes a baseline description of mammalian CFE system encapsulated in double emulsion templated vesicles as a platform for building artificial cells.

  14. Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: involvement of neural reward systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Younger

    Full Text Available The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain. The results of those studies may be relevant to pain management in humans, as basic animal research has shown that pharmacologic activation of reward systems can substantially reduce pain. Indeed, viewing pictures of a romantic partner was recently demonstrated to reduce experimental thermal pain. We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship. Participants completed three tasks under periods of moderate and high thermal pain: 1 viewing pictures of their romantic partner, 2 viewing pictures of an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance, and 3 a word-association distraction task previously demonstrated to reduce pain. The partner and distraction tasks both significantly reduced self-reported pain, although only the partner task was associated with activation of reward systems. Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--regions not associated with distraction-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain.

  15. Short-term effects of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol use and sexual risk among homeless young adults: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Elliott, Jennifer C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Aivadyan, Christina; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-01-01

    Homeless young adults are more likely than their never-homeless counterparts to abuse alcohol and engage in risky sexual behaviors, yet no interventions to simultaneously reduce both these behaviors among this vulnerable population have been systematically designed and evaluated. We therefore developed a brief intervention (BI) to reduce both alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among homeless young adults. The results of a randomized trial testing the BI against an education comparison (EC) are presented. Young adults (N=61; age 17-22 years) from an urban, Northeastern crisis shelter were randomly assigned to either the 2-session, individual-level BI or a time-matched, 2-session, individual-level EC. Generalized linear mixed models for repeated measures determined effects of treatment condition on outcomes. The BI significantly increased participant readiness to change alcohol use. However, it did not significantly decrease primary alcohol or HIV sexual risk outcomes, independently or relative to EC (all ps>.05). Participants in the EC reduced times engaged in unprotected sex between baseline and post-intervention to a significantly greater extent (phomeless young adults.

  16. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  17. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Juanjuan Zhu,1,2,* Tingting Ren,3,* Mingyu Zhou,2 Mingliang Cheng2 1First Hospital Affiliated to Suzhou University, Suzhou, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, 3Biochemistry Department, Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD.Methods: Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG. AFLD mice models were established with Lieber–DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with ­different treatments: MG (model, SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA], BJ (blueberry juice, BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA, BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics, and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA. Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE and Oil Red O (ORO staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1, FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6, BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Results: HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (P<0.05. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C were increased in BJ and BJP groups when compared with the model group (P<0.05. In contrast, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and malondialdehyde (MDA were lower in BJ and BJP groups than in the model group (P<0.05. The level of SIRT1 was increased, while the levels of FOXO1

  18. NBHA Reduces Acrolein-lnduced Changes in ARPE-19 Cells: Possible Involvement of TGFβ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidro-Kotchan, Eileen; Yendluri, Bharat Bhushan; Le-Thai, Terrie; Tsin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Acrolein, a toxic, reactive aldehyde formed metabolically and environmentally, has been implicated in the damage to and dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that accompanies age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our purpose was to investigate the potential of acrolein to influence the release of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), to assess the ability of N-benzylhydroxylamine (NBHA) to prevent the effect of acrolein on cytokine release and reduction of viable cells, and to explore the pathway by which acrolein might be causing the increase of VEGF. Materials and Methods Confluent ARPE-19 cells were treated with acrolein and/or NBHA. They were also pretreated with SIS3, a specific inhibitor of SMAD 3, and ZM39923, a JAK3 inhibitor, before being treated with acrolein. Viable cells were counted; ELISA was used to measure the TGFβ2 and/or VEGF in the conditioned media. Results Acrolein was shown to reduce the number of viable ARPE-19 cells and to upregulate the release of the proangiogenic cytokines TGFβ2 and VEGF. Co-treatment with 200 μM NBHA significantly reduced the effects of acrolein on viable cell number and TGFβ2 release. Pretreatment of the cells with SIS3 partially blocked the action of acrolein on decreased viable cell number and VEGF upregulation, suggesting that part of the effects of acrolein are mediated by the increased levels of TGFβ and its signaling. Conclusions Our results suggest that the action of acrolein on the reduction of viability and VEGF increase by ARPE-19 cells is partially mediated by TGFβ2. By reducing the effects of acrolein, NBHA and SIS3 could be potential pharmacological agents in the prevention and progression of acrolein-induced damage to the RPE that relates to AMD. PMID:21309688

  19. Phorbol ester reduces ethanol excitation of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area: Involvement of protein kinase C theta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarat eNimitvilai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA play a key role in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Ethanol directly increases the firing rate of dopaminergic (DAergic VTA neurons, but modulation of the firing rate of DAergic VTA neurons can be controlled by a number of factors, including some that are under the control of protein kinase C (PKC. Application of phorbol esters activates PKC and the present study assessed the effect of a phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, on ethanol-induced excitation of DA VTA neurons. Ethanol-induced excitation of DAergic VTA neurons was reduced significantly in the presence of PMA. This action of PMA was antagonized by chelerythrine chloride, a non-selective antagonist of PKC, but not by moderate concentrations of antagonists of conventional PKC isoforms (Gö6976 and Gö6983. A PKC δ/θ inhibitor antagonized PMA-induced reduction of ethanol excitation. Since PKCδ antagonist Gö6983 did not antagonize the effect of PMA on ethanol excitation, the PMA reduction of ethanol excitation is most likely to be mediated by PKCθ. Antagonists of intracellular calcium pathways were ineffective in antagonizing PMA action on ethanol excitation, consistent with the lack of calcium dependence of PKCθ. In summary, ethanol-induced excitation of VTA neurons is attenuated in the presence of PMA, and this attenuation appears to be mediated by PKCθ. This novel mechanism for interfering with ethanol activation of reward-related neurons could provide a new target for pharmacotherapy to ameliorate alcoholism.

  20. Cannabidiol reduces Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPARγ involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Esposito

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ has been reported to be involved in the etiology of pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Cannabidiol (CBD, a Cannabis derivative devoid of psychomimetic effects, has attracted much attention because of its promising neuroprotective properties in rat AD models, even though the mechanism responsible for such actions remains unknown. This study was aimed at exploring whether CBD effects could be subordinate to its activity at PPARγ, which has been recently indicated as its putative binding site. CBD actions on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in rat AD models, either in presence or absence of PPAR antagonists were investigated. Results showed that the blockade of PPARγ was able to significantly blunt CBD effects on reactive gliosis and subsequently on neuronal damage. Moreover, due to its interaction at PPARγ, CBD was observed to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. All these findings report the inescapable role of this receptor in mediating CBD actions, here reported.

  1. Interpersonal Violence and Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Because alcohol and other drugs are involved in most acts of violence on campus, college and university administrators are under increasing pressure to acknowledge this connection and reduce alcohol consumption on campus. But because alcohol alone does not cause violence, campuses must also address other contributing factors. Since research has…

  2. Reducing the throughput time of the diagnostic track involving CT scanning with computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lent, Wineke A.M. van, E-mail: w.v.lent@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Twente, IGS Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies, Department of Health Technology Services Research (HTSR), Enschede (Netherlands); Deetman, Joost W., E-mail: j.deetman@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Teertstra, H. Jelle, E-mail: h.teertstra@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Muller, Sara H., E-mail: s.muller@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hans, Erwin W., E-mail: e.w.hans@utwente.nl [University of Twente, School of Management and Governance, Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Business Intelligence Systems, Enschede (Netherlands); Harten, Wim H. van, E-mail: w.v.harten@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Twente, IGS Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies, Department of Health Technology Services Research (HTSR), Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    Introduction: To examine the use of computer simulation to reduce the time between the CT request and the consult in which the CT report is discussed (diagnostic track) while restricting idle time and overtime. Methods: After a pre implementation analysis in our case study hospital, by computer simulation three scenarios were evaluated on access time, overtime and idle time of the CT; after implementation these same aspects were evaluated again. Effects on throughput time were measured for outpatient short-term and urgent requests only. Conclusion: The pre implementation analysis showed an average CT access time of 9.8 operating days and an average diagnostic track of 14.5 operating days. Based on the outcomes of the simulation, management changed the capacity for the different patient groups to facilitate a diagnostic track of 10 operating days, with a CT access time of 7 days. After the implementation of changes, the average diagnostic track duration was 12.6 days with an average CT access time of 7.3 days. The fraction of patients with a total throughput time within 10 days increased from 29% to 44% while the utilization remained equal with 82%, the idle time increased by 11% and the overtime decreased by 82%. The fraction of patients that completed the diagnostic track within 10 days improved with 52%. Computer simulation proved useful for studying the effects of proposed scenarios in radiology management. Besides the tangible effects, the simulation increased the awareness that optimizing capacity allocation can reduce access times.

  3. Improvement of alcoholic fermentation by calcium ions under enological conditions involves the increment of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Huang, Weidong; Wang, Xiuqin; Tang, Tian; Hua, Zhaozhe; Yan, Guoliang

    2010-07-01

    The effect of Ca(2+) on alcoholic fermentation and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of wine yeast under enological conditions were investigated in this study. The results showed that fermentation rate, cell growth and ethanol production were improved by 0.5 and 1.5 mM Ca(2+) supplementation, which correlated well with the increment of ATPase activity and protein levels. Considering the important role of ATPase in the tolerance of yeast to ethanol, the improvement could be, at least partially, attributed to the increment of ATPase activity. No activation of ATPase by Ca(2+) was observed in the early phase of fermentation and the increment of activity was only observed when ethanol concentration exceeded 6.5%. Therefore, the enhancement of ATPase activity by Ca(2+) was ascribed to alleviating the inhibition of ATPase activity by ethanol through protection of membrane structure. Our results suggest that, besides maintenance of cell membrane structure, the increment of plasma membrane ATPase activity was also responsible for the improvement of alcoholic fermentation by Ca(2+) supplementation.

  4. A Novel Integration Effort to Reduce the Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy Among Women Attending Urban STD Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Heidi E.; Chander, Geetanjali; Green, Patricia P.; Hutsell, Catherine A.; Weingarten, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics serve female clients with a high prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption coupled with ineffective contraceptive use. Project CHOICES (Changing High-Risk AlcOhol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness) is an evidence-based, brief intervention to lower risk of AEP by targeting alcohol and contraceptive behaviors through motivational interviewing and individualized feedback. We describe our experience integrating and implementing CHOICES in STD clinics. This endeavor aligns with CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention's program collaboration and service integration strategic priority to strengthen collaborative work across disease areas and integrate services provided by related programs at the client level. PMID:24385650

  5. Feasibility of reduced gravity experiments involving quiescent, uniform particle cloud combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Howard D.; Facca, Lily T.; Berlad, Abraham L.; Tangirala, Venkat

    1989-01-01

    The study of combustible particle clouds is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. The principal scientific interests are the characteristic combustion properties, especially flame structure, propagation rates, stability limits, and the effects of stoichiometry, particle type, transport phenomena, and nonadiabatic processes on these properties. The feasibility tests for the particle cloud combustion experiment (PCCE) were performed in reduced gravity in the following stages: (1) fuel particles were mixed into cloud form inside a flammability tube; (2) when the concentration of particles in the cloud was sufficiently uniform, the particle motion was allowed to decay toward quiescence; (3) an igniter was energized which both opened one end of the tube and ignited the suspended particle cloud; and (4) the flame proceeded down the tube length, with its position and characteristic features being photographed by high-speed cameras. Gravitational settling and buoyancy effects were minimized because of the reduced gravity enviroment in the NASA Lewis drop towers and aircraft. Feasibility was shown as quasi-steady flame propagation which was observed for fuel-rich mixtures. Of greatest scientific interest is the finding that for near-stoichiometric mixtures, a new mode of flame propagation was observed, now called a chattering flame. These flames did not propagate steadily through the tube. Chattering modes of flame propagation are not expected to display extinction limits that are the same as those for acoustically undisturbed, uniform, quiescent clouds. A low concentration of fuel particles, uniformly distributed in a volume, may not be flammable but may be made flammable, as was observed, through induced segregation processes. A theory was developed which showed that chattering flame propagation was controlled by radiation from combustion products which heated the successive discrete laminae sufficiently to cause autoignition.

  6. Reducing the throughput time of the diagnostic track involving CT scanning with computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Wineke A M; Deetman, Joost W; Teertstra, H Jelle; Muller, Sara H; Hans, Erwin W; van Harten, Wim H

    2012-11-01

    To examine the use of computer simulation to reduce the time between the CT request and the consult in which the CT report is discussed (diagnostic track) while restricting idle time and overtime. After a pre implementation analysis in our case study hospital, by computer simulation three scenarios were evaluated on access time, overtime and idle time of the CT; after implementation these same aspects were evaluated again. Effects on throughput time were measured for outpatient short-term and urgent requests only. The pre implementation analysis showed an average CT access time of 9.8 operating days and an average diagnostic track of 14.5 operating days. Based on the outcomes of the simulation, management changed the capacity for the different patient groups to facilitate a diagnostic track of 10 operating days, with a CT access time of 7 days. After the implementation of changes, the average diagnostic track duration was 12.6 days with an average CT access time of 7.3 days. The fraction of patients with a total throughput time within 10 days increased from 29% to 44% while the utilization remained equal with 82%, the idle time increased by 11% and the overtime decreased by 82%. The fraction of patients that completed the diagnostic track within 10 days improved with 52%. Computer simulation proved useful for studying the effects of proposed scenarios in radiology management. Besides the tangible effects, the simulation increased the awareness that optimizing capacity allocation can reduce access times. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis on the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneda Masato

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that is closely associated with multiple factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, other risk factors for the development of NAFLD are unclear. With the association between periodontal disease and the development of systemic diseases receiving increasing attention recently, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, a major causative agent of periodontitis. Methods The detection frequencies of periodontal bacteria in oral samples collected from 150 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (102 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and 48 with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL patients and 60 non-NAFLD control subjects were determined. Detection of P. gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria were detected by PCR assay. In addition, effect of P. gingivalis-infection on mouse NAFLD model was investigated. To clarify the exact contribution of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, non-surgical periodontal treatments were also undertaken for 3 months in 10 NAFLD patients with periodontitis. Results The detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NAFLD patients was significantly higher than that in the non-NAFLD control subjects (46.7% vs. 21.7%, odds ratio: 3.16. In addition, the detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NASH patients was markedly higher than that in the non-NAFLD subjects (52.0%, odds ratio: 3.91. Most of the P. gingivalis fimbria detected in the NAFLD patients was of invasive genotypes, especially type II (50.0%. Infection of type II P. gingivalis on NAFLD model of mice accelerated the NAFLD progression. The non-surgical periodontal treatments on NAFLD patients carried out for 3 months ameliorated the liver function parameters, such as the serum levels of AST and ALT. Conclusions Infection with high-virulence P

  8. Reducing Health Disparities and Enhancing the Responsible Conduct of Research Involving LGBT Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Although there is clearly a need for evidenced-based behavioral or biomedical prevention or treatment programs for suicide, substance abuse, and sexual health targeted to members of the LGBT population under the age of eighteen, few such programs exist, due in substantial part to limited research knowledge. Ambiguities in regulations that govern human subjects protections and the related inconsistencies in institutional review board (IRB) interpretations of regulatory language are the key reason for the lack of rigorous clinical trial evidence to support treatment choices and prevention approaches to reducing health disparities for this population. Given the socially sensitive nature of suicide, substance abuse, and HIV and STI research in general and LGBT research specifically, in the absence of empirical data to guide their decisions, IRBs must often rely on subjective judgments of minimal risk, which can lead to overestimation of the magnitude and probability of psychological, social, and informational harms that might arise from LGBT youth participation in clinical trials. In addition, more than other youth, LGBT adolescents whose families are unaware of their sexual orientation or gender identity or whose families have victimized them on account of it may be reluctant to participate in studies that require guardian permission. This, in turn, intensifies problems of recruitment and unbiased sampling. However, many IRBs are reluctant to apply federal regulations permitting waiver of guardian permission under conditions in which such permission is clearly not "feasible" or "reasonable" to require. Consequently, many investigators have excluded LGBT individuals under eighteen years of age in health intervention research proposals because of anticipated or actual difficulties obtaining IRB approval. This situation is in conflict with current ethical discourse focusing on the right of youths to participate in trials that will protect them from receiving

  9. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  10. Review article: Emergency department data sharing to reduce alcohol-related violence: a systematic review of the feasibility and effectiveness of community-level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Nicolas; Miller, Peter; Baker, Tim

    2014-08-01

    The present paper aims to review current evidence for the effectiveness and/or feasibility of using inter-agency data sharing of ED recorded assault information to direct interventions reducing alcohol-related or nightlife assaults, injury or violence. Potential data-sharing partners involve police, local council, liquor licensing regulators and venue management. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted. The initial search discovered 19,506 articles. After removal of duplicates and articles not meeting review criteria, n = 8 articles were included in quantitative and narrative synthesis. Seven of eight studies were conducted in UK EDs, with the remaining study presenting Australian data. All studies included in the review deemed data sharing a worthwhile pursuit. All studies attempting to measure intervention effectiveness reported substantial reductions of assaults and ED attendances post-intervention, with one reporting no change. Negative logistic feasibility concerns were minimal, with general consensus among authors being that data-sharing protocols and partnerships could be easily implemented into modern ED triage systems, with minimal cost, staff workload burden, impact to patient safety, service and anonymity, or risk of harm displacement to other licensed venues, or increase to length of patient stay. However, one study reported a potential harm displacement effect to streets surrounding intervention venues. In future, data-sharing systems should triangulate ED, police and ambulance data sources, and assess intervention effectiveness using randomised controlled trials that account for variations in venue capacity, fluctuations in ED attendance and population levels, seasonal variations in assault and injury, and control for concurrent interventions.

  11. Validation of the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): report of results from the Australian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, David Al; Humeniuk, Rachel E; Ali, Robert

    2005-05-01

    The concurrent, construct, discriminative and predictive validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in an Australian sample. One hundred and fifty participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 50) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 100), were administered a battery of instruments at baseline and a modified battery at 3 months. Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsely Addiction Profile (MAP). Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-lite, SDS, AUDIT and DAST; and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with diagnoses of abuse or dependence. Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems. Participants diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or antisocial personality disorder had significantly higher ASSIST scores than those not diagnosed as such. Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. ROC analysis was able to establish cut-off scores for an Australian sample, with suitable specificities and sensitivities for most substances. Predictive validity was demonstrated by similarity in ASSIST scores obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use.

  12. Neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 reduces ethanol consumption in part through activation of GLT1 in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y; Sreemantula, S N

    2012-12-27

    We have previously shown that ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), reduced ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. GLT1 is a glial glutamate transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We tested in this study the effects of neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1-propyl (2S)-1-(3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dioxopentyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate), known also to upregulate GLT1 expression, in ethanol intake in P rats. Male P rats had concurrent access to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol, water, and food for five weeks. On Week 6, P rats continued in this drinking and food regimen and they were administered either 10 or 20mg/kg GPI-1046 (i.p.), or a vehicle for five consecutive days. Body weight, ethanol intake, and water consumption were measured daily for 8 days starting on Day 1 of GPI-1046 or vehicle i.p. injections. We have also tested the effect of GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) on daily sucrose (10%) intake. The data revealed significant dose-dependent effects in the reduction of ethanol intake starting 48 h after the first treatment with GPI-1046 throughout treatment and post-treatment periods. There were also dose-dependent increases in water intake. However, GPI-1046 treatment did not affect the body weight of all animals nor sucrose intake. Importantly, GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level compared to all groups in nucleus accumbens core (NAc-core). Alternatively, GPI-1046 (10mg/kg) upregulated GLT1 level in NAc-core compared to vehicle (ethanol naïve) group. Moreover, both doses of GPI-1046 increased significantly GLT1 level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared to ethanol naïve vehicle group. GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level in PFC compared to naïve control group that was exposed to water and food only. These findings demonstrated that neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 attenuates ethanol intake in part through the upregulation of GLT1 in PFC and NAc-core.

  13. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ponicki, William R.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2013-01-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density’s association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury cra...

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten middle-ag

  15. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  16. Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug-Related Harm in Young People: Evaluation of a Youth Engagement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nic; Hickford, Salli; Miller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Deakin University's RuralLife alcohol and other drug (AOD) research initiative was commissioned by St John of God Hospital and Barwon Youth to evaluate their Youth Engagement Program (YEP), which is an AOD harm-reduction program intended to engage young people with AOD problems in a region that has a higher-than-state-average proportion of young…

  17. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Louise; Bradley, Emma L; Lloyd, Antony S; Pritchard, Hugh W; Castle, Laurence; Kranner, Ilse

    2012-11-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss.

  18. A case story, involving the use of maltitol, a sugar alcohol, as a cutting agent in amphetamine and cocaine powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In a criminal case involving cutting and resale of amphetamine and cocaine in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, maltitol was used as a cutting agent. The analysis of maltitol in seizures of pure diluents as well as in amphetamine and cocaine powders was carried out using reversed-phase high perform...

  19. A case story, involving the use of maltitol, a sugar alcohol, as a cutting agent in amphetamine and cocaine powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Linnet, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    In a criminal case involving cutting and resale of amphetamine and cocaine in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, maltitol was used as a cutting agent. The analysis of maltitol in seizures of pure diluents as well as in amphetamine and cocaine powders was carried out using reversed-phase high...... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometric detection. Maltitol was identified in four out of nine amphetamine samples and in five out of six cocaine samples from the case in question. The use of maltitol as a cutting agent was considered by the police as a specific...... marker of the particular criminal group under investigation. To support or reject this hypothesis, cocaine and amphetamine samples from a four month period after the involved persons had been arrested were evaluated, also as part of the police investigation. None of these samples contained maltitol...

  20. A case story, involving the use of maltitol, a sugar alcohol, as a cutting agent in amphetamine and cocaine powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitzel Lotte Ask

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a criminal case involving cutting and resale of amphetamine and cocaine in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, maltitol was used as a cutting agent. The analysis of maltitol in seizures of pure diluents as well as in amphetamine and cocaine powders was carried out using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with high-resolution (HR mass spectrometric detection. Maltitol was identified in four out of nine amphetamine samples and in five out of six cocaine samples from the case in question. The use of maltitol as a cutting agent was considered by the police as a specific marker of the particular criminal group under investigation. To support or reject this hypothesis, cocaine and amphetamine samples from a four month period after the involved persons had been arrested were evaluated, also as part of the police investigation. None of these samples contained maltitol. The work described covers the part of the case involving the department of forensic chemistry, and not the whole police investigation, but everything was done within the frames given by the police. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a disaccharide polyol being used as a cutting agent for illicit drugs.

  1. Production Increasing and Consumption Reducing for Low Pressure Alcoholization and Alkylation Unit%低压醇烃化系统提产降耗优化措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳

    2013-01-01

    The problems affect normal operation and high consumption of the unit during trial production , w hich include low methanol production , the alcoholization and alkylation unit not being able to maintain autothermal equilibrium and the high content trace organic impurities to cause the ammonia plant operation fluctuation etc . After analyzing the reasons and taking optimization measures , the production is increased and consumption is reduced in the alcoholization and alkylation unit .%基于试生产过程中出现的甲醇产量低、醇烃化系统不能维持自热平衡、出口微量高导致合成氨系统波动大等影响系统正常运行且消耗高的问题,分析其原因,制定优化措施,从而降低了能耗,提高了产量。

  2. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  3. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  4. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  5. Reducing non-communicable disease via better detection of hypertension and alcohol problems in primary health care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerrit; Sierra, Cristina; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-29

    With help of a simulation study, the potential effects of better detection of hypertension and improved screening for alcohol problems with subsequent interventions were estimated.  Results showed, that if 50% of Spanish men between 40 and 64 years of age currently not aware of their hypertension could be made aware of their condition and received usual interventions, and 50% among men with hypertension would be screened for alcohol and received interventions for hazardous drinking or treatment for alcohol use disorders, the percentage of uncontrolled hypertension among men with hypertension would decrease from 61.2% to 55.9%, i.e. by 8.6%.  Similarly, for women, these interventions would decrease the percentage of women in the same age group with uncontrolled hypertension by 7.4%.  The reduction of blood pressure in the population would lead to the avoidance of 412 premature CVD deaths (346 in men, 66 in women).  Better detection of hypertension and screening for alcohol with subsequent interventions would thus result in marked reductions of uncontrolled hypertension, and CVD mortality.Abstract in Spanish:Se estudian mediante un estudio de simulación los potenciales beneficios que puede comportar una mejora en la detección y tratamiento tanto de la hipertensión, como de los problemas relacionados con el alcohol. Los resultados muestran que si el 50% de los varones españoles entre 40 y 64 años que padecen hipertensión y no lo saben, fuesen detectados y recibiesen tratamiento; y si en el 50% de los varones hipertensos se realizase el cribado de consumo alcohólico y recibieran consejo para la reducción de consumos o tratamiento cuando procediera, el porcentaje de hipertensión no controlada descendería del 61,2% al 55,9% (disminuirá en un 8,6%). De forma similar, las mismas intervenciones en mujeres de los mismos grupos etarios implicarían una reducción del 7,4% de la hipertensión no controlada. La reducción de la presión arterial en la poblaci

  6. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  8. Vida PURA: An assessment of the fidelity of promotor-delivered screening and brief intervention to reduce unhealthy alcohol use among Latino day laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Samantha E; Serafini, Kelly; Eller, Nikki; Torres, Vanessa N; Donovan, Dennis; Ornelas, India J

    2017-04-04

    We assessed the fidelity of promotores conducting screening and brief intervention (SBI) to reduce unhealthy alcohol use among Latino immigrant day laborers in the Vida PURA study. We reviewed 32 audio-recorded brief interventions to assess promotor adherence to the intervention protocol and to evaluate their motivational interviewing (MI) technique with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) 4.2.1 tool. Promotores delivered three core intervention steps in 78% of recordings and achieved basic MI competence across all domains and proficiency in 50% of measures. Our results suggest that promotores can be trained to deliver SBI in community settings with fidelity.

  9. Ondansetron reduces naturalistic drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent individuals with the LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Vuittonet, Cynthia; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron and serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mis-matching them assessing naturalistic and bar-laboratory alcohol drinking. Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to one of two counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200mg/day or ondansetron 0.5 mg/day for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in SDUs) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes. Results Fifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype x order interaction was significant [F(1,47) = 8.42, p = .006] for DDD. Three ANCOVAs were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first [F(1,47) = 7.64, p = .008] but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE. Conclusion This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited

  10. Dose-dependent effects of intravenous alcohol administration on cerebral blood flow in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Nicole M; Claus, Eric D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Boileau, Isabelle; Hendershot, Christian S

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving alcohol challenge are important for identifying neural correlates of alcohol's psychopharmacological effects. However, evaluating acute alcohol effects on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change is complicated by alcohol-related increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). The present study aimed to further characterize acute alcohol effects on CBF using intravenous alcohol administration to maximize control over brain alcohol exposure. Twenty heavy-drinking young adults (M = 19.95 years old, SD = 0.76) completed alcohol and placebo imaging sessions in a within-subject, counter-balanced, placebo-controlled design. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provided estimates of perfusion change at two target blood alcohol concentrations (40 and 80 mg%) relative to baseline and relative to a saline control infusion. Voxel-wise analyses showed widespread and dose-dependent effects of alcohol on CBF increase. Region-of-interest analyses confirmed these findings, also indicating regional variation in the magnitude of perfusion change. Additional findings indicated that lower self-reported sensitivity to alcohol corresponded with reduced perfusion change during alcohol administration. This study provides further evidence for widespread effects of acute alcohol on cerebral perfusion, also demonstrating regional, dose-dependent, and inter-individual variation. Further research is needed to evaluate implications of these effects for the design and interpretation of pharmacological fMRI studies involving alcohol challenge.

  11. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G

    2013-06-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density's association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999-2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units

  12. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S Borges

    Full Text Available Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin

  13. A brief, trauma-informed intervention increases safety behavior and reduces HIV risk for drug-involved women who trade sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Tomko, Catherine; Wingo, Erin; Sawyer, Anne; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Glass, Nancy; Sherman, Susan G

    2017-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important population for HIV acquisition and transmission. Their risks are shaped by behavioral, sexual network, and structural level factors. Violence is pervasive and associated with HIV risk behavior and infection, yet interventions to address the dual epidemics of violence and HIV among FSWs are limited. We used participatory methods to develop a brief, trauma-informed intervention, INSPIRE (Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction), to improve safety and reduce HIV risk for FSWs. A quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest study evaluated intervention feasibility, acceptability and efficacy among FSWs in Baltimore, MD, most of whom were drug-involved (baseline n = 60; follow-up n = 39 [65%]; non-differential by demographics or outcomes). Qualitative data collected at follow-up contextualizes findings. Based on community partnership and FSW input, emergent goals included violence-related support, connection with services, and buffering against structural forces that blame FSWs for violence. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate feasibility and acceptability. At follow-up, improvements were seen in avoidance of client condom negotiation (p = 0.04), and frequency of sex trade under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p = 0.04). Women's safety behavior increased (p < 0.001). Participants improved knowledge and use of sexual violence support (p < 0.01) and use of intimate partner violence support (p < 0.01). By follow-up, most respondents (68.4%) knew at least one program to obtain assistance reporting violence to police. Over the short follow-up period, client violence increased. In reflecting on intervention acceptability, participants emphasized the value of a safe and supportive space to discuss violence. This brief, trauma-informed intervention was feasible and highly acceptable to FSWs. It prompted safety behavior, mitigated sex trade under the influence, and bolstered confidence in

  14. Alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  15. Online health check for reducing alcohol intake among employees: a feasibility study in six workplaces across England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnie Khadjesari

    Full Text Available Most hazardous and harmful drinkers are of working age and do not seek help with their drinking. Occupational health services are uniquely placed to universally screen employees across the range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The aim was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering electronic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in the context of a health check in six different workplace settings.Employees were recruited from six workplaces across England, including three local authorities, one university, one hospital and one petro-chemical company. A total of 1,254 (8% employees completed the health check and received personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Most participants were female (65% and of 'White British' ethnicity (94%, with a mean age of 43 years (SD 11. Participants were mostly in Intermediate occupations (58%, followed by Higher managerial / professional (39% and Routine and manual occupations (2%. A quarter of participants (25% were drinking at hazardous levels (33% male, 21% female, which decreased with age. Sixty-four percent (n=797 of participants completed online follow-up at three months. Most participants were supportive of workplaces offering employees an online health check (95%, their preferred format was online (91% and many were confident of the confidentiality of their responses (60%. Whilst the feedback reminded most participants of things they already knew (75%, some were reportedly motivated to change their behaviour (13%.Online health screening and personalised feedback appears feasible and acceptable, but challenges include low participation rates, potentially attracting 'worried well' employees rather than those at greatest health risk, and less acceptance of the approach among older employees and those from ethnic minority backgrounds and routine or manual occupations.

  16. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces the size of the forepaw representation in forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) cortex in neonatal rats: relationship between periphery and central representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margret, Cecilia P; Chappell, Tyson D; Li, Cheng X; Jan, Taha A; Matta, Shannon G; Elberger, Andrea J; Waters, Robert S

    2006-07-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters limb development that may lead to structural and functional abnormalities of the limb reported in children diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. To determine whether PAE alters the central representation of the forelimb we used the rodent barrel cortex as our model system where it was possible to visualize and quantitatively measure the size of the forepaw representation in the forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) in first somatosensory cortex. In the present study, we examined the effects of PAE on pattern and size of the forepaw and forepaw representation in FBS in neonatal rats at gestational day 32 that corresponds to postnatal day 9. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically intubated with binge doses of ethanol (6 g/kg) from gestational day 1 through gestational day 20. The offspring of the ethanol treated dams comprised the ethanol (EtOH) group. The effect of PAE on the EtOH group was compared with a nutritional-controlled pairfed (PF) group and a normal chowfed (CF) group. The ventral (glabrous) surface area of the forepaw digits, length of digit 2 through digit 5, and the corresponding glabrous forepaw digit representations in the FBS were measured and compared between treatment groups. In rats exposed to in utero alcohol, the sizes of the overall glabrous forepaw and forepaw digits were significantly reduced in EtOH pups compared to CF and PF pups; overall glabrous forepaw area was 11% smaller than CF controls. Glabrous digit lengths were also smaller in EtOH rats compared to CF controls and significantly smaller in digit 2 through digit 4. The glabrous digit representation in FBS was 18% smaller in the EtOH group when compared to the CF treatment. However, PAE did not produce malformations in the forepaw or alter the pattern of the forepaw representation in FBS; instead, PAE significantly reduced both body and brain weights compared to controls. Unexpectedly, little or no correlation was observed between the

  18. Nitric Oxide Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation Involved in Water Stress-induced Subcellular Anti-oxidant Defense in Maize Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Sang; Mingyi Jiang; Fan Lin; Shucheng Xu; Aying Zhang; Mingpu Tan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) Is a bioactive molecule involved in many biological events, and has been reported as pro-oxidant as well as anti-oxidant in plants. In the present study, the sources of NO production under water stress, the role of NO in water stress-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and subcellular activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were investigated. Water stress Induced defense increases in the generation of NO In maize mesphyll cells and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of maize leaves. Water stress-induced defense increases in the production of NO were blocked by pretreatments with Inhibitors of NOS and nitrate reductase (NR), suggesting that NO is produced from NOS and NR in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress. Water stress also induced increases in the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidass (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the increases in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes were reduced by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and NR. Exogenous NO increases the activities of water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant enzymes, which decreases accumulation of H2O2. Our results suggest that NOS and NR are involved in water strese-induced NO production and NOS is the major source of NO. The potential ability of NO to scavenge H2O2 is, at least in part, due to the induction of a subcellular anti-oxidant defense.

  19. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  20. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert Patrick; Pattison, Jill; Thompson, Janice M; Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E; Watts, Stephanie W

    2012-05-06

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 receptors are present in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric arteries. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot validated the presence of the 5-HT2B, 5- HT1B and 5-HT7 receptor protein in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric artery. Isometric contractile force was measured in endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery and mesenteric resistance arteries in which the contractile 5- HT2A receptor was antagonized. Maximum concentrations of BW-723C86 (5- HT2B agonist), CP 93129 (5-HT1B agonist) or LP-44 (5-HT7 agonist) did not relax the superior mesenteric artery from DOCA-salt rats vs. vehicle. Additionally, 5-HT (10-9 M to 10-5 M) did not cause relaxation in either contracted mesenteric resistance arteries or superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive Sprague- Dawley rats. Thus, although 5-HT receptors known to mediate vascular relaxation are present in the superior mesenteric artery, they are not functional, and are therefore not likely involved in a 5-HT-induced fall in total peripheral resistance and MAP.

  1. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  2. Involvement of resistin-like molecule β in the development of methionine-choline deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hirofumi; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Iizuka, Masaki; Taki, Naoyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Kamata, Hideaki; Nagamachi, Akiko; Inaba, Toshiya; Nishimura, Fusanori; Katagiri, Hideki; Asahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuto; Chonan, Osamu; Encinas, Jeffery; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-01-28

    Resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) reportedly has multiple functions including local immune responses in the gut. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of RELMβ to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. First, RELMβ knock-out (KO) mice were shown to be resistant to methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH development. Since it was newly revealed that Kupffer cells in the liver express RELMβ and that RELMβ expression levels in the colon and the numbers of RELMβ-positive Kupffer cells were both increased in this model, we carried out further experiments using radiation chimeras between wild-type and RELMβ-KO mice to distinguish between the contributions of RELMβ in these two organs. These experiments revealed the requirement of RELMβ in both organs for full manifestation of NASH, while deletion of each one alone attenuated the development of NASH with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. The higher proportion of lactic acid bacteria in the gut microbiota of RELMβ-KO than in that of wild-type mice may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lower serum LPS level the former. These data suggest the contribution of increases in RELMβ in the gut and Kupffer cells to NASH development, raising the possibility of RELMβ being a novel therapeutic target for NASH.

  3. Alpha-ketoglutarate reduces ethanol toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster by enhancing alcohol dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliak, Maria M; Shmihel, Halyna V; Lylyk, Maria P; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol at low concentrations (alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity as compared with those reared on control diet or diet with ethanol only. Native gel electrophoresis data suggested that this combination diet might promote post-translational modifications of ADH protein with the formation of a highly active ADH form. The ethanol-containing diet led to significantly higher levels of triacylglycerides stored in adult flies, and this parameter was not altered by AKG supplement. The influence of diet on antioxidant defenses was also assessed. In ethanol-fed flies, catalase activity was higher in males and the levels of low molecular mass thiols were unchanged in both sexes compared to control values. Feeding on a mixture of AKG and ethanol did not affect catalase activity but caused a higher level of low molecular mass thiols compared to ethanol-fed flies. It can be concluded that both a stimulation of some components of antioxidant defense and the increase in ADH activity may be responsible for the protective effects of AKG diet supplementation in combination with ethanol. The results suggest that AKG might be useful as a treatment option to neutralize toxic effects of excessive ethanol intake and to improve the physiological state of D. melanogaster and other animals, potentially including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Do alcohol-based hand rubs reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea during military deployments? A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, Tiphanie; De Laval, Franck; Sicard, Sébastien; Belleoud, Didier; Marimoutou, Catherine; Mayet, Aurélie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Michel, Rémy

    Acute diarrhea remains a public health concern in armed forces deployed in tropical areas where access to water and soap is limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on incidence of diarrhea in poor hygiene conditions. A prospective randomized trial was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among French military troops deployed in Africa to compare a group of soldiers receiving usual hand hygiene recommendations (control group), to a group of soldiers who received ABHR in addition to usual hand hygiene recommendations (intervention group). Data on diarrhea and hygiene behaviors were collected using self-questionnaires. The incidence rate of diarrhea episodes in groups was compared. Participation rate was 59% (236/400). The proportion of individuals who used ABHR was 97% in the intervention group and 62% in the control group. The overall incidence rate of diarrheal episodes was observed to be in the region of 60 per 100 persons-month without any significant difference between groups after adjustment on confounding factors (p = 0.93). Handwashing with soap was used on average 4 times a day in the control group and twice a day in the intervention group (p = 0.93). It was the only significant protective factor for diarrhea (p soap and good quality water should be a priority on the field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  6. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voogt Carmen V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (n = 375: no intervention. Primary outcomes measures will be: 1 the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2 reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3 frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12-step programmes for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, M; Amato, L; Davoli, M

    2006-07-19

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international organization of recovering alcoholics that offers emotional support through self-help groups and a model of abstinence for people recovering from alcohol dependence, using a 12-step approach. Although it is the most common, AA is not the only 12-step intervention available there are other 12-step approaches (labelled Twelve Step Facilitation (TSF)). To assess the effectiveness of AA or TSF programmes compared to other psychosocial interventions in reducing alcohol intake, achieving abstinence, maintaining abstinence, improving the quality of life of affected people and their families, and reducing alcohol associated accidents and health problems. We searched the Specialized Register of Trials of the Cochrane Group on Drugs and Alcohol, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE from 1966, EMBASE from 1980, CINAHL from 1982, PsychINFO from 1967. Searches were updated in February 2005. We also inspected lists of references for relevant studies. Studies involving adults (alcohol dependence attending on a voluntary or coerced basis AA or TSF programmes comparing no treatment, other psychological interventions, 12-step variants. One reviewer (MF) assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data using a pre-defined data extraction form. Studies were evaluated for methodological quality and discussed by all reviewers. Eight trials involving 3417 people were included. AA may help patients to accept treatment and keep patients in treatment more than alternative treatments, though the evidence for this is from one small study that combined AA with other interventions and should not be regarded as conclusive. Other studies reported similar retention rates regardless of treatment group. Three studies compared AA combined with other interventions against other treatments and found few differences in the amount of drinks and percentage of drinking days. Severity of addiction and drinking consequence did

  8. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mattace Raso

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF, and renin angiotensin system (RAS modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the

  9. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Pirozzi, Claudio; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Simeoli, Raffaele; Santoro, Anna; Lama, Adriano; Di Guida, Francesca; Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), and renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the activation of

  10. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  11. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Brief Alcohol Intervention and Added Value of Normative Feedback in Reducing Underage Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, R.; Roek, M.A.E.; Vermulst, A.A.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Huiberts, A.M.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Current insights indicate that Web-based delivery may enhance the implementation of brief alcohol interventions. Previous research showed that electronically delivered brief alcohol interventions decreased alcohol use in college students and adult problem drinkers. To date, no study has

  12. Chronic alcohol consumption affects gastrointestinal motility and reduces the proportion of neuronal NOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the murine jejunum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagyanszki, M.; Krecsmarik, M.; de Winter, B.Y.; de Man, J.G.; Fekete, E.V.A.; Pelckmans, P.A.; Adriaensen, D.; Kroese, A.B.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068352247; van Nassauw, L.; Timmermans, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption interferes with gastrointestinal transit causing symptoms in alcoholic patients. Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in the control of gastrointestinal motility. Our aim was to investigate whether chronic alcohol intake

  13. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization.

  14. Reducing Alcohol Use in First-Year University Students: Evaluation of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Andersen, Lorna L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of a Web-based personalized feedback program--electronic CHECKUP TO GO (e-CHUG), aimed at reducing heavy drinking in 1st-year university students--is evaluated. Results indicated that high-risk students in the e-CHUG group reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity, frequency of drinking to intoxication, and…

  15. Communication Style as an Antecedent to Reactance, Self-Efficacy, and Restoration of Freedom for Drug- and Alcohol-Involved Women on Probation and Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Cornacchione, Jennifer J; Morash, Merry; Kashy, Deborah; Cobbina, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    This study extends research on psychological reactance theory by examining probation and parole officer (PO) communication style as an antecedent to female offenders' reactance and 2 indicators of subsequent drug and alcohol abuse while serving probation or parole sentences. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test a mediational path model, the results of which demonstrated that perceptions of PO conversational communication style were negatively associated with reactance but positively associated with self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol. Conversely, women who perceived their POs as having a conformity communication style were more likely to report higher levels of reactance and lower self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol. Psychological reactance led to desire to restore freedom, whereas self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol did not. Desire to restore freedom was linked with reports of using drugs and alcohol and violations of parole or probation for using drugs and alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of communication style as an antecedent to reactance and in the relationship between POs and offenders.

  16. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  17. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  18. Is the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin a risk factor for alcoholic liver disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu Dee Harrison-Findik

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time,only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors,besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver,which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes.It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-α signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.

  19. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of a brief online intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in new university students: Combining self-affirmation, theory of planned behaviour messages, and implementation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul; Cameron, David; Epton, Tracy; Webb, Thomas L; Harris, Peter R; Millings, Abigail; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-09-20

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining (1) messages that target key beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that underlie binge drinking, (2) a self-affirmation manipulation to reduce defensive processing, and (3) implementation intentions (if-then plans to avoid binge drinking) reduces alcohol consumption in the first 6 months at university. A 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. Before starting university, students (N = 2,951) completed measures of alcohol consumption and were randomly assigned to condition in a full-factorial design. TPB cognitions about binge drinking were assessed immediately post-intervention (n = 2,682). Alcohol consumption was assessed after 1 week (n = 1,885), 1 month (n = 1,389), and 6 months (n = 892) at university. TPB cognitions were assessed again at 1 and 6 months. Participants who received the TPB messages had significantly less favourable cognitions about binge drinking (except perceived control), consumed fewer units of alcohol, engaged in binge drinking less frequently, and had less harmful patterns of alcohol consumption during their first 6 months at university. The other main effects were non-significant. The findings support the use of TPB-based interventions to reduce students' alcohol consumption, but question the use of self-affirmation and implementation intentions before starting university when the messages may not represent a threat to self-identity and when students may have limited knowledge and experience of the pressures to drink alcohol at university. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Alcohol consumption increases when young people enter university. Significant life transitions represent potential teachable moments to change behaviour. Interventions with a strong theoretical

  1. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  2. Genetic influences on response to alcohol and response to pharmacotherapies for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-08-01

    Although very many individuals drink alcohol at safe levels, a significant proportion escalates their consumption with addiction as the end result. Alcoholism is a common, moderately heritable, psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by considerable morbidity and mortality. Variation in clinical presentation suggests inter-individual variation in mechanisms of vulnerability including genetic risk factors. The development of addiction is likely to involve numerous functional genetic variants of small effects. The first part of this review will focus on genetic factors underlying inter-individual variability in response to alcohol consumption, including variants in alcohol metabolizing genes that produce an aversive response (the flushing syndrome) and variants that predict the level of subjective and physiological response to alcohol. The second part of this review will report on genetic variants that identify subgroups of alcoholics who are more likely to respond to pharmacotherapy to reduce levels of drinking or maintain abstinence. Genetic analyses of the level of response to alcohol, particularly of the functional OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and 5' and 3' functional polymorphisms in SLC6A4, are beginning to provide insights into the etiology of alcoholism and also genotype-stratified subgroup responses to naltrexone and SSRIs/ondansetron respectively. Because of large inter-ethnic variation in allele frequencies, the relevance of these functional polymorphisms will vary between ethnic groups. However there are relatively few published studies in this field, particularly with large sample sizes in pharmacogenetic studies, therefore it is premature to draw any conclusions at this stage.

  3. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some dual-acting amino-alcohol ester derivatives of flurbiprofen and 2-[1,1'-biphenyl-4-yl]acetic acid: a potential approach to reduce local gastrointestinal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halen, Parmeshwari Kuldeep Kumar; Chagti, Kewal Krishna; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2006-11-01

    The search for safer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) continues with the failure of anticipated 'ideal' anti-inflammatory agents, the coxibs, on long-term usage. Increased gastric motility and acidity due to the free carboxy group are involved in the etiology of gastric toxicity, common to conventional NSAIDs. Keeping this fact in mind, it was planned to modify some of the conventional NSAIDs to amino-alcohol ester derivatives, which satisfied the structural requirements for these compounds to possess anticholinergic activity in the intact form. Besides blocking the acidic carboxylic group, incorporation of anticholinergic acivity in these molecules was expected to reduce the gastric toxicity by decreasing gastric acid secretion and motility. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of six different N,N-disubstituted amino-ethyl ester derivatives, structurally resembling the amino-alcohol ester class of anticholinergic agents, each for [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-acetic acid (3) and flurbiprofen (10), have been reported as potential substitutes for these NSAIDs, with improved therapeutic profile. All the ester derivatives were found to have sufficient chemical stability in buffers (pH 2.0 and 7.4), ensuring them to be absorbed as intact moieties from the gastrointestinal tract. A significant reduction in ulcerogenic potency in comparison to the parent drugs with a slightly higher anti-inflammatory potency suggests that the majority of these candidates have an improved therapeutic profile over their parent drugs. Hence, a promising novel approach, different from the conventional prodrug concept, has been successfully worked out to overcome the local gastric toxicity, yielding therapeutically better compounds for long-term oral anti-inflammatory therapy.

  4. Effect of Maryland's 2011 Alcohol Sales Tax Increase on Alcohol-Positive Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Langenberg, Patricia; Villaveces, Andres; Dischinger, Patricia C; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Hoke, Kathleen; Smith, Gordon S

    2017-07-01

    The 2011 Maryland alcohol sales tax increase from 6% to 9% provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact on rates of alcohol-positive drivers involved in injury crashes. Maryland police crash reports from 2001 to 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design and a multivariable analysis employing generalized estimating equations models with a negative binomial distribution. Data were analyzed in 2014-2015. There was a significant gradual annual reduction of 6% in the population-based rate of all alcohol-positive drivers (pincrease. There were no significant changes in rates of alcohol-positive drivers aged 35-54 years (rate ratio, 0.98; 95% CI=0.89, 1.09). Drivers aged ≥55 years had a significant immediate 10% increase in the rate of alcohol-positive drivers (rate ratio, 1.10; 95% CI=1.04, 1.16) and a gradual increase of 4.8% per year after the intervention. Models using different denominators and controlling for multiple factors including a proxy for unmeasured factors found similar results overall. The 2011 Maryland alcohol sales tax increase led to a significant reduction in the rate of all alcohol-positive drivers involved in injury crashes especially among drivers aged 15-34 years. This is the first study to examine the impact of alcohol sales taxes on crashes; previous research focused on excise tax. Increasing alcohol taxes is an important but often neglected intervention to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  6. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  7. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P hands (P soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands.

  8. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C.; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J. Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:27545964

  9. Values and Recovery from Alcoholism through Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Howard P. Jr.; Peterson, John H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed Rokeach Value Surveys completed by 57 alcoholics and addicts who had obtained at least 3 years' abstinence using a 12-step program of recovery. Data suggested a shift in values is involved in recovery from alcoholism through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and that values clarification and value therapy may be useful in chemical…

  10. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  11. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  12. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert Patrick; Pattison, Jill; Janice M Thompson; Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. T...

  13. DIgital Alcohol Management ON Demand (DIAMOND) feasibility randomised controlled trial of a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in people with hazardous and harmful use versus a face-to-face intervention: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Fiona L; Hornby, Jo; Sheringham, Jessica; Kerry, Sally; Linke, Stuart; Solmi, Francesca; Ashton, Charlotte; Moore, Kevin; Murray, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    "Hazardous and harmful" drinkers make up approximately 23 % of the adult population in England. However, only around 10 % of these people access specialist care, such as face-to-face extended brief treatment in community alcohol services. This may be due to stigma, difficulty accessing services during working hours, a shortage of trained counsellors and limited provision of services in many places. Web-based alcohol treatment programmes may overcome these barriers and may better suit people who are reluctant or unable to attend face-to-face services, but there is a gap in the evidence base for the acceptability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in community alcohol services. This study aims investigate the feasibility of all parts of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a psychologically informed web-based alcohol treatment programme called Healthy Living for People who use Alcohol (HeLP-Alcohol) versus TAU in community alcohol services, e.g. recruitment and retention, online data collection methods, and the use and acceptability of the intervention to participants. A feasibility RCT delivered in north London community alcohol services, comparing HeLP-Alcohol with TAU. Potential participants are aged ≥18 years referred or self-referred for hazardous and harmful use of alcohol, without co-morbidities or other complex problems. The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting participants to the study and will test online methods for collecting baseline demographic and outcome questionnaire data, randomising participants and collecting 3-month follow-up data. The acceptability of this intervention will be measured by recruitment and retention rates, automated log-in data collection and an online service satisfaction questionnaire. The feasibility of using tailored text message, email or phone prompt to maintain engagement with the intervention will also be explored

  14. Determination of glass transition temperature of reduced graphene oxide-poly(vinyl alcohol) composites using temperature dependent Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendia, Suman; Heena; Kandhol, Geeta; Deshpande, Uday P.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, structural properties of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) synthesized using modified Hummer's method and its composites with Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fabricated using solution-cast method have been studied. The structural properties of prepared samples have been systematically studied through UV-Visible absorption, Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy indicates the grafting of PVA chains with graphene layer through the formation of H-bonding linkage in the composites. Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of PVA-RGO composite films were recorded to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg) and to study its molecular origin. From these spectra the values of Tg were obtained using two-dimensional (2D) mapping of the first derivative of the absorbance intensity with respect to temperature (dA/dT), over the space of wavenumber and temperature. The value of Tg obtained for pure PVA increases from 78 °C to 92 °C after loading 0.5 wt.% of RGO in PVA and can be attributed to the strong H-bonding interaction between polymer chains and grafted solid surface of RGO. These results are in good agreement with those obtained from DSC analysis. This clearly indicates that the thermal behavior of PVA gets modified with loading of RGO.

  15. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  16. Effect of rose water on structural, optical and electrical properties of composites of reduced graphene oxide–poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) grafted with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devender; Wadhwa, Heena; Mahendia, Suman; Chand, Fakir; Kumar, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide–poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) grafted with silver nanoparticles (rGO-PVA-Ag) were prepared in the absence and presence of rose water. The optical characterizations of prepared nanocomposites were done through UV–visible spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy was employed for the surface characterization. The grafted silver (Ag) nanoparticles are found to be almost spherical in shape with reduction in their mean diameter from 47 nm to 26 nm after addition of rose water. The UV–visible absorption spectra of as-prepared rGO-PVA-Ag nanocomposites without and with rose water depicted surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at around 448 nm which coincides with the predicted spectra from simulation based on the Mie Theory. The electrical dc conductivity measurements as the function of temperature from room temperature to 55 °C were investigated. It has been found that use of rose water in synthesis process increases the electrical conductivity of the rGO-PVA-Ag. The mode of the electrical conduction in the composites can be explained using Efros–Shklovskii Variable Range Hopping mechanism (ES VRH).

  17. Antibody-dependent cellular inhibition is associated with reduced risk against febrile malaria in a longitudinal cohort study involving Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K;

    2015-01-01

    studies (LCS). We investigated the relationship between ADCI activity of immunoglobulin G before malaria season and risk of malaria in a LCS involving Ghanaian children. High ADCI activity was significantly associated with reduced risk against malaria. Findings here suggest a potential usefulness...

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  19. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  20. Prostaglandin E2 reduces radiation-induced epithelial apoptosis through a mechanism involving AKT activation and bax translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessner, Teresa G; Muhale, Filipe; Riehl, Terrence E; Anant, Shrikant; Stenson, William F

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis modulates the response to radiation injury in the mouse intestinal epithelium through effects on crypt survival and apoptosis; however, the downstream signaling events have not been elucidated. WT mice receiving 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2) had fewer apoptotic cells per crypt than untreated mice. Apoptosis in Bax(-/-) mice receiving 12 Gy was approximately 50% less than in WT mice, and the ability of dmPGE2 to attenuate apoptosis was lost in Bax(-/-) mice. Positional analysis revealed that apoptosis in the Bax(-/-) mice was diminished only in the bax-expressing cells of the lower crypts and that in WT mice, dmPGE2 decreased apoptosis only in the bax-expressing cells. The HCT-116 intestinal cell line and Bax(-/-) HCT-116 recapitulated the apoptotic response of the mouse small intestine with regard to irradiation and dmPGE2. Irradiation of HCT-116 cells resulted in phosphorylation of AKT that was enhanced by dmPGE2 through transactivation of the EGFR. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation prevented the reduction of apoptosis by dmPGE2 following radiation. Transfection of HCT-116 cells with a constitutively active AKT reduced apoptosis in irradiated cells to the same extent as in nontransfected cells treated with dmPGE2. Treatment with dmPGE2 did not alter bax or bcl-x expression but suppressed bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane. Our in vivo studies indicate that there are bax-dependent and bax-independent radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestine but that only the bax-dependent apoptosis is reduced by dmPGE2. The in vitro studies indicate that dmPGE2, most likely by signaling through the E prostaglandin receptor EP2, reduces radiation-induced apoptosis through transactivation of the EGFR and enhanced activation of AKT and that this results in reduced bax translocation to the mitochondria.

  1. Neovestitol, an isoflavonoid isolated from Brazilian red propolis, reduces acute and chronic inflammation: involvement of nitric oxide and IL-6

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Franchin; Colón, David F.; da Cunha, Marcos G; Castanheira, Fernanda V. S.; André L. L. Saraiva; Bruno Bueno-Silva; Alencar,Severino M.; Cunha, Thiago M; Rosalen, Pedro L.

    2016-01-01

    Isoflavonoids have been largely studied due to their distinct biological activities identified thus far. Herein, we evaluated the activity of neovestitol, an isoflavonoid isolated from Brazilian red propolis, in acute and chronic inflammation. As for acute inflammation, we found that neovestitol reduced neutrophil migration, leukocyte rolling and adhesion, as well as expression of ICAM-1 in the mesenteric microcirculation during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute peritonitis. No changes were ob...

  2. Neovestitol, an isoflavonoid isolated from Brazilian red propolis, reduces acute and chronic inflammation: involvement of nitric oxide and IL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Marcelo; Colón, David F.; da Cunha, Marcos G.; Castanheira, Fernanda V. S.; Saraiva, André L. L.; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Alencar, Severino M.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Rosalen, Pedro L.

    2016-01-01

    Isoflavonoids have been largely studied due to their distinct biological activities identified thus far. Herein, we evaluated the activity of neovestitol, an isoflavonoid isolated from Brazilian red propolis, in acute and chronic inflammation. As for acute inflammation, we found that neovestitol reduced neutrophil migration, leukocyte rolling and adhesion, as well as expression of ICAM-1 in the mesenteric microcirculation during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute peritonitis. No changes were observed in the levels of TNF-α, CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 upon pretreatment with neovestitol. The administration of an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effects of neovestitol in neutrophil migration and ICAM-1 expression. Nitrite levels increased upon treatment with neovestitol. No effects of neovestitol were observed on the chemotaxis of neutrophils in vitro. As for chronic inflammation, neovestitol also reduced the clinical score and joint damage in a collagen-induced arthritis model. There was no change in the frequency of IL-17-producing TCD4+ cells. In addition, pretreatment with neovestitol reduced the levels of IL-6. These results demonstrate a potential anti-inflammatory activity of neovestitol, which may be useful for therapeutic purposes and/or as a nutraceutical. PMID:27819273

  3. Neovestitol, an isoflavonoid isolated from Brazilian red propolis, reduces acute and chronic inflammation: involvement of nitric oxide and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Marcelo; Colón, David F; da Cunha, Marcos G; Castanheira, Fernanda V S; Saraiva, André L L; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Alencar, Severino M; Cunha, Thiago M; Rosalen, Pedro L

    2016-11-07

    Isoflavonoids have been largely studied due to their distinct biological activities identified thus far. Herein, we evaluated the activity of neovestitol, an isoflavonoid isolated from Brazilian red propolis, in acute and chronic inflammation. As for acute inflammation, we found that neovestitol reduced neutrophil migration, leukocyte rolling and adhesion, as well as expression of ICAM-1 in the mesenteric microcirculation during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute peritonitis. No changes were observed in the levels of TNF-α, CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 upon pretreatment with neovestitol. The administration of an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effects of neovestitol in neutrophil migration and ICAM-1 expression. Nitrite levels increased upon treatment with neovestitol. No effects of neovestitol were observed on the chemotaxis of neutrophils in vitro. As for chronic inflammation, neovestitol also reduced the clinical score and joint damage in a collagen-induced arthritis model. There was no change in the frequency of IL-17-producing TCD4+ cells. In addition, pretreatment with neovestitol reduced the levels of IL-6. These results demonstrate a potential anti-inflammatory activity of neovestitol, which may be useful for therapeutic purposes and/or as a nutraceutical.

  4. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  5. Physicochemical properties of manganese dioxide synthesized using C2–C5 alcohols as reducing agents and their catalytic activities for CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Young-Ho

    2015-09-26

    MnO2 catalysts were synthesized in an aqueous solution of KMnO4 and C2–C5 alcohols using a simple redox method at room temperature. The crystalline structure of all samples was δ-MnO2 after being calcined at 300 °C. However, other physicochemical properties of the samples varied depending on the symmetry of the alcohols used. For the catalytic oxidation of CO, MnO2 catalysts prepared with 1° alcohols performed better than the samples prepared in 2° alcohols. Catalytic activities were correlated to the quantity of labile oxygen species of the catalysts. In CO-TPD analysis, the relative area of desorbed radical dotCO2, which is the product of the reaction between adsorbed CO and lattice oxygen species, becomes larger for MnO2 prepared with 1° alcohols than with 2° alcohols. These results were primarily resulted from the innate hydrogen dissociation behavior of alcohol in solution. The pKa was found to be an important factor in determining the physicochemical properties and catalytic activity toward CO oxidation of MnO2.

  6. Adaptation of Porphyromonas gingivalis to microaerophilic conditions involves increased consumption of formate and reduced utilization of lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Janina P.; Iyer, Divya; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, previously classified as a strict anaerobe, can grow in the presence of low concentrations of oxygen. Microarray analysis revealed alteration in gene expression in the presence of 6 % oxygen. During the exponential growth phase, 96 genes were upregulated and 79 genes were downregulated 1.4-fold. Genes encoding proteins that play a role in oxidative stress protection were upregulated, including alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpCF), superoxide dismutase (sod) and thiol peroxidase (tpx). Significant changes in gene expression of proteins that mediate oxidative metabolism, such as cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase-encoding genes, cydA and cydB, were detected. The expression of genes encoding formate uptake transporter (PG0209) and formate tetrahydrofolate ligase (fhs) was drastically elevated, which indicates that formate metabolism plays a major role under aerobic conditions. The concomitant reduction of expression of a gene encoding the lactate transporter PG1340 suggests decreased utilization of this nutrient. The concentrations of both formate and lactate were assessed in culture supernatants and cells, and they were in agreement with the results obtained at the transcriptional level. Also, genes encoding gingipain protease secretion/maturation regulator (porR) and protease transporter (porT) had reduced expression in the presence of oxygen, which also correlated with reduced protease activities under aerobic conditions. In addition, metal transport was affected, and while iron-uptake genes such as the genes encoding the haemin uptake locus (hmu) were downregulated, expression of manganese transporter genes, such as feoB2, was elevated in the presence of oxygen. Finally, genes encoding putative regulatory proteins such as extracellular function (ECF) sigma factors as well as small proteins had elevated expression levels in the presence of oxygen. As P. gingivalis is distantly related to the well-studied model organism Escherichia coli

  7. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  8. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  9. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society’s alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. Methods We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007–10. Results Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Conclusions Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. PMID:24261642

  10. Reducing uncertainty in flood frequency analyses: A comparison of local and regional approaches involving information on extreme historical floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, K.; Nguyen, C. C.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a detailed comparison of local and regional approaches for flood frequency analyses, with a special emphasis on the effects of (a) the information on extreme floods used in the analysis (historical data or recent extreme floods observed at ungauged sites), and (b) the assumptions associated with regional approaches (statistical homogeneity of considered series, independence of observations). The results presented are based on two case studies: the Ard e ̀ che and Argens rivers regions in south-east of France. Four approaches are compared: 1 - local analysis based on continuous measured series, 2 - local analysis with historical information, 3 - regional index-flood analysis based on continuous series, 4 - regional analysis involving information on extremes (including both historical floods and recent floods observed at ungauged sites). The inference approach used is based on a GEV distribution and a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach for parameters estimation. The comparison relies both on (1) available observed datasets and (2) Monte Carlo simulations in order to evaluate the effects of sampling variability and to analyze the possible influence of regional heterogeneities. The results indicate that a relatively limited level of regional heterogeneity, which may not be detected through homogeneity tests, may significantly affect the performances of regional approaches. These results also illustrate the added value of information on extreme floods, historical floods or recent floods observed at ungauged sites, in both local and regional approaches. As far as possible, gathering such information and incorporating it into flood frequency studies should be promoted. Finally, the presented Monte Carlo simulations appear as an interesting analysis tool for adapting the estimation strategy to the available data for each specific case study.

  11. Hydrogen bonding-driven rheological modulation of chemically reduced graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) suspensions and its application in electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yeqiang; Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Rheology of graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets suspended in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution were investigated by altering nanosheet loading and reduction time of RGO in a wide range. A small amount (0.5 wt%) of GO and RGO in the dilute regime of filler resulted in a threefold increase and a fourfold decrease in steady viscosity at 0.01 s-1, respectively; increasing GO and RGO loadings in the semi-dilute regime of filler caused steady viscosity to increase to different degrees. Meanwhile, the steady viscosity of the suspension decreased gradually by more than one order of magnitude with increasing reduction time of RGO. By characterizing the microstructure in suspensions, the style and relative density of H-bonding between PVA chains and nanosheets were confirmed to account for the suspension rheology. Modulation of viscosity in a wide range via simply control of the loading and reduction time of RGO was hydrogen bonding-driven, which was successfully applied to electrospinning to prepare nanocomposite nanofibers. The addition of 1 wt% GO and RGO with respect to the polymer mass significantly improved PVA fibrous uniformity and fineness, and the spinnable concentration range of PVA was greatly broadened from (8.5-11.3 wt%) to (5-18 wt%). Meanwhile, the thermal stability of the nanofibers was also enhanced by GO or RGO addition.Rheology of graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets suspended in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution were investigated by altering nanosheet loading and reduction time of RGO in a wide range. A small amount (0.5 wt%) of GO and RGO in the dilute regime of filler resulted in a threefold increase and a fourfold decrease in steady viscosity at 0.01 s-1, respectively; increasing GO and RGO loadings in the semi-dilute regime of filler caused steady viscosity to increase to different degrees. Meanwhile, the steady viscosity of the suspension decreased gradually by more than

  12. Fat-reducing effects of dehydroepiandrosterone involve upregulation of ATGL and HSL expression, and stimulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reduces body fat in rodents and humans, and increases glycerol release from isolated rat epididymal adipocytes and human visceral adipose tissue explants. It suggests that DHEA stimulates triglyceride hydrolysis in adipose tissue; however, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unclear. We examined the effects of DHEA on the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the key enzymes of lipolysis, in rat epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% DHEA for 2 weeks and eWAT was analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of ATGL and HSL, as well as mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ2) and its downstream target fatty acid translocase (FAT). Glycerol release from eWAT explants and serum free fatty acids (FFA) were also measured. Rats that received DHEA gained less weight, had 23% lower eWAT mass and 31% higher serum FFA levels than controls. Cultured explants of eWAT from DHEA-treated rats released 81% more glycerol than those from control rats. DHEA administration upregulated ATGL mRNA (1.62-fold, Padipose tissue by increasing the expression and activity of ATGL and HSL. The effects of DHEA appear to be mediated, at least in part, via PPARγ2 activation, which in turn upregulates ATGL and HSL gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  14. Identification of enzymes involved in anaerobic benzene degradation by a strictly anaerobic iron-reducing enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Draženka; Rattei, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic benzene degradation was studied with a highly enriched iron-reducing culture (BF) composed of mainly Peptococcaceae-related Gram-positive microorganisms. The proteomes of benzene-, phenol- and benzoate-grown cells of culture BF were compared by SDS-PAGE. A specific benzene-expressed protein band of 60 kDa, which could not be observed during growth on phenol or benzoate, was subjected to N-terminal sequence analysis. The first 31 amino acids revealed that the protein was encoded by ORF 138 in the shotgun sequenced metagenome of culture BF. ORF 138 showed 43% sequence identity to phenylphosphate carboxylase subunit PpcA of Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1. A LC/ESI-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomic analysis revealed other specifically benzene-expressed proteins with encoding genes located adjacent to ORF 138 on the metagenome. The protein products of ORF 137, ORF 139 and ORF 140 showed sequence identities of 37% to phenylphosphate carboxylase PpcD of A. aromaticum strain EbN1, 56% to benzoate-CoA ligase (BamY) of Geobacter metallireducens and 67% to 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (UbiD/UbiX) of A. aromaticum strain EbN1 respectively. These genes are proposed as constituents of a putative benzene degradation gene cluster (∼ 17 kb) composed of carboxylase-related genes. The identified gene sequences suggest that the initial activation reaction in anaerobic benzene degradation is probably a direct carboxylation of benzene to benzoate catalysed by putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase (Abc). The putative Abc probably consists of several subunits, two of which are encoded by ORFs 137 and 138, and belongs to a family of carboxylases including phenylphosphate carboxylase (Ppc) and 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (UbiD/UbiX).

  15. Web-based interventions to decrease alcohol use in adolescents: a Delphi study about increasing effectiveness and reducing drop-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jander, Astrid; Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; De Vries, Hein

    2015-04-09

    Web-based computer-tailored (CT) interventions have a high potential to reach a large number of people and effectively change health risk behaviors and their determinants. However, effect studies show small and variable effect sizes, and these interventions also suffer from high drop-out. In this study we explored how Web-based CT interventions can be used effectively to reduce binge drinking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. We invited experts to identify strategies to be used in Web-based CT interventions that can effectively decrease binge drinking in adolescents and to rate these strategies by importance. We asked to discriminate between interventions targeted for adolescents and those targeted for parents. Furthermore, we asked experts to suggest strategies for reducing drop-out and to indicate their importance. Important strategies mentioned by the experts were: encouraging parents to set appropriate rules, encouraging consistent communication, and training refusal skills among adolescents. Concerning the reduction of drop-out from Web-based CT interventions experts came up with suggestions involving the content of the intervention (e.g., relevant material, use of language, tailored messages) but also involving the use of reminders and incentives. The results of this explorative study provide useful strategies to increase effectiveness and decrease drop-out in future interventions.

  16. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  17. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  18. Alcohol consumption, genetic variants in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways and colorectal cancer risk: the JPHC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Thomas; Yamaji, Taiki; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-11-09

    The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) may vary secondary to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two pathways related to alcohol intake. 375 cases of CRC were identified among 38 373 Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study) participants who had returned a baseline questionnaire, reported no diagnosis of any cancer and provided blood samples. For each case, two controls were selected on matching variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine matched Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of enzymes in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways (e.g. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133) and CRC risk. Compared to never/occasional alcohol intake, moderate to heavy alcohol intake was associated with CRC (OR = 2.12, 95% CI, 1.34-3.36). When compared to the CC genotype, the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with CRC (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54-0.97). Never/occasional consumers of alcohol with the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype were also at a reduced risk of CRC compared to never/occasional drinkers with the CC genotype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47-0.98) (P for interaction = 0.27). The results indicate that the folate pathway is likely to be involved in alcohol-related CRC development.

  19. TARGETED INFORMATION ON METHOTREXATE AND LIFTING ALCOHOL RESTRICTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH RA AND PSA IS SAFE AND REDUCES PATIENTS' NEGATIVE BELIEFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander; Nordin, Henrik

    Background Research regarding potential interaction between use of Methotrexate (MTX) and alcohol consumption is sparse (1-2, 5). Nevertheless patients traditionally are advised against alcohol intake while on MTX for safety reasons. Furthermore MTX generally is perceived by doctors and patients...... of observation was collected. All data were entered into a database and analyzed with descriptive and non-parametric statistical analyses. Results 117/127 patients responded to the one year follow up questionnaire. 76% were women, and 24% men. 10 patients were lost to follow up due to various reasons. 105...... 22% of the patients felt bothered by alcohol restrictions compared to 47% at baseline (p= 0.01). 19 % of the patients developed a more positive view on MTX treatment. Conclusions Written information stressing the anti-inflammatory effects of MTX leads to a more positive attitude towards the treatment...

  20. Energy saving by reducing the diameter of the impeller for water pumping in the dilution stage of honey in alcohol production. Distillery "Paradise."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelvy Bravo Amarante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry is a big consumer of the resource water in all its processes, including the alcohol production industry, one of the derivatives of its main process. Associated to water consumption there are important energetic expenses mainly for the necessity of using electro-pumps for its transfer. In the alcohol production the highest values of water consumed are concentrated in the fermentation stage. In the industry, object of study the highest consumptions are associated to the molasses dilution stage in alcohol production. This is the reason why this investigation is developed with the objective of assessing the water pumping system in the dilution stage in the distillery "Paradise", located in Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. As a result of this analysis it is proposed the reduction of the diameter of the pump impeller, it would make possible to save 38 249 kW-h per year, equivalent to $ 8 315, 67 per year.

  1. Comparison of alcohol, povidone-iodine and octenidine dihydrochloride as skin disinfectants to reduce bacterial count prior to peripheral venous catheter insertions in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Rundjan

    2011-10-01

    Results Ninety subjects were divided into 3 groups of 30, each group using either 70% alcohol swabs, 10% povidone-iodine, or octenidine as skin antiseptic. Skin swabs were taken before and after antiseptic application and drying, as well as 5 minutes after application. The mean reductions in CFU/cm2 (% after antiseptic application (and fully dried were 97.54% for povidone-iodine, 97.52% for octenidine, and 89.07% for alcohol. There were no significant differences in mean CFU reductions among the three antiseptics groups (P=0.299. Furthermore, 5 minutes after application, there were still no significant differences in the three antiseptic groups (P=0.289. Conclusions Although octenidine showed a significant bacterial count reduction after application, it was not significantly different from those of alcohol or povidone-iodine. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:277-81].

  2. Factors associated with alcohol reduction in harmful and hazardous drinkers following alcohol brief intervention in Scotland: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Jean M; Ballinger, Claire; Howe, Tracey E

    2017-03-08

    Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) uses a motivational counselling approach to support individuals to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. There is growing evidence on ABI's use within various health care settings, although how they work and which components enhance success is largely unknown. This paper reports on the qualitative part of a mixed methods study. It explores enablers and barriers associated with alcohol reduction following an ABI. It focuses on alcohol's place within participants' lives and their personal perspectives on reducing consumption. There are a number of randomised controlled trials in this field though few ABI studies have addressed the experiences of hazardous/harmful drinkers. This study examines factors associated with alcohol reduction in harmful/hazardous drinkers following ABI. This qualitative study was underpinned by a realist evaluation approach and involved semi-structured interviews with ten harmful or hazardous alcohol drinkers. Participants (n = 10) were from the intervention arm of a randomised controlled trial (n = 124). All had received ABI, a 20 min motivational counselling interview, six months previously, and had reduced their alcohol consumption. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Participants described their views on alcohol, its' place in their lives, their personal perspectives on reducing their consumption and future aspirations. The findings provide an insight into participants' views on alcohol, ABI, and the barriers and enablers to change. Participants described a cost benefit analysis, with some conscious consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of reducing intake or abstaining from alcohol. Findings suggest that, whilst hospital admission can act as a catalyst, encouraging individuals to reflect on their alcohol consumption through ABI may consolidate this, turning this reflective moment into action. Sustainability may be enhanced by the presence of a

  3. The DYD-RCT protocol: an on-line randomised controlled trial of an interactive computer-based intervention compared with a standard information website to reduce alcohol consumption among hazardous drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Christine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption is a significant public health problem throughout the world. Although there are a range of effective interventions to help heavy drinkers reduce their alcohol consumption, these have little proven population-level impact. Researchers internationally are looking at the potential of Internet interventions in this area. Methods/Design In a two-arm randomised controlled trial, an on-line psychologically enhanced interactive computer-based intervention is compared with a flat, text-based information web-site. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcome is total past-week alcohol consumption; secondary outcomes include hazardous or harmful drinking, dependence, harm caused by alcohol, and mental health. A health economic analysis is included. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an on-line intervention to help heavy drinkers drink less. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN31070347

  4. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  5. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paille F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available François Paille, Hervé Martini Department of Addiction Treatment, University Hospital, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Abstract: Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence, reduction, consumption, damage reduction, drug therapy, nalmefene

  6. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle G; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18-40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = -0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = -0.19, P = 0.01). Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  7. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  8. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  9. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  10. The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, L.A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes foc

  11. Drinker prototype alteration and cue reminders as strategies in a tailored Web-based intervention reducing adults' alcohol consumption: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Lettow (Britt); H. de Vries (Hein); A. Burdorf (Alex); B.J.F. Boon (Brigitte); P. van Empelen (Pepijn)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the eff

  12. The antioxidant n-acetylcysteine reduced necrosis, but exacerbated liver fibrosis induced by chronic alcohol in rats fed via total enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite many years of research, the molecular mechanisms underlying progression of alcoholic liver injury from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis and fibrosis remain in dispute. In the current study male Sprague-Dawley rats (350 g) were chronically fed a high unsaturated fat diet for 120 d usi...

  13. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  14. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  15. Extinction learning is slower, weaker and less context specific after alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; King, John A; Sulpizio, Valentina; Degeilh, Fanny; Valerie Curran, H; Burgess, Neil

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is frequently involved in psychological trauma and often used by individuals to reduce fear and anxiety. We examined the effects of alcohol on fear acquisition and extinction within a virtual environment. Healthy volunteers were administered alcohol (0.4g/kg) or placebo and underwent acquisition and extinction from different viewpoints of a virtual courtyard, in which the conditioned stimulus, paired with a mild electric shock, was centrally located. Participants returned the following day to test fear recall from both viewpoints of the courtyard. Skin conductance responses were recorded as an index of conditioned fear. Successful fear acquisition under alcohol contrasted with impaired extinction learning evidenced by persistent conditioned responses (Experiment 1). Participants' impairments in extinction under alcohol correlated with impairments in remembering object-locations in the courtyard seen from one viewpoint when tested from the other viewpoint. Alcohol-induced extinction impairments were overcome by increasing the number of extinction trials (Experiment 2). However, a test of fear recall the next day showed persistent fear in the alcohol group across both viewpoints. Thus, alcohol impaired extinction rather than acquisition of fear, suggesting that extinction is more dependent than acquisition on alcohol-sensitive representations of spatial context. Overall, extinction learning under alcohol was slower, weaker and less context-specific, resulting in persistent fear at test that generalized to the extinction viewpoint. The selective effect on extinction suggests an effect of alcohol on prefrontal involvement, while the reduced context-specificity implicates the hippocampus. These findings have important implications for the use of alcohol by individuals with clinical anxiety disorders.

  16. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  17. A comprehensive review of the effects of mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol-, diol-, and carbohydrate-substituted indenoisoquinolines as topoisomerase I inhibitors: investigating the relationships involving stereochemistry, hydrogen bonding, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Katherine E; Cinelli, Maris A; Morrell, Andrew E; Mehta, Akhil; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Agama, Keli; Antony, Smitha; Pommier, Yves; Cushman, Mark

    2011-07-28

    The DNA-relaxing enzyme topoisomerase I (Top1) can be inhibited by heterocyclic compounds such as indolocarbazoles and indenoisoquinolines. Carbohydrate and hydroxyl-containing side chains are essential for the biological activity of indolocarbazoles. The current study investigated how similar functionalities could be "translated" to the indenoisoquinoline system and how stereochemistry and hydrogen bonding affect biological activity. Herein is described the preparation and assay of indenoisoquinolines substituted with short-chain alcohols, diols, and carbohydrates. Several compounds (including those derived from sugars) display potent Top1 poisoning and antiproliferative activities. The Top1 poisoning activity of diol-substituted indenoisoquinolines is dependent upon stereochemistry. Although the effect is striking, molecular modeling and docking studies do not indicate any reason for the difference in activity due to similar calculated interactions between the ligand and Top1-DNA complex and ambiguity about the binding mode. A stereochemical dependence was also observed for carbohydrate-derived indenoisoquinolines. Although similar trends were observed in other classes of Top1 inhibitors, the exact nature of this effect has yet to be elucidated.

  19. Acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2) and clathrin are involved in internalization of human transferrin by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Magda; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María; Avila, Eva E; de la Garza, Mireya

    2011-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a host glycoprotein capable of binding two ferric-iron ions to become holotransferrin (holoTf), which transports iron in to all cells. Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan able to use holoTf as a sole iron source in vitro. The mechanism by which this parasite scavenges iron from holoTf is unknown. An E. histolytica holoTf-binding protein (EhTfbp) was purified by using an anti-human transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibody. EhTfbp was identified by MS/MS analysis and database searches as E. histolytica acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2), an iron-dependent enzyme. Both EhTfbp and EhADH2 bound holoTf and were recognized by the anti-human TfR antibody, indicating that they correspond to the same protein. It was found that the amoebae internalized holoTf through clathrin-coated pits, suggesting that holoTf endocytosis could be important for the parasite during colonization and invasion of the intestinal mucosa and liver.

  20. I am going to make the most out of it! Italian university Credit Mobility Students' social representations of alcohol use during study abroad experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Fattori, Francesco; Pozzi, Maura; Moore, Simon C

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to explore shared representations of alcohol use in students who were to travel abroad to study. Focus group data from Italian students ( N = 69) were collected. Analyses used Grounded Theory Methodology and were informed by the four key components of Social Representation Theory (cognition, emotion, attitude and behavioural intentions). The study abroad experience was described as one that would involve an increase in alcohol consumption compared to pre-departure levels. Reasons given included greater social and leisure opportunities involving alcohol, reduced social control and features of the host country environment. Opportunities to intervene and address risky alcohol use in this group are discussed.

  1. INVOLVEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE FOR CONTROL OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS AND VETERINARY MEDICINES TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE AND SPREAD OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Draghici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are one of the most important therapeutic discoveries in medical history. They have revolutionized the way we treat patients with bacterial infections and have contributed to reducing the mortality and morbidity from bacterial diseases. Unfortunately, antibiotics have been liable to misuse which leads to the emergence and selection of resistant bacteria. Doctors in Europe and worldwide now are sometimes facing situations where infected patients cannot be treated adequately because the responsible bacterium is totally resistant to available antibiotics. The correct use of antimicrobials is one of the most important tools which could limit the spread of this phenomenon - resistance to antimicrobials. Specialists from Institute for Control of Biological Products and Veterinary Medicines understood to involve in this fight against antibioresistance, by tacking appropriate measures according to the european approches concerning reducing of the antibiotic consumption, correct usage and responsible of them.

  2. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiovascular disease, liver and pancreas disease, and unintentional and intentional injury. Knowledge of these disease risks has helped in the development of low-risk drinking guidelines. In addition to these disease risks that affect the drinker, alcohol consumption also can affect the health of others and cause social harm both to the drinker and to others, adding to the overall cost associated with alcohol consumption. These findings underscore the need to develop effective prevention efforts to reduce the pain and suffering, and the associated costs, resulting from excessive alcohol use.

  3. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  4. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  6. Alcohol drinking increases the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol and reduces D2 auto-receptor and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor function within the posterior ventral tegmental area of alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J

    2016-10-01

    Repeated local administration of ethanol (EtOH) sensitized the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the local dopamine (DA)-stimulating effects of EtOH. Chronic alcohol drinking increased nucleus accumbens (NAC) DA transmission and pVTA glutamate transmission in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of chronic alcohol drinking by P rats on the (a) sensitivity and response of the pVTA DA neurons to the DA-stimulating actions of EtOH, and (b) negative feedback control of DA (via D2 auto-receptors) and glutamate (via group II mGlu auto-receptors) release in the pVTA. EtOH (50 or 150 mg%) or the D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 or 200 μM) was microinjected into the pVTA while DA was sampled with microdialysis in the NAC shell (NACsh). The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (1 or 10 μM) was perfused through the pVTA via reverse microdialysis and local extracellular glutamate and DA levels were measured. EtOH produced a more robust increase of NACsh DA in the 'EtOH' than 'Water' groups (e.g., 150 mg% EtOH: to ∼ 210 vs 150% of baseline). In contrast, sulpiride increased DA release in the NACsh more in the 'Water' than 'EtOH' groups (e.g., 200 μM sulpiride: to ∼ 190-240 vs 150-160% of baseline). LY341495 (at 10 μM) increased extracellular glutamate and DA levels in the 'Water' (to ∼ 150-180% and 180-230% of baseline, respectively) but not the 'EtOH' groups. These results indicate that alcohol drinking enhanced the DA-stimulating effects of EtOH, and attenuated the functional activities of D2 auto-receptors and group II mGluRs within the pVTA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced DNA methylation at the PEG3 DMR and KvDMR1 loci in children exposed to alcohol in utero: A South African Fetal Alcohol Syndrome cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eRamsay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is a devastating developmental disorder resulting from alcohol exposure during fetal development. It is a considerable public health problem worldwide and is characterised by central nervous system abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features and growth retardation. Imprinted genes are known to play an important role in growth and development and therefore four imprinting control regions (ICRs, H19 ICR, IG-DMR, CvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR were examined. It is proposed that DNA methylation changes may contribute to developmental abnormalities seen in FAS and which persist into adulthood. The participants included FAS children and controls from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces. DNA samples extracted from blood and buccal cells were bisulfite modified, the ICRs were amplified by PCR and pyrosequencing was used to derive a quantitative estimate of methylation at selected CpG dinucleotides: H19 ICR (6 CpG sites; 50 controls and 73 cases; KvDMR1 (7; 55 and 86; IG-DMR (10; 56 and 84; and PEG3 DMR (7; 50 and 79. The most profound effects of alcohol exposure are on neuronal development. In this study we report on epigenetic effects observed in blood which may not directly reflect tissue-specific alterations in the developing brain. After adjusting for age and sex (known confounders for DNA methylation, there was a significant difference at KvDMR1 and PEG, but not the H19 ICR, with only a small effect (0.84% lower in cases; p=0.035 at IG-DMR. The two maternally imprinted loci, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, showed lower average locus-wide methylation in the FAS cases (1.49%; p<0.001 and 7.09%; p<0.001, respectively. The largest effect was at the PEG3 DMR though the functional impact is uncertain. This study supports the role of epigenetic modulation as a mechanism for the teratogenic effects of alcohol by altering the methylation profiles of imprinted loci in a locus-specific manner.

  8. Reduciendo la carga de enfermedad generada por el consumo de alcohol en el Perú: propuestas basadas en evidencia Reducing the burden of disease caused by alcohol use in Peru: evidence- based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol constituye uno de los más importantes factores de riesgo para mala salud y muerte prematura en el Perú. Son necesarias medidas que disminuyan o controlen el gran impacto que tiene el alcohol en la sociedad peruana. El presente artículo identifica y promueve el uso de medidas de salud pública que cuentan con evidencia científica sólida de efectividad y, en algunos casos, costo-efectividad. Al ser apoyadas por la evidencia científica, las diez medidas aquí identificadas representan un conjunto de medidas con alta probabilidad de éxito. Se recomienda que los gobiernos, nacionales o locales, tomen estas medidas no aisladamente sino en combinación, en un plan u hoja de ruta que establezca en forma contextualizada el engranaje en que se aplicarán. Tomando en cuenta los recursos que se tienen, algunas de estas medidas podrían implementarse a corto o mediano plazo, mientras que las otras lo serían a más largo plazo.Alcohol use is one the most important risk factors for illness and early death in Peru. Measures aimed at decreasing or controlling the great impact caused by alcohol in the Peruvian society are urgently needed. This article identifies and promotes the implementation of public health measures supported by sound scientific evidence of effectiveness or, in some cases, cost-effectiveness. The 10 evidence-based public health measures identified and described here represent a set if measures with high probability of success if implemented, as they are supported by scientific evidence. We recommend that governments, at the national or local levels, apply these measures not individually, but in combination, arranging them into a plan or roadmap, where the framework in which they will be applied must be established according to each context. Considering the available resources, some of these measures could be implemented in the short and medium term while the others can be set in the long-term.

  9. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population.

  10. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  11. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  12. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  13. Reduced sensitivity of red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase to ethanol in vitro in male alcoholic patients: relationship to clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, A C; Reilly, E; Overall, J E

    1986-10-01

    We examined red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase, its sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol in vitro, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and history in 41 newly admitted alcoholic patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Sensitivity to ethanol was significantly lower in the alcoholic patients and correlated negatively with ethanol intake. In addition, sensitivity of enzyme to ethanol was lower in patients with high agitation-anxiety ratings and correlated negatively with agitation and anxiety scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no relationships between (Na+,K+)-ATPase measures and depressive symptoms, history of treatment for depression, or family history of depression. These data suggest that tolerance to the effects of ethanol on (Na+,K+)-ATPase occurs in man and may be related to the severity of ethanol dependence or withdrawal.

  14. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyong Yu; Weiping Jia; ZengKui Guo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans w...

  15. Light-Emitting Diode Phototherapy Reduces Nocifensive Behavior Induced by Thermal and Chemical Noxious Stimuli in Mice: Evidence for the Involvement of Capsaicin-Sensitive Central Afferent Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Glauce Regina; Coelho, Igor Santos; Aquino, Rosane Schenkel; Bauermann, Liliane Freitas; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2017-07-01

    Low-intensity phototherapy using light fonts, like light-emitting diode (LED), in the red to infrared spectrum is a promising alternative for the treatment of pain. However, the underlying mechanisms by which LED phototherapy reduces acute pain are not yet well understood. This study investigated the analgesic effect of multisource LED phototherapy on the acute nocifensive behavior of mice induced by thermal and chemical noxious stimuli. The involvement of central afferent C fibers sensitive to capsaicin in this effect was also investigated. Mice exposed to multisource LED (output power 234, 390, or 780 mW and power density 10.4, 17.3, and 34.6 mW/cm(2), respectively, from 10 to 30 min of stimulation with a wavelength of 890 nm) showed rapid and significant reductions in formalin- and acetic acid-induced nocifensive behavior. This effect gradually reduced but remained significant for up to 7 h after LED treatment in the last model used. Moreover, LED (390 mW, 17.3 mW/cm(2)/20 min) irradiation also reduced nocifensive behavior in mice due to chemical [endogenous (i.e., glutamate, prostaglandins, and bradykinin) or exogenous (i.e., formalin, acetic acid, TRPs and ASIC agonist, and protein kinase A and C activators)] and thermal (hot plate test) stimuli. Finally, ablating central afferent C fibers abolished LED analgesia. These experimental results indicate that LED phototherapy reduces the acute painful behavior of animals caused by chemical and thermal stimuli and that LED analgesia depends on the integrity of central afferent C fibers sensitive to capsaicin. These findings provide new information regarding the underlying mechanism by which LED phototherapy reduces acute pain. Thus, LED phototherapy may be an important tool for the management of acute pain.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Screening and Counseling An effective but underused health service Language: English ... about their drinking. 25% Alcohol screening and brief counseling can reduce the amount consumed on an occasion ...

  17. Impaired decision-making and brain shrinkage in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, A-P; Rauchs, G; La Joie, R; Mézenge, F; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Segobin, S; Viader, F; Allain, P; Eustache, F; Pitel, A-L; Beaunieux, H

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol-dependent individuals usually favor instant gratification of alcohol use and ignore its long-term negative consequences, reflecting impaired decision-making. According to the somatic marker hypothesis, decision-making abilities are subtended by an extended brain network. As chronic alcohol consumption is known to be associated with brain shrinkage in this network, the present study investigated relationships between brain shrinkage and decision-making impairments in alcohol-dependent individuals early in abstinence using voxel-based morphometry. Thirty patients performed the Iowa Gambling Task and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging investigation (1.5T). Decision-making performances and brain data were compared with those of age-matched healthy controls. In the alcoholic group, a multiple regression analysis was conducted with two predictors (gray matter [GM] volume and decision-making measure) and two covariates (number of withdrawals and duration of alcoholism). Compared with controls, alcoholics had impaired decision-making and widespread reduced gray matter volume, especially in regions involved in decision-making. The regression analysis revealed links between high GM volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and right hippocampal formation, and high decision-making scores (Palcoholism may result from impairment of both emotional and cognitive networks.

  18. Inflexible and indifferent alcohol drinking in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesscher, Heidi M B; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2010-07-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by compulsive alcohol intake, but this critical feature of alcoholism is seldom captured in preclinical studies. Here, we evaluated whether alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J mice develop compulsive alcohol drinking patterns, using adulteration of the alcohol solution with quinine, in a limited access choice paradigm. We assessed 2 independent aspects of compulsive drinking: (i) inflexible alcohol intake by testing whether mice would drink bitter alcohol solutions if this was their only source of alcohol and (ii) indifferent drinking by comparing intake of aversive and nonaversive alcohol solutions. Male C57BL/6J mice consumed alcohol for 2 or 8 consecutive weeks. The alcohol solution was then adulterated with graded quinine concentrations, and the effect on alcohol intake was determined. C57BL/6J mice rapidly developed compulsive alcohol drinking patterns. Adulteration of the alcohol solution with an aversive quinine concentration failed to reduce intake, indicative of inflexible drinking behavior, after only 2 weeks of alcohol experience, although quinine adulteration did suppress the acquisition of alcohol drinking in naïve mice. After 8 weeks of alcohol consumption, the mice also became indifferent to quinine. They consumed an aversive, quinine-containing alcohol solution, despite the simultaneous availability of an unadulterated alcohol solution. Prolonged alcohol ingestion did not alter the sensitivity to the bitter taste of quinine itself. These findings demonstrate the staged occurrence in mice of 2 distinct behavioral characteristics of alcoholism, i.e., inflexible and indifferent alcohol drinking.

  19. Cadmium-induced hydrogen sulfide synthesis is involved in cadmium tolerance in Medicago sativa by reestablishment of reduced (homoglutathione and reactive oxygen species homeostases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiti Cui

    Full Text Available Until now, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the cadmium (Cd tolerance mediated by endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S have been elusive. To address this gap, a combination of pharmacological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches was applied. The perturbation of reduced (homoglutathione homeostasis and increased H2S production as well as the activation of two H2S-synthetic enzymes activities, including L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD and D-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD, in alfalfa seedling roots were early responses to the exposure of Cd. The application of H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, not only mimicked intracellular H2S production triggered by Cd, but also alleviated Cd toxicity in a H2S-dependent fashion. By contrast, the inhibition of H2S production caused by the application of its synthetic inhibitor blocked NaHS-induced Cd tolerance, and destroyed reduced (homoglutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostases. Above mentioned inhibitory responses were further rescued by exogenously applied glutathione (GSH. Meanwhile, NaHS responses were sensitive to a (homoglutathione synthetic inhibitor, but reversed by the cotreatment with GSH. The possible involvement of cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling in NaHS responses was also suggested. In summary, LCD/DCD-mediated H2S might be an important signaling molecule in the enhancement of Cd toxicity in alfalfa seedlings mainly by governing reduced (homoglutathione and ROS homeostases.

  20. Cadmium-induced hydrogen sulfide synthesis is involved in cadmium tolerance in Medicago sativa by reestablishment of reduced (homo)glutathione and reactive oxygen species homeostases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Chen, Huiping; Zhu, Kaikai; Jin, Qijiang; Xie, Yanjie; Cui, Jin; Xia, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Until now, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mediated by endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been elusive. To address this gap, a combination of pharmacological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches was applied. The perturbation of reduced (homo)glutathione homeostasis and increased H2S production as well as the activation of two H2S-synthetic enzymes activities, including L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and D-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD), in alfalfa seedling roots were early responses to the exposure of Cd. The application of H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), not only mimicked intracellular H2S production triggered by Cd, but also alleviated Cd toxicity in a H2S-dependent fashion. By contrast, the inhibition of H2S production caused by the application of its synthetic inhibitor blocked NaHS-induced Cd tolerance, and destroyed reduced (homo)glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostases. Above mentioned inhibitory responses were further rescued by exogenously applied glutathione (GSH). Meanwhile, NaHS responses were sensitive to a (homo)glutathione synthetic inhibitor, but reversed by the cotreatment with GSH. The possible involvement of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in NaHS responses was also suggested. In summary, LCD/DCD-mediated H2S might be an important signaling molecule in the enhancement of Cd toxicity in alfalfa seedlings mainly by governing reduced (homo)glutathione and ROS homeostases.

  1. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines, Your Health ResourcesTags: alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcoholism, craving, Depade, drunk, hepatoxicity, intoxication, naltrexone, narcotic antagonist, opiate ...

  2. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  3. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  4. 降低二甲醚生产过程中放空气醇、醚含量的方法研究%DME Production Process to Reduce the Air to Put Alcohol, Ether Concentration Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 杨建

    2011-01-01

    河南煤业化工集团义马气化厂现拥有的两套10万吨/年产能的二甲醚装置,自2007年5月投产以来,装置运行平稳,产品质量稳定,总体运行情况良好。不足的是二甲醚装置的放空气中醇含量一直居高不下,比较严重的偏离设计值,造成醇、醚的浪费,对醇的二次回收利用产生不利的影响。 通过对二甲醚操作参数变化的系列实验数据,结合操作人员的经验,分析得出降低二甲醚放空气醇,醚含量的可操作性方法,以用于指导生产。%HNCC Yima gasification factory now has two sets of 10 million tons / annual production capacity of DME equipment, since May 2007 has been put into operation, the device is running smoothly, stable quality, the overall run well. DME is insufficient to put the device in the air has been high alcohol content, the more serious deviation from the design value, resulting in alcohol, ether, waste, recycling of secondary alcohols have a negative impact. In this paper, changes in operating parameters of the DME series of ex- perimental data, combined with the operator's experience, analysis of the air come to reduce the bleeding of DME alcohols, ethers operability methods to be used to guide production.

  5. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm. BACKGROUND Contact-based interventions, such as follow-up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self-harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low-cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text-based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. METHOD We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. RESULTS Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, 'one size fits all' approach and that of 'audience segmentation', maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self-efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design.

  6. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent women: exploratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be

  7. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent women: exploratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions

  8. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  9. Combination short-course preoperative irradiation, surgical resection, and reduced-field high-dose postoperative irradiation in the treatment of tumors involving the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Timothy D; Kobayashi, Wendy; Dean, Susan; Goldberg, Saveli I; Kirsch, David G; Suit, Herman D; Hornicek, Francis J; Pedlow, Francis X; Raskin, Kevin A; Springfield, Dempsey S; Yoon, Sam S; Gebhardt, Marc C; Mankin, Henry J; Delaney, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and outcomes of combination short-course preoperative radiation, resection, and reduced-field (tumor bed without operative field coverage) high-dose postoperative radiation for patients with solid tumors mainly involving the spine and pelvis. Between 1982 and 2006, a total of 48 patients were treated using this treatment strategy for solid tumors involving bone. Radiation treatments used both photons and protons. Of those treated, 52% had chordoma, 31% had chondrosarcoma, 8% had osteosarcoma, and 4% had Ewing's sarcoma, with 71% involving the pelvis/sacrum and 21% elsewhere in the spine. Median preoperative dose was 20 Gy, with a median of 50.4 Gy postoperatively. With 31.8-month median follow-up, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate is 65%; 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate, 53.8%; and 5-year local control (LC) rate, 72%. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, and LC according to histologic characteristics. Between primary and recurrent disease, there was no significant difference in OS rates (74.4% vs. 51.4%, respectively; p = 0.128), in contrast to DFS (71.5% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.0014) and LC rates (88.9% vs. 30.9%; p = 0.0011) favoring primary disease. After resection, 10 patients experienced delayed wound healing that did not significantly impact on OS, DFS, or LC. This approach is promising for patients with bone sarcomas in which resection will likely yield close/positive margins. It appears to inhibit tumor seeding with an acceptable rate of wound-healing complications. Dose escalation is accomplished without high-dose preoperative radiation (likely associated with higher rates of acute wound healing delays) or large-field postoperative radiation only (likely associated with late normal tissue toxicity). The LC and DFS rates are substantially better for patients with primary than recurrent sarcomas.

  10. A case of adult-onset reducing body myopathy presenting a novel clinical feature, asymmetrical involvement of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shintaro; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Higuchi, Masa-Aki; Tsugawa, Jun; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2014-08-15

    We herein report a 32-year-old woman with adult-onset reducing body myopathy (RBM) who had a mutation in the four-and-a-half LIM domain 1 gene (FHL1) and showed a marked asymmetrical involvement of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. At 30 years of age she noticed bilateral foot drop, and over the next two years developed difficulty raising her right arm. At 32 years of age she was admitted to our hospital for a diagnostic evaluation. Neurological examination showed moderate weakness and atrophy of her right sternocleidomastoid muscle, right trapezius muscle, and bilateral upper proximal muscles. There were severe weakness and atrophy of her bilateral tibialis anterior muscles. Her deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive in her upper extremities. Her serum creatine kinase level was mildly increased. Muscle biopsy specimens from the left tibialis anterior muscle revealed marked variation in fiber size, some necrotic or regenerating fibers, and reducing bodies. Gene analysis of FHL1 demonstrated a mutation: a heterozygous missense mutation of c.377G>A (p. C126T) in FHL1. Compared with previous adult-onset RBM cases harboring mutations in FHL1, our case was characterized by asymmetrical atrophy of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The alcohol patient and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have a threefold increased risk of post-operative morbidity after surgery. The most frequent complications are infections, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and bleeding episodes. Pathogenesis is suppressed immune capacity, subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and haemostatic imbalance....... The economic implications of alcohol abuse in surgical patients are tremendous. Interventional studies are required to reduce future increases in post-operative morbidity....

  12. Alcohol misuse, firearm violence perpetration, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-10-01

    Firearm violence is a significant public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is frequently involved. This article reviews existing research on the relationships between alcohol misuse; ownership, access to, and use of firearms; and the commission of firearm violence, and discusses the policy implications of these findings. Narrative review augmented by new tabulations of publicly-available data. Acute and chronic alcohol misuse is positively associated with firearm ownership, risk behaviors involving firearms, and risk for perpetrating both interpersonal and self-directed firearm violence. In an average month, an estimated 8.9 to 11.7 million firearm owners binge drink. For men, deaths from alcohol-related firearm violence equal those from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Enforceable policies restricting access to firearms for persons who misuse alcohol are uncommon. Policies that restrict access on the basis of other risk factors have been shown to reduce risk for subsequent violence. The evidence suggests that restricting access to firearms for persons with a documented history of alcohol misuse would be an effective violence prevention measure. Restrictions should rely on unambiguous definitions of alcohol misuse to facilitate enforcement and should be rigorously evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurotoxicity of prenatal alcohol exposure on medullary pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-li Ji; Yun-hong Wu; Zhi-bin Qian

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts the development of normal fetal respiratory function, but whether it perturbs respiratory rhythmical discharge activity is unclear. Furthermore, it is un-known whether the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is involved in the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In the present study, pregnant female rats received drinking water containing alcohol at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% or 10% (v/v) throughout the gestation period. Slices of the medulla from 2-day-old neonatal rats were obtained to record respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels in the pre-Bötzing-er complex of the respiratory center were measured by western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Compared with the 0% alcohol group, respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in medullary slices in the 4%, 8% and 10% alcohol groups was decreased, and the reduc-tion was greatest in the 8% alcohol group. Respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the 10%alcohol group was irregular. Thus, 8% was the most effective alcohol concentration at attenuating respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. These ifndings suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure attenuates respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in neonatal rats by downregulating 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels.

  14. Amounts of nutrients recommended by the NRC abate the effects of a toxic alcohol dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, R.F.; Draves, K. (VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Diet is the food and drink taken daily by an animal. Although the composition of the Lieber-DeCarli 36% alcohol diet is such that recommended amounts of nutrients could be ingested when the diet is fed, the fact is that rats have an aversion to alcohol, ingestion is reduced and the intake of total energy and several nutrients are below recommended levels. Hence the diet is nutritionally inadequate for growth, gestation and lactation. Recent studies with baboons have also shown that the baboon liquid diet is also deficient in total energy and several nutrients. Hence all studies with these liquid alcohol diets have involved two treatments; namely, ethanol and malnutrition. Thus, effects observed when these diets were fed could have been due to alcohol, malnutrition or an interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition. When liquid diets are fed to rats that provide recommended amounts of nutrients for growth, gestation and lactation and the same dose of ethanol per kg body weight as the 36% alcohol diet, no toxic effects of alcohol are observed. Hence, effects not observed in the malnourished pair-fed controls but observed in the alcohol diet fed rats were likely due to the interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition.

  15. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Giancarlo Balercia; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used,its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial.Over the years,many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility.This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences.Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities,a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition,and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate.These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption.Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters.This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol.Nevertheless,alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies.Finally,the genetic background and other concomitant,alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage.In conclusion,alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: an overview from the glia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J. Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the

  17. Enhanced self-administration of alcohol in muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Cour, Cecilie; Sørensen, Gunnar; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    -established. Moreover, the M4-/- mice displayed a reduced capacity to extinguish their alcohol-seeking behavior. Taken together, alcohol consumption is elevated in M4-/- mice, indicating that the M4 receptor is involved in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The M4 receptor should be further explored......Modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is known to alter alcohol-drinking behavior. It is not known if muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have similar effects. The muscarinic M4 receptor is highly expressed in the brain reinforcement system...... and involved in regulation of cholinergic and dopaminergic transmission. Here we investigate, for the first time, the role of the M4 receptor in alcohol consumption using M4 knockout (M4-/-) and wild-type (M4+/+) mice. Experimentally naïve M4-/- and M4+/+ mice were trained to orally self-administer 5%, 8...

  18. Is population flow an unintended consequence of alcohol management plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Lynch, Paul; Pointing, Shane Boris; Budden, Lea; Barker, Ruth; Catchpoole, Jesani; Clough, Alan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gauge whether, and to what extent, population flow occurred as a result of the implementation of alcohol management plans in Indigenous communities. Alcohol management plans involving carriage limits and dry places were introduced into 15 Queensland Indigenous communities between 2002-2004. Controls on alcohol availability were further tightened between 2008-2010, seeing the closure of eight mainly remote community taverns/canteens. A retrospective observational study was undertaken using data from the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit. Population flow was measured by changing patterns of alcohol-related injuries in a mining region near dry Indigenous communities following the introduction of alcohol management plans and a control mining region distant from Indigenous communities with alcohol management plans. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used for the comparison of the characteristics between the emergency department presentations. The rates of alcohol-related injury presentations per 1000/population were calculated and age-standardised to the Australian population. Between the five-year periods 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, alcohol-related injury presentations to the Mount Isa emergency department trebled from an age-adjusted average annual rate of 9·5/1000 in the region's population to 27·1/1000 population. In the control region, alcohol-related emergency department injury presentations did not increase to the same degree with age-adjusted average annual rates of 1·42/1000 and 2·21/1000, respectively. The 10-year pattern of emergency department presentations for alcohol-related injuries increased significantly in the Mount Isa region compared with the control region. Further research should investigate the impacts of population flow related to Indigenous community alcohol management plans. Although initiatives such as alcohol management plans have been implemented to reduce

  19. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  20. The mind of the alcoholic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, James

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholism and other forms of substance abuse affect between 10% and 15% of dentists, and the damage caused is well documented and understood. In the face of this, recovery rates remain below 20%. The key is in understanding the mind of the alcoholic. There are clear patterns of denial and ineffective coping that accompany the approximately ten to fifteen years over which addiction is established. Successful recovery invariably begins with a crisis that forces a change in mindset. Recovery involves mental vision of a continuous and lifelong growth process that does not involve alcohol.

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 28133 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are premixed ...

  3. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyong; Jia, Weiping; Guo, ZengKui

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal) and low carbohydrate ( 0.05). Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment. PMID:25411646

  4. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Russell A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  5. Pathogenetic aspects of alcoholic encephalopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinin S.G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is considered to be the most common exogenous toxins, causing encephalopathy. The defeat of almost all parts of the nervous system should be assigned to the special features of ethanol. Neurophysiological mechanisms of development of substance dependence are based in the stem and limbic structures of the brain that are involved in ensuring the regulation of emotional state, mood, motivation sphere, psychophysical tone of human behavior in general and its adaptation to the environment. Stress or disruption of the normal functioning of these structures can lead to the formation of abstinence syndrome, affective disorders in remission and craving for alcohol. Dopaminergic and opioid (endorphin system play an important role in the genesis of various mental and motor disorders. In some way alcohol dependence can be regarded as an endorfinodefitsitnoe disease with a pathogenetic point of view. Activating of opioidereal system by trans-cranial electrical stimulation promotes the restoration of disturbed emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions, reduces craving for alcohol and in that way increases the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment

  6. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fone David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1 alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2 alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3 Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4 alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1 multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2 spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics

  7. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

  8. Slowing the Tide of Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Chamsi-Pasha, Majed; Albar, Mohammed Ali

    2016-09-28

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs)-a spectrum including at-risk drinking, alcohol abuse, dependence, and addiction-is a highly prevalent problem worldwide with a substantial economic impact. The toll of alcohol on individual health and healthcare systems is devastating. Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Tackling the problem of AUD requires a comprehensive strategy that includes solid action on price, availability, and marketing of alcohol. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. Warning labels about the cancer risks associated with drinking have a high degree of public support and may be an inexpensive and acceptable way to educate the public. Religiosity may reduce risk behaviors and contribute to health decision making related to alcohol use.

  9. Are alcohol policies associated with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2014-07-01

    To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling. Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) data set. Individuals aged 18-65 years. Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency and total drinking volume; gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates. Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were associated inversely with all drinking variables (P legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not associated significantly with alcohol consumption. Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Reduced transcript stabilization restricts TNF-alpha expression in RAW264.7 macrophages infected with pathogenic mycobacteria: evidence for an involvement of lipomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Tina; Holtmann, Helmut; Abel, Jens; Eckstein, Torsten; Baumer, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Despite the critical role that TNF-alpha plays in the containment of mycobacterial infection, the mechanisms involved in regulation of its expression by mycobacteria are poorly defined. We addressed this question by studying MAP, which causes a chronic enteritis in ruminants and is linked to human Crohn's disease. We found that in MAP infected macrophages, TNF-alpha gene expression was substantially lower than in macrophages infected with nonpathogenic MS or stimulated with LPS. TNF-alpha transcriptional one could not fully explain the differential TNF-alpha mRNA expression, suggesting that there must be a substantial contribution by post-transcriptional mechanisms.Accordingly, we found reduced TNF-alpha mRNA stability in MAP-infected macrophages. Further comparison of MAP- and MS-infected macrophages revealed that lower TNF-alpha mRNA stability combined with lower mRNA and protein expression in MAP-infected macrophages correlated with lower p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings were independent of viability of MAP and MS. We demonstrate that the major mycobacterial cell-wall lipoglycan LM of MAP and MS induced TNF-alpha mRNA transcription,but only the MS-LM induced p38 MAPK-dependent transcript stabilization. Overall, our data suggest that pathogenic mycobacteria cause weak p38 and TNF-alpha mRNA stabilization as a result of their structural cell-wall components such as LM and thereby, restrict TNF-alpha expression in macrophages.

  11. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H.; Blesso, Christopher N.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:28640194

  12. Low intensity training of mdx mice reduces carbonylation and increases expression levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzewicz, Janek; Tanihata, Jun; Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Ito, Naoki; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2015-05-01

    High intensity training induces muscle damage in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, an animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, low intensity training (LIT) rescues the mdx phenotype and even reduces the level of protein carbonylation, a marker of oxidative damage. Until now, beneficial effects of LIT were mainly assessed at the physiological level. We investigated the effects of LIT at the molecular level on 8-week-old wild-type and mdx muscle using 2D Western blot and protein-protein interaction analysis. We found that the fast isoforms of troponin T and myosin binding protein C as well as glycogen phosphorylase were overcarbonylated and downregulated in mdx muscle. Some of the mitochondrial enzymes of the citric acid cycle were overcarbonylated, whereas some proteins of the respiratory chain were downregulated. Of functional importance, ATP synthase was only partially assembled, as revealed by Blue Native PAGE analysis. LIT decreased the carbonylation level and increased the expression of fast isoforms of troponin T and of myosin binding protein C, and glycogen phosphorylase. In addition, it increased the expression of aconitate hydratase and NADH dehydrogenase, and fully restored the ATP synthase complex. Our study demonstrates that the benefits of LIT are associated with lowered oxidative damage as revealed by carbonylation and higher expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction. Potentially, these results will help to design therapies for DMD based on exercise mimicking drugs.

  13. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mused Almatrafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML, 10% Low Moringa (LM or 15% High Moringa (HM diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001, consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005. Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01. This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  14. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  15. Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol-dependence: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Joassin, Frédéric; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mahau, Pierre; Delperdange, Christel; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants (22 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 22 paired controls) played a virtual game ('cyberball') during fMRI recording. They were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. Brain areas involved in social exclusion were identified and the functional connectivity between these areas was explored using psycho-physiological interactions (PPI). Results showed that while both groups presented dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activations during social exclusion, alcohol-dependent participants exhibited increased insula and reduced frontal activations (in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) as compared with controls. Alcohol-dependence was also associated with persistent dACC and parahippocampal gyrus activations in re-inclusion. PPI analyses showed reduced frontocingulate connectivity during social exclusion in alcohol-dependence. Alcohol-dependence is thus linked with increased activation in areas eliciting social exclusion feelings (dACC-insula), and with impaired ability to inhibit these feelings (indexed by reduced frontal activations). Altered frontal regulation thus appears implied in the interpersonal alterations observed in alcohol-dependence, which seem reinforced by impaired frontocingulate connectivity. This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states.

  16. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  17. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  18. Drink-driving in community sports clubs: adopting the Good Sports alcohol management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John; Allen, Felicity

    2012-09-01

    Throughout the developed world, community sports clubs are a high-risk setting for alcohol-impaired driving. The Good Sports program accredits community sports clubs to encourage implementation of alcohol-focussed harm-reduction and safe-transport strategies. This study tested for associations between participation in the Good Sports program and reduced rates of drink-driving amongst club members. Multilevel modelling indicated that for each season a club was in the program there was an 8% reduction in the odds of drink-driving. These findings may arise due to clubs with lower rates of alcohol use maintaining longer involvement in the program. However, the findings are also compatible with the intention of the Good Sports program to reduce the risk that club members will drive whilst alcohol impaired.

  19. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  20. Pregnancy and alcohol: occasional, light drinking may be safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Many pregnant women drink varying quantities of alcohol, although several guidelines recommend total abstinence. What is known of the dangers of alcohol for the outcome of pregnancy and for the unborn child? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Fetal alcohol syndrome, which combines facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and intellectual disability, occurs in about 5% of children who are regularly exposed to at least five standard units per day (about 50 g of alcohol per day). Four studies have explored the link between heavy maternal alcohol use over a short period and the risk of cognitive impairment in the child. The results were inconclusive, however, and the authors failed to take concomitant chronic alcohol consumption into account. A methodologically sound study showed an increase in neurological abnormalities (seizures and epilepsy) when the mother drank heavily during short periods between the 11th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. There is a risk of cognitive and behavioural problems in children whose mothers regularly drank more than 2 standard units per day. Studies involving a total of about 150 000 pregnancies sought a link between low-level alcohol consumption and abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Very few showed a statistically significant link, and the results are undermined by the failure to take other risk factors into account. Weekly consumption of 5 standard units or more during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of cryptorchidism. Studies in a total of 57 000 pregnancies showed no effect of minimal alcohol consumption on the risk of malformations. A study of 1000 pregnancies showed a statistically significant risk of major malformations, but there were several apparent biases. A link between infant mortality and alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined in large cohort studies. Consumption of at least 4 standard units per week increased the risk of early neonatal

  1. Alcohol-induced steatosis in liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol-induced fatty liver (steatosis) was believed to result from excessive generation of reducing equivalents from ethanol metabolism, thereby enhancing fat accumulation. Recent findings have revealed a more complex picture in which ethanol oxidation is still required,but specific transcription as well as humoral factors also have important roles. Transcription factors involved include the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1)which is activated to induce genes that regulate lipid biosynthesis. Conversely, ethanol consumption causes a general down-regulation of lipid (fatty acid) oxidation, a reflection of inactivation of the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) that regulates genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. A third transcription factor is the early growth response-1 (Egr-1), which is strongly induced prior to the onset of steatosis. The activities of all these factors are governed by that of the principal regulatory enzyme, AMP kinase. Important humoral factors, including adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), also regulate alcohol-induced steatosis. Their levels are affected by alcohol consumption and by each other. This review will summarize the actions of these proteins in ethanol-elicited fatty liver. Because steatosis is now regarded as a significant risk factor for advanced liver pathology, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms in its etiology is essential for development of effective therapies.

  2. Preparation of starchy material for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinnikov, B.A.; Yarovenko, V.L.; Maksimova, E.A.

    1968-05-07

    The method involves grinding of the starchy material, heat treatment, exposure of the treated mass to a given temperature, cooling, and saccharification. To reduce losses of fermentable substances, simplify the process, and increase the yield of alcohol., a culture of Bacillus diastaticus is introduced into the ground material prior to heat treatment. The latter is conducted in 2 stages: (1) dissolution and dextrinization of starch at 75 to 95/sup 0/ and (2) sterilization at 125 to 35/sup 0/. Saccharification of the treated material is carried out at 35 to 45/sup 0/.

  3. Preparation of starchy material for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinnikov, B.A.; Yarovenko, V.L.; Maksimova, E.A.

    1968-05-07

    The method involves grinding of the starchy material, heat treatment, exposure of the treated mass to a given temperature, cooling, and saccharification. To reduce losses of fermentable substances, simplify the process, and increase the yield of alcohol, a culture of Bacillus diastaticus is introduced into the ground material prior to heat treatment. The latter is conducted in 2 stages: (1) dissolution and dextrinization of starch at 75 to 95 degrees and (2) sterilization at 125 to 35 degrees. Saccharification of the treated material is carried out at 35 to 45 degrees.

  4. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc......'s development from being a non-drinker at the age of 14, to a heavy drinker at 16, the paper investigates how the actants brought out by young people themselves constitute different forms of agency. The analysis is based on a qualitative study consisting of 37 focus groups conducted with teenagers in Denmark...

  5. 还原型谷胱甘肽联合异甘草酸镁治疗酒精性肝病的对照研究%Therapeutic Efficacy of Reduced Glutathione Combined with Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明华

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察还原型谷胱甘肽片联合异甘草酸镁注射液静脉滴注治疗酒精性肝病的临床疗效.方法:60例酒精性肝病患者均戒酒,随机分为治疗组(30例)和对照组(30例.治疗组给予还原型谷胱甘肽片联合异甘草酸镁注射液静脉滴注,对照组仅给予异甘草酸镁注射液静脉滴注,疗程均为4周.结果:2组患者治疗后临床症状、体征、实验室检查及彩超检查结果均有一定程度的改善,且治疗组疗效优于对照组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:还原型谷胱甘肽片联合异甘草酸镁注射液治疗酒精性肝病疗效好,未见明显不良反应.%OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of oral dose of reduced glutathione combined with dripping injection of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate for alcoholic liver disease.METHODS: A total of 60 patients with alcoholic liver disease who had been abstained from wine were randomly assigned to treatment group and control group (30 cases).Treatment group was given oral dose of reduced glutathione and intravenous dripping injection of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate for 4 weeks.Control group was treated with intravenous dripping injection of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alone for 4 weeks.RESULTS: Clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory examination and B-ultrosound results were all improved in both groups, especially in the trial group.Significant differences were noted between the 2 groups (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Oral dose of reduced glutathione combined with intravenous dripping injection of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate is safe and effective for alcoholic liver disease without obvious adverse drug reaction.

  6. Large fractions of CO2-fixing microorganisms in pristine limestone aquifers appear to be involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricellaand Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  7. Prenatal nicotine is associated with reduced AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated rises in calcium within the laterodorsal tegmentum: a pontine nucleus involved in addiction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, L F; Kohlmeier, K A

    2015-06-01

    Despite huge efforts from public sectors to educate society as to the deleterious physiological consequences of smoking while pregnant, 12-25% of all babies worldwide are born to mothers who smoked during their pregnancies. Chief among the negative legacies bestowed to the exposed individual is an enhanced proclivity postnatally to addict to drugs of abuse, which suggests that the drug exposure during gestation changed the developing brain in such a way that biased it towards addiction. Glutamate signalling has been shown to be altered by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which is a brainstem region importantly involved in responding to motivational stimuli and critical in development of drug addiction-associated behaviours, however, it is unknown whether PNE alters glutamate signalling within this nucleus. Accordingly, we used calcium imaging, to evaluate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated calcium responses in LDT brain slices from control and PNE mice. We also investigated whether the positive AMPA receptor modulator cyclothiazide (CYZ) had differential actions on calcium in the LDT following PNE. Our data indicated that PNE significantly decreased AMPA receptor-mediated calcium responses, and altered the neuronal calcium response to consecutive NMDA applications within the LDT. Furthermore, CYZ strongly potentiated AMPA-induced responses, however, this action was significantly reduced in the LDT of PNE mice when compared with enhancements in responses in control LDT cells. Immunohistochemical processing confirmed that calcium imaging recordings were obtained from the LDT nucleus as determined by presence of cholinergic neurons. Our results contribute to the body of evidence suggesting that neurobiological changes are induced if gestation is accompanied by nicotine exposure. We conclude that in light of the role played by the LDT in motivated behaviour, the

  8. Large Fractions of CO2-Fixing Microorganisms in Pristine Limestone Aquifers Appear To Be Involved in the Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricella and Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds. PMID:25616797

  9. Genetics of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  11. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  12. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2015-08-01

    Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); previous studies have shown a linear dose-dependent association between alcohol intake and CRC. However, some studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, similar to that seen in cardiovascular disease. Other factors may interact with alcohol and contribute additional risk for CRC. We aimed to determine the association between moderate alcohol consumption, limited to 30 g of alcohol per day, by beverage type on CRC risk and to assess the effects of other factors that interact with alcohol to influence CRC risk. The PubMed database was used to find articles published between 2008 and 2014 related to alcohol and CRC. Twenty-one relevant articles were evaluated and summarized, including 11 articles reporting on CRC risk associated with moderate intake and 10 articles focusing on genetic interactions associated with alcohol and CRC risk. The association between alcohol and increased risk for CRC was found when intakes exceeded 30 g/d alcohol. Nonsignificant results were consistently reported for intakes alcohol consumers. Some significant results suggest that the development of CRC is dependent on the interaction of gene and environment. The association between the amount of alcohol consumed and the incidence of CRC was not significant at moderate intake levels. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced CRC risk in study populations with greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet, where wine contributed substantially to the alcoholic beverage consumed. Other factors such as obesity, folate deficiency, and genetic susceptibility may contribute additional CRC risk for those consuming alcohol. To minimize CRC risk, appropriate recommendations should encourage intakes below 30 g of alcohol each day. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  14. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  15. Romantic relationships and alcohol use: A long-term, developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Samek, Diana R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15-16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18-25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental-relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span.

  16. Dual stereoselectivity in the dialkylzinc reaction using (-)-beta-pinene derived amino alcohol chiral auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Caitlin M; Bautista, April; Zaidlewicz, Marek; Krzemiński, Marek P; Oliver, Allen; Singaram, Bakthan

    2009-03-20

    (+)-Nopinone, prepared from naturally occurring (-)-beta-pinene, was converted to the two regioisomeric amino alcohols 3-MAP and 2-MAP in very good yield and excellent isomeric purity. Amino alcohol 3-MAP was synthesized by converting (+)-nopinone to the corresponding alpha-ketooxime. This was reduced to the primary amino alcohol and was converted to the morpholino group through a simple substitution reaction. 3-MAP was characterized by X-ray crystallography, which displayed the rigidity of the pinane framework. Amino alcohol 2-MAP was prepared from its trans isomer 2, which in turn was synthesized via hydroboration/oxidation of the morpholine enamine of (+)-nopinone. Two-dimensional NMR was used to characterize amino alcohol 2-MAP, and NOE was used to confirm its relative stereochemistry. These amino alcohols were employed as chiral auxiliaries in the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde to obtain near-quantitative asymmetric induction in the products. The use of 3-MAP yielded (S)-phenylpropanol in 99% ee, and its regioisomer 2-MAP gave the opposite enantiomer, (R)-phenylpropanol, also in 99% ee. Other aromatic, aliphatic, and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes were implemented in this method, affording secondary alcohols in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Amino alcohols 2-MAP and 3-MAP were also found to be useful in the dimethylzinc addition reaction, both catalyzing the addition to benzaldehyde with nearly quantitative ee. Regioisomeric amino alcohols 2-MAP and 3-MAP, even though they were prepared from one enantiomer of nopinone, provide antipodal enantiofacial selectivity in the dialkylzinc addition reaction. This circumvents the necessity to synthesize amino alcohols derived from (-)-nopinone, which in turn requires the unnatural (+)-beta-pinene. Possible mechanistic insights are offered to explain the dual stereoselectivity observed in the diethylzinc addition reaction involving regioisomeric, pseudo-enantiomeric amino alcohols 3-MAP and 2-MAP.

  17. Alcohol Consumption in Indian Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist. Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world now-a-days. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. It is believed that in all professions, there are unique problems and problematic circumstances facing the people who are involved. Dentistry is not excluded from this phenomenon.

  18. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  19. The preparation of the poly(vinyl alcohol/graphene nanocomposites with low percolation threshold and high electrical conductivity by using the large-area reduced graphene oxide sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a method to prepare the poly(vinyl alcohol/reduced graphene oxide (PVA/rGO nanocomposites with low percolation threshold and high electrical conductivity by using the large-area reduced graphene oxide (LrGO sheets. The large-area graphene oxide (LGO sheets are expected to overlap better with each other and form the continuous GO network in PVA matrix than small-area graphene oxide (SGO. During the thermal reduction process, the LGO sheets are easily restored and improve the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites due to their low damage level of conjugate-structure. As a result, the percolation threshold of PVA/LrGO nanocomposites is ~0.189 wt% lower than present reports (0.5~0.7 wt%. At the LrGO content of 0.7 wt%, the electrical conductivity of PVA/LrGO nanocomposites reaches 6.3•10–3 S/m. Besides that, this method only takes 15~30 min to reduce the PVA/GO nanocomposites effectively.

  20. Alterations of BDNF and GDNF serum levels in alcohol-addicted patients during alcohol withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bülent Sönmez

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF are neurotrophic neuropeptides that play important roles in the synaptic plasticity, neuronal growth, survival and function. A possible neuroprotective role of neurotrophic factors against alcohol-induced cell damage has been suggested, and dysregulations in neurotrophic factors may be involved in the vulnerability to addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of BDNF and GDNF serum levels in alcohol-addicted patients during alcohol withdrawal compared to healthy controls. Methods: BDNF and GDNF serum levels of 34 male inpatients diagnosed with alcohol addiction according to DSM-IV-TR were investigated during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7 and 14 in comparison to 32 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Severity of alcohol withdrawal was measured by Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar, and intensity of alcohol craving was measured by Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7 and 14. Results: BDNF serum levels increased significantly during alcohol withdrawal (p = 0.020. They were negatively correlated to the severity of alcohol withdrawal, and the correlation was close to being statistically significant (p = 0.058. BDNF and GDNF serum levels did not differ significantly between the patient and control groups. GDNF serum levels did not change significantly during alcohol withdrawal. Conclusions: Our results may provide support for the previously hypothesized role of BDNF in the neuroadaptation during alcohol withdrawal.

  1. Helping Other Alcoholics in Alcoholics Anonymous and Drinking Outcomes: Findings from Project MATCH*

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAGANO, MARIA E.; FRIEND, KAREN B.; TONIGAN, J. SCOTT; STOUT, ROBERT L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest mutual-help organization for alcoholics in the world, its specific mechanisms that mobilize and sustain behavior change are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to examine prospectively the relationship between helping other alcoholics and relapse in the year following treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method Data were derived from Project MATCH, a longitudinal prospective investigation of the efficacy of three behavioral treatments for alcohol abuse and dependence. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to calculate probabilities of time to alcohol relapse. To identify the unique value of helping other alcoholics when controlling for the number of AA meetings attended, proportional hazards regressions were conducted to determine whether the likelihood of relapse was lower for those who were helping other alcoholics. Results There were no demographic differences that distinguished participants in regard to involvement in helping other alcoholics, with the exception of age; those who were helping other alcoholics were, on average, 3 years older than those who were not helping alcoholics. Those who were helping were significantly less likely to relapse in the year following treatment, independent of the number of AA meetings attended. Conclusions These findings provide compelling evidence that recovering alcoholics who help other alcoholics maintain long-term sobriety following formal treatment are themselves better able to maintain their own sobriety. Clinicians who treat persons with substance abuse disorders should encourage their clients to help other recovering alcoholics to stay sober. PMID:15700515

  2. Helping other alcoholics in alcoholics anonymous and drinking outcomes: findings from project MATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E; Friend, Karen B; Tonigan, J Scott; Stout, Robert L

    2004-11-01

    Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest mutual-help organization for alcoholics in the world, its specific mechanisms that mobilize and sustain behavior change are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to examine prospectively the relationship between helping other alcoholics and relapse in the year following treatment for alcohol use disorders. Data were derived from Project MATCH, a longitudinal prospective investigation of the efficacy of three behavioral treatments for alcohol abuse and dependence. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to calculate probabilities of time to alcohol relapse. To identify the unique value of helping other alcoholics when controlling for the number of AA meetings attended, proportional hazards regressions were conducted to determine whether the likelihood of relapse was lower for those who were helping other alcoholics. There were no demographic differences that distinguished participants in regard to involvement in helping other alcoholics, with the exception of age; those who were helping other alcoholics were, on average, 3 years older than those who were not helping alcoholics. Those who were helping were significantly less likely to relapse in the year following treatment, independent of the number of AA meetings attended. These findings provide compelling evidence that recovering alcoholics who help other alcoholics maintain long-term sobriety following formal treatment are themselves better able to maintain their own sobriety. Clinicians who treat persons with substance abuse disorders should encourage their clients to help other recovering alcoholics to stay sober.

  3. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  4. Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, T; Zuvela, N; Landis, N; Wilce, P A

    2008-01-01

    Drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol elicit their effect by stimulating the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. There is a high incidence of nicotine dependence in <