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Sample records for reduced local variation

  1. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  2. Variational Dropout and the Local Reparameterization Trick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, D.P.; Salimans, T.; Welling, M.; Cortes, C.; Lawrence, N.D.; Lee, D.D.; Sugiyama, M.; Garnett, R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a local reparameterizaton technique for greatly reducing the variance of stochastic gradients for variational Bayesian inference (SGVB) of a posterior over model parameters, while retaining parallelizability. This local reparameterization translates uncertainty about global parameters

  3. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: michael.kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: tassi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.grasso@infm.polito.it [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  4. Importance of Local Structural Variations on Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on subsequent recrystallization are discussed and illustrated by three examples. The three examples consider local variations on different length scales and are: 1. Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on the f...

  5. High sensitivity detection of Plasmodium species reveals positive correlations between infections of different species, shifts in age distribution and reduced local variation in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When diagnosed by standard light microscopy (LM, malaria prevalence can vary significantly between sites, even at local scale, and mixed species infections are consistently less common than expect in areas co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae. The development of a high-throughput molecular species diagnostic assay now enables routine PCR-based surveillance of malaria infections in large field and intervention studies, and improves resolution of species distribution within and between communities. Methods This study reports differences in the prevalence of infections with all four human malarial species and of mixed infections as diagnosed by LM and post-PCR ligase detection reaction – fluorescent microsphere (LDR-FMA assay in 15 villages in the central Sepik area of Papua New Guinea. Results Significantly higher rates of infection by P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and Plasmodium ovale were observed in LDR-FMA compared to LM diagnosis (p P. malariae (3.9% vs 13.4% and P. ovale (0.0% vs 4.8%. In contrast to LM diagnosis, which suggested a significant deficit of mixed species infections, a significant excess of mixed infections over expectation was detected by LDR-FMA (p P. falciparum (LM: 7–9 yrs 47.5%, LDR-FMA: 10–19 yrs 74.2% and P. vivax (LM: 4–6 yrs 24.2%, LDR-FMA: 7–9 yrs 50.9% but not P. malariae infections (10–19 yrs, LM: 7.7% LDR-FMA: 21.6%. Significant geographical variation in prevalence was found for all species (except for LM-diagnosed P. falciparum, with the extent of this variation greater in LDR-FMA than LM diagnosed infections (overall, 84.4% vs. 37.6%. Insecticide-treated bednet (ITN coverage was also the dominant factor linked to geographical differences in Plasmodium species infection prevalence explaining between 60.6% – 74.5% of this variation for LDR-FMA and 81.8% – 90.0% for LM (except P. falciparum, respectively. Conclusion The present study

  6. Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry H Q

    2011-04-01

    For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  8. Local Fractional Laplace Variational Iteration Method for Solving Linear Partial Differential Equations with Local Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method was applied to solve the linear local fractional partial differential equations. The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method is coupled by the local fractional variational iteration method and Laplace transform. The nondifferentiable approximate solutions are obtained and their graphs are also shown.

  9. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  10. Variational Framework for Non-Local Inpainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Fedorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Image inpainting aims to obtain a visually plausible image interpolation in a region of the image in which data is missing due to damage or occlusion. Usually, the only available information is the portion of the image outside the inpainting domain. Besides its numerous applications,the inpainting problem is of theoretical interest since its analysis involves an understanding of the self-similarity present in natural images. In this work, we present a detailed description and implementation of three exemplar-based inpainting methods derived from the variational framework introduced by Arias et al.

  11. On the formalism of local variational differential operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igonin, S.; Verbovetsky, A.V.; Vitolo, R.

    2002-01-01

    The calculus of local variational differential operators introduced by B. L. Voronov, I. V. Tyutin, and Sh. S. Shakhverdiev is studied in the context of jet super space geometry. In a coordinate-free way, we relate these operators to variational multivectors, for which we introduce and compute the

  12. Geomagnetic secular variation in India-regional and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, B.J.; Abbas, H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the secular variation in the geomagnetic elements H, Z, F and D at Colaba (Bombay)-Alibag for the period 1848-1973, has been made. Fifth degree polynomials are fitted to the data of annual mean values of H, Z and F, and third degree to D, and the residuals discussed. The trends are also examined at the six Indian observatories using the data for 1960-1974. The increasing trend of Z at Alibag is found to decrease from about 1937, while that of H and F from 1965 at 20-30 nT/year, it being of the same order at Sabhawala and Hyderabad but smaller at the equatorial stations, particularly for Z component. The westward annual change in D swings eastward again around 1965 at all the Indian stations. This reversal of the secular variation trend in India after 1965 emerges as an important regional feature connected with a southward migration of the dip equator in India from 1968. The secular change in D at Alibag (+0.4'/year) is somewhat anomalous in the sense that it is reduced as compared to Hyderabad and other stations (+1.6'/year), probably due to the local magnetic anomaly of the Deccan lavas, and calls for detailed investigations. (auth.)

  13. Reducing Variation in the Assessment of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kerry; Docherty, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends the literature on grader variation and the role of moderation and socialisation processes in reducing this variation. It offers a fresh categorisation of academics' assessment beliefs and expectations, and uses this categorisation to analyse the interaction between implicit and explicit expectations in relation to grader…

  14. Examining spectral variations in localized lunar dark mantle deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawin, Erica; Besse, Sebastien; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Sunshine, Jessica; Head, James W.; Mazrouei, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The localized lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs) in Alphonsus, J. Herschel, and Oppenheimer craters were analyzed using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Spectra of these localized DMDs were analyzed for compositional and mineralogical variations within the deposits and were compared with nearby mare basalt units. Spectra of the three localized DMDs exhibited mafic absorption features indicating iron-rich compositions, although the DMDs were spectrally distinct from nearby mare basalts. All of the DMDs contained spectral signatures of glassy materials, suggesting the presence of volcanic glass in varying concentrations across the individual deposits. In addition, the albedo and spectral signatures were variable within the Alphonsus and Oppenheimer crater DMDs, suggesting variable deposit thickness and/or variations in the amount of mixing with the local substrate. Two previously unidentified localized DMDs were discovered to the northeast of Oppenheimer crater. The identification of high concentrations of volcanic glass in multiple localized DMDs in different locations suggests that the distribution of volcanic glass across the lunar surface is much more widespread than has been previously documented. The presence of volcanic glass implies an explosive, vulcanian eruption style for localized DMDs, as this allows volcanic glass to rapidly quench, inhibiting crystallization, compared to the larger hawaiian-style eruptions typical of regional DMD emplacement where black beads indicate a higher degree of crystallization. Improved understanding of the local and global distributions of volcanic glass in lunar DMDs will further constrain lunar degassing and compositional evolution throughout lunar volcanic history.

  15. Robust design principles for reducing variation in functional performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability and percei......This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability...... and perceived quality of a product and efforts should be made to minimise it. The design principles are identified by a systematic decomposition of the Taguchi Transfer Function in combination with the use of existing literature and the authors’ experience. The paper presents 15 principles and describes...... their advantages and disadvantages along with example cases. Subsequently, the principles are classified based on their applicability in the various development and production stages. The VRP are to be added to existing robust design methodologies, helping the designer to think beyond robust design tool and method...

  16. A reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad; El Gharamti, Mohamad; Heemink, Arnold W.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The adjoint method has been used very often for variational data assimilation. The computational cost to run the adjoint model often exceeds several original model runs and the method needs significant programming efforts to implement the adjoint model code. The work proposed here is variational data assimilation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which avoids the implementation of the adjoint of the tangent linear approximation of the original nonlinear model. An ensemble of the forward model simulations is used to determine the approximation of the covariance matrix and only the dominant eigenvectors of this matrix are used to define a model subspace. The adjoint of the tangent linear model is replaced by the reduced adjoint based on this reduced space. Thus the adjoint model is run in reduced space with negligible computational cost. Once the gradient is obtained in reduced space it is projected back in full space and the minimization process is carried in full space. In the paper the reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation is introduced. The characteristics and performance of the method are illustrated with a number of data assimilation experiments in a ground water subsurface contaminant model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. A reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    The adjoint method has been used very often for variational data assimilation. The computational cost to run the adjoint model often exceeds several original model runs and the method needs significant programming efforts to implement the adjoint model code. The work proposed here is variational data assimilation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which avoids the implementation of the adjoint of the tangent linear approximation of the original nonlinear model. An ensemble of the forward model simulations is used to determine the approximation of the covariance matrix and only the dominant eigenvectors of this matrix are used to define a model subspace. The adjoint of the tangent linear model is replaced by the reduced adjoint based on this reduced space. Thus the adjoint model is run in reduced space with negligible computational cost. Once the gradient is obtained in reduced space it is projected back in full space and the minimization process is carried in full space. In the paper the reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation is introduced. The characteristics and performance of the method are illustrated with a number of data assimilation experiments in a ground water subsurface contaminant model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems in Elliptic Variational Inequalities: a local study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.; Brauner, C.; Issard-Roch, F.; Nicolaenko, B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors consider a class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems (N.L.E.P.) associated with Elliptic Variational Inequalities (E.V.I.). First the authors introduce the main tools for a local study of branches of solutions; the authors extend the linearization process required in the case of equations. Next the authors prove the existence of arcs of solutions close to regular vs singular points, and determine their local behavior up to the first order. Finally, the authors discuss the connection between their regularity condition and some stability concept. 37 references, 6 figures

  19. Efficient iris recognition by characterizing key local variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Tan, Tieniu; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Dexin

    2004-06-01

    Unlike other biometrics such as fingerprints and face, the distinct aspect of iris comes from randomly distributed features. This leads to its high reliability for personal identification, and at the same time, the difficulty in effectively representing such details in an image. This paper describes an efficient algorithm for iris recognition by characterizing key local variations. The basic idea is that local sharp variation points, denoting the appearing or vanishing of an important image structure, are utilized to represent the characteristics of the iris. The whole procedure of feature extraction includes two steps: 1) a set of one-dimensional intensity signals is constructed to effectively characterize the most important information of the original two-dimensional image; 2) using a particular class of wavelets, a position sequence of local sharp variation points in such signals is recorded as features. We also present a fast matching scheme based on exclusive OR operation to compute the similarity between a pair of position sequences. Experimental results on 2255 iris images show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and comparable to the best iris recognition algorithm found in the current literature.

  20. Local wall power loading variations in thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A 2 1/2-dimensional geometric model is presented that allows calculation of power loadings at various points on the first wall of a thermonuclear fusion device. Given average wall power loadings for brems-strahlung, cyclotron radiation charged particles, and neutrons, which are determined from various plasma-physics computation models, local wall heat loads are calculated by partitioning the plasma volume and surface into cells and superimposing the heating effects of the individual cells on selected first-wall differential areas. Heat loads from the entire plasma are thus determined as a function of position on the first-wall surface. Significant differences in local power loadings were found for most fusion designs, and it was therefore concluded that the effect of local power loading variations must be taken into account when calculating temperatures and heat transfer rates in fusion device first walls

  1. Local Variation of Hashtag Spike Trains and Popularity in Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlı, Ceyda; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    We draw a parallel between hashtag time series and neuron spike trains. In each case, the process presents complex dynamic patterns including temporal correlations, burstiness, and all other types of nonstationarity. We propose the adoption of the so-called local variation in order to uncover salient dynamical properties, while properly detrending for the time-dependent features of a signal. The methodology is tested on both real and randomized hashtag spike trains, and identifies that popular hashtags present regular and so less bursty behavior, suggesting its potential use for predicting online popularity in social media. PMID:26161650

  2. Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local authority health services. ... both the quality and the cost-effectiveness of health care would be improved. ... LAs offer an appropriate structure for effective community control over the ...

  3. Local Analysis Approach for Short Wavelength Geopotential Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The value of global spherical harmonic analyses for determining 15 day to 30 day changes in the Earth's gravity field has been demonstrated extensively using data from the GRACE mission and previous missions. However, additional useful information appears to be obtainable from local analyses of the data. A number of such analyses have been carried out by various groups. In the energy approximation, the changes in the height of the satellite altitude geopotential can be determined from the post-fit changes in the satellite separation during individual one-revolution arcs of data from a GRACE-type pair of satellites in a given orbit. For a particular region, it is assumed that short wavelength spatial variations for the arcs crossing that region during a time T of interest would be used to determine corrections to the spherical harmonic results. The main issue in considering higher measurement accuracy in future missions is how much improvement in spatial resolution can be achieved. For this, the shortest wavelengths that can be determined are the most important. And, while the longer wavelength variations are affected by mass distribution changes over much of the globe, the shorter wavelength ones hopefully will be determined mainly by more local changes in the mass distribution. Future missions are expected to have much higher accuracy for measuring changes in the satellite separation than GRACE. However, how large an improvement in the derived results in hydrology will be achieved is still very much a matter of study, particularly because of the effects of uncertainty in the time variations in the atmospheric and oceanic mass distributions. To be specific, it will be assumed that improving the spatial resolution in continental regions away from the coastlines is the objective, and that the satellite altitude is in the range of roughly 290 to 360 km made possible for long missions by drag-free operation. The advantages of putting together the short wavelength

  4. Colonizing the world in spite of reduced MHC variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, L.; Alcaide, M.; Grande, J.M.; Muñoz, J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, Kevin; Figuerola, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced immune gene diversity is thought to negatively affect the capacity of organisms to adapt to pathogen challenges, which represent a major force in natural selection. Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are the most widely invoked adaptive loci in conservation biology, and have become the most popular genetic markers to investigate pathogen-host interactions in vertebrates. Although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes described in the vertebrate genome, the extent to which MHC diversity determines the long-term persistence of populations is, unclear and often debated, as recent studies have documented the occurrence of natural populations thriving even after a depletion of MHC diversity caused by genetic drift. Here, we show that some phylogenetically related species belonging to the Falco genus (Aves: Falconidae) present a dramatically low MHC variability that has not precluded, nevertheless, the successful colonization of almost all existing regions and habitats worldwide. We found evidence for two remarkably different patterns of MHC variation within the genus. While kestrels show a high MHC variation according to the general theory, falcons exhibit an ancestrally low intra- and inter-specific MHC allelic diversity. We provide compelling evidence that this pattern is not caused by the degeneration of functional genes into pseudogenes, the inadvertent analyses of paralogous MHC genes, or the devastating action of genetic drift. Instead, our results strongly support the idea of an evolutionary transition driven and maintained by natural selection from primarily highly variable towards low polymorphic, but functional and expressed, MHC genes with species-specific pathogen-recognition capabilities.

  5. Reducible gauge theories in local superfield Lagrangian BRST quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D. M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Moshin, P.Yu. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Reshetnyak, A.A. [Inst. of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Lab. of Non-equilibrium State Theory

    2007-12-15

    The construction of {theta}-local superfield Lagrangian BRST quantization in non-Abelian hyper gauges for generic gauge theories based on the action principle is examined in the case of reducible local superfield models (LSM) on the basis of embedding a gauge theory into a special {theta}-local superfield model with anti symplectic constraints and a Grassmann-odd time parameter {theta}. We examine the problem of establishing a new correspondence between the odd-Lagrangian and odd-Hamiltonian formulations of a local LSM in the case of degeneracy of the Lagrangian description with respect to derivatives over {theta} of generalized classical superfields A{sup I}({theta}). We also reveal the role of the nilpotent BRST-BFV charge for a formal dynamical system corresponding to the BV-BFV dual description of an LSM. (author)

  6. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J; Kalenoja, H; Maekelae, S [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  7. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J.; Kalenoja, H.; Maekelae, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  8. Setup Variations in Radiotherapy of Esophageal Cancer: Evaluation by Daily Megavoltage Computed Tomographic Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Han Chunhui; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Kernstine, Kemp H.; Shibata, Stephen; Vora, Nayana L.; Pezner, Richard D.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To use pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scans to evaluate setup variations in anterior-posterior (AP), lateral, and superior-inferior (SI) directions and rotational variations, including pitch, roll, and yaw, for esophageal cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated by combined chemoradiation using helical tomotherapy were selected. After patients were positioned using their skin tattoos/marks, MVCT scans were performed before every treatment and automatically registered to planning kilovoltage CT scans according to bony landmarks. Image registration data were used to adjust patient setups before treatment. A total of 250 MVCT scans were analyzed. Correlations between setup variations and body habitus, including height, weight, relative weight change, body surface area, and patient age, were evaluated. Results: The standard deviations for systematic setup corrections in AP, lateral, and SI directions and pitch, roll, and yaw rotations were 1.5, 3.7, and 4.8 mm and 0.5 deg., 1.2 deg., and 0.8 deg., respectively. The appropriate averages of random setup variations in AP, lateral, and SI directions and pitch, roll, and yaw rotations were 2.9, 5.2, and 4.4 mm, and 1.0 deg., 1.2 deg., and 1.1 deg., respectively. Setup variations were stable throughout the entire course of radiotherapy in all three translational and three rotational displacements, with little change in magnitude. No significant correlations were found between setup variations and body habitus variables. Conclusions: Daily MVCT scans before each treatment can effectively detect setup errors and thereby reduce planning target volume (PTV) margins. This will reduce radiation dose to critical organs and may translate into lower treatment-related toxicities

  9. Predictive Distribution of the Dirichlet Mixture Model by the Local Variational Inference Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Leijon, Arne; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    the predictive likelihood of the new upcoming data, especially when the amount of training data is small. The Bayesian estimation of a Dirichlet mixture model (DMM) is, in general, not analytically tractable. In our previous work, we have proposed a global variational inference-based method for approximately...... calculating the posterior distributions of the parameters in the DMM analytically. In this paper, we extend our previous study for the DMM and propose an algorithm to calculate the predictive distribution of the DMM with the local variational inference (LVI) method. The true predictive distribution of the DMM...... is analytically intractable. By considering the concave property of the multivariate inverse beta function, we introduce an upper-bound to the true predictive distribution. As the global minimum of this upper-bound exists, the problem is reduced to seek an approximation to the true predictive distribution...

  10. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatirah Akib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles.

  11. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  12. Implementing local projects to reduce the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This editorial describes strategies used and the lessons learned in implementing two local anti-stigma projects. The WPA Programme to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia established projects to fight stigma in 20 countries, using social-marketing techniques to enhance their effectiveness. First steps at each site were to establish an action committee and conduct a survey of perceived stigma. Based on survey results, the action committees selected a few homogeneous and accessible target groups, such as employers, and criminal justice personnel. Messages and media were selected, tested, and refined. Guidelines are provided for setting up a consumer (service-user) speakers' bureau and for establishing a media-watch organization, which can lobby news and entertainment media to exclude negative portrayals of people with mental illness. Improvements in knowledge about mental illness were effected in high school students and criminal justice personnel. Positive changes in attitude towards people with mental illness were achieved with high school students, but were more difficult to achieve with police officers. Local antistigma projects can be effective in reducing stigma and relatively inexpensive. The involvement of consumers is important in working with police officers. Project organizers should be on the lookout for useful changes that can become permanent.

  13. Use of the Local Variation Methods for Nuclear Design Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A new problem-solving method for steady-state equations, which describe neutron diffusion, is presented. The method bases on a variation principal for steady-state diffusion equations and direct search the minimum of a corresponding functional. Benchmark problem calculation for power of fuel assemblies show ∼ 2% relative accuracy

  14. Geomagnetic Field Variation during Winter Storm at Localized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that transports plasma and magnetic flux which create the geomagnetic field variation. Key words. Dst—vertical component of interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic field components. 1. Introduction. The magnetic field is one of the important properties of the earth. The main magnetic field originates from ...

  15. Understanding variations in local conflict: Evidence and implications from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barron, P; Kaiser, M.P.; Pradhan, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of large-scale "headline" conflicts have excluded consideration of local conflict, in large part due to the absence of representative data at low levels of geographic specification. This paper is a first attempt to correct for that by assessing the incidence, impacts, and patterns of

  16. Cultural Variations in Global versus Local Processing: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Lillard, Angeline S.; Mizokawa, Ai; Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Tsutsui, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    We conducted 3 studies to explore cultural differences in global versus local processing and their developmental trajectories. In Study 1 ("N" = 363), we found that Japanese college students were less globally oriented in their processing than American or Argentine participants. We replicated this effect in Study 2 ("N" =…

  17. Deuterium Abundance in the Local ISM and Possible Spatial Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1998-01-01

    Excellent HST/GHRS spectra of interstellar hydrogen and deuterium Lyman-(alpha) absorption toward nearby stars allow us to identify systematic errors that have plagued earlier work and to measure accurate values of the D/H ratio in local interstellar gas. Analysis of 12 sightlines through the Local Interstellar Cloud leads to a mean value of D/H = (1.50 +/- 0.10) x 10(exp -5) with all data points lying within +/- l(delta) of the mean. Whether or not the D/H ratio has different values elsewhere in the Galaxy and beyond is a very important open question that will be one of the major objectives of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission.

  18. Variations in epidermal cytochrome oxidase activity after local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoiz, M.E.; Rey, B.M. de; Cabrini, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase activity was evaluated histochemically as an index of mitochondrial damage after local irradiation with X-rays. It was determined by microphotometry on the tail skin of newly born Wistar rats four days after irradiation with doses ranging from 2 to 16krad. The enzyme activity of the whole epidermis increased after irradiation, the increases being related to the increase in thickness of the epithelium which was observed as a response to irradiation injury. Within the dose range tested, the enzyme concentration (expressed per unit volume of tissue) decreased in relation to the dose applied. At the electron microscopy level, the cytochemical demonstration of cytochrome oxidase revealed an irregular reaction over the cristae, intramitochondrial vacuolization and partial homogenization of the matrix. Positive membrane fragments were seen around lipid droplets. This reaction confirms the mitochondrial origin of these previously observed radiation-induced vacuoles. (author)

  19. Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Nicholas; Friedman, Joseph; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Burstein, Roy; Biehl, Molly H.; Shields, Chloe; Mosser, Jonathan F.; Casey, Daniel C.; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Earl, Lucas; Reiner, Robert C.; Ray, Sarah E.; Fullman, Nancy; Levine, Aubrey J.; Stubbs, Rebecca W.; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J.; Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J.; Gething, Peter W.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Lim, Stephen S.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment for women of reproductive age is linked to reduced child and maternal mortality, lower fertility and improved reproductive health. Comparable analyses of attainment exist only at the national level, potentially obscuring patterns in subnational inequality. Evidence suggests that wide disparities between urban and rural populations exist, raising questions about where the majority of progress towards the education targets of the Sustainable Development Goals is occurring in African countries. Here we explore within-country inequalities by predicting years of schooling across five by five kilometre grids, generating estimates of average educational attainment by age and sex at subnational levels. Despite marked progress in attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes. These differences have widened in many countries, particularly across the Sahel. These high-resolution, comparable estimates improve the ability of decision-makers to plan the precisely targeted interventions that will be necessary to deliver progress during the era of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  20. Finite Element Calculation of Local Variation in the Driving Force for Austenite to Martensite Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, K.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; Huetink, J.; Post, J.; Dinsdale, A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of strain induced martensitic transformation are coupled for a metastable alloy steel and implemented in FE models of forming processes. The basic formulations are based on a fifty year old treaty by Patel and Cohen. The variation in Gibbs energy due to local variation in strain, strain rate, temperature and state of stress of a forming part is calculated by FE codes. The local variation in Gibbs energy gives a probabilistic image of the potential sites for strain induced martensitic transformations

  1. Experimental determination of local heat flux variation in an electrically heated BR-2 rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.; Merschroth, F.

    1977-08-01

    The installation of thermocouples within the cladding of an electrically heated BR-2 rod might cause local variations of heat flux. In order to detect a resulting temperature variation at the outer surface, experiments with a single electrically heated rod with heat fluxes up to 30.80 W/cm 2 and heat transfer coefficients up to 1000 W/m 2 K by forced convection in air were conducted. The surface temperatures were measured with an optical pyrometer. The experiment showed about 0.6% variation in the surface temperature. An analysis with the TAC2D-code shows that local variation in the heat flux under these conditions is less than 1.2%. (orig.) [de

  2. Variational local moment approach: From Kondo effect to Mott transition in correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauch, Anna; Byczuk, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The variational local moment approach (VLMA) solution of the single impurity Anderson model is presented. It generalizes the local moment approach of Logan et al. by invoking the variational principle to determine the lengths of local moments and orbital occupancies. We show that VLMA is a comprehensive, conserving and thermodynamically consistent approximation and treats both Fermi and non-Fermi liquid regimes as well as local moment phases on equal footing. We tested VLMA on selected problems. We solved the single- and multi-orbital impurity Anderson model in various regions of parameters, where different types of Kondo effects occur. The application of VLMA as an impurity solver of the dynamical mean-field theory, used to solve the multi-orbital Hubbard model, is also addressed.

  3. Novel active contour model based on multi-variate local Gaussian distribution for local segmentation of MR brain images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Li, Honglun; Fan, Baode; Wu, Shuanhu; Xu, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    Active contour model (ACM) has been one of the most widely utilized methods in magnetic resonance (MR) brain image segmentation because of its ability of capturing topology changes. However, most of the existing ACMs only consider single-slice information in MR brain image data, i.e., the information used in ACMs based segmentation method is extracted only from one slice of MR brain image, which cannot take full advantage of the adjacent slice images' information, and cannot satisfy the local segmentation of MR brain images. In this paper, a novel ACM is proposed to solve the problem discussed above, which is based on multi-variate local Gaussian distribution and combines the adjacent slice images' information in MR brain image data to satisfy segmentation. The segmentation is finally achieved through maximizing the likelihood estimation. Experiments demonstrate the advantages of the proposed ACM over the single-slice ACM in local segmentation of MR brain image series.

  4. Reducing local traffic emissions at urban intersection using ITS countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.; Arem, B. van; Pueboobpaphan, R.; Lange, R. de

    2013-01-01

    In many countries traffic emissions have significantly increased during the last two decades because of the increased number of vehicles. As such, traffic emissions have become the main source of air pollution in urban areas, where breaches of the EU limit values frequently occur. To reduce these

  5. Rapid adjustment of bird community compositions to local climatic variations and its functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, Pierre; Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    The local spatial congruence between climate changes and community changes has rarely been studied over large areas. We proposed one of the first comprehensive frameworks tracking local changes in community composition related to climate changes. First, we investigated whether and how 12 years of changes in the local composition of bird communities were related to local climate variations. Then, we tested the consequences of this climate-induced adjustment of communities on Grinnellian (habitat-related) and Eltonian (function-related) homogenization. A standardized protocol monitoring spatial and temporal trends of birds over France from 2001 to 2012 was used. For each plot and each year, we used the spring temperature and the spring precipitations and calculated three indices reflecting the thermal niche, the habitat specialization, and the functional originality of the species within a community. We then used a moving-window approach to estimate the spatial distribution of the temporal trends in each of these indices and their congruency with local climatic variations. Temperature fluctuations and community dynamics were found to be highly variable in space, but their variations were finely congruent. More interestingly, the community adjustment to temperature variations was nonmonotonous. Instead, unexplained fluctuations in community composition were observed up to a certain threshold of climate change intensity, above which a change in community composition was observed. This shift corresponded to a significant decrease in the relative abundance of habitat specialists and functionally original species within communities, regardless of the direction of temperature change. The investigation of variations in climate and community responses appears to be a central step toward a better understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity. Our results suggest a fine-scale and short-term adjustment of community composition to temperature changes. Moreover

  6. Multidrug Resistance Among New Tuberculosis Cases Detecting Local Variation Through Lot Quality-assurance Sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedt, Bethany Lynn; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current methodology for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper

  7. Intraspecific shape variation in horseshoe crabs: the importance of sexual and natural selection for local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; Nielsen, Kasper Sauer Kollerup; Bussarawit, Somchai

    2011-01-01

    . Differences in shape variation between sexes were tested with F-tests, which showed lower intrapopulation morphometric variation in males than females. These results indicate a lower degree of local adaptation on body shape in C. rotundicauda and T. gigas than in L. polyphemus and a lower degree of local......A morphometric analysis of the body shape of three species of horseshoe crabs was undertaken in order to infer the importance of natural and sexual selection. It was expected that natural selection would be most intense, leading to highest regional differentiation, in the American species Limulus...... polyphemus, which has the largest climatic differences between different populations. Local adaptation driven by sexual selection was expected in males but not females because horseshoe crab mating behaviour leads to competition between males, but not between females. Three hundred fifty-nine horseshoe crabs...

  8. A Reduced Form Framework for Modeling Volatility of Speculative Prices based on Realized Variation Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bollerslev, Tim; Huang, Xin

    Building on realized variance and bi-power variation measures constructed from high-frequency financial prices, we propose a simple reduced form framework for effectively incorporating intraday data into the modeling of daily return volatility. We decompose the total daily return variability...

  9. Reducing lumber thickness variation using real-time statistical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A technology feasibility study for reducing lumber thickness variation was conducted from April 2001 until March 2002 at two sawmills located in the southern U.S. A real-time statistical process control (SPC) system was developed that featured Wonderware human machine interface technology (HMI) with distributed real-time control charts for all sawing centers and...

  10. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm iii for the diffusion model associated with non-differentiable heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new application of the local fractional variational iteration algorithm III to solve the local fractional diffusion equation defined on Cantor sets associated with non-differentiable heat transfer.

  11. Nutritional variations during chemotherapy for patients suffering from a locally advanced oesophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, A.; Blondin, V.; Quiesse, M.; Iwanicki-Caron, I.; Lecleire, S.; Michel, P.; Di Fiore, F.; Dubray, B.; Di Fiore, F.

    2010-01-01

    As de-nutrition is frequently noticed for patients suffering from a locally advanced oesophagus cancer, the authors report a study of the variations of nutritional parameters during chemotherapy and of their impacts of the treatment process and efficiency. Thus, different parameters have been studied at the beginning, during and at the end of the treatment: weight, albumin range, body weight index, calorie survey, and the nutritional support type. The authors observe very important variations with a significant impact on treatment tolerance and efficiency. Short communication

  12. Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kate L. A.; Philpot, Kate E.; Damas-Moreira, Isabel; Stevens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Within-species colour variation is widespread among animals. Understanding how this arises can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms, such as those underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Here, we investigated whether five island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) have more effective camouflage against their own (local) island substrates than against other (non-local) island substrates to avian predators, and whether this was linked to island differences in substrate appearance. We also investigated whether degree of local substrate matching varied among island populations and between sexes. In most populations, both sexes were better matched against local backgrounds than against non-local backgrounds, particularly in terms of luminance (perceived lightness), which usually occurred when local and non-local backgrounds were different in appearance. This was found even between island populations that historically had a land connection and in populations that have been isolated relatively recently, suggesting that isolation in these distinct island environments has been sufficient to cause enhanced local background matching, sometimes on a rapid evolutionary time-scale. However, heightened local matching was poorer in populations inhabiting more variable and unstable environments with a prolonged history of volcanic activity. Overall, these results show that lizard coloration is tuned to provide camouflage in local environments, either due to genetic adaptation or changes during development. Yet, the occurrence and extent of selection for local matching may depend on specific conditions associated with local ecology and biogeographic history. These results emphasize how anti-predator adaptations to different environments can drive divergence within a species, which may contribute to reproductive isolation among populations and lead to ecological speciation. PMID:26372454

  13. Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L A Marshall

    Full Text Available Within-species colour variation is widespread among animals. Understanding how this arises can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms, such as those underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Here, we investigated whether five island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii have more effective camouflage against their own (local island substrates than against other (non-local island substrates to avian predators, and whether this was linked to island differences in substrate appearance. We also investigated whether degree of local substrate matching varied among island populations and between sexes. In most populations, both sexes were better matched against local backgrounds than against non-local backgrounds, particularly in terms of luminance (perceived lightness, which usually occurred when local and non-local backgrounds were different in appearance. This was found even between island populations that historically had a land connection and in populations that have been isolated relatively recently, suggesting that isolation in these distinct island environments has been sufficient to cause enhanced local background matching, sometimes on a rapid evolutionary time-scale. However, heightened local matching was poorer in populations inhabiting more variable and unstable environments with a prolonged history of volcanic activity. Overall, these results show that lizard coloration is tuned to provide camouflage in local environments, either due to genetic adaptation or changes during development. Yet, the occurrence and extent of selection for local matching may depend on specific conditions associated with local ecology and biogeographic history. These results emphasize how anti-predator adaptations to different environments can drive divergence within a species, which may contribute to reproductive isolation among populations and lead to ecological speciation.

  14. Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Damas-Moreira, Isabel; Stevens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Within-species colour variation is widespread among animals. Understanding how this arises can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms, such as those underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Here, we investigated whether five island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) have more effective camouflage against their own (local) island substrates than against other (non-local) island substrates to avian predators, and whether this was linked to island differences in substrate appearance. We also investigated whether degree of local substrate matching varied among island populations and between sexes. In most populations, both sexes were better matched against local backgrounds than against non-local backgrounds, particularly in terms of luminance (perceived lightness), which usually occurred when local and non-local backgrounds were different in appearance. This was found even between island populations that historically had a land connection and in populations that have been isolated relatively recently, suggesting that isolation in these distinct island environments has been sufficient to cause enhanced local background matching, sometimes on a rapid evolutionary time-scale. However, heightened local matching was poorer in populations inhabiting more variable and unstable environments with a prolonged history of volcanic activity. Overall, these results show that lizard coloration is tuned to provide camouflage in local environments, either due to genetic adaptation or changes during development. Yet, the occurrence and extent of selection for local matching may depend on specific conditions associated with local ecology and biogeographic history. These results emphasize how anti-predator adaptations to different environments can drive divergence within a species, which may contribute to reproductive isolation among populations and lead to ecological speciation.

  15. Time variations in the mechanical characteristics of local crustal segments according to seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharyan, G. G.; Gamburtseva, N. G.; Sanina, I. A.; Danilova, T. V.; Nesterkina, M. A.; Gorbunova, E. M.; Ivanchenko, G. N.

    2011-04-01

    The results of the seismic observations made with two different experimental setups are presented. In the first case, the signals produced by underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site were measured on a linear profile, which allowed one to definitely outline the areas where the mechanical properties of rocks experienced considerable time variations. In the second case, the waves excited by the open-pit mine blasts recorded at a small-aperture seismic array at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Station (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences) on the East European Platform favored the estimation of variations in the integral characteristics of the seismic path. Measurements in aseismic regions characterized by diverse geological structure and different tectonic conditions revealed similar effects of the strong dependency of seismic parameters on the time of explosions. Here, the variations experienced by the maximum amplitudes of oscillations and irrelevant to seasonal changes or local conditions reached a factor of two. The generic periods of these variations including the distinct annual rhythm are probably the fragments of a lower-frequency process. The obtained results suggest that these variations are due to changes in the stressstrain state of active fault zones, which, in turn, can be associated with the macroscale motion of large blocks triggered by tidal strains, tectonic forces and, possibly, variations in the rate of the Earth's rotation.

  16. Low-frequency variation of a zonally localized jet stream: Observation and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, M.

    1994-01-01

    The climatological mean circulation in the extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere is characterized by two zonally localized jet streams over the east coasts of the two major continents. The zonal inhomogeneity of the climatological mean circulation is believed to be a primary factor determining the geographical locations of the maximum activity centers of the atmospheric transients, such as storm tracks over the east coasts of the two major continents and frequent blocking episodes occurring over the central regions of the two oceans. The impact of the transients on the zonally localized jet streams is studied mostly in the linear dynamics framework in terms of so-called open-quotes feedbackclose quotes diagnosis. This study investigates nonlinear instability of a zonally localized jet stream. The emphasis is on the nonlinear adjustment of a zonally localized jet stream associated with the development of the transients via local instability. The adjustment of a zonally localized jet stream would naturally consists of two parts: One is the time-invariant part and the other is the transient part (temporal variation of the adjustment). In conjunction with the observation, the time-mean adjustment is part of the climatological mean flow and hence is open-quotes invisible.close quotes The transient part of the adjustment is evidenced by the changes of the jet streams in terms of both location and intensity. In this study, we tend to relate the transient part of the adjustment of the jet stream to the maximum activity centers of low-frequency variability. The underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the temporal variation of the adjustment will be investigated. The time-mean adjustment will be also studied to better understand the temporal variation of the adjustment

  17. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with reduced variation in sperm morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calhim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary role of postcopulatory sexual selection in shaping male reproductive traits, including sperm morphology, is well documented in several taxa. However, previous studies have focused almost exclusively on the influence of sperm competition on variation among species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in sperm morphology is driven by the level of postcopulatory sexual selection in passerine birds.Using two proxy measures of sperm competition level, (i relative testes size and (ii extrapair paternity level, we found strong evidence that intermale variation in sperm morphology is negatively associated with the degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, independently of phylogeny.Our results show that the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in the evolution of sperm morphology extends to an intraspecific level, reducing the variation towards what might be a species-specific 'optimum' sperm phenotype. This finding suggests that while postcopulatory selection is generally directional (e.g., favouring longer sperm across avian species, it also acts as a stabilising evolutionary force within species under intense selection, resulting in reduced variation in sperm morphology traits. We discuss some potential evolutionary mechanisms for this pattern.

  18. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  19. Local Times of Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity Maximum and Minimum in the Diurnal Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Oh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Diurnal variation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR flux intensity observed by the ground Neutron Monitor (NM shows a sinusoidal pattern with the amplitude of 1sim 2 % of daily mean. We carried out a statistical study on tendencies of the local times of GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum. To test the influences of the solar activity and the location (cut-off rigidity on the distribution in the local times of maximum and minimum GCR intensity, we have examined the data of 1996 (solar minimum and 2000 (solar maximum at the low-latitude Haleakala (latitude: 20.72 N, cut-off rigidity: 12.91 GeV and the high-latitude Oulu (latitude: 65.05 N, cut-off rigidity: 0.81 GeV NM stations. The most frequent local times of the GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum come later about 2sim3 hours in the solar activity maximum year 2000 than in the solar activity minimum year 1996. Oulu NM station whose cut-off rigidity is smaller has the most frequent local times of the GCR intensity maximum and minimum later by 2sim3 hours from those of Haleakala station. This feature is more evident at the solar maximum. The phase of the daily variation in GCR is dependent upon the interplanetary magnetic field varying with the solar activity and the cut-off rigidity varying with the geographic latitude.

  20. Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Angélica L; Crawford, Kerri M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect-a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3-5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density.

  1. The effects of local control station design variation on plant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of human engineering deficiencies at local control stations (LCSs) was addressed in a study (NUREG/CR-3696) conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL concluded that the existence of these human factors deficiencies at safety significant LCSs increases the potential for operator errors that could be detrimental to plant and public safety. However, PNL did not specific analysis to evaluate the effects of LCS design variations on human performance, on plant risk, or on the cost benefit feasibility of upgrading LCSs. The purpose of the present investigation was to conduct such an analysis. The specific objectives of the research were (1) to further define important local control stations, human factors related LCS design variations, and typical human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) at LCSs; (2) to determine the effect of LCS design variations on human performance, i.e., on risk-significant human errors (HEs); (3) to determine the effect of LCS-induced human performance variation on plant risk as measured by core melt frequency (CMF); and (4) to determine whether LCS improvements (upgrades in LCS design to mitigate HEDs) are feasible in a scoping-type value-impact analysis. The results can be summarized as follows. There was an overall effect of LCS variations on human performance. The transition from the worst LCS configuration to the best resulted in an absolute reduction or improvement of 0.82 in mean HEP (reduction by a factor of 20). The transition from low to high levels of FC was associated with a 0.46 (86%) reduction in mean HEP. The majority of the effect was accounted for in the transition from the low to medium levels. The Panel Design dimension also had an effect on human performance although not as large as functional centralization. Upgrading from a low to high panel design resulted in a 0.29 (69%) reduction in mean HEP

  2. Daily variations in delivered doses in patients treated with radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Langen, Katja M.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Jeswani, Sam; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Haimerl, Jason; Olivera, Gustavo H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the variations in delivered doses to the prostate, rectum, and bladder during a full course of image-guided external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy to 78 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction in 39 fractions. Daily target localization was performed using intraprostatic fiducials and daily megavoltage pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans, resulting in a total of 390 CT scans. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were manually contoured on each CT by a single physician. Daily dosimetric analysis was performed with dose recalculation. The study endpoints were D95 (dose to 95% of the prostate), rV2 (absolute rectal volume receiving 2 Gy), and bV2 (absolute bladder volume receiving 2 Gy). Results: For the entire cohort, the average D95 (±SD) was 2.02 ± 0.04 Gy (range, 1.79-2.20 Gy). The average rV2 (±SD) was 7.0 ± 8.1 cc (range, 0.1-67.3 cc). The average bV2 (±SD) was 8.7 ± 6.8 cc (range, 0.3-36.8 cc). Unlike doses for the prostate, there was significant daily variation in rectal and bladder doses, mostly because of variations in volume and shape of these organs. Conclusion: Large variations in delivered doses to the rectum and bladder can be documented with daily megavoltage CT scans. Image guidance for the targeting of the prostate, even with intraprostatic fiducials, does not take into account the variation in actual rectal and bladder doses. The clinical impact of techniques that take into account such dosimetric parameters in daily patient set-ups should be investigated

  3. Morphological variation, biogeography and local extinction of the northern New Zealand landsnail Placostylus hongii (Gastropoda : Bulimulidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, F.J.; McArdle, B.H.

    1999-01-01

    Placostylus hongii (Lesson) is recorded from sites between Whangaroa and Whangarei on the mainland Northland coast, and from the Poor Knights, Chicken, Mokohinau and Great Barrier islands offshore. There is considerable variation in shell morphology between the various populations, commonly with marked morphological divergence at a local scale but with overlapping variation overall across all populations of the taxon. Patterns of morphological variation show no clear geographic trends and are at least in part related to local environmental factors. Correlations are identified between shell shape and substratum type, and between shell size and vegetation type. Placostylus hongii has a very restricted stratigraphic distribution in mainland Northland, with most if not all of the few known fossil populations post-dating Polynesian settlement at c. 900-700 years BP. We suggest that P. hongii populations on the Poor Knights and possibly also those on the Mokohinau islands are endemic, whereas the mainland populations and those on Great Barier and the Chicken islands have originated from anthropic redistribution of snails in prehistoric time. A high proportion of the mainland P. hongii populations and some offshore island populations became extinct in the last few hundred years as a result of predation by introduced mammals and the modification and destruction of shrubland and forest habitat. (author). 54 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Reduced local immune response with continuous positive airway pressure during one-lung ventilation for oesophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, R. J. J.; Boone, J.; Rijkers, G. T.; Cromheecke, G. J.; Kroese, A. C.; Weijs, T. J.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transthoracic oesophagectomy requires prolonged one-lung ventilation causing systemic and local inflammatory responses. Application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the collapsed lung potentially reduces pulmonary damage, hypoxia, and consequent inflammation. This

  5. Variational contrast enhancement guided by global and local contrast measurements for single-image defogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Bi, Du-Yan; He, Lin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The visibility of images captured in foggy conditions is impaired severely by a decrease in the contrasts of objects and veiling with a characteristic gray hue, which may limit the performance of visual applications out of doors. Contrast enhancement together with color restoration is a challenging mission for conventional fog-removal methods, as the degrading effect of fog is largely dependent on scene depth information. Nowadays, people change their minds by establishing a variational framework for contrast enhancement based on a physically based analytical model, unexpectedly resulting in color distortion, dark-patch distortion, or fuzzy features of local regions. Unlike previous work, our method treats an atmospheric veil as a scattering disturbance and formulates a foggy image as an energy functional minimization to estimate direct attenuation, originating from the work of image denoising. In addition to a global contrast measurement based on a total variation norm, an additional local measurement is designed in that optimal problem for the purpose of digging out more local details as well as suppressing dark-patch distortion. Moreover, we estimate the airlight precisely by maximization with a geometric constraint and a natural image prior in order to protect the faithfulness of the scene color. With the estimated direct attenuation and airlight, the fog-free image can be restored. Finally, our method is tested on several benchmark and realistic images evaluated by two assessment approaches. The experimental results imply that our proposed method works well compared with the state-of-the-art defogging methods.

  6. Reduced differential transform method for partial differential equations within local fractional derivative operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.

  7. A Local Stable Bootstrap for Power Variations of Pure-Jump Semimartingales and Activity Index Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.

    We provide a new resampling procedure - the local stable bootstrap - that is able to mimic the dependence properties of realized power variations for pure-jump semimartingales observed at different frequencies. This allows us to propose a bootstrap estimator and inference procedure for the activity...... index of the underlying process, β, as well as a bootstrap test for whether it obeys a jump-diffusion or a pure-jump process, that is, of the null hypothesis H₀: β=2 against the alternative H₁: βbootstrap power variations, activity index...... estimator, and diffusion test for H0. Moreover, the finite sample size and power properties of the proposed diffusion test are compared to those of benchmark tests using Monte Carlo simulations. Unlike existing procedures, our bootstrap test is correctly sized in general settings. Finally, we illustrate use...

  8. Variation in Adherence to External Beam Radiotherapy Quality Measures Among Elderly Men With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Jang, Thomas L.; Basch, Ethan M.; Schrag, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the variation in adherence to quality measures of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer and its relation to patient and provider characteristics in a population-based, representative sample of U.S. men. Methods and Materials: We evaluated EBRT quality measures proposed by a RAND expert panel of physicians among men aged ≥65 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2002 with localized prostate cancer and treated with primary EBRT using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare program. We assessed the adherence to five EBRT quality measures that were amenable to analysis using SEER-Medicare data: (1) use of conformal RT planning; (2) use of high-energy (>10-MV) photons; (3) use of custom immobilization; (4) completion of two follow-up visits with a radiation oncologist in the year after therapy; and (5) radiation oncologist board certification. Results: Of the 11,674 patients, 85% had received conformal RT planning, 75% had received high-energy photons, and 97% had received custom immobilization. One-third of patients had completed two follow-up visits with a radiation oncologist, although 91% had at least one visit with a urologist or radiation oncologist. Most patients (85%) had been treated by a board-certified radiation oncologist. Conclusions: The overall high adherence to EBRT quality measures masked substantial variation in geography, socioeconomic status in the area of residence, and teaching affiliation of the RT facility. Future research should examine the reasons for the variations in these measures and whether the variation is associated with important clinical outcomes

  9. Geographic variation in opinions on climate change at state and local scales in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Peter D.; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Addressing climate change in the United States requires enactment of national, state and local mitigation and adaptation policies. The success of these initiatives depends on public opinion, policy support and behaviours at appropriate scales. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys that obscure geographic variability across regions, states and localities. Here we present independently validated high-resolution opinion estimates using a multilevel regression and poststratification model. The model accurately predicts climate change beliefs, risk perceptions and policy preferences at the state, congressional district, metropolitan and county levels, using a concise set of demographic and geographic predictors. The analysis finds substantial variation in public opinion across the nation. Nationally, 63% of Americans believe global warming is happening, but county-level estimates range from 43 to 80%, leading to a diversity of political environments for climate policy. These estimates provide an important new source of information for policymakers, educators and scientists to more effectively address the challenges of climate change.

  10. Variational and robust density fitting of four-center two-electron integrals in local metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Simen; Tellgren, Erik; Krapp, Andreas; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Helgaker, Trygve; Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Salek, Paweł

    2008-09-01

    Density fitting is an important method for speeding up quantum-chemical calculations. Linear-scaling developments in Hartree-Fock and density-functional theories have highlighted the need for linear-scaling density-fitting schemes. In this paper, we present a robust variational density-fitting scheme that allows for solving the fitting equations in local metrics instead of the traditional Coulomb metric, as required for linear scaling. Results of fitting four-center two-electron integrals in the overlap and the attenuated Gaussian damped Coulomb metric are presented, and we conclude that density fitting can be performed in local metrics at little loss of chemical accuracy. We further propose to use this theory in linear-scaling density-fitting developments.

  11. Reducing the variation in animal models by standardizing the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2011-01-01

    , a large proportion of laboratory animals are used to study such diseases, but inter-individual variation in these animal models leads to the need for larger group sizes to reach statistical significance and adequate power. By standardizing the microbial and immunological status of laboratory animals we...... mice changed the glucose tolerance without affecting weight or mucosal immunity. Further investigations concerning the mechanisms of how GM influences disease development is necessary, but based on these results it seems reasonable to assume that by manipulating the GM we may produce animal models...... may therefore be able to produce animals with a more standardized response and less variation. This would lead to more precise results and a reduced number of animals needed for statistical significance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) - a culture independent approach separating PCR...

  12. Controlling spark timing for consecutive cycles to reduce the cyclic variations of SI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, Alirıza; Ceviz, Mehmet Akif; Erenturk, Köksal

    2015-01-01

    Minimization of the cyclic variations is one of the most important design goal for spark-ignited engines. Primary motivation of this study is to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines by controlling the spark timing for consecutive cycles. A stochastic model was performed between spark timing and in–cylinder maximum pressure by using the system identification techniques. The incylinder maximum pressure of the next cycle was predicted with this model. Minimum variance and generalized minimum variance controllers were designed to regulate the in–cylinder maximum pressure by changing the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the test engine. The produced control algorithms were built in LabView environment and installed to the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) chassis. According to the test results, the in–cylinder maximum pressure of the next pressure cycle can be predicted fairly well, and the spark timing can be regulated to keep the in–cylinder maximum pressure in a desired band to reduce the cyclic variations. At fixed spark timing experiments, the COV Pmax and COV imep were 3.764 and 0.677%, whereas they decreased to 3.208 and 0.533% when GMV controller was applied, respectively. - Highlights: • Cycle per cycle spark timing control was carried out. • A stochastic process model was described between P max and the spark timing. • The cyclic variations in P max was decreased by keeping it in a desired band. • Different controllers were used to adjust spark timing signal of the next cycle. • COV Pmax was decreased by about 15% by using GMV controller

  13. Circular electrodes to reduce the current variation of OTFTs with the drop-casted semiconducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipu Kabir, H. M.; Ahmed, Zubair; Kariyadan, Remashan; Zhang, Lining; Chan, Mansun

    2018-06-01

    Circular organic thin film transistor (OTFT) structures are proposed to reduce the impact of variable grain alignment on the drive current of the polycrystalline organic thin film transistor (OTFT). As the circular structure is planar symmetric, the orientation of the grain cannot affect the drive current of the circular OTFT. Thus, circular electrodes expected to provide a lower variation. Top-gate, bottom-contact circular and conventional OTFTs with drop-casted polycrystalline 6,13-Bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) (TIPS)-Pentacene organic semiconducting layer (OSC) are fabricated to verify the theoretical variation reduction. The relative standard deviation (RSD), defined as the ratio of standard deviation and the average of drive current is used as the degree of variations in different structures. According to our fabrication result, circular transistors have a significantly lower variation (20% RSD), compared to the variation of conventional OTFTs (61% RSD). His research interests include Organic Electronics, VLSI Design, Embedded System, Neural Networks, and Solid-state devices. Between July 2001 and December 2002, he was a Visiting Professor at University of California at Berkeley and the Co-director of the BSIM program. He is currently still consulting on the development of the next generation compact models. He has been actively contributing to the professional community and hold many positions. He was a Board of Governor, Chair of the Education Committee, the Chair of the Region 10 subcommittee and a Distinguished lecturer of the IEEE Electron Device Society. He has also chaired many international conferences and acting as editors for a number of technical journals. In addition, he has received many awards including the UC Regents Fellowship, Golden Keys Scholarship for Academic Excellence, SRC Inventor Recognition Award, Rockwell Research Fellowship, R&D 100 award (for the BSIM3v3 project), Distinguished Teaching Award, the Shenzhen Science and Technology

  14. Does stability in local community composition depend on temporal variation in rates of dispersal and connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf

    2015-04-01

    In ecology understanding variation in connectivity is central for how biodiversity is maintained. Field studies on dispersal and temporal dynamics in community regulating processes are, however, rare. We test the short-term temporal stability in community composition in a soft-sediment benthic community by determining among-sampling interval similarity in community composition. We relate stability to in situ measures of connectivity (wind, wave, current energy) and rates of dispersal (quantified in different trap types). Waves were an important predictor of when local community taxa are most likely to disperse in different trap-types, suggesting that wave energy is important for connectivity in a region. Community composition at the site was variable and changed stochastically over time. We found changes in community composition (occurrence, abundance, dominance) to be greater at times when connectivity and rates of dispersal were low. In response to periods of lower connectedness dominant taxa in the local community only exhibited change in their relative abundance. In contrast, locally less abundant taxa varied in both their presence, as well as in relative abundance. Constancy in connectivity and rates of dispersal promotes community stability and persistence, suggesting that local community composition will be impacted by changes in the spatial extent over which immigration and emigration operates in the region. Few empirical studies have actually measured dispersal directly in a multi-species context to demonstrate the role it plays in maintaining local community structure. Even though our study does not evaluate coexistence over demographic time scales, it importantly demonstrates that dispersal is not only important in initial recruitment or following a disturbance, but also key in maintaining local community composition.

  15. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-11-02

    Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4-102.1%; LGCS, 10.9-65.6%; CG, 1.8-20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays.

  16. Variation at the DRD4 locus is associated with wariness and local site selection in urban black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Wouter F D; Robinson, Randall W; Weston, Michael A; Mulder, Raoul A; Guay, Patrick-Jean

    2015-12-11

    Interactions between wildlife and humans are increasing. Urban animals are often less wary of humans than their non-urban counterparts, which could be explained by habituation, adaptation or local site selection. Under local site selection, individuals that are less tolerant of humans are less likely to settle in urban areas. However, there is little evidence for such temperament-based site selection, and even less is known about its underlying genetic basis. We tested whether site selection in urban and non-urban habitats by black swans (Cygnus atratus) was associated with polymorphisms in two genes linked to fear in animals, the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes. Wariness in swans was highly repeatable between disturbance events (repeatability = 0.61) and non-urban swans initiated escape from humans earlier than urban swans. We found no inter-individual variation in the SERT gene, but identified five DRD4 genotypes and an association between DRD4 genotype and wariness. Individuals possessing the most common DRD4 genotype were less wary than individuals possessing rarer genotypes. As predicted by the local site selection hypothesis, genotypes associated with wary behaviour were over three times more frequent at the non-urban site. This resulted in moderate population differentiation at DRD4 (FST = 0.080), despite the sites being separated by only 30 km, a short distance for this highly-mobile species. Low population differentiation at neutrally-selected microsatellite loci and the likely occasional migration of swans between the populations reduces the likelihood of local site adaptations. Our results suggest that wariness in swans is partly genetically-determined and that wary swans settle in less-disturbed areas. More generally, our findings suggest that site-specific management strategies may be necessary that consider the temperament of local animals.

  17. Variation in Maltese English: The Interplay of the Local and the Global in an Emerging Postcolonial Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Lisa Marie

    2010-01-01

    In our current era of increased globalization, constraints on language variation in postcolonial English varieties are multifaceted. Local and global language ideologies collide and multiple sources of influence converge in present-day patterns of linguistic variation in emerging English varieties. While research into the structure and…

  18. Perturbation theory corrections to the two-particle reduced density matrix variational method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Tamas; Mazziotti, David A

    2004-07-15

    In the variational 2-particle-reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method, the ground-state energy is minimized with respect to the 2-particle reduced density matrix, constrained by N-representability conditions. Consider the N-electron Hamiltonian H(lambda) as a function of the parameter lambda where we recover the Fock Hamiltonian at lambda=0 and we recover the fully correlated Hamiltonian at lambda=1. We explore using the accuracy of perturbation theory at small lambda to correct the 2-RDM variational energies at lambda=1 where the Hamiltonian represents correlated atoms and molecules. A key assumption in the correction is that the 2-RDM method will capture a fairly constant percentage of the correlation energy for lambda in (0,1] because the nonperturbative 2-RDM approach depends more significantly upon the nature rather than the strength of the two-body Hamiltonian interaction. For a variety of molecules we observe that this correction improves the 2-RDM energies in the equilibrium bonding region, while the 2-RDM energies at stretched or nearly dissociated geometries, already highly accurate, are not significantly changed. At equilibrium geometries the corrected 2-RDM energies are similar in accuracy to those from coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), but at nonequilibrium geometries the 2-RDM energies are often dramatically more accurate as shown in the bond stretching and dissociation data for water and nitrogen. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Reducing Individual Variation for fMRI Studies in Children by Minimizing Template Related Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Weng

    Full Text Available Spatial normalization is an essential process for group comparisons in functional MRI studies. In practice, there is a risk of normalization errors particularly in studies involving children, seniors or diseased populations and in regions with high individual variation. One way to minimize normalization errors is to create a study-specific template based on a large sample size. However, studies with a large sample size are not always feasible, particularly for children studies. The performance of templates with a small sample size has not been evaluated in fMRI studies in children. In the current study, this issue was encountered in a working memory task with 29 children in two groups. We compared the performance of different templates: a study-specific template created by the experimental population, a Chinese children template and the widely used adult MNI template. We observed distinct differences in the right orbitofrontal region among the three templates in between-group comparisons. The study-specific template and the Chinese children template were more sensitive for the detection of between-group differences in the orbitofrontal cortex than the MNI template. Proper templates could effectively reduce individual variation. Further analysis revealed a correlation between the BOLD contrast size and the norm index of the affine transformation matrix, i.e., the SFN, which characterizes the difference between a template and a native image and differs significantly across subjects. Thereby, we proposed and tested another method to reduce individual variation that included the SFN as a covariate in group-wise statistics. This correction exhibits outstanding performance in enhancing detection power in group-level tests. A training effect of abacus-based mental calculation was also demonstrated, with significantly elevated activation in the right orbitofrontal region that correlated with behavioral response time across subjects in the trained group.

  20. An integration of minimum local feature representation methods to recognize large variation of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Mohd Norhisham bin; Manshor, Noridayu; Halin, Alfian Abdul; Mustapha, Norwati; Yaakob, Razali

    2017-10-01

    Local invariant features have shown to be successful in describing object appearances for image classification tasks. Such features are robust towards occlusion and clutter and are also invariant against scale and orientation changes. This makes them suitable for classification tasks with little inter-class similarity and large intra-class difference. In this paper, we propose an integrated representation of the Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptors, using late fusion strategy. The proposed representation is used for food recognition from a dataset of food images with complex appearance variations. The Bag of Features (BOF) approach is employed to enhance the discriminative ability of the local features. Firstly, the individual local features are extracted to construct two kinds of visual vocabularies, representing SURF and SIFT. The visual vocabularies are then concatenated and fed into a Linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the respective food categories. Experimental results demonstrate impressive overall recognition at 82.38% classification accuracy based on the challenging UEC-Food100 dataset.

  1. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  2. Robust Myocardial Motion Tracking for Echocardiography: Variational Framework Integrating Local-to-Global Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Young Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust real-time myocardial border tracking algorithm for echocardiography. Commonly, after an initial contour of LV border is traced at one or two frames from the entire cardiac cycle, LV contour tracking is performed over the remaining frames. Among a variety of tracking techniques, optical flow method is the most widely used for motion estimation of moving objects. However, when echocardiography data is heavily corrupted in some local regions, the errors bring the tracking point out of the endocardial border, resulting in distorted LV contours. This shape distortion often occurs in practice since the data acquisition is affected by ultrasound artifacts, dropouts, or shadowing phenomena of cardiac walls. The proposed method is designed to deal with this shape distortion problem by integrating local optical flow motion and global deformation into a variational framework. The proposed descent method controls the individual tracking points to follow the local motions of a specific speckle pattern, while their overall motions are confined to the global motion constraint being approximately an affine transform of the initial tracking points. Many real experiments show that the proposed method achieves better overall performance than conventional methods.

  3. Time dependency of local cerebral blood flow measurements caused by regional variations in tissue transit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Feyerabend, A.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated values of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) using the diffusible tracer model are assumed to be independent of time as long as experiments are brief enough to prevent tissue saturation. This paper investigates the effects of CTT variation on LCBF measurements. Using double-label quantitative digital autoradiography, we compared iodoantipyrine (IAP)-based LCBF measurements obtained with tracer infusions of different lengths of time. Lightly anesthetized rats were given simultaneous ramp infusions of C-14 IAP (45 seconds) and I-123 IAP (15 seconds) and immediately sacrificed. Two autoradiograms of each brain section, one representing I-123 and the other representing C-14, were produced, digitized, and converted into images of LCBF based on the 15- and 45-second infusion periods. The LCBF image pairs were compared on a pixel-by-pixel basis

  4. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Results: Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4–102.1% LGCS, 10.9–65.6% CG, 1.8–20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Conclusions: Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays. PMID:29095427

  5. Local climate and cultivation, but not ploidy, predict functional trait variation in Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the diversity of seed 18 resources for important restoration species has become a high priority for land managers in many parts of the world. Relationships between functional trait values and the environment from which seed sources are collected can provide important insights into patterns of local adaptation and guidelines for seed transfer. However, little is known about which functional traits exhibit genetic differentiation across populations of restoration species and thus may contribute to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of a common garden experiment aimed at assessing genetic (including ploidy level) and environmental regulation of several functional traits among populations of Bouteloua gracilis, a dominant C4 grass and the most highly utilized restoration species across much of the Colorado Plateau. We found that leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) varied significantly among populations, and were strongly correlated with the source population environment from which seeds were collected. However, variation in ploidy level had no significant effect on functional traits. Leaves of plants grown from commercial seed releases were significantly larger and had lower SLA than those from natural populations, a result that is concordant with the overall relation between climate and these two functional traits. We suggest that the patterns of functional trait variation shown here may extend to other grass species in the western USA, and may serve as useful proxies for more extensive genecology research. Furthermore, we argue that care should be taken to develop commercial seed lines with functional trait values that match those of natural populations occupying climates similar to target restoration sites.

  6. Neighborhood size and local geographic variation of health and social determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emch Michael

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial filtering using a geographic information system (GIS is often used to smooth health and ecological data. Smoothing disease data can help us understand local (neighborhood geographic variation and ecological risk of diseases. Analyses that use small neighborhood sizes yield individualistic patterns and large sizes reveal the global structure of data where local variation is obscured. Therefore, choosing an optimal neighborhood size is important for understanding ecological associations with diseases. This paper uses Hartley's test of homogeneity of variance (Fmax as a methodological solution for selecting optimal neighborhood sizes. The data from a study area in Vietnam are used to test the suitability of this method. Results The Hartley's Fmax test was applied to spatial variables for two enteric diseases and two socioeconomic determinants. Various neighbourhood sizes were tested by using a two step process to implement the Fmaxtest. First the variance of each neighborhood was compared to the highest neighborhood variance (upper, Fmax1 and then they were compared with the lowest neighborhood variance (lower, Fmax2. A significant value of Fmax1 indicates that the neighborhood does not reveal the global structure of data, and in contrast, a significant value in Fmax2 implies that the neighborhood data are not individualistic. The neighborhoods that are between the lower and the upper limits are the optimal neighbourhood sizes. Conclusion The results of tests provide different neighbourhood sizes for different variables suggesting that optimal neighbourhood size is data dependent. In ecology, it is well known that observation scales may influence ecological inference. Therefore, selecting optimal neigborhood size is essential for understanding disease ecologies. The optimal neighbourhood selection method that is tested in this paper can be useful in health and ecological studies.

  7. Risk factors related to interfractional variation in whole pelvic irradiation for locally advanced pelvic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, W.S.; Yang, D.S.; Lee, J.A.; Lee, S.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of the present study was to demonstrate risk factors affecting the interfractional variation in whole pelvic irradiation. Patients and methods: Daily image acquisitions of 101 patients with locally advanced pelvic malignancy were undertaken using a kilo-voltage orthogonal on-board imager. The baseline deviation (the shift between the initial treatment and each fraction; Value Base ) and day-to-day variation (the shift between the previous treatment and each fraction; Value DD ) were measured. The standard deviations (SD) along the x- (right-left), y- (cranial-caudal), and z- (anterior-posterior) axes (SD[x], SD[y], and SD[z], respectively), the 3D vector of the SD (SD[3D]), and the mean of 3D shift (mean[3D]) were calculated in each patient. Various clinical factors, lumbar pelvic balance and rotation, and the shift of 5 consecutive fractions from the initial treatment (Value 5Fx ) were investigated as risk factors. Results: The prone set-up showed a larger mean Base [3D] than in the supine position (p =0.063). A body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m 2 resulted in the largest mean DD [3D] (p = 0.078) and SD DD [3D] (p = 0.058). All the SD 5Fx along the x-, y-, and z-axes had moderate linear relationships with SD Base and SD DD (p 5Fx [3D] also had a moderate linear relationship with the mean Base [3D], mean DD [3D], SD Base [3D], and SD DD [3D] (p 5Fx had the same significant relationship with SD Base and SD DD (p 2 was associated with the largest SD DD [x] (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Close surveillance through high-quality and frequent image guidance is recommended for patients with extensive variations of the initial five consecutive fractions or obesity. (orig.)

  8. Increased extinction potential of insular fish populations with reduced life history variation and low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmair, Michael; Kinziger, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi), show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species.

  9. A cross-coupled-structure-based temperature sensor with reduced process variation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tie Meng; Cheng Xu, E-mail: tiemeng@mprc.pku.edu.c [Microprocessor Research and Development Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-04-15

    An innovative, thermally-insensitive phenomenon of cascaded cross-coupled structures is found. And a novel CMOS temperature sensor based on a cross-coupled structure is proposed. This sensor consists of two different ring oscillators. The first ring oscillator generates pulses that have a period, changing linearly with temperature. Instead of using the system clock like in traditional sensors, the second oscillator utilizes a cascaded cross-coupled structure to generate temperature independent pulses to capture the result from the first oscillator. Due to the compensation between the two ring oscillators, errors caused by supply voltage variations and systematic process variations are reduced. The layout design of the sensor is based on the TSMC13G process standard cell library. Only three inverters are modified for proper channel width tuning without any other custom design. This allows for an easy integration of the sensor into cell-based chips. Post-layout simulations results show that an error lower than +-1.1 deg. C can be achieved in the full temperature range from -40 to 120 deg. C. As shown by SPICE simulations, the thermal insensitivity of the cross-coupled inverters can be realized for various TSMC technologies: 0.25 mum, 0.18 mum, 0.13 mum, and 65 nm.

  10. Increased extinction potential of insular fish populations with reduced life history variation and low genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hellmair

    Full Text Available Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi, show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species.

  11. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice.

  12. A reduced-cost iterated local search heuristic for the fixed-charge transportation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buson, Erika; Roberti, Roberto; Toth, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a generalization of the transportation problem where an additional fixed cost is paid for sending a flow from an origin to a destination. We propose an iterated local search heuristic based on the utilization of reduced costs for guiding the restart

  13. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S1 state of C2H2. I. Methodology and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changala, P. Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The bending and torsional degrees of freedom in S 1 acetylene, C 2 H 2 , are subject to strong vibrational resonances and rovibrational interactions, which create complex vibrational polyad structures even at low energy. As the internal energy approaches that of the barrier to cis-trans isomerization, these energy level patterns undergo further large-scale reorganization that cannot be satisfactorily treated by traditional models tied to local minima of the potential energy surface for nuclear motion. Experimental spectra in the region near the cis-trans transition state have revealed these complicated new patterns. In order to understand near-barrier spectroscopic observations and to predict the detailed effects of cis-trans isomerization on the rovibrational energy level structure, we have performed reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S 1 state. In this paper, we present the methodological details, several of which require special care. Our calculation uses a high accuracy ab initio potential surface and a fully symmetrized extended complete nuclear permutation inversion group theoretical treatment of a multivalued internal coordinate system that is appropriate for large amplitude bending and torsional motions. We also discuss the details of the rovibrational basis functions and their symmetrization, as well as the use of a constrained reduced dimension rovibrational kinetic energy operator

  14. Multidrug resistance among new tuberculosis cases: detecting local variation through lot quality-assurance sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt, Bethany Lynn; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-03-01

    Current methodology for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper investigates the utility of applying lot quality-assurance sampling to identify geographic heterogeneity in the proportion of new cases with multidrug resistance. We simulated the performance of lot quality-assurance sampling by applying these classification-based approaches to data collected in the most recent TB drug-resistance surveys in Ukraine, Vietnam, and Tanzania. We explored 3 classification systems- two-way static, three-way static, and three-way truncated sequential sampling-at 2 sets of thresholds: low MDR TB = 2%, high MDR TB = 10%, and low MDR TB = 5%, high MDR TB = 20%. The lot quality-assurance sampling systems identified local variability in the prevalence of multidrug resistance in both high-resistance (Ukraine) and low-resistance settings (Vietnam). In Tanzania, prevalence was uniformly low, and the lot quality-assurance sampling approach did not reveal variability. The three-way classification systems provide additional information, but sample sizes may not be obtainable in some settings. New rapid drug-sensitivity testing methods may allow truncated sequential sampling designs and early stopping within static designs, producing even greater efficiency gains. Lot quality-assurance sampling study designs may offer an efficient approach for collecting critical information on local variability in the burden of multidrug-resistant TB. Before this methodology is adopted, programs must determine appropriate classification thresholds, the most useful classification system, and appropriate weighting if unbiased national estimates are also desired.

  15. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I

    2014-10-28

    Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C20 isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids.

  16. Risk factors related to interfractional variation in whole pelvic irradiation for locally advanced pelvic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, W.S.; Yang, D.S.; Lee, J.A.; Lee, S.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, C.Y. [Korea Univ. Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The goal of the present study was to demonstrate risk factors affecting the interfractional variation in whole pelvic irradiation. Patients and methods: Daily image acquisitions of 101 patients with locally advanced pelvic malignancy were undertaken using a kilo-voltage orthogonal on-board imager. The baseline deviation (the shift between the initial treatment and each fraction; Value{sub Base}) and day-to-day variation (the shift between the previous treatment and each fraction; Value{sub DD}) were measured. The standard deviations (SD) along the x- (right-left), y- (cranial-caudal), and z- (anterior-posterior) axes (SD[x], SD[y], and SD[z], respectively), the 3D vector of the SD (SD[3D]), and the mean of 3D shift (mean[3D]) were calculated in each patient. Various clinical factors, lumbar pelvic balance and rotation, and the shift of 5 consecutive fractions from the initial treatment (Value{sub 5Fx}) were investigated as risk factors. Results: The prone set-up showed a larger mean{sub Base}[3D] than in the supine position (p =0.063). A body mass index (BMI) {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2} resulted in the largest mean{sub DD}[3D] (p = 0.078) and SD{sub DD}[3D] (p = 0.058). All the SD{sub 5Fx} along the x-, y-, and z-axes had moderate linear relationships with SD{sub Base} and SD{sub DD} (p < 0.001). The SD{sub 5Fx}[3D] also had a moderate linear relationship with the mean{sub Base}[3D], mean{sub DD}[3D], SD{sub Base}[3D], and SD{sub DD}[3D] (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the SD{sub 5Fx} had the same significant relationship with SD{sub Base} and SD{sub DD} (p < 0.001). A BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2} was associated with the largest SD{sub DD}[x] (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Close surveillance through high-quality and frequent image guidance is recommended for patients with extensive variations of the initial five consecutive fractions or obesity. (orig.)

  17. Local Fractional Variational Iteration and Decomposition Methods for Wave Equation on Cantor Sets within Local Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Baleanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the fractional iteration and decomposition methods applied to the wave equation on Cantor set. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.

  18. Variation in local abundance and species richness of stream fishes in relation to dispersal barriers: Implications for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislow, K.H.; Hudy, M.; Letcher, B.H.; Smith, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    1.Barriers to immigration, all else being equal, should in principle depress local abundance and reduce local species richness. These issues are particularly relevant to stream-dwelling species when improperly designed road crossings act as barriers to migration with potential impacts on the viability of upstream populations. However, because abundance and richness are highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous and the relative importance of immigration on demography is uncertain, population- and community-level effects can be difficult to detect. 2.In this study, we tested the effects of potential barriers to upstream movements on the local abundance and species richness of a diverse assemblage of resident stream fishes in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, U.S.A. Fishes were sampled using simple standard techniques above- and below road crossings that were either likely or unlikely to be barriers to upstream fish movements (based on physical dimensions of the crossing). We predicted that abundance of resident fishes would be lower in the upstream sections of streams with predicted impassable barriers, that the strength of the effect would vary among species and that variable effects on abundance would translate into lower species richness. 3.Supporting these predictions, the statistical model that best accounted for variation in abundance and species richness included a significant interaction between location (upstream or downstream of crossing) and type (passable or impassable crossing). Stream sections located above predicated impassable culverts had fewer than half the number of species and less than half the total fish abundance, while stream sections above and below passable culverts had essentially equivalent richness and abundance. 4.Our results are consistent with the importance of immigration and population connectivity to local abundance and species richness of stream fishes. In turn, these results suggest that when measured at

  19. A numerical study of local variations in tidal regime of Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Miguel; Valentim, Juliana Marques; Sousa, Magda Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Tidal dynamics of shallow estuaries and lagoons is a complex matter that has attracted the attention of a large number of researchers over the last few decades. The main purpose of the present work is to study the intricate tidal dynamics of the Tagus estuary, which states as the largest estuary of the Iberian Peninsula and one of the most important wetlands in Portugal and Europe. Tagus has large areas of low depth and a remarkable geomorphology, both determining the complex propagation of tidal waves along the estuary of unknown manner. A non-linear two-dimensional vertically integrated hydrodynamic model was considered to be adequate to simulate its hydrodynamics and an application developed from the SIMSYS2D model was applied to study the tidal propagation along the estuary. The implementation and calibration of this model revealed its accuracy to predict tidal properties along the entire system. Several model runs enabled the analysis of the local variations in tidal dynamics, through the interpretation of amplitude and phase patterns of the main tidal constituents, tidal asymmetry, tidal ellipses, form factor and tidal dissipation. Results show that Tagus estuary tidal dynamics is extremely dependent on an estuarine resonance mode for the semi-diurnal constituents that induce important tidal characteristics. Besides, the estuarine coastline features and topography determines the changes in tidal propagation along the estuary, which therefore result essentially from a balance between convergence/divergence and friction and advection effects, besides the resonance effects.

  20. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brian Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg grating (FBG temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  1. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R Brian; Joyce, Peter; Mechtel, Deborah

    2017-01-27

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  2. Localized Sympathectomy Reduces Mechanical Hypersensitivity by Restoring Normal Immune Homeostasis in Rat Models of Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenrui; Chen, Sisi; Strong, Judith A; Li, Ai-Ling; Lewkowich, Ian P; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2016-08-17

    Some forms of chronic pain are maintained or enhanced by activity in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), but attempts to model this have yielded conflicting findings. The SNS has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on immunity, confounding the interpretation of experiments using global sympathectomy methods. We performed a "microsympathectomy" by cutting the ipsilateral gray rami where they entered the spinal nerves near the L4 and L5 DRG. This led to profound sustained reductions in pain behaviors induced by local DRG inflammation (a rat model of low back pain) and by a peripheral paw inflammation model. Effects of microsympathectomy were evident within one day, making it unlikely that blocking sympathetic sprouting in the local DRGs or hindpaw was the sole mechanism. Prior microsympathectomy greatly reduced hyperexcitability of sensory neurons induced by local DRG inflammation observed 4 d later. Microsympathectomy reduced local inflammation and macrophage density in the affected tissues (as indicated by paw swelling and histochemical staining). Cytokine profiling in locally inflamed DRG showed increases in pro-inflammatory Type 1 cytokines and decreases in the Type 2 cytokines present at baseline, changes that were mitigated by microsympathectomy. Microsympathectomy was also effective in reducing established pain behaviors in the local DRG inflammation model. We conclude that the effect of sympathetic fibers in the L4/L5 gray rami in these models is pro-inflammatory. This raises the possibility that therapeutic interventions targeting gray rami might be useful in some chronic inflammatory pain conditions. Sympathetic blockade is used for many pain conditions, but preclinical studies show both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. The sympathetic nervous system also has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on immune tissues and cells. We examined effects of a very localized sympathectomy. By cutting the gray rami to the spinal nerves near the lumbar sensory

  3. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm II for non-homogeneous model associated with the non-differentiable heat flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we begin with the non-homogeneous model for the non-differentiable heat flow, which is described using the local fractional vector calculus, from the first law of thermodynamics in fractal media point view. We employ the local fractional variational iteration algorithm II to solve the fractal heat equations. The obtained results show the non-differentiable behaviors of temperature fields of fractal heat flow defined on Cantor sets.

  4. Variational derivatives in locally Lagrangian field theories and Noether-Bessel-Hagen currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattafi, Francesco; Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2016-01-01

    The variational Lie derivative of classes of forms in the Krupka's variational sequence is defined as a variational Cartan formula at any degree, in particular for degrees lesser than the dimension of the basis manifold. As an example of application, we determine the condition for a

  5. Hospital staffing and local pay: an investigation into the impact of local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay on the staffing of hospitals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.

  6. Exploring local variation in the use of out-of-home care in England using linked administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Mc Grath-Lone

    2017-04-01

    Overall 3.3% of children in England born 1992-94 had entered OHC by age 18. Rates varied considerably by local authority from this national average, ranging from just 1.0% in Rutland to 6.9% in Manchester (both p<0.001. Local authority variation in rates of entry to OHC was also evident among the most recent birth cohort: while 0.8% of children born 2009-11 had entered OHC by age one, this figure varied from 0.2% in Rutland to 2.7% in Blackpool (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively. Indirect standardisation of rates for ethnicity did not appreciably change the cumulative percentage of children entering care in each local authority or the relative rankings of local authorities. Conclusion There is considerable, persistent variation between local authorities in England in the rate of entry into OHC during childhood which cannot be attributed to differences in ethnic composition. Further linkage of administrative social care data to area-level data (for example, related to social care spending or indicators of social deprivation would be useful for understanding local variation in thresholds for placing a child in OHC.

  7. Evaluation of the performance of the reduced local lymph node assay for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Muller, Andre; Hakkert, Betty C; van Loveren, Henk

    2013-06-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.3% of the sensitizers identified in the LLNA and misclassification occurred in all potency classes and that there was no clear association with irritant properties. It is therefore not possible to predict beforehand which substances might be misclassified. Another limitation of the reduced LLNA is that skin sensitizing potency cannot be assessed. For these reasons, it is not recommended to use the reduced LLNA as a stand-alone assay for skin sensitization testing within REACH. In the future, the reduced LLNA might be of added value in a weight of evidence approach to confirm negative results obtained with non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. The efficacy of local anesthetics in reducing post operative pain after appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Baghaee vaji

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing post operative pain is a common issue in surgeries. This study was to evaluate the efficacy of wound infiltration with local anesthetics in reducing postoperative pain after appendectomy. This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial on 40 patients with non-complicated acute appendicitis. Cases received a combination of lidocaine hydrochloride and bupivacaine hydrochloride after appendectomy and before closing the wound. Controls received the same volume of saline solution. Injections were done both under the fascia of external oblique muscle and intradermal. Pain assessment was done by two pain measuring scales, VAS and NRS, in 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after the operation. Cases and controls were the same in age, sex, and history of opium addiction. Pain peaked in the 8th hour after operation in both groups and reduced afterwards. Pain assessments showed the same pattern using the NRS and VAS measuring scales. T-test showed the pain to be significantly less in cases comparing with the controls in all time points. No significant difference was seen in the time of receiving the first analgesic after the operation but the frequency of analgesic consumption was significantly lower in controls. This study showed local anesthetic infiltration to be effective in reducing the postoperative pain in patients undergoing appendectomy which is in contrast with the previous studies. This may be due to a different infiltration technique or pain assessment in the first 24 hours after the operation.

  10. On the Road to Improved Scheduling: Reducing the Effects of Variation in Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Scheduling in onsite construction is based on commitments. Unmet commitments result in non-completions which leads to waste. Moreover, it is important that commitments are realistic to avoid both positive and negative variation in duration. Negative variation is destructive to plans and schedules...... and results in delays, while positive variation is destructive to productivity by creating unexploited gaps between activities, thus inducing unexploited capacity. By registering non-completion at three construction sites, the magnitude of activities inducing negative variation has been mapped. In total, 5424...

  11. Local time variations of the middle atmosphere of Venus: Solar-related structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L.; Khatountsev, I. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.

    Three-dimensional fields (latitude — altitude — local time) of temperature and aerosol in the upper clouds, obtained from the Venera-15 IR spectrometry data, were studied to search for the solar-related structures. The temperature variation at the isobaric levels vs. solar longitude was presented as a superposition of the cosines with periods of 1, 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 Venusian days. At low latitudes the diurnal tidal component reaches a maximum above 0.2 mb (92km) level. At high latitudes it dominates at P> 50 mb (68 km) in the cold collar, being roughly twice as much as the semidiurnal one and passing through the maximum of 13 K at 400 mb (57 km). The semidiurnal tidal amplitude exceeds the diurnal one below 90 km (where its maximum locates near 83 km), and also in the upper clouds, above 58 km. At low latitudes the 1/3 days component predominates at 10 - 50 mb (68-76 km). In the upper clouds, where most of the solar energy, absorbed in the middle atmosphere, deposits, all four tidal components, including wavenumbers 3 and 4, have significant amplitudes. A position of the upper boundary of the clouds depends on local time in such a way that the lowest height of the clouds is observed in the morning at all selected latitude ranges. At low latitudes the highest position of the upper boundary of the clouds (at 1218 cm -1) is found at 8 - 9 PM, whereas the lowest one is near the morning terminator. At high latitudes the lowest position of the upper boundary of the clouds shifts towards the dayside being at 10:30 AM at 75° in the cold collar and the highest one shifts to 4 PM. The zonal mean altitude of the upper boundary of the clouds decreases from 69 km at 15° to 59 km at 75°. The diurnal tidal component has the highest amplitude in the cold collar (1.5 km). At low latitudes both amplitudes, diurnal and semidiurnal, reach the values 0.8 - 1 km.

  12. Improved free-energy landscape reconstruction of bacteriorhodopsin highlights local variations in unfolding energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, Patrick R; Yu, Hao; Siewny, Matthew G W; Perkins, Thomas T

    2018-03-28

    Precisely quantifying the energetics that drive the folding of membrane proteins into a lipid bilayer remains challenging. More than 15 years ago, atomic force microscopy (AFM) emerged as a powerful tool to mechanically extract individual membrane proteins from a lipid bilayer. Concurrently, fluctuation theorems, such as the Jarzynski equality, were applied to deduce equilibrium free energies (ΔG 0 ) from non-equilibrium single-molecule force spectroscopy records. The combination of these two advances in single-molecule studies deduced the free-energy of the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin in its native lipid bilayer. To elucidate this free-energy landscape at a higher resolution, we applied two recent developments. First, as an input to the reconstruction, we used force-extension curves acquired with a 100-fold higher time resolution and 10-fold higher force precision than traditional AFM studies of membrane proteins. Next, by using an inverse Weierstrass transform and the Jarzynski equality, we removed the free energy associated with the force probe and determined the molecular free-energy landscape of the molecule under study, bacteriorhodopsin. The resulting landscape yielded an average unfolding free energy per amino acid (aa) of 1.0 ± 0.1 kcal/mol, in agreement with past single-molecule studies. Moreover, on a smaller spatial scale, this high-resolution landscape also agreed with an equilibrium measurement of a particular three-aa transition in bacteriorhodopsin that yielded 2.7 kcal/mol/aa, an unexpectedly high value. Hence, while average unfolding ΔG 0 per aa is a useful metric, the derived high-resolution landscape details significant local variation from the mean. More generally, we demonstrated that, as anticipated, the inverse Weierstrass transform is an efficient means to reconstruct free-energy landscapes from AFM data.

  13. Future rainfall variations reduce abundances of aboveground arthropods in model agroecosystems with different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann G. Zaller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict less frequent but heavier rainfalls and longer drought periods during the growing season. This is expected to alter arthropods in agroecosystems that are important as biocontrol agents, herbivores or food for predators (e.g. farmland birds. In a lysimeter facility (totally 18 3-m2-plots, we experimentally tested the effects of long-term past vs. prognosticated future rainfall variations (15% increased rainfall per event, 25% more dry days according to regionalized climate change models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC on aboveground arthropods in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated at three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem. Soil types were established 17 years and rainfall treatments one month before arthropod sampling; treatments were fully crossed and replicated three times. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling, their mean abundances (± SD differed between April, May and June with 20 ± 3 m-2, 90 ± 35 m-2 and 289 ± 93 individuals m-2, respectively. Averaged across sampling dates, future rainfall reduced the abundance of spiders (Araneae, -47%, cicadas and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha, -39%, beetles (Coleoptera, -52%, ground beetles (Carabidae, -41%, leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, -64%, spring tails (Collembola, -58%, flies (Diptera, -73% and lacewings (Neuroptera, -73% but increased the abundance of snails (Gastropoda, +69%. Across sampling dates, soil types had no effects on arthropod abundances. Arthropod diversity was neither affected by rainfall nor soil types. Arthropod abundance was positively correlated with weed biomass for almost all taxa; abundance of Hemiptera and of total arthropods was positively correlated with weed density. These detrimental effects of future rainfall varieties on arthropod taxa in wheat fields can potentially alter arthropod-associated agroecosystem services.

  14. Efficient local behavioral-change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yilei; Gregory, Steve; Mills, Harriet L.

    2013-10-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic, for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her local network to decide which contacts should be avoided. If the behavior change occurs only when an individual becomes ill or aware of the disease, these strategies can substantially reduce epidemic size with a relatively small cost, measured by the number of contacts avoided.

  15. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Localized type Volkmann's contracture treated with tendon transfer and tension-reduced early mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Yoshio; Nakamura, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Konosuke; Tobiume, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: For localized type Volkmann's contracture, in which degeneration of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle to one or two fingers and restriction of finger extension occur, dissection or excision of the affected muscle is usually recommended. However, these surgical procedures need relatively wide exposure of the muscle, because the FDP muscle is in the deep portion of the forearm. Patient concerns: In this report, the case of a 35-year-old woman with localized type Volkmann's contracture is presented. Her left forearm had been compressed with an industrial roller 4 months earlier, and severe flexion contracture of the long finger and mild flexion contracture of the ring finger developed gradually. Diagnoses: localized type Volkmann's contracture. Intervention: Five months after the injury, transection of the FDP tendon to the long finger and transfer of the transected tendon to the FDP tendon to the index finger was performed after adjusting the tonus of these two tendons using a small skin incision. This procedure was followed by a tension-reduced early mobilization technique in which a tension-reduced position of the tendon suture site was maintained by taping the long finger to the volar side of the index finger, and then immediate active range of motion (ROM) exercise was started. Outcomes: Within 9 weeks after surgery, full ROM had been regained. Lessons: Using the treatment procedure presented in this case report, a good clinical result was obtained in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:28072735

  17. Enhancing tube hydroformability by reducing the local strain gradient at potential necking sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S. G. R.; Joo, B. D.; Moon, Y. H.; Tyne, C. J. Van

    2014-01-01

    Bursting in tube hydroforming is preceded by localized deformation, which is often called necking. The retardation of the initiation of necking is a means to enhance hydroformability. Since high strain gradients occur at necking sites, a decrease in local strain gradients is an effective way to retard the initiation of necking. In the current study, the expansion at potential necking sites was intentionally restricted in order to reduce the strain gradient at potential necking sites. From the strain distribution obtained from FEM, it is possible to determine strain concentrated zones, which are the potential necking sites. Prior to the hydroforming of a trailing arm, lead patch is attached to the tube where the strain concentration would occur. Due to the incompressibility of lead, the tube expansion is locally restricted, and the resultant strain extends to adjacent regions of the tube during hydroforming. After the first stage of hydroforming, the lead is removed from the tube, and the hydroforming continues to obtain the targeted shape without the local restriction. This method was successfully used to fabricate a complex shaped automotive trailing arm that had previously failed during traditional hydroforming processing.

  18. Analysis of fracture patterns and local stress field variations in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Hagen; Drews, Michael; Fremgen, Dominik; Wellmann, J. Florian

    2010-05-01

    independently estimated regional stress tensor is put as a boundary condition into the BE Model. The computed BE model allows to recognize local 3D stress tensor perturbations caused by the larger faults that act as mechanical inhomogeneities. The geometry of the fracture network from field work together with the local stress tensors derived from the 3D BE models allows examining normal and shear stresses on single fractures in different domains of the investigated area. This in turn is used to evaluate, which of the fractures might preferably act as fluid conduits by describing the dilation potential of single fractures. The combination of an improved understanding of the fracture network along with local stress tensors variations from mechanical models will provide a sound evaluation of fluid pathways in fractured reservoirs. In future applications the accurate investigation of large discontinuity pattern in outcrops might be used for a better mathematical definition of fracture networks which could be implemented into numerical simulations of fluid flow.

  19. Optimal reducibility of all W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 BT Road, Kolkata (India)

    2011-11-15

    We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.

  20. Family relationship of female breeders reduce the systematic inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota of inbred laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown that the composit...... the family relatedness of the breeding pairs....

  1. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglietti, Felipe; Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response

  2. Spatial difference in genetic variation for fenitrothion tolerance between local populations of Daphnia galeata in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the spatial difference in genetic variation for tolerance to a pesticide, fenitrothion, in Daphnia galeata at field sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. We estimated genetic values of isofemale lines established from dormant eggs of D. galeata collected from field sampling sites with the toxicant threshold model applied using acute toxicity. We compared genetic values and variances and broad-sense heritability across different sites in the lake. Results showed that the mean tolerance values to fenitrothion did not differ spatially. The variance in genetic value and heritability of fenitrothion tolerance significantly differed between sampling sites, revealing that long-term ecological risk of fenitrothion may differ between local populations in the lake. These results have implications for aquatic toxicology research, suggesting that differences in genetic variation of tolerance to a chemical among local populations must be considered for understanding the long-term ecological risks of the chemical over a large geographic area.

  3. Noninvasive monitoring local variations of fever and edema on human: potential for point-of-care inflammation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zebin; Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Tissue inflammation is often accompanied by fever and edema, which are common and troublesome problems that probably trigger disability, lymphangitis, cosmetic deformity and cellulitis. Here we developed a device, which can measure concentration and temperature variations of water in local human body by extended near infrared spectroscopy in 900 1000 nm wavelength range. An experiment of four steps incremental cycling exercise was designed to change tissue water concentration and temperature of subjects. Body temperature was also estimated by tympanic thermometer and surface thermometer as comparisons during the experiment. In the stage of recovery after exercise, the signal detected by custom device is similar to tympanic thermometer at the beginning, but it is closer to the temperature of surface later. In particular, this signal shows a better linearity, and a significant change when the exercise was suspended. This study demonstrated the potential of optical touch-sensing for inflammation severity monitoring by measuring water concentration and temperature variations in local lesions.

  4. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  5. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.A.; Looker, R.E.; Yee, D.; Marvin-Di Pasquale, M.; Grenier, J.L.; Austin, C.M.; McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K.; Brodberg, R.; Blum, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  6. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A., E-mail: jay@sfei.org [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Looker, R.E. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Yee, D. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Marvin-Di Pasquale, M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grenier, J.L. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Austin, C.M. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Brodberg, R. [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States); Blum, J.D. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  7. Suppurative Inflammation and Local Tissue Destruction Reduce the Penetration of Cefuroxime to Infected Bone Implant Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L Kruse; Koch, J; Henriksen, N Lind

    2017-01-01

    with Staphylococcus aureus IAO present for 5 days. In the present study, a comprehensive histopathological characterization of the peri-implant bone tissue was performed and correlated with the reduced penetration of cefuroxime. In two pigs, the levels of oxygen, pyruvate and lactate was estimated in the implant...... cavity. A peri-implant pathological bone area (PIBA) developed with a width of 1.2 up to 3.8 mm. PIBAs included: (1) suppuration, resulting in destruction of the implant cavity contour, and (2) a non-vascular zone of primarily necrotic bone tissue. A strong negative correlation was seen between PIBA...... width and cefuroxime area under the concentration time curves (AUC[0-last]) and peak concentration of cefuroxime (Cmax). All metabolic measurements demonstrated hypoxia. In conclusion, subacute suppurative bone inflammation with local tissue destruction can result in decreased penetration of antibiotics...

  8. Localization of periodic orbits of the Roessler system under variation of its parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Starkov, Konstantin K.

    2007-01-01

    The localization problem of compact invariant sets of the Roessler system is considered in this paper. The main interest is attracted to a localization of periodic orbits. We establish a number of algebraic conditions imposed on parameters under which the Roessler system has no compact invariant sets contained in half-spaces z > 0; z < 0 and in some others. We prove that if parameters (a, b, c) of the Roessler system are such that this system has no equilibrium points then it has no periodic orbits as well. In addition, we give localization conditions of compact invariant sets by using linear functions and one quadratic function

  9. Localization of periodic orbits of the Roessler system under variation of its parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)]. E-mail: konst@citedi.mx; Starkov, Konstantin K. [UABC - Campus Tijuana, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria, Calzada Tecnologico, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    The localization problem of compact invariant sets of the Roessler system is considered in this paper. The main interest is attracted to a localization of periodic orbits. We establish a number of algebraic conditions imposed on parameters under which the Roessler system has no compact invariant sets contained in half-spaces z > 0; z < 0 and in some others. We prove that if parameters (a, b, c) of the Roessler system are such that this system has no equilibrium points then it has no periodic orbits as well. In addition, we give localization conditions of compact invariant sets by using linear functions and one quadratic function.

  10. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  11. Simulation of local instabilities with the use of reduced order models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykin, V.; Demaziere, C.; Lange, C.; Hennig, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an advanced reduced order model (ROM) with four heated channels, taking into account local, regional and core-wide oscillations, is described. The ROM contains three sub-models: a neutron-kinetic model (describing neutron transport), a thermal- hydraulic model (describing the coolant flow) and a heat transfer model (describing heat transfer between the fuel and the coolant). All these three models are coupled to each other, using two feedback mechanisms: void feedback and doppler feedback. Each of the sub-models is described by a set of reduced ordinary differential equations, derived from the corresponding time space-dependent partial differential equations by using different types of approximations and mathematical techniques. All three models were developed from past ROMs and, subsequently, were modified in order to fit the purpose of our investigations. One of the novelties of the present ROM is that it takes into account the effect of the first three neutronic modes, namely the fundamental, the first and the second azimuthal modes, as well as the effect of local oscillations on these modes. In order to have a proper representation of both azimuthal modes, a four heated channel ROM was developed. Another modification, compared to earlier work, is the determination of the coupling reactivity coefficients for both void fraction and fuel temperature, which were calculated explicitly by evaluating cross-section perturbations with the help of the SIMULATE-3 and the CORESIM codes. The ROM was thereafter applied to a channel instability event that occurred at the Swedish Forsmark-1 BWR in 1996/1997. The time signals for each of the modes were generated from the ROM and compared with the measurements, performed at the plant. Some qualitative comparison between the ROM and the measurements was made. The results could bear some significance in understanding the instability event and its coupling mechanism to core-wide oscillations. (author)

  12. Local anaesthetic refinement of pentobarbital euthanasia reduces abdominal writhing without affecting immunohistochemical endpoints in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Shaun Y-S; Lay, Belinda P P; Joya, Josephine; McNally, Gavan P

    2018-04-01

    Sodium pentobarbital is a commonly used agent for euthanizing laboratory rats, however its high pH can cause abdominal discomfort after intraperitoneal injection. Previous studies suggest that the addition of a local anaesthetic may alleviate this discomfort, but the practice has not been widely adopted. We examined the effect of combining lidocaine with pentobarbital on abdominal writhing, defecation, ultrasonic vocalizations, the rat grimace scale and immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens and basolateral amygdala of the brain. We also compared the amount of abdominal writhing following intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital-lidocaine with that of pentobarbital-bupivacaine. Our results show that lidocaine reduces abdominal writhing and defecation without affecting immunohistochemistry for c-Fos or latency to loss of posture. However, scores on the rat grimace scale were low in both situations and almost no ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded. Additionally, we found that the amount of abdominal writhing was not significantly different when bupivacaine was used rather than lidocaine. Our results suggest that pentobarbital-induced euthanasia can be refined with the addition of lidocaine or other local anaesthetics.

  13. Subpixel edge localization with reduced uncertainty by violating the Nyquist criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidingsfelder, Philipp; Gao, Jun; Wang, Kun; Ott, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, the extent to which the Nyquist criterion can be violated in optical imaging systems with a digital sensor, e.g., a digital microscope, is investigated. In detail, we analyze the subpixel uncertainty of the detected position of a step edge, the edge of a stripe with a varying width, and that of a periodic rectangular pattern for varying pixel pitches of the sensor, thus also in aliased conditions. The analysis includes the investigation of different algorithms of edge localization based on direct fitting or based on the derivative of the edge profile, such as the common centroid method. In addition to the systematic error of these algorithms, the influence of the photon noise (PN) is included in the investigation. A simplified closed form solution for the uncertainty of the edge position caused by the PN is derived. The presented results show that, in the vast majority of cases, the pixel pitch can exceed the Nyquist sampling distance by about 50% without an increase of the uncertainty of edge localization. This allows one to increase the field-of-view without increasing the resolution of the sensor and to decrease the size of the setup by reducing the magnification. Experimental results confirm the simulation results.

  14. A Variational Level Set Approach Based on Local Entropy for Image Segmentation and Bias Field Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Jiang, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation has always been a considerable challenge in image analysis and understanding due to the intensity inhomogeneity, which is also commonly known as bias field. In this paper, we present a novel region-based approach based on local entropy for segmenting images and estimating the bias field simultaneously. Firstly, a local Gaussian distribution fitting (LGDF) energy function is defined as a weighted energy integral, where the weight is local entropy derived from a grey level distribution of local image. The means of this objective function have a multiplicative factor that estimates the bias field in the transformed domain. Then, the bias field prior is fully used. Therefore, our model can estimate the bias field more accurately. Finally, minimization of this energy function with a level set regularization term, image segmentation, and bias field estimation can be achieved. Experiments on images of various modalities demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method when compared with other state-of-the-art approaches.

  15. Y-chromosomal variation of local goat breeds of Turkey close to the domestication centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cinar Kul, B; Bilgen, N; Lenstra, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335; Korkmaz Agaoglu, O; Akyuz, B; Ertugrul, O

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in chromosome Y are enabling researchers to identify paternal lineages, which are informative for introgressions and migrations. In this study, the male-specific region markers, sex-determining region-Y (SRY), amelogenin (AMELY) and zinc finger (ZFY) were analysed in seven Turkish

  16. Variation in Local-Scale Edge Effects: Mechanisms and landscape Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Donovan; Peter W. Jones; Elizabeth M. Annand; Frank R. Thompson III

    1997-01-01

    Ecological processes near habitat edges often differ from processes away from edges. Yet, the generality of "edge effects" has been hotly debated because results vary tremendously. To understand the factors responsible for this variation, we described nest predation and cowbird distribution patterns in forest edge and forest core habitats on 36 randomly...

  17. Subcellular localization of proteins in the anaerobic sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris via SNAP-tag labeling and photoconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorur, A.; Leung, C. M.; Jorgens, D.; Tauscher, A.; Remis, J. P.; Ball, D. A.; Chhabra, S.; Fok, V.; Geller, J. T.; Singer, M.; Hazen, T. C.; Juba, T.; Elias, D.; Wall, J.; Biggin, M.; Downing, K. H.; Auer, M.

    2010-06-01

    chromosome is located. Two other proteins - Thiosulfate reductase and ATP binding protein were found to be cytoplasmically distributed, whereas a molybdenum transporter was found to locate to the cell periphery. We judge labeling outcome by (1) SDS gel electrophoresis, followed by direct fluorescence imaging of the gel to address specificity of labeling/confirm expected molecular weight, and subsequent Coomassie analysis to ensure comparable protein levels (2) fluorescence intensity of culture by plate reader for statistical sampling (after adjustment for respective cell numbers) and (3) fluorescence microscopy for addressing cell-to-cell signal variation and potential localization patterns. All three assays were usually found to be consistent with one another. While we have been able to improve the efficacy of photoconversion by drastically reducing (eliminating) non-specific binding with our altered labeling protocol, we are currently working on reducing non-specific photoconversion reaction arising occasionally in non-labeled cells. In addition, we have confirmed the presence of SNAP tagged constructs in three recently cloned E.coli strains under promotor control, and are in the process of utilizing them for evaluating the sensitivity of the photoconversion protocol. Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting was successfully applied to labeled E.coli cells containing SNAP tagged AtpA protein. Different batches of sorted cells, representing low and high labeling intensity, were re-grown and re-labeled and displayed a labeling efficiency similar to the starter culture, supporting the notion that cell-to-cell differences in labeling reflect difference in protein expression, rather then genetic differences.

  18. Building local institutions for national conservation programs: lessons for developing Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Collen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programs that aim to promote forest conservation and poverty alleviation, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+, the participation of indigenous communities is essential to meet program goals. Using Ostrom's theory of collective action for common pool resource management, we evaluated the institutions governing indigenous participation in the Programa Socio Bosque incentive-based conservation program in Ecuador. We conducted structured interviews with 94 members in 4 communities to assess community institutions for 6 of Ostrom's principles, using 12 measures we developed for the principles. We found substantial variation between communities in terms of their institutional performance. The best-performing community performed well (>50% of interviewees reported successfully meeting the measure on 8 of the 12 measures. The weakest performed well on only 2 out of 12 measures. Overall, our results indicate that there is stronger performance for constitutional-level institutions, which determine who gets to make the rules, and some collective-choice institutions, which determine how local rules are made. We identified specific challenges with the day-to-day operational institutions that arise from participation in nation state-community conservation programs, such as restricted resource appropriation, monitoring and compliance, and conflict resolution. We found that top-down policy making has an important role to play in supporting communities to establish constitutional-level and some collective-choice institutions. However, developing operational institutions may take more time and depend on local families' day-to-day use of resources, and thus may require a more nuanced policy approach. As some countries and donors find a jurisdictional REDD+ approach increasingly attractive, complementing top-down policy measures with bottom-up institutional development could provide a stronger platform to achieve the

  19. Modeling the growth of individuals in plant populations: local density variation in a strand population of Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J; Kinsman, S; Williams, S

    1998-11-01

    We studied the growth of individual Xanthium strumarium plants growing at four naturally occurring local densities on a beach in Maine: (1) isolated plants, (2) pairs of plants ≤1 cm apart, (3) four plants within 4 cm of each other, and (4) discrete dense clumps of 10-39 plants. A combination of nondestructive measurements every 2 wk and parallel calibration harvests provided very good estimates of the growth in aboveground biomass of over 400 individual plants over 8 wk and afforded the opportunity to fit explicit growth models to 293 of them. There was large individual variation in growth and resultant size within the population and within all densities. Local crowding played a role in determining plant size within the population: there were significant differences in final size between all densities except pairs and quadruples, which were almost identical. Overall, plants growing at higher densities were more variable in growth and final size than plants growing at lower densities, but this was due to increased variation among groups (greater variation in local density and/or greater environmental heterogeneity), not to increased variation within groups. Thus, there was no evidence of size asymmetric competition in this population. The growth of most plants was close to exponential over the study period, but half the plants were slightly better fit by a sigmoidal (logistic) model. The proportion of plants better fit by the logistic model increased with density and with initial plant size. The use of explicit growth models over several growth intervals to describe stand development can provide more biological content and more statistical power than "growth-size" methods that analyze growth intervals separately.

  20. The role of magnetic energy on plasma localization during the glow discharge under reduced pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first results of our research on the synergy of fields, electric and magnetic, in the initiation and development of glow discharge under reduced pressure. In the two-electrode system under reduced pressure, the breakdown voltage characterizes a minimum energy input of the electric field to initiate and sustain the glow discharge. The glow discharge enhanced by the magnetic field applied just above the surface of the cathode influences the breakdown voltage decreasing its value. The idea of the experiment was to verify whether the contribution of potential energy of the magnetic field applied around the cathode is sufficiently effective to locate the plasma of glow discharge to the grounded cathode, which, in fact, is the part of a vacuum chamber wall (the anode is positively biased in this case. In our studies, we used the grounded magnetron unit with positively biased anode in order to achieve favorable conditions for the deposition of thin films on fibrous substrates such as fabrics for metallization, assuming that locally applied magnetic field can effectively locate plasma. The results of our studies (Paschen curve with the participation of the magnetic field seem to confirm the validity of the research assumption. What is the most spectacular - the glow discharge was initiated between introduced into the chamber anode and the grounded cathode of magnetron ‘assisted’ by the magnetic field (discharge did not include the area of the anode, which is a part of the magnetron construction.

  1. Morphometric Variations in the Grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa from Two Localities of Pernambuco in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneiros, Roberta Araújo; de Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas; da Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes morphometric variations in the grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg, 1824) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) from two locations in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The distance between the sites chosen for collections (Recife and São Lourenço da Mata) is approximately 16 km. The investigation was based on a comparative study of external morphological characteristics of the grasshoppers. Morphometric measurements took into account the different body parts and appendages. Statistical analysis of the measurements revealed significant differences in the size of the specimens between the two locations. Homogeneity tests of the covariance and equality matrices between mean vectors of the results revealed that the grasshopper populations in Recife and São Lourenço da Mata are distinctly different. These findings provide morphological evidence for intraspecific variation in morphological characteristics of the C. speciosa populations from the two locations. PMID:23421530

  2. Epigenetic variation predicts regional and local intraspecific functional diversity in a perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The ecological significance of epigenetic variation has been generally inferred from studies on model plants under artificial conditions, but the importance of epigenetic differences between individuals as a source of intraspecific diversity in natural plant populations remains essentially unknown. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic variation and functional plant diversity by conducting epigenetic (methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms, MSAP) and genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) marker-trait association analyses for 20 whole-plant, leaf and regenerative functional traits in a large sample of wild-growing plants of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus from ten sampling sites in south-eastern Spain. Plants differed widely in functional characteristics, and exhibited greater epigenetic than genetic diversity, as shown by per cent polymorphism of MSAP fragments (92%) or markers (69%) greatly exceeding that for AFLP ones (41%). After controlling for genetic structuring and possible cryptic relatedness, every functional trait considered exhibited a significant association with at least one AFLP or MSAP marker. A total of 27 MSAP (13.0% of total) and 12 AFLP (4.4%) markers were involved in significant associations, which explained on average 8.2% and 8.0% of trait variance, respectively. Individual MSAP markers were more likely to be associated with functional traits than AFLP markers. Between-site differences in multivariate functional diversity were directly related to variation in multilocus epigenetic diversity after multilocus genetic diversity was statistically accounted for. Results suggest that epigenetic variation can be an important source of intraspecific functional diversity in H. foetidus, possibly endowing this species with the capacity to exploit a broad range of ecological conditions despite its modest genetic diversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interspecific variation of intracellular localization and postirradiation movement of Ku70-protein in fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Daiji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Okui, Toyo; Kawase, Shiro; Kon, Yasushiro

    2003-01-01

    Ku (Ku70 and Ku80) Proteins are known as components of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and play an important role for DNA repair. We previously reported that more than 70% of Ku proteins were located in cytoplasm of rat cells, the Ku proteins moved into nuclei of normal rat cells after X-irradiation, Ku proteins also moved into nuclei after X-irradiation but were not retained in nucleus of radiosensitive LEC rat cells. While reports have been shown about mechanisms on nuclear localization of Ku proteins, how Ku proteins export from nucleus is poorly understood. Here we show that C-terminal region of Ku70 protein is important for its cytoplasmic localization. When transfected into LEC rat cells, exogenous intact Ku70 (1-609) tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-Ku70) localized mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas C-terminal-deletion mutant of Ku70 (1-593) tagged with EGFP (EGFP-Ku70D) was mainly localized in the nucleus. After X-irradiation, the endogenous intact EGFP-Ku70 once moved into nucleus, but returned into the cytoplasm. On the other hand, EGFP-Ku70D was retained in nucleus for two hours after X-irradiation. These results suggest that C-terminal region of Ku70 is included in the postirradiation nuclear export. Next, we investigated the intracellular localization of Ku70 proteins and the movement after X-irradiation of fibroblastic cells prepared from some mammalian species. Ku70 proteins were localized in nucleus and the postirradiation-extranuclear transport was not observed in human and African green monkey cells. On the other hand, Ku70 proteins were mainly localized in cytoplasm and moved into nucleus in mouse, Chinese hamster, Golden hamster, cotton rat, squirrel, cat and dog cells. These results may show that alternatively Ku70 protein is localized in the cytoplasm or nucleus depends on species and translocation of cytoplasmic Ku70 into nucleus is a response against low dose irradiation in fibroblasts of rodents, cats and dogs

  4. Local variation in conspecific plant density influences plant-soil feedback in a natural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Veendrick, Johan; Bezemer, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have argued that under field conditions plant–soil feedback may be related to the local density of a plant species, but plant–soil feedback is often studied by comparing conspecific and heterospecific soils or by using mixed soil samples collected from different locations and plant

  5. Local and regional variation in the monoterpenes of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Smith; R.L. Peloquin; P.C. Passof

    1969-01-01

    A gas chromatographic analysis of the mono-terpenes of 927 ponderosa pines, representing to some degree a major portion of the species' range, showed considerable local and regional diversity in composition. Five major monoterpenes— α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and limonene—were analyzed. There is some evidence to support the...

  6. Improved quality of beneath-canopy grass in South African savannas: Local and seasonal variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Looringh van Beeck, F.A.; Ludwig, F.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Questions: Do large trees improve the nutrient content and the structure of the grass layer in savannas? Does the magnitude of this improvement differ with locality ( soil nutrients) and season ( water availability)? Are grass structure and species composition beneath tree canopies influenced by

  7. Intra lines uniformity and inter lines variation of rice mutants resulting from irradiation of South Kalimantan local varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raihani Wahdah; Gusti Rumayadi; Rahmi Zulhidiani

    2016-01-01

    The preference of farmer in tidal swamp on local rice varieties are quite high, but local varieties have a long life and low yield characters, so it needs to be improved for the trait. This study is part of activities of the local rice varieties improvement to generate promising lines were short-moderate aged, but the slimming and pera (high amylose content) grains maintained. The aims of this study were to determine the intra lines uniformity and the inter lines variation of M5 generation of rice mutant lines. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Station of Agriculture Faculty, Lambung Mangkurat University from March to September 2014. The experiment used 150 earliest flowering lines of 300 M5 mutant lines that were planted. Intra lines uniformity were analysed by comparing the variance of each mutant lines with variance of its parent, while the variation among lines were analyzed by comparing the variance of all lines with variance of its parent. More than 85 % M5 mutant lines from Siam Harli as parent and > 79 % of Siam Kuatek as parent are uniform. The uniform character at all M5 mutant lines, both of Siam Harli or Siam Kuatek parent are the harvest age, the filled grains number, and the empty grains number. There is no variability between M5 mutant lines, but some of M5 mutant lines from Siam Harli and Siam Kuatek have some better characters than their parents, so there is an opportunity for selection. (author)

  8. Local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency of longitudinal variations of TEC along the crest of EIA over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, Surendra; Vyas, B. M.

    2013-10-01

    global wave number 4 structure in the Indian longitudinal region spanning from ~70 to 95°E forming the upward slope of the peak in the total electron content (TEC) are reported along the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The continuous and simultaneous measurements from five GPS stations of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network are used in this study. The long-term database (2004-2012) is utilized for examining the local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency on the longitudinal variations of TEC. Our results confirm the existence of longitudinal variations of TEC in accordance with wave number 4 longitudinal structure including its strength. The results suggest that these variations, in general, start to develop at ~09 LT, achieve maximum strength at 12-15 LT, and decay thereafter, the decay rate depending on the season. They are more pronounced in equinoctial season followed by summer and winter. The longitudinal variations persist beyond midnight in equinox seasons, whereas in winter, they are conspicuously absent. Interestingly, they also exhibit significant solar cycle dependence in the solstices, whereas in the equinoxes, they are independent of solar activity. The comparison of crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) in the eastern (92°E) and western (72°E) extreme longitudes reveals higher CTR on the eastern side than over the western extreme, suggesting the role of nonmigrating tides in modulating the ExB vertical drift and the consequential EIA crest formation.

  9. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  10. Variation in sensitivity of large benthic Foraminifera to the combined effects of ocean warming and local impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Martina; Roberts, T Edward; Pandolfi, John M

    2017-03-23

    Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) are crucial marine calcifiers in coral reefs, and sensitive to environmental changes. Yet, many species successfully colonise a wide range of habitats including highly fluctuating environments. We tested the combined effects of ocean warming, local impacts and different light levels on populations of the common LBF Amphistegina lobifera collected along a cross-shelf gradient of temperature and nutrients fluctuations. We analysed survivorship, bleaching frequency, chlorophyll a content and fecundity. Elevated temperature and nitrate significantly reduced survivorship and fecundity of A. lobifera across populations studied. This pattern was exacerbated when combined with below optimum light levels. Inshore populations showed a consistent resistance to increased temperature and nitrate levels, but all populations studied were significantly affected by light reduction. These findings demonstrated the capacity of some populations of LBF to acclimate to local conditions; nonetheless improvements in local water quality can ultimately ameliorate effects of climate change in local LBF populations.

  11. Variation at local government level in the support for families of severely disabled children and the factors that affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the families of 5862 children and young people (aged 0-24 y, mean 10 y 7 mo; 68% male) with severe disabilities resulting in a variety of impairments (21% with autism spectrum disorders, 16% with learning disabilities,* 13% with emotional and behavioural difficulties, and 13% with cerebral palsy [CP]). Data on the severity of intrinsic impairment were assessed using the Health Utilities Index, and the need for support was assessed from the results of a novel parent-completed questionnaire, the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ). These responses were related to data published by local authorities on educational and social policy. Higher levels of unmet need and lack of support, as reported by parents of children and young people with severe disabilities, are associated with greater impairment but not with socioeconomic deprivation. After controlling for impairment and diagnosis, variation at local government level is of the order of 1 to 1.5 ECEQ standard deviation scores. The best- and the worst-performing local authorities--in terms of the averages of the 'support' scores reported by their surveyed residents--cluster in urban areas. For children with CP, a positive correlation was found between the reported unmet educational support requirements in each local authority area and rates of mainstream school placement for children with special educational needs. This indicates that the placement of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is associated with reported unmet need (r=0.60; p=0.01). In the case of children with autism spectrum diagnoses, the provision of additional basic educational support in mainstream

  12. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  13. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  14. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  15. Interspecific variation in physiological and foliar metabolic responses to reduced soil water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climatic uncertainty, particularly in regard to water resources, may alter irrigation management of rice, an essential cereal grain acknowledged as the primary food source for more than half the world’s population. To reduce water use, an alternate wetting and drying (AWD) system has been developed...

  16. Preconditioning for Allen–Cahn variational inequalities with non-local constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Blank, Luise

    2012-06-01

    The solution of Allen-Cahn variational inequalities with mass constraints is of interest in many applications. This problem can be solved both in its scalar and vector-valued form as a PDE-constrained optimization problem by means of a primal-dual active set method. At the heart of this method lies the solution of linear systems in saddle point form. In this paper we propose the use of Krylov-subspace solvers and suitable preconditioners for the saddle point systems. Numerical results illustrate the competitiveness of this approach. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Variation in soil aluminium tolerance genes is associated with local adaptation to soils at the Park Grass Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie; McCouch, Susan; Geber, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) document a well-known example of rapid plant evolution in response to environmental change. Repeated fertilizer applications have acidified the soil in some experimental plots over the past 150+ years, and Anthoxanthum subpopulations have quickly become locally adapted. Early reciprocal transplants showed subpopulation differentiation specifically in response to soil aluminium (Al) toxicity across the experiment, even at small (30 m) spatial scales. Almost 40 years after its original measurement, we reassessed the degree of local adaptation to soil Al at the PGE using updated phenotyping methods and identified genes with variation linked to the tolerance trait. Root growth assays show that plants are locally adapted to soil Al at both the seedling and adult growth stages, but to a smaller extent than previously inferred. Among a large suite of candidate loci that were previously shown to have Al-sensitive expression differences between sensitive and tolerant plants, three loci contained SNPs that are associated with both Al tolerance and soil acidity: an Al-sensitive malate transporter (ALMT), a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) and the putative homolog of the rice cell-wall modification gene STAR1. Natural genetic variation at these loci is likely to have contributed to the recent rapid evolution at PGE. Continued study of Al tolerance variants in Anthoxanthum will allow us to test hypotheses about the nature and source of genetic variation that enables some species to adapt to soil acidification and other types of rapid environmental change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    R. Brian Jenkins; Peter Joyce; Deborah Mechtel

    2017-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initia...

  19. The reduced local lymph node assay: the impact of group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cindy A; Chaney, Joel G; Kern, Petra S; Patlewicz, Grace Y; Basketter, David A; Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank

    2008-05-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a skin sensitization test that provides animal welfare benefits. To reduce animal usage further, a modified version (rLLNA) was proposed. Conducting the rLLNA as a screening test with a single high dose group and vehicle control differentiated accurately between skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers. This study examined whether a reduction in animal number/group is feasible. Historical data were utilized to examine the impact of conducting the rLLNA with two mice/group. To assess the effect on the stimulation index (SI) 41 datasets with individual animal data derived using five mice/group were analysed. SIs were calculated on all possible combinations of two control and two high dose group disintegrations per minute (dpm) values. For 25 of 33 sensitizer datasets, > 96% of possible dpm combinations resulted in a calculated SI > 3. The lowest percentages of positive SIs were observed with weak allergens when, in the standard LLNA, the mean SIs would have been nearer to the threshold value of 3. The results indicate that moderate, strong and extreme allergens are more likely than weak allergens to be identified as sensitizers when group sizes of two mice are used within the rLLNA. It is concluded that a rLLNA with two mice/group would display decreased sensitivity and is inappropriate for use in hazard identification. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Milk Production in the Sylvopastoral Zone of Senegal: Variation Factors and Local Populations’ Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Diop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahelian region of Senegal, milk production in pastoral systems is subjected to inter- and intra-annual variations because the animal feed is almost exclusively based on natural resources. Studies conducted from a monitoring set-up in pastoralist settlements and in station, and data from Nestle Company have shown that milk production was highly related to the milk collection date, but with a low correlation with the total amount of rainfall. The relationship between total milk production and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was polynomial. The production peak was reached when the water content in forage was 70%. Surveys on pastoralists (men and women belonging to different ethnic groups and living in different production subsystems (Walo, Djoloff and Ferlo showed that the duration of lactation, number of cows and animal species were the main factors of variation of milk production. The actors in charge of milk production management differed depending on the ethnic group. Milk curdling and butter making were the two preserving methods used, and five types of gourds were used in the process. Dairy products still held a major place in farmers’ incomes and skim milk curd was the most marketed product.

  1. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  2. Species variation of Aegilops genus and heavy metal content in plant habitat soil at southern Adriatic localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aegilops genus is a wild relative to the bread wheat, having chromosomes homologous to wheat chromosomes. That genus could be the source of many usefull abiotic stress tolerance genes. Facing a global climate changes, as well as, environmental erosion, it is important to create a desirable genetic variability that could correspond to environmental challenges. Heavy metals in soil could cause soil pollution, could lead to different phenotypic changes in plants, and could enter food chain. Assessment of Aegilops sp. population variation, as well as, heavy metal content in their habitat was the main goal in this research. Aegilops population composition was examined and samples were taken from 55 localities of South Adriatic coastal and littoral areas. Topsoil samples from all the localities were taken and heavy metal content, namely Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Cu, was analyzed,. Manganese content was measured, as well. Value of pH was established.

  3. Phase diagram of the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins: a variational calculation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Munir; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-08-01

    We study the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model with additional Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions, exploring the possible magnetic phases in its multi-dimensional parameter space. Treating the local moments as classical spins and using a variational ansatz, we identify the parameter ranges over which various common magnetic orderings are potentially stabilized. Our results reveal that the competing interactions result in a heightened susceptibility towards a wide range of spin configurations including longitudinal ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order, coplanar flux configurations and most interestingly, multiple non-coplanar configurations including a novel canted-flux state as the different Hamiltonian parameters like electron density, interaction strengths and degree of frustration are varied. The non-coplanar and non-collinear magnetic ordering of localized spins behave like emergent electromagnetic fields and drive unusual transport and electronic phenomena.

  4. Search for Local Variations of Atmospheric H2O and CO on Mars with PFS/Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, T.; Fouchet, T.; Billebaud, F.; Formisano, V.; Atreya, S.; Ignatiev, N.; Moroz, V.; Maturilli, A.; Grassi, D.; Pfs Team

    Spectra recorded by the PFS instrument onboard Mars Express include clear spectral signatures due to CO at 4.7 and 2.3 micron, and H2O at 1.38, 2.6 and 30-50 micron. These features can be used to determine the horizontal distribution of these species on global and local scales and to monitor it with time. Here we investigate the local variations of H2O and CO, focussing on the regions of high-altitude volcanoes. Preliminary results suggest a significant decrease of the CO mixing ratio in these regions, as was found from ISM/Phobos observations (Rosenqvist et al. Icarus 98, 254, 1992).

  5. Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, J.; Chuvieco, E.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-02-01

    Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore the local and regional variations of those factors behind human-caused fire occurrence. The number of human-caused fires occurring within a 25-yr period (1983-2007) was computed for each of the 7638 Spanish mainland municipalities, creating a binary variable (fire/no fire) to develop logistic models, and a continuous variable (fire density) to build standard linear regression models. A total of 383 657 fires were registered in the study dataset. The binary logistic model, which estimates the probability of having/not having a fire, successfully classified 76.4% of the total observations, while the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model explained 53% of the variation of the fire density patterns (adjusted R2 = 0.53). Both approaches confirmed, in addition to forest and climatic variables, the importance of variables related with agrarian activities, land abandonment, rural population exodus and developmental processes as underlying factors of fire occurrence. For the GWR approach, the explanatory power of the GW linear model for fire density using an adaptive bandwidth increased from 53% to 67%, while for the GW logistic model the correctly classified observations improved only slightly, from 76.4% to 78.4%, but significantly according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), from 3451.19 to 3321.19. The results from GWR indicated a significant spatial variation in the local

  6. Prediction of individual differences in risky behavior in young adults via variations in local brain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiriavanaki, Zahra; ArianNik, Mohsen; Abbassian, Abdolhosein; Mahmoudi, Elham; Roufigari, Neda; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the problem of how inter-individual differences play a role in risk-taking behavior has become a much debated issue. We investigated this problem based on the well-known balloon analog risk task (BART) in 48 healthy subjects in which participants inflate a virtual balloon opting for a higher score in the face of a riskier chance of the balloon explosion. In this study, based on a structural Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) technique we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between BART score and size of the gray matter volume in the anterior insula in riskier subjects. Although the anterior insula is among the candidate brain areas that were involved in the risk taking behavior in fMRI studies, here based on our structural data it is the only area that was significantly related to structural variation among different subjects. PMID:26500482

  7. Phytoplankton variability in Lake Fraijanes, Costa Rica, in response to local weather variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species show a variety in morphology which is the result of adaptations to pelagic life including responses to fluctuations in water column dynamics driven by weather conditions. This has been reported in the oceans and in Northern temperate lakes. In order to observe whether tropical freshwater phytoplankton responds to seasonal variation in weather, the weekly variation in temperature of the water column and phytoplankton composition was studied in Lake Fraijanes, Costa Rica, a shallow (6.2m lake at 1 640m above sea level. A chain of data loggers for temperature was placed in the deepest point in the lake to register temperature every hour at four different depths, and phytoplankton samples were retrieved every week for a year. Additional monthly samples for nutrients were taken at two depths. Notwithstanding its shallowness, the lake developed a thermal gradient which kept the water column stratified for several months during dry season. Whole lake overturns occurred during cold spells with intense precipitation. Phytoplankton changed throughout the year mainly through a shift in dominant taxa. From September to February the lake was frequently mixed by rain storms and windy weather. At this time, phytoplankton was dominated by Chlorococcal green algae. From March to June, the lake was stratified and warmer. Phytoplankton became dominated by Cyanobateria, mainly colonial Chroococcales. The rainy season started again in May 2009. During June and July the lake started to mix intermittently during rain events and phytoplankton showed a brief increase in the contribution of Chlorococcales. These changes fitted well to a general model of phytoplankton succession based on functional groups identified according to their morphology and adaptations.

  8. Reproductive parameters of tropical lesser noddies respond to local variations in oceanographic conditions and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Teresa; Pedro, Patricia; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2014-02-01

    Most attempts to link seabirds and climate/oceanographic effects have concerned the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with comparatively few studies in the tropical Indian Ocean. This paper examines the reproductive response of the lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris to temporal fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic conditions using 8 years of monitoring data from Aride Island (Seychelles), tropical Western Indian Ocean. We tested the hypothesis that breeding parameters (mean hatching date, mean egg size, hatching and fledging successes) and chick growth are influenced by local, seasonal oceanographic conditions as expressed by ocean primary productivity (surface chlorophyll-a concentrations; CC), sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed. We also examined the relationship between lesser noddy breeding parameters and climate conditions recorded at the basin-wide scale of the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Our findings suggest that birds had a tendency to lay slightly larger eggs during breeding seasons (years) with higher CC during April-June (pre-laying, laying and incubation periods). Hatching date was positively related to SST in April-June, with the regression parameters suggesting that each 0.5 °C increase in SST meant a delay of approx.10 days in hatching date. A negative linear relationship was also apparent between hatching success and SST in June-August (hatching and chick-rearing periods), while the quadratic regression models detected a significant effect of wind speed in June-August on fledging success. Body mass increments of growing chicks averaged over 7-day periods were positively related with (2-week) lagged CC values and negatively related with (2-week) lagged SST values. No significant relationship between DMI and lesser noddy breeding parameters was found, but DMI indices were strongly correlated with local SST. Altogether, our results indicate that the reproduction of this top marine predator is dictated by fluctuations in

  9. The Lamb wave bandgap variation of a locally resonant phononic crystal subjected to thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Zhen; Li, Yue-ming

    2018-05-01

    A study on dynamical characteristics of a ternary locally resonant phononic crystal (PC) plate (i.e., hard scatterer with soft coating periodically disperse in stiff host matrix) is carried out in this paper. The effect of thermal deformation on the structure stiffness, which plays an important role in the PC's dynamical characteristics, is considered. Results show that both the start and the stop frequency of bandgap shift to higher range with the thermal deformation. In particular, the characteristics of band structure change suddenly at critical buckling temperature. The effect of thermal deformation could be utilized for tuning of phononic band structures, which can promote their design and further applications.

  10. Intranasal oxytocin reduces social perception in women: Neural activation and individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E; Robins, Diana L; Gautam, Pritam; King, Tricia Z

    2017-02-15

    Most intranasal oxytocin research to date has been carried out in men, but recent studies indicate that females' responses can differ substantially from males'. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved an all-female sample of 28 women not using hormonal contraception. Participants viewed animations of geometric shapes depicting either random movement or social interactions such as playing, chasing, or fighting. Probe questions asked whether any shapes were "friends" or "not friends." Social videos were preceded by cues to attend to either social relationships or physical size changes. All subjects received intranasal placebo spray at scan 1. While the experimenter was not blinded to nasal spray contents at Scan 1, the participants were. Scan 2 followed a randomized, double-blind design. At scan 2, half received a second placebo dose while the other half received 24 IU of intranasal oxytocin. We measured neural responses to these animations at baseline, as well as the change in neural activity induced by oxytocin. Oxytocin reduced activation in early visual cortex and dorsal-stream motion processing regions for the social > size contrast, indicating reduced activity related to social attention. Oxytocin also reduced endorsements that shapes were "friends" or "not friends," and this significantly correlated with reduction in neural activation. Furthermore, participants who perceived fewer social relationships at baseline were more likely to show oxytocin-induced increases in a broad network of regions involved in social perception and social cognition, suggesting that lower social processing at baseline may predict more positive neural responses to oxytocin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing forces during drilling brittle hard materials by using ultrasonic and variation of coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, C.; Rascher, R.

    2016-11-01

    The process of ultrasonic machining is especially used for brittle hard materials as the additional ultrasonic vibration of the tool at high frequencies and low amplitudes acts like a hammer on the surface. With this technology it is possible to drill holes with lower forces, therefor the machining can be done faster and the worktime is much less than conventionally. A three-axis dynamometer was used to measure the forces, which act between the tool and the sample part. A focus is set on the sharpness of the tool. The results of a test series are based on the Sauer Ultrasonic Grinding Centre. On the same machine it is possible to drill holes in the conventional way. Additional to the ultasonic Input the type an concentration of coolant is important for the Drilling-force. In the test there were three different coolant and three different concentrations tested. The combination of ultrasonic vibration and the right coolant and concentration is the best way to reduce the Forces. Another positive effect is, that lower drilling-forces produce smaller chipping on the edge of the hole. The way to reduce the forces and chipping is the main issue of this paper.

  12. LOCAL POPULATION CHANGE AND VARIATIONS IN RACIAL INTEGRATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellman, Benjamin; Spielman, Seth E; Franklin, Rachel S

    2018-03-01

    While population growth has been consistently tied to decreasing racial segregation at the metropolitan level in the United States, little work has been done to relate small-scale changes in population size to integration. We address this question through a novel technique that tracks population changes by race and ethnicity for comparable geographies in both 2000 and 2010. Using the Theil Index, we analyze the fifty most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas in 2010 for changes in multigroup segregation. We classify local areas by their net population change between 2000 and 2010 using a novel unit of analysis based on aggregating census blocks. We find strong evidence that growing parts of rapidly growing metropolitan areas of the United States are crucial to understanding regional differences in segregation that have emerged in past decades. Multigroup segregation declined the most in growing parts of growing metropolitan areas. Comparatively, growing parts of shrinking or stagnant metropolitan areas were less diverse and had smaller declines in segregation. We also find that local areas with shrinking populations had disproportionately high minority representation in 2000 before population loss took place. We conclude that the regional context of population growth or decline has important consequences for the residential mixing of racial groups.

  13. Detection of Variations of Local Irregularity of Traffic under DDOS Flood Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of distributed denial-of-service (DDOS flood attacks is to overwhelm the attacked site or to make its service performance deterioration considerably by sending flood packets to the target from the machines distributed all over the world. This is a kind of local behavior of traffic at the protected site because the attacked site can be recovered to its normal service state sooner or later even though it is in reality overwhelmed during attack. From a view of mathematics, it can be taken as a kind of short-range phenomenon in computer networks. In this paper, we use the Hurst parameter (H to measure the local irregularity or self-similarity of traffic under DDOS flood attack provided that fractional Gaussian noise (fGn is used as the traffic model. As flood attack packets of DDOS make the H value of arrival traffic vary significantly away from that of traffic normally arriving at the protected site, we discuss a method to statistically detect signs of DDOS flood attacks with predetermined detection probability and false alarm probability.

  14. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  15. Climate Clever Clovers: New Paradigm to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Ruminants by Breeding Low Methanogenic Forages Utilizing Haplotype Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwinder Kaur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating methane production by ruminants is a significant challenge to global livestock production. This research offers a new paradigm to reduce methane emissions from ruminants by breeding climate-clever clovers. We demonstrate wide genetic diversity for the trait methanogenic potential in Australia’s key pasture legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. In a bi-parental population the broadsense heritability in methanogenic potential was moderate (H2 = 0.4 and allelic variation in a region of Chr 8 accounted for 7.8% of phenotypic variation. In a genome-wide association study we identified four loci controlling methanogenic potential assessed by an in vitro fermentation system. Significantly, the discovery of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on Chr 5 in a defined haplotype block with an upstream putative candidate gene from a plant peroxidase-like superfamily (TSub_g18548 and a downstream lectin receptor protein kinase (TSub_g18549 provides valuable candidates for an assay for this complex trait. In this way haplotype variation can be tracked to breed pastures with reduced methanogenic potential. Of the quantitative trait loci candidates, the DNA-damage-repair/toleration DRT100-like protein (TSub_g26967, linked to avoid the severity of DNA damage induced by secondary metabolites, is considered central to enteric methane production, as are disease resistance (TSub_g26971, TSub_g26972, and TSub_g18549 and ribonuclease proteins (TSub_g26974, TSub_g26975. These proteins are good pointers to elucidate the genetic basis of in vitro microbial fermentability and enteric methanogenic potential in subterranean clover. The genes identified allow the design of a suite of markers for marker-assisted selection to reduce rumen methane emission in selected pasture legumes. We demonstrate the feasibility of a plant breeding approach without compromising animal productivity to mitigate enteric methane emissions, which is one of the most

  16. Local variations in {sup 14}C - How is bomb-pulse dating of human tissues and cells affected?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Stenstrom@nuclear.lu.s [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Skog, Goeran [Lund University, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Geocentrum II, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 672 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Carl Magnus [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Hellborg, Ragnar [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svegborn, Sigrid Leide [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Georgiadou, Elisavet [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s almost doubled the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere. The resulting {sup 14}C 'bomb-pulse' has been shown to provide useful age information in e.g. forensic and environmental sciences, biology and the geosciences. The technique is also currently being used for retrospective cell dating in man, in order to provide insight into the rate of formation of new cells in the human body. Bomb-pulse dating relies on precise measurements of the declining {sup 14}C concentration in atmospheric CO{sub 2} collected at clean-air sites. However, it is not always recognized that the calculations can be complicated in some cases by significant local variations in the specific activity of {sup 14}C in carbon in the air and foodstuff. This paper presents investigations of local {sup 14}C variations in the vicinities of nuclear installations and laboratories using {sup 14}C. Levels of {sup 14}C in workers using this radioisotope are also discussed.

  17. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  18. Local variation of fragility and glass transition temperature of ultra-thin supported polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakata, Paul Z; Douglas, Jack F; Starr, Francis W

    2012-12-28

    Despite extensive efforts, a definitive picture of the glass transition of ultra-thin polymer films has yet to emerge. The effect of film thickness h on the glass transition temperature T(g) has been widely examined, but this characterization does not account for the fragility of glass-formation, which quantifies how rapidly relaxation times vary with temperature T. Accordingly, we simulate supported polymer films of a bead-spring model and determine both T(g) and fragility, both as a function of h and film depth. We contrast changes in the relaxation dynamics with density ρ and demonstrate the limitations of the commonly invoked free-volume layer model. As opposed to bulk polymer materials, we find that the fragility and T(g) do not generally vary proportionately. Consequently, the determination of the fragility profile--both locally and for the film as a whole--is essential for the characterization of changes in film dynamics with confinement.

  19. The band gap variation of a two dimensional binary locally resonant structure in thermal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the numerical investigation of thermal effect on band gap dynamical characteristic for a two-dimensional binary structure composed of aluminum plate periodically filled with nitrile rubber cylinder is presented. Initially, the band gap of the binary structure variation trend with increasing temperature is studied by taking the softening effect of thermal stress into account. A breakthrough is made which found the band gap being narrower and shifting to lower frequency in thermal environment. The complete band gap which in higher frequency is more sensitive to temperature that it disappears with temperature increasing. Then some new transformed models are created by changing the height of nitrile rubber cylinder from 1mm to 7mm. Simulations show that transformed model can produce a wider band gap (either flexure or complete band gap. A proper forbidden gap of elastic wave can be utilized in thermal environment although both flexure and complete band gaps become narrower with temperature. Besides that, there is a zero-frequency flat band appearing in the first flexure band, and it becomes broader with temperature increasing. The band gap width decreases trend in thermal environment, as well as the wider band gap induced by the transformed model with higher nitrile rubber cylinder is useful for the design and application of phononic crystal structures in thermal environment.

  20. Developing natural convection in a fluid layer with localized heating and large viscosity variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.; Chu, Tze Yao.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments are used to elucidate aspects of transient natural convection in a magma chamber. The magma chamber is modeled as a horizontal fluid layer confined within an enclosure of square planform and heated from below by a strip heater centered on the lower boundary of the enclosure. The width of the strip heater and the depth of the fluid layer are one-fourth of the layer width. Corn syrup is used as the working fluid in order to approximate the large viscosity variation with temperature and the large Prandtl number typical of magma. The quiescent, uniform, fluid layer is subjected to instantaneous heating from the strip heater producing a transient flow which is dominated by two counter-rotating convective cells. Experimentally determined characteristics of the developing flow are compared with numerical simulations carried out with a finite element computer program. The results of numerical simulations are in essential agreement with experimental data. Differences between the numerical simulations and experimental measurements are conjectured to result from non-ideal effects present in the experiment which are difficult to represent accurately in a numerical simulation.

  1. Quantitative measurements of localized density variations in cylindrical tablets using X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busignies, Virginie; Leclerc, Bernard; Porion, Patrice; Evesque, Pierre; Couarraze, Guy; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Direct compaction is a complex process that results in a density distribution inside the tablets which is often heterogeneous. Therefore, the density variations may affect the compact properties. A quantitative analysis of this phenomenon is still lacking. Recently, X-ray microtomography has been successfully used in pharmaceutical development to study qualitatively the impact of tablet shape and break-line in the density of pharmaceutical tablets. In this study, we evaluate the density profile in microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur 12) compacts obtained at different mean porosity (ranging from 7.7% to 33.5%) using X-ray tomography technique. First, the validity of the Beer-Lambert law is studied. Then, density calibration is performed and density maps of cylindrical tablets are obtained and visualized using a process with colour-scale calibration plot which is explained. As expected, important heterogeneity in density is observed and quantified. The higher densities in peripheral region were particularly investigated and appraised in regard to the lower densities observed in the middle of the tablet. The results also underlined that in the case of pharmaceutical tablets, it is important to differentiate the mechanical properties representative of the total volume tablet and the mechanical properties that only characterize the tablet surface like the Brinell hardness measurements.

  2. Local climate determines intra- and interspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in mountain grasshopper communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, P; Illera, J C; Obeso, J R

    2013-10-01

    The climate is often evoked to explain broad-scale clines of body size, yet its involvement in the processes that generate size inequality in the two sexes (sexual size dimorphism) remains elusive. Here, we analyse climatic clines of sexual size dimorphism along a wide elevation gradient (i) among grasshopper species in a phylogenetically controlled scenario and (ii) within species differing in distribution and cold tolerance, to highlight patterns generated at different time scales, mainly evolutionary (among species or higher taxa) and ontogenetic or microevolutionary (within species). At the interspecific level, grasshoppers were slightly smaller and less dimorphic at high elevations. These clines were associated with gradients of precipitation and sun exposure, which are likely indicators of other factors that directly exert selective pressures, such as resource availability and conditions for effective thermoregulation. Within species, we found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of elevation on body size, especially on condition-dependent measures of body size (total body length rather than hind femur length) and in species inhabiting the highest elevations. In spite of a certain degree of species-specific variation, females tended to adjust their body size more often than males, suggesting that body size in females can evolve faster among species and can be more plastic or dependent on nutritional conditions within species living in adverse climates. Natural selection on female body size may therefore prevail over sexual selection on male body size in alpine environments, and abiotic factors may trigger consistent phenotypic patterns across taxonomic scales. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Variations in adrenal hormones in law enforcement servicemen during a mission to local armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Victorovich Koubassov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported changes in the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol secretion in blood samples from law enforcement personnel during the mission to local armed conflict region. In the present study, we demonstrate those changes collectively with additional data on changes in the adrenaline and noradrenaline in the urine samples of the same individuals. The study was conducted on 48 male officers who were deployed to an army conflict teritory for a duration of 4 months.At the onset of the mission, there was a modestincreasein all hormones corresponding to the general adaptation syndrome theory. As the mission started, significant increases were observed in the mean levels of the hormonal parameters in both serum and urine at different time points as compared to those before the mission. At first week of deployment, a sharp increase in the secretory activity of medulla and cortical adrenal gland was found and at the termination of the mission a dysfunction of hypophysis-adrenal gland regulation system was identified. These findings might lead to disturbances in interhormonal relationships and causedecreased stress tolerance in the relevant individals.

  4. Defect-induced local variation of crystal phase transition temperature in metal-halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Merdasa, Aboma; Unger, Eva L; Yartsev, Arkady; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2017-06-26

    Solution-processed organometal halide perovskites are hybrid crystalline semiconductors highly interesting for low-cost and efficient optoelectronics. Their properties are dependent on the crystal structure. Literature shows a variety of crystal phase transition temperatures and often a spread of the transition over tens of degrees Kelvin. We explain this inconsistency by demonstrating that the temperature of the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition in methylammonium lead triiodide depends on the concentration and nature of local defects. Phase transition in individual nanowires was studied by photoluminescence microspectroscopy and super-resolution imaging. We propose that upon cooling from 160 to 140 K, domains of the crystal containing fewer defects stay in the tetragonal phase longer than highly defected domains that readily transform to the high bandgap orthorhombic phase at higher temperatures. The existence of relatively pure tetragonal domains during the phase transition leads to drastic photoluminescence enhancement, which is inhomogeneously distributed across perovskite microcrystals.Understanding crystal phase transition in materials is of fundamental importance. Using luminescence spectroscopy and super-resolution imaging, Dobrovolsky et al. study the transition from the tetragonal to orthorhombic crystal phase in methylammonium lead triiodide nanowires at low temperature.

  5. Conserved Noether Currents, Utiyama's Theory of Invariant Variation, and Velocity Dependence in Local Gauge Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, Gyrgy

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the mathematical consequences of the application of derived variables in gauge fields. Physics is aware of several phenomena, which depend first of all on velocities (like e.g., the force caused by charges moving in a magnetic field, or the Lorentz transformation). Applying the property of the second Noether theorem, that allowed generalised variables, this paper extends the article by Al-Kuwari and Taha (1991) with a new conclusion. They concluded that there are no extra conserved currents associated with local gauge invariance. We show, that in a more general case, there are further conserved Noether currents. In its method the paper reconstructs the clue introduced by Utiyama (1956, 1959) and followed by Al-Kuwari and Taha (1991) in the presence of a gauge field that depends on the co-ordinates of the velocity space. In this course we apply certain (but not full) analogies with Mills (1989). We show, that handling the space-time coordinates as implicit variables in the gauge field, reproduces the same results that have been derived in the configuration space (i.e., we do not lose information), while the proposed new treatment gives additional information extending those. The result is an extra conserved Noether current.

  6. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D.; Gibson, Clark C.; Evans, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff. PMID:27956644

  7. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D; Andersson, Krister P; Gibson, Clark C; Evans, Tom P

    2016-12-27

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff.

  8. Investigations into the Regional and Local Timescale Variations of Subglacial Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Justin

    Subglacial water plays an important role in the regulation of an ice sheet's mass balance. It may be the dominant control on the velocities of ice streams and outlet glaciers on scales of months to millennia. Recent satellite observations of ice surface elevation changes have given researchers new insights into how subglacial water is stored and transported. Localized uplift and settling of the ice surface implies that lakes exist beneath the ice sheet that are being filled and drained on relatively short time scales. At the base of an ice sheet water can be transported through a variety of drainage networks or stored in subglacial lakes. Here, a numerical investigation of the mechanisms of transport and storage of subglacial water and the associated time scales is presented. Experiments are carried out using a finite element model of coupled ice and water flow. The first experiment seeks to understand the relationship between the depth of a basal depression and the area over which the feature affects basal water flow. It is found that as the perturbation to a topographic depression's depth is increased, water is rerouted in response to the perturbation. Additionally it is found that the relationship between perturbation depth and the extent upstream to which its effects reach is nonlinear. The second experiment examines how the aspect ratio of bed features (prolate, oblate, or equidimensional) influences basal water flow. It is found that the systems that develop and their interactions are mediated by both the topography and the feedbacks taken into account by the coupling of the systems in the model. Features oriented parallel to ice and water flow are associated with distributed fan systems that develop branches which migrate laterally across the domain and interact with one another on monthly and yearly timescales. Laterally oriented features develop laterally extensive ponds. As the ratio of longitudinal to lateral dimension of the topography is increased, a

  9. Variations of local seismic response in Benevento (Southern Italy) using earthquakes and ambient noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, Luigi; di Giulio, Giuseppe; Rovelli, Antonio

    The city of Benevento (Southern Italy) has been repeatedly struck by large historical earthquakes. A heterogeneous geologic structure and widespread soft soil conditions make the estimation of site effects crucial for the seismic hazard assessment of the city. From 2000 until 2004, we installed seismic stations to collect earthquake data over zones with different geological conditions. Despite the high level of urban noise, we recorded more than 150 earthquakes at twelve sites. This data set yields the first, well documented experimental evidence for weak to moderate local amplifications. We investigated site effects primarily by the classical spectral ratio technique (CSR) using a rock station placed on the Benevento hill as reference. All sites in the Calore river valley and in the eastern part of the Benevento hill show a moderate high-frequency (f > 4 Hz) amplification peak. Conversely, sites in the Sabato river valley share weak-to-moderate amplification in a wide frequency band (from 1-2 to 7-10 Hz), without evident frequency peaks. Application of no-reference-site techniques to earthquake and noise data confirms the results of the CSRs in the sites of the Calore river valley and of the eastern part of the Benevento hill, but fails in providing indications for site effects in the Sabato river valley, being the H/V ratios nearly flat. One-dimensional modeling indicates that the ground motion amplification can be essentially explained in terms of a vertically varying geologic structure. High-frequency narrow peaks are caused by the strong impedance contrast existing between near-surface soft deposits and stiff cemented conglomerates. Conversely, broad-band amplifications in the Sabato river valley are likely due to a more complex layering with weak impedance contrasts both in the shallow and deep structure of the valley.

  10. Local loss and spatial homogenization of plant diversity reduce ecosystem multifunctionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental studies show that local plant species loss decreases ecosystem functioning and services, but it remains unclear how other changes in biodiversity, such as spatial homogenization, alter multiple processes (multifunctionality) in natural ecosystems. We present a global analysis of eight ...

  11. Depth-dependent variations in Achilles tendon deformations with age are associated with reduced plantarflexor performance during walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Darryl G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical arrangement of the Achilles tendon (AT), with distinct fascicle bundles arising from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, may facilitate relatively independent behavior of the triceps surae muscles. A reduced capacity for sliding between adjacent tendon fascicles with age may couple gastrocnemius and soleus muscle behavior, thereby potentially contributing to diminished plantarflexor performance commonly observed in old adults. Nine healthy young (mean age, 23.9 yr) and eight healthy old (69.9 yr) adults walked at three speeds (0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 m/s) on a force-sensing treadmill. We coupled dynamic ultrasound imaging of the free AT with motion capture and inverse dynamic analyses to compute, in part: 1) depth-dependent variations in AT tissue displacements and elongations and 2) net ankle joint kinetics during push-off. The difference in displacements between superficial and deep AT regions, and in their corresponding elongations, did not differ between old and young adults at the slower two walking speeds (P > 0.61). However, old adults walked with 41% smaller depth-dependent variations in free AT displacements and elongations at 1.25 m/s (P = 0.02). These more uniform tendon deformations in old adults most strongly correlated with reduced peak ankle moment (R2 = 0.40), but also significantly correlated with reduced peak power generation (R2 = 0.15) and positive ankle work during push-off (R2 = 0.19) (P > 0.01). Our findings: 1) demonstrate a potential role for nonuniform AT deformations in governing gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon function and 2) allude to altered tendon behavior that may contribute to the age-related reduction in plantarflexor performance during walking. PMID:26023223

  12. An analytical approach to reduce between-plate variation in multiplex assays that measure antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew; Bobbili, Naveen K; Leke, Rose F G; Taylor, Diane Wallace; Chen, John J

    2017-07-17

    Antibodies play an important role in immunity to malaria. Recent studies show that antibodies to multiple antigens, as well as, the overall breadth of the response are associated with protection from malaria. Yet, the variability and reliability of antibody measurements against a combination of malarial antigens using multiplex assays have not been well characterized. A normalization procedure for reducing between-plate variation using replicates of pooled positive and negative controls was investigated. Sixty test samples (30 from malaria-positive and 30 malaria-negative individuals), together with five pooled positive-controls and two pooled negative-controls, were screened for antibody levels to 9 malarial antigens, including merozoite antigens (AMA1, EBA175, MSP1, MSP2, MSP3, MSP11, Pf41), sporozoite CSP, and pregnancy-associated VAR2CSA. The antibody levels were measured in triplicate on each of 3 plates, and the experiments were replicated on two different days by the same technician. The performance of the proposed normalization procedure was evaluated with the pooled controls for the test samples on both the linear and natural-log scales. Compared with data on the linear scale, the natural-log transformed data were less skewed and reduced the mean-variance relationship. The proposed normalization procedure using pooled controls on the natural-log scale significantly reduced between-plate variation. For malaria-related research that measure antibodies to multiple antigens with multiplex assays, the natural-log transformation is recommended for data analysis and use of the normalization procedure with multiple pooled controls can improve the precision of antibody measurements.

  13. Variation in the bone calcium concentration as a function of age and sex, studied by local neutron activation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazieres, B.; Comar, D.

    An original method of local activation on the hand, using isotopic neutron sources, was used to determine bone Ca and P simultaneously. The calcium concentration variation with age and sex was studied on 120 normal subjects men and women aged between 20 and 80, divided into 10 year age groups. These standards were chosen amongst subjects free from complaints liable to affect bone mineralisation and with more or less normal blood calcium and phosphorus contents. The results are as follows: between 20 and 50 the relative standard derivation observed within a 10 year age group averages 8% in men and 9% in women, after 50 this physiological scattering is much greater in both sexes, after 60 the bone calcium concentration decreases quickly in women at an average rate of 1.15% a year [fr

  14. Application of a PID controller based on fuzzy logic to reduce variations in the control parameters in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Brito, Thiago Souza Pereira de; Afonso, Antonio Claudio Marques; Cruz Filho, Antonio Jose da; Marques, Jose Antonio; Teixeira, Marcello Goulart

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are in nature nonlinear systems and their parameters vary with time as a function of power level. These characteristics must be considered if large power variations occur in power plant operational regimes, such as in load-following conditions. A PWR reactor has a component called pressurizer, whose function is to supply the necessary high pressure for its operation and to contain pressure variations in the primary cooling system. The use of control systems capable of reducing fast variations of the operation variables and to maintain the stability of this system is of fundamental importance. The best-known controllers used in industrial control processes are proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers due to their simple structure and robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions. However, designing a fuzzy controller is seen to be a much less difficult task. Once a Fuzzy Logic controller is designed for a particular set of parameters of the nonlinear element, it yields satisfactory performance for a range of these parameters. The objective of this work is to develop fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (fuzzy-PID) control strategies to control the level of water in the reactor. In the study of the pressurizer, several computer codes are used to simulate its dynamic behavior. At the fuzzy-PID control strategy, the fuzzy logic controller is exploited to extend the finite sets of PID gains to the possible combinations of PID gains in stable region. Thus the fuzzy logic controller tunes the gain of PID controller to adapt the model with changes in the water level of reactor. The simulation results showed a favorable performance with the use to fuzzy-PID controllers. (author)

  15. Variational minimization of atomic and molecular ground-state energies via the two-particle reduced density matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic and molecular ground-state energies are variationally determined by constraining the two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM) to satisfy positivity conditions. Because each positivity condition corresponds to correcting the ground-state energies for a class of Hamiltonians with two-particle interactions, these conditions collectively provide a new approach to many-body theory that, unlike perturbation theory, can capture significantly correlated phenomena including the multireference effects of potential-energy surfaces. The D, Q, and G conditions for the 2-RDM are extended through generalized lifting operators inspired from the formal solution of N-representability. These lifted conditions agree with the hierarchy of positivity conditions presented by Mazziotti and Erdahl [Phys. Rev. A 63, 042113 (2001)]. The connection between positivity and the formal solution explains how constraining higher RDMs to be positive semidefinite improves the N representability of the 2-RDM and suggests using pieces of higher positivity conditions that computationally scale like the D condition. With the D, Q, and G conditions as well as pieces of higher positivity the electronic energies for Be, LiH, H 2 O, and BH are computed through a primal-dual interior-point algorithm for positive semidefinite programming. The variational method produces potential-energy surfaces that are highly accurate even far from the equilibrium geometry where single-reference perturbation-based methods often fail to produce realistic energies

  16. Inferring contemporary levels of gene flow and demographic history in a local population of the leaf beetle Gonioctena olivacea from mitochondrial DNA sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2005-05-01

    We have studied mitochondrial DNA variation in a local population of the leaf beetle species Gonioctena olivacea, to check whether its apparent low dispersal behaviour affects its pattern of genetic variation at a small geographical scale. We have sampled 10 populations of G. olivacea within a rectangle of 5 x 2 km in the Belgian Ardennes, as well as five populations located approximately along a straight line of 30 km and separated by distances of 3-12 km. For each sampled individual (8-19 per population), a fragment of the mtDNA control region was polymerase chain reaction-amplified and sequenced. Sequence data were analysed to test whether significant genetic differentiation could be detected among populations separated by such relatively short distances. The reconstructed genealogy of the mitochondrial haplotypes was also used to investigate the demographic history of these populations. Computer simulations of the evolution of populations were conducted to assess the minimum amount of gene flow that is necessary to explain the observed pattern of variation in the samples. Results show that migration among populations included in the rectangle of 5 x 2 km is substantial, and probably involves the occurrence of dispersal flights. This appears difficult to reconcile with the results of a previous ecological field study that concluded that most of this species dispersal occurs by walking. While sufficient migration to homogenize genetic diversity occurs among populations separated by distances of a few hundred metres to a few kilometres, distances greater than 5 km results in contrast in strong differentiation among populations, suggesting that migration is drastically reduced on such distances. Finally, the results of coalescent simulations suggest that the star-like genealogy inferred from the mtDNA sequence data is fully compatible with a past demographic expansion. However, a metapopulation structure alone (without the need to invoke a population expansion

  17. Consequences of inbreeding and reduced genetic variation on tolerance to cadmium stress in the midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Jost, Daniel; Vogt, Christian; Oetken, Matthias; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    Inbreeding and loss of genetic variation are considered to be major threats to small and endangered populations. The reduction of fitness due to inbreeding is believed to be more severe under stressful environmental conditions. We generated nine strains of the ecotoxicological model organism Chironomus riparius of different inbreeding levels in order to test the hypothesis that the inbreeding level and thus the degree of genome-wide homozygosity influences the life-history under cadmium exposure. Therefore, midge populations were exposed to a gradient of sediment-bound cadmium. The level of genetic variation in the used strains was assessed using microsatellite markers. In the life-cycle tests, inbreeding reduced fitness within C. riparius populations both under control and stressed conditions. However, differences between genetically diverse and impoverished strains were greatest at high cadmium exposure. Overall, inbreeding effects were not only dependent on cadmium concentrations in the sediment, but also on the life-history trait investigated. While some parameters where only affected by inbreeding, others were altered by both, inbreeding and cadmium. For the larval developmental time, a significant interaction was found between inbreeding and cadmium stress. While all strains showed a similar developmental time under control conditions, high rates of inbreeding led to a significantly delayed emergence time under high cadmium concentrations, resulting in longer generation periods and reduced population growth rates as population-relevant effects. The results show, that bioassays with C. riparius are affected by the level of inbreeding within Chironomus test strains. Pollution stress is therefore likely to affect the survival of rare and endangered populations more severe than that of large and genetically diverse ones

  18. Does Support for VET Reduce Employee Churn? A Case Study in Local Government. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kath

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do local governments use vocational education and training as a staff retention strategy? Human resources personnel from a selection of councils around Australia believed that a lack of career development or training opportunities might cause an employee to leave their organisation. They had some reservations about the quality and…

  19. The implementation of local wisdom in reducing natural disaster risk: a case study from West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfadrim, Z.; Toyoda, Y.; Kanegae, H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce some local wisdoms in West Sumatra and propose their challenges that modern values have degraded its knowledge. In a contemporary context, traditional stories (written and oral stories) still relevant to be used and internalized in disaster risk reduction. Traditional knowledge or local wisdom is a system of knowledge derived from long experienced process in the past, adopted and handed over to next generation through evolutionary process. Indigenous or traditional knowledge can be practiced in understanding the nature of natural disaster, to propose the best action in mitigation, to respond in emergency phase, and to suggest more option for recovery process based on previous experience. The paper based on four weeks field research in west Sumatra which is known with their natural hazards due to its geographical location. In the beginning, this paper discusses the nature of local wisdom and how it can be matched in disaster management, then continues to the specific case how the traditional stories in West Sumatera can be internalized and integrated with contemporary disaster risk reduction. This paper proves that local wisdom can be useful as an effective instrument to deal with natural disaster or natural hazard.

  20. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    As public health concerns for populations living, working and going to school near high-traffic roadways have increased, so have the need to identify and implement air pollution control strategies effective at the local level. While strategies implemented at the federal and stat...

  1. How Have Political Incentives for Local Officials Reduced Environmental Pollution in Resource-Depleted Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese resource-exhausted cities face more severe environmental pollution problems than other cities. In addressing these problems, the way local officials (usually senior party and government leaders operate is very important, as their focus on political achievements may complicate how they manage environmental pollution in these cities. On the one hand, the traditional Gross Domestic Product-based quest for political achievement may lead top leaders to de-emphasize environmental pollution. On the other hand, changes made in 2003 to the way the performance of Chinese officials is evaluated have encouraged some local senior party and government leaders to pay more attention to environmental problems. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between political incentives and environmental pollution by applying the 2004–2014 panel data from 37 resource-exhausted cities. The findings reveal that firstly, among the factors which impact the environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities, investment in fixed assets, foreign direct investment, industrial structure, per-capita education expenditure, and population density do not have a significant impact, thus indicating that local openness levels, the degree of industrial upgrading, and local investment in fixed assets are not the key variables in environmental pollution control. Secondly, the extent to which officials vie for political achievement affects environmental pollution in resource-exhausted cities. This depends upon whether the officials are municipal party secretaries or mayors; the former play a greater dynamic role in environmental pollution and have stronger robustness than the latter. The conclusion verifies both the existing authority structure of China and its effectiveness in the control of environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities. That is to say, in contrast to the principles of the party committees, the mayors are in a subordinate position and often fail to

  2. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Reduces Local Recurrence Rates in Patients With Microscopically Involved Circumferential Resection Margins After Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberda, Wijnand J.; Verhoef, Cornelis [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nuyttens, Joost J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Meerten, Esther van [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rothbarth, Joost [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Burger, Jacobus W.A., E-mail: j.burger@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is advocated by some for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have involved or narrow circumferential resection margins (CRM) after rectal surgery. This study evaluates the potentially beneficial effect of IORT on local control. Methods and Materials: All surgically treated patients with LARC treated in a tertiary referral center between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome in patients treated with IORT with a clear but narrow CRM (≤2 mm) or a microscopically involved CRM was compared with the outcome in patients who were not treated with IORT. Results: A total of 409 patients underwent resection of LARC, and 95 patients (23%) had a CRM ≤ 2 mm. Four patients were excluded from further analysis because of a macroscopically involved resection margin. In 43 patients with clear but narrow CRMs, there was no difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival of patients treated with (n=21) or without (n=22) IORT (70% vs 79%, P=.63). In 48 patients with a microscopically involved CRM, there was a significant difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival in favor of the patients treated with IORT (n=31) compared with patients treated without IORT (n=17) (84 vs 41%, P=.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that IORT was independently associated with a decreased local recurrence rate (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.86). There was no significant difference in complication rate of patients treated with or without IORT (65% vs 52%, P=.18) Conclusion: The current study suggests that IORT reduces local recurrence rates in patients with LARC with a microscopically involved CRM.

  3. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  4. The effect of six-point one-particle reducible local interactions in the dual fermion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanin, A A

    2013-01-01

    We formulate the dual fermion approach for strongly correlated electronic systems in terms of the lattice and dual effective interactions, obtained by using the covariation splitting formula. This allows us to consider the effect of six-point one-particle reducible interactions, which are usually neglected by the dual fermion approach. We show that the consideration of one-particle reducible six-point (as well as higher order) vertices is crucially important for the diagrammatic consistency of this approach. In particular, the relation between the dual and lattice self-energy, derived in the dual fermion approach, implicitly accounts for the effect of the diagrams, containing six-point and higher order local one-particle reducible vertices, and should be applied with caution, if these vertices are neglected. Apart from that, the treatment of the self-energy feedback is also modified by six-point and higher order vertices; these vertices are also important to account for some non-local corrections to the lattice self-energy, which have the same order in the local four-point vertices as the diagrams usually considered in the approach. These observations highlight an importance of six-point and higher order vertices in the dual fermion approach, and call for the development of new schemes of treatment of non-local fluctuations, which are based on one-particle irreducible quantities. (paper)

  5. 16S RRNA Gene Analysis of Chlorate Reducing Thermophilic Bacteria From Local Hot Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Aminin, Agustina L. N; Katulistiwasari, Puri; Mulyani, Nies Suci

    2011-01-01

    Chlorates waste remediation by biological processes has been the object of current research. Strain CR, the chlorate reducing bacteria was isolated from Gedongsongo hot spring using minimal medium broth containing chlorates and acetate at 55oC. The determination of chlorate reduction from medium was carried out using turbidimetric method. CR isolate showed reducing ability 18% after four days of incubation. The phenotypic character of CR isolate including rod-shaped cells, gram-positive bacte...

  6. [Reducing the levels of formaldehyde exposure during a gross anatomy dissection course with a local ventilation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Akio; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Nakashima, Tamiji; Hayashi, Haruki

    2010-03-01

    Reducing the levels of formaldehyde (FA) exposure in gross anatomy laboratories has been urgently required. We improved the environment of our gross anatomy laboratory by changing the existing general ventilation to local ventilation. We developed a local ventilation apparatus (grid-type of hood with downward suction) that can be attached to an ordinary dissection table. Furthermore, in order to make this local ventilation apparatus an enclosure hood, the upper plate of the dissection table was surrounded by flexible vertical flanges. The apparatus works as an effective enclosure hood without interfering with students' practice of dissection. We installed 26 local ventilation apparatuses and connected them to the ventilation duct. The ventilation ducts were installed above the ceiling or along the pillars not to interfere with students' vision and movements in the room. Adopting the local ventilation system reduced dramatically the students' and lecturers' exposure to formaldehyde. The geometric mean formaldehyde concentration was 0.066 ppm in the anatomy laboratory in 2005. Since 2005, the new system has enabled us to comply with safety and health regulations and providing a smell- and irritant-free dissection room with an excellent environment for anatomy study.

  7. Unsweetened ice popsicles impart a positive feeling and reduce self-mutilation after paediatric dental treatment with local anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Diana; Berson, Tamar; Moskovitz, Moti; Efrat, Jacob

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess whether an unsweetened ice-popsicle imparts a positive feeling to children after dental treatment in which local anaesthesia is administered, and whether it reduces the tendency of children to self-mutilate (bite the lip, cheek or tongue) after the administration of local anaesthesia. Crossover study of 31 children aged 4-11 years old who needed similar dental treatments on both sides of the mandible or maxilla under local anaesthesia. At the end of each appointment the child received a toy or an ice-popsicle especially made for this study. Patients and parents answered a questionnaire regarding the children's behaviour and feeling immediately after the treatment, and 10 and 30 min after receiving the ice-popsicle or toy. Children who received ice-popsicles after dental treatment under local anaesthesia felt less discomfort and suffered less soft tissue trauma than they did when they received a toy. Reduction in soft tissue trauma was evident 10 min after receiving the ice-popsicles. Licking of an ice-popsicle after dental treatment with local anaesthesia reduces the feeling of discomfort and the biting of soft tissue and self- mutilation.

  8. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  9. Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies for Reduced Load Variation and Guaranteed Charge Completion in Regional Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weige Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, fully decentralized strategy to coordinate charge operation of electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Based on stochastic switching control of on-board chargers, this strategy ensures high-efficiency charging, reduces load variations to the grid during charging periods, achieves charge completion with high probability, and accomplishes approximate “valley-filling”. Further improvements on the core strategy, including individualized power management, adaptive strategies, and battery support systems, are introduced to further reduce power fluctuation variances and to guarantee charge completion. Stochastic analysis is performed to establish the main properties of the strategies and to quantitatively show the performance improvements. Compared with the existing decentralized charging strategies, the strategies proposed in this paper can be implemented without any information exchange between grid operators and electric vehicles (EVs, resulting in a communications cost reduction. Additionally, it is shown that by using stochastic charging rules, a grid-supporting battery system with a very small energy capacity can achieve substantial reduction of EV load fluctuations with high confidence. An extensive set of simulations and case studies with real-world data are used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed strategies.

  10. Local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the context of national action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Municipalities can play a number of important roles to complement national actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions: (i) by facilitating comprehensive, city-wide building retrofit activities; (ii) by facilitating the development and/or expansion of community integrated energy systems involving district heating, district cooling, and cogeneration of electricity; and (iii) by promoting urban intensification to reduce the need to use the private automobile. Innovative institutional and financial mechanism are needed to overcome some of the persistent barriers to more efficient energy use in buildings and a number of concepts, which are currently being considered by the City of Toronto as part of its programme to reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% from the 1988 level by 2005, are discussed here. These concepts involve using public securitization funds to leverage private sector funds for energy efficiency retrofits and a number of measures to reduce financing and retrofit transaction costs. Even where surplus electricity generating capacity exists at the regional scale, reduced electricity demand can still result in avoided utility system costs if transmission bottlenecks and future transmission and transformer upgrade costs are reduced. Finally, given the need to replace or modify many of the existing commercial chillers due to the phase out of CFC's, a window of opportunity exists during the next few years to provide alternative, chlorocarbon-free district cooling systems based on absorption chillers using waste heat from electricity generation, with significant (30-65%) CO 2 emission savings. (au)

  11. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglietti Felipe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration.

  12. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Meyer, Jakob Abild Stengaard; Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially...

  13. Rank restriction for the variational calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices of many-electron atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftchi-Ardebili, Kasra; Hau, Nathania W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Variational minimization of the ground-state energy as a function of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM), constrained by necessary N-representability conditions, provides a polynomial-scaling approach to studying strongly correlated molecules without computing the many-electron wave function. Here we introduce a route to enhancing necessary conditions for N representability through rank restriction of the 2-RDM. Rather than adding computationally more expensive N-representability conditions, we directly enhance the accuracy of two-particle (2-positivity) conditions through rank restriction, which removes degrees of freedom in the 2-RDM that are not sufficiently constrained. We select the rank of the particle-hole 2-RDM by deriving the ranks associated with model wave functions, including both mean-field and antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave functions. Because the 2-positivity conditions are exact for quantum systems with AGP ground states, the rank of the particle-hole 2-RDM from the AGP ansatz provides a minimum for its value in variational 2-RDM calculations of general quantum systems. To implement the rank-restricted conditions, we extend a first-order algorithm for large-scale semidefinite programming. The rank-restricted conditions significantly improve the accuracy of the energies; for example, the percentages of correlation energies recovered for HF, CO, and N 2 improve from 115.2%, 121.7%, and 121.5% without rank restriction to 97.8%, 101.1%, and 100.0% with rank restriction. Similar results are found at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries. While more accurate, the rank-restricted N-representability conditions are less expensive computationally than the full-rank conditions.

  14. Potential for reduction of burden and local elimination of malaria by reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jamie T; Bhatt, Samir; Sinka, Marianne E; Gething, Peter W; Lynch, Michael; Patouillard, Edith; Shutes, Erin; Newman, Robert D; Alonso, Pedro; Cibulskis, Richard E; Ghani, Azra C

    2016-04-01

    Rapid declines in malaria prevalence, cases, and deaths have been achieved globally during the past 15 years because of improved access to first-line treatment and vector control. We aimed to assess the intervention coverage needed to achieve further gains over the next 15 years. We used a mathematical model of the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to explore the potential effect on case incidence and malaria mortality rates from 2015 to 2030 of five different intervention scenarios: remaining at the intervention coverage levels of 2011-13 (Sustain), for which coverage comprises vector control and access to treatment; two scenarios of increased coverage to 80% (Accelerate 1) and 90% (Accelerate 2), with a switch from quinine to injectable artesunate for management of severe disease and seasonal malaria chemoprevention where recommended for both Accelerate scenarios, and rectal artesunate for pre-referral treatment at the community level added to Accelerate 2; a near-term innovation scenario (Innovate), which included longer-lasting insecticidal nets and expansion of seasonal malaria chemoprevention; and a reduction in coverage to 2006-08 levels (Reverse). We did the model simulations at the first administrative level (ie, state or province) for the 80 countries with sustained stable malaria transmission in 2010, accounting for variations in baseline endemicity, seasonality in transmission, vector species, and existing intervention coverage. To calculate the cases and deaths averted, we compared the total number of each under the five scenarios between 2015 and 2030 with the predicted number in 2015, accounting for population growth. With an increase to 80% coverage, we predicted a reduction in case incidence of 21% (95% credible intervals [CrI] 19-29) and a reduction in mortality rates of 40% (27-61) by 2030 compared with 2015 levels. Acceleration to 90% coverage and expansion of treatment at the community level was predicted to reduce case incidence by

  15. Long-term visibility variation in Athens (1931–2013: a proxy for local and regional atmospheric aerosol loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Founda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the interdecadal variability and trends of surface horizontal visibility at the urban area of Athens from 1931 to 2013, using the historical archives of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. A prominent deterioration of visibility in the city was detected, with the long-term linear trend amounting to −2.8 km decade−1 (p < 0.001, over the entire study period. This was not accompanied by any significant trend in relative humidity or precipitation over the same period. A slight recovery of visibility levels seems to be established in the recent decade (2004–2013. It was found that very good visibility (>  20 km occurred at a frequency of 34 % before the 1950s, while this percentage drops to just 2 % during the decade 2004–2013. The rapid impairment of the visual air quality in Athens around the 1950s points to the increased levels of air pollution on a local and/or regional scale, related to high urbanization rates and/or increased anthropogenic emissions on a global scale at that period. Visibility was found to be negatively/positively correlated with relative humidity/wind speed, the correlation being statistically valid at certain periods. Wind regime and mainly wind direction and corresponding air mass origin were found to highly control visibility levels in Athens. The comparison of visibility variation in Athens and at a non-urban reference site on Crete island revealed similar negative trends over the common period of observations. This suggests that apart local sources, visibility in Athens is highly determined by aerosol load of regional origin. AVHRR and MODIS satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals over Athens and surface measurements of PM10 confirmed the relation of visibility to aerosol load.

  16. Does audiovisual distraction reduce dental anxiety in children under local anesthesia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai; Qin, Dan; Shen, Lu; Ji, Ping; Wang, Jinhua

    2018-03-02

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of audiovisual distraction on reducing dental anxiety in children during dental treatment under local anesthesia. The authors identified eligible reports published through August 2017 by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Clinical trials that reported the effects of audiovisual distraction on children's physiological measures, self-reports and behavior rating scales during dental treatment met the minimum inclusion requirements. The authors extracted data and performed a meta-analysis of appropriate articles. Nine eligible trials were included and qualitatively analyzed; some of these trials were also quantitatively analyzed. Among the physiological measures, heart rate or pulse rate was significantly lower (p=0.01) in children subjected to audiovisual distraction during dental treatment under local anesthesia than in those who were not; a significant difference in oxygen saturation was not observed. The majority of the studies using self-reports and behavior rating scales suggested that audiovisual distraction was beneficial in reducing anxiety perception and improving children's cooperation during dental treatment. The audiovisual distraction approach effectively reduces dental anxiety among children. Therefore, we suggest the use of audiovisual distraction when children need dental treatment under local anesthesia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-02-01

    The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized the ovary in a previously undescribed manner; bacteria were found in the posterior of the ovary, adjacent to the lateral oviduct. This local infection in the ovary resulted in melanization and activation of the cellular immune response at the site of infection. PMID:17400292

  19. Seed dispersal increases local species richness and reduces spatial turnover of tropical tree seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrag, Elizabeth M; Dunham, Amy E; Duncan, Richard P; Rogers, Haldre S

    2017-10-03

    Dispersal is thought to be a key process underlying the high spatial diversity of tropical forests. Just how important dispersal is in structuring plant communities is nevertheless an open question because it is very difficult to isolate dispersal from other processes, and thereby measure its effect. Using a unique situation, the loss of vertebrate seed dispersers on the island of Guam and their presence on the neighboring islands of Saipan and Rota, we quantify the contribution of vertebrate seed dispersal to spatial patterns of diversity of tree seedlings in treefall gaps. The presence of vertebrate seed dispersers approximately doubled seedling species richness within canopy gaps and halved species turnover among gaps. Our study demonstrates that dispersal plays a key role in maintaining local and regional patterns of diversity, and highlights the potential for ongoing declines in vertebrate seed dispersers to profoundly alter tropical forest composition.

  20. Iron Isotope Variations in Reduced Groundwater and in Drinking Water Supplies: A Case Study of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.

    2004-12-01

    In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and δ 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a δ 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater

  1. The Use of Collatamp G, Local Gentamicin-Collagen Sponge, in Reducing Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Clement L. K.; Shelat, Vishal G.; Low, Wilson; George, Sheena; Rao, Jaideepraj

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to examine the role of Collatamp G in reducing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with different wound classes. Ninety-two patients (62 men and 30 women; mean age, 58 years; range, 29–88 years) who had undergone surgery between December 2009 and November 2011 in Tan Tock Seng Hospital and who had application of Collatamp G in their wound before closure were included in the study. The primary endpoint was the development of any superficia...

  2. Reducing the standard deviation in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty.

  3. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  4. Risk of spider predation alters food web structure and reduces local herbivory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Roman; Menzel, Florian; Entling, Martin H

    2015-06-01

    Predators can indirectly enhance plant performance via herbivore suppression, with both prey consumption and changes in prey traits (e.g. changes in foraging behaviour) contributing to the reduction in herbivory. We performed a field experiment to determine the extent of such non-consumptive effects which consisted of repeatedly placing spiders (Pisaura mirabilis) on enclosed plants (Urtica dioica) for cue deposition. Control plants were enclosed in the same way but without spiders. After cue deposition, the enclosures were removed to allow arthropods to colonize the plants and feed on them. Arthropods were removed from the plants before the subsequent spider deposition or control enclosure. During six cycles of enclosure, we quantified leaf damage on the plants. After a seventh cycle, the colonizing arthropods were sampled to determine community composition in relation to the presence/absence of spider cues. We found that the presence of chemotactile spider cues reduced leaf damage by 50 %. In addition, spider cues led to changes in the arthropod community: smaller spiders avoided plants with spider cues. In contrast, the aphid-tending ant Myrmica rubra showed higher recruitment of workers on cue-bearing plants, possibly to protect aphids. Our results show that the risk of spider predation can reduce herbivory on wild plants and also demonstrate that non-consumptive effects can be particularly strong within the predator guild.

  5. Variations in Local Calcium Signaling in Adjacent Cardiac Myocytes of the Intact Mouse Heart Detected with Two-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin P Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyssynchronous local Ca release within individual cardiac myocytes has been linked to cellular contractile dysfunction. Differences in Ca kinetics in adjacent cells may also provide a substrate for inefficient contraction and arrhythmias. In a new approach we quantify variation in local Ca transients between adjacent myocytes in the whole heart.Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were loaded with Fluo-8 AM to detect Ca and Di-4-ANEPPS to visualize cell membranes. A spinning disc confocal microscope with a fast camera allowed us to record Ca signals within an area of 465 µm by 315 µm with an acquisition speed of 55 fps. Images from multiple transients recorded at steady state were registered to their time point in the cardiac cycle to restore averaged local Ca transients with a higher temporal resolution. Local Ca transients within and between adjacent myocytes were compared with regard to amplitude, time to peak and decay at steady state stimulation (250 ms cycle length.Image registration from multiple sequential Ca transients allowed reconstruction of high temporal resolution (2.4 ±1.3ms local CaT in 2D image sets (N= 4 hearts, n= 8 regions. During steady state stimulation, spatial Ca gradients were homogeneous within cells in both directions and independent of distance between measured points. Variation in CaT amplitudes was similar across the short and the long side of neighboring cells. Variations in TAU and TTP were similar in both directions. Isoproterenol enhanced the CaT but not the overall pattern of spatial heterogeneities.Here we detected and analyzed local Ca signals in intact mouse hearts with high temporal and spatial resolution, taking into account 2D arrangement of the cells. We observed significant differences in the variation of CaT amplitude along the long and short axis of cardiac myocytes. Variations of Ca signals between neighboring cells may contribute to the substrate of cardiac remodeling.

  6. Development of bupivacaine decorated reduced graphene oxide and its local anesthetic effect-In vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xin; Li, Aixiang; Ma, Chuangen

    2018-03-01

    The present works aims to develop bupivacaine modified reduced graphene oxide (BPV/RGO), and comparative evaluation of their anesthetic effect with free bupivacaine (BPV). The prepared BPV/RGO was studied by using various spectroscopic and microscopic characterization studies. In vitro drug release from BPV/RGO was studied using HPLC analysis. The cytotoxicity of BPV/RGO was studied against fibroblast (3T3) cells. In vivo evaluation of anesthetic effects was performed on animal models. BPV/RGO showed a prolonged in vitro release and lower cytotoxicity when compared to free BPV. Also, BPV/RGO showed a significantly prolonged analgesic effect when compared to free BPV. Further, the prepared BPV/RGO drug delivery system demonstrated to function as gifted to overcome the drawbacks of free BPV and other available drug delivery systems by prolonging the anesthetic effect with poor cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  8. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  9. Patient Awareness of Local Drug Price Variation and the Factors That Influence Pharmacy Choice: A Cross-sectional Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Spencer D; Awosika, Olabola D; Eleryan, Misty G; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Kuang, Xiangyu; Amdur, Richard L; Ehrlich, Alison

    2017-12-01

    BACKGROUND: High out-of-pocket drug expenditures are increasingly common in dermatology. Patients may not be aware that prices vary among pharmacies and consequently may not shop for the lowest cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors influence pharmacy choice and the effect of providing local prescription prices on pharmacy selection. We hypothesized that patients do not "shop around" due to lack of knowledge of price variation and would choose a pharmacy based on costs if educated on price disparity. METHODS: Between July and August 2016, we administered a cross-sectional anonymous survey to adults visiting four outpatient clinics at an academic tertiary care center in Washington, D.C. Participants answered questions before and after viewing a list of prescription drug prices from local pharmacies. RESULTS: 287 surveys were administered to a convenience sample of adults (age ≥ 18 and literate in English). Of the 287 participants, 218 fully completed the survey; 55.1% were women and 40.5% were over age 40. When considering a cost savings of $10-25, 65% would switch pharmacies if the distance were the same, and 21.3% would switch if the distance were 45-minutes further. After price education, fewer participants felt that drug price knowledge would ultimately influence pharmacy choice (P less than 0.0001). However, respondents' intended frequency of researching price online, calling a pharmacy to ask about price, and comparing price between pharmacies before filling a prescription all increased, compared to prior self-reported frequencies (P less than 0.001). Specifically, participants with $75,000-$99,999 income were more likely to compare prices than those with income below $45,000 (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-17.28). CONCLUSION: In this study, pharmacy choice was more influenced by convenience than cost prior to drug price education. However, price education ultimately impacted intent to research prescription drug prices before

  10. HBLAST: Parallelised sequence similarity--A Hadoop MapReducable basic local alignment search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Aisling; Belogrudov, Vladislav; Carroll, John; Kropp, Kai; Walsh, Paul; Ghazal, Peter; Sleator, Roy D

    2015-04-01

    The recent exponential growth of genomic databases has resulted in the common task of sequence alignment becoming one of the major bottlenecks in the field of computational biology. It is typical for these large datasets and complex computations to require cost prohibitive High Performance Computing (HPC) to function. As such, parallelised solutions have been proposed but many exhibit scalability limitations and are incapable of effectively processing "Big Data" - the name attributed to datasets that are extremely large, complex and require rapid processing. The Hadoop framework, comprised of distributed storage and a parallelised programming framework known as MapReduce, is specifically designed to work with such datasets but it is not trivial to efficiently redesign and implement bioinformatics algorithms according to this paradigm. The parallelisation strategy of "divide and conquer" for alignment algorithms can be applied to both data sets and input query sequences. However, scalability is still an issue due to memory constraints or large databases, with very large database segmentation leading to additional performance decline. Herein, we present Hadoop Blast (HBlast), a parallelised BLAST algorithm that proposes a flexible method to partition both databases and input query sequences using "virtual partitioning". HBlast presents improved scalability over existing solutions and well balanced computational work load while keeping database segmentation and recompilation to a minimum. Enhanced BLAST search performance on cheap memory constrained hardware has significant implications for in field clinical diagnostic testing; enabling faster and more accurate identification of pathogenic DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analyzing the equity of public primary care provision in Kenya: variation in facility characteristics by local poverty level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the equity of service provision. This paper assesses whether poorer areas have poorer health services by investigating associations between public facility characteristics and the poverty level of the area in which the facility is located. Methods Data on facility characteristics were collected from a nationally representative sample of public health centers and dispensaries across all 8 provinces in Kenya. A two-stage cluster randomized sampling process was used to select facilities. Univariate associations between facility characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES of the area in which the facility was located were assessed using chi-squared tests, equity ratios and concentration indices. Indirectly standardized concentration indices were used to assess the influence of SES on facility inputs and service availability while controlling for facility type, province, and remoteness. Results For most indicators, we found no indication of variation by SES. The clear exceptions were electricity and laboratory services which showed evidence of pro-rich inequalities, with equity ratios of 3.16 and 3.43, concentration indices of 0.09 (p Conclusions The paper shows how local area poverty data can be combined with national health facility surveys, providing a tool for policy makers to assess the equity of input and service availability. There was little evidence of inequalities for most inputs and services, with the clear exceptions of electricity and laboratory services. However, efforts are required to improve the availability of key inputs and services across public facilities in all areas, regardless of SES.

  12. Understanding the Collaborative Planning Process in Homeless Services: Networking, Advocacy, and Local Government Support May Reduce Service Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpe, Meghan; Mosley, Jennifer E; Smith, Bikki Tran

    2018-06-07

    The Continuum of Care (CoC) process-a nationwide system of regional collaborative planning networks addressing homelessness-is the chief administrative method utilized by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development to prevent and reduce homelessness in the United States. The objective of this study is to provide a benchmark comprehensive picture of the structure and practices of CoC networks, as well as information about which of those factors are associated with lower service gaps, a key goal of the initiative. A national survey of the complete population of CoCs in the United States was conducted in 2014 (n = 312, 75% response rate). This survey is the first to gather information on all available CoC networks. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to determine the relationship between internal networking, advocacy frequency, government investment, and degree of service gaps for CoCs of different sizes. United States. Lead contacts for CoCs (n = 312) that responded to the 2014 survey. Severity of regional service gaps for people who are homeless. Descriptive statistics show that CoCs vary considerably in regard to size, leadership, membership, and other organizational characteristics. Several independent variables were associated with reduced regional service gaps: networking for small CoCs (β = -.39, P < .05) and local government support for midsized CoCs (β = -.10, P < .05). For large CoCs, local government support was again significantly associated with lower service gaps, but there was also a significant interaction effect between advocacy and networking (β = .04, P < .05). To reduce service gaps and better serve the homeless, CoCs should consider taking steps to improve networking, particularly when advocacy is out of reach, and cultivate local government investment and support.

  13. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    stratification in the working areas of industrial plants. Investigated factors were confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods, source strengths, airflow obstacles and distances between sources and exhaust hoods. Reduced-scale experiments were conducted with a geometric scale of 1...... efficiency. Hood performance was also evaluated by thermal stratification heights in the plants. This study could help improve the capture efficiency of local ventilation systems used in industrial plants. Safe operation heights are recommended in the upper space of industrial plants based on the thermal...

  14. Safety Assessment of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Hazards: An Analysis Supporting Reduced Animal Use for the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Haseman, Joseph K.; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Salicru, Eleni; Paris, Michael; Tice, Raymond R.; Stokes, William S.

    2010-01-01

    The original Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 429 (OECD TG 429) for the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) required five mice/group if mice were processed individually. We used data from 83 LLNA tests (275 treated groups) to determine the impact on the LLNA outcome of reducing the group size from five to four. From DPM measurements, we formed all possible four-mice and five-mice combinations for the treated and control groups. Stimulation index (SI) valu...

  15. Hydrogel injection reduces rectal toxicity after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Berneking, Vanessa; Koenig, Liane; Frank, Dilini; Bretgeld, Marilou; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Injection of a hydrogel spacer before prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) is known to reduce the dose to the rectal wall. Clinical results from the patient's perspective are needed to better assess a possible benefit. A group of 167 consecutive patients who received prostate RT during the years 2010 to 2013 with 2-Gy fractions up to 76 Gy (without hydrogel, n = 66) or 76-80 Gy (with hydrogel, n = 101) were included. The numbers of interventions resulting from bowel problems during the first 2 years after RT were compared. Patients were surveyed prospectively before RT, at the last day of RT, and at a median of 2 and 17 months after RT using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Baseline patient characteristics were well balanced. Treatment for bowel symptoms (0 vs. 11 %; p < 0.01) and endoscopic examinations (3 vs. 19 %; p < 0.01) were performed less frequently with a spacer. Mean bowel function scores did not change for patients with a spacer in contrast to patients without a spacer (mean decrease of 5 points) >1 year after RT in comparison to baseline, with 0 vs. 12 % reporting a new moderate/big problem with passing stools (p < 0.01). Statistically significant differences were found for the items ''loose stools'', ''bloody stools'', ''painful bowel movements'' and ''frequency of bowel movements''. Spacer injection is associated with a significant benefit for patients after prostate cancer RT. (orig.) [German] Bei der Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms kann die Dosis an der Rektumwand durch die Injektion eines Hydrogelabstandhalters gesenkt werden. Klinische Ergebnisse aus der Sicht des Patienten sind zur Einschaetzung eines moeglichen Vorteils erforderlich. Eine Gruppe von 167 konsekutiven Patienten, die in den Jahren 2010-2013 eine Prostata-RT mit Einzeldosen von 2 bis 76 Gy (ohne Hydrogel, n = 66) bzw. 76-80 Gy (mit Hydrogel, n = 101

  16. Suppression of local haze variations in MERIS images over turbid coastal waters for retrieval of suspended sediment concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric correction over turbid waters can be problematic if atmospheric haze is spatially variable. In this case the retrieval of water quality is hampered by the fact that haze variations could be partly mistaken for variations in suspended sediment concentration (SSC). In this study we propose

  17. Tumor Localization Using Cone-Beam CT Reduces Setup Margins in Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Anamaria R.; Li, Jonathan G.; Shi Wenyin; Newlin, Heather E.; Chvetsov, Alexei; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R.; Olivier, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether setup margins can be reduced using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to localize tumor in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for lung tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 22 lung cancer patients were treated with curative intent with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy using daily image guidance with CBCT. Of these, 13 lung cancer patients had sufficient CBCT scans for analysis (389 CBCT scans). The patients underwent treatment simulation in the BodyFix immobilization system using four-dimensional CT to account for respiratory motion. Daily alignment was first done according to skin tattoos, followed by CBCT. All 389 CBCT scans were retrospectively registered to the planning CT scans using automated soft-tissue and bony registration; the resulting couch shifts in three dimensions were recorded. Results: The daily alignment to skin tattoos with no image guidance resulted in systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors of 3.2-5.6 mm and 2.0-3.5 mm, respectively. The margin required to account for the setup error introduced by aligning to skin tattoos with no image guidance was approximately 1-1.6 cm. The difference in the couch shifts obtained from the bone and soft-tissue registration resulted in systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors of 1.5-4.1 mm and 1.8-5.3 mm, respectively. The margin required to account for the setup error introduced using bony anatomy as a surrogate for the target, instead of localizing the target itself, was 0.5-1.4 cm. Conclusion: Using daily CBCT soft-tissue registration to localize the tumor in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy reduced the required setup margin by up to approximately 1.5 cm compared with both no image guidance and image guidance using bony anatomy as a surrogate for the target.

  18. Gain and offset calibration reduces variation in exposure-dependent SNR among systems with identical digital flat-panel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y; Lofton, Brad K; White, R Allen

    2011-07-01

    the image receptor. Exposure-dependent SNR measurements under conditions simulating thoracic imaging allowed us to develop criteria for digital flat-panel imaging systems from a single manufacturer. These measurements were useful in identifying systems with discrepant performance, including one with a defective grid, one with a defective detector, and one that had not been calibrated for gain and offset. The authors also found that the gain and offset calibration reduces variation in exposure-dependent SNR performance among the systems.

  19. Variation of the Jahn-Teller distortion with pressure in the layered perovskite Rb{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}: local and crystal compressibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, F [DCITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39005 (Spain); RodrIguez, F [DCITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39005 (Spain); Valiente, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39005 (Spain); Hanfland, M [ESRF, BP220, 156 rue des Martires, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Itie, J P [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, B77 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-08-29

    This work investigates the effect of pressure on the Jahn-Teller distortion (JTD) associated with the axially elongated CuCl{sub 6} octahedra in the A{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} perovskite layer (A: Rb, CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH{sub 3}, C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NH{sub 3}). The aim is to elucidate whether pressure favours disappearance of the JTD in the antiferrodistortive (AFD) structure exhibited by Cu{sup 2+} within the layers or whether it induces tilts of the CuCl{sub 6} octahedra preserving the molecular distortion associated with the JT effect. We have carried out x-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments under pressure along the compound series, whose interlayer distances at ambient pressure vary from 7.77 to 12.33 A. The use of both XAS and XRD techniques allows us a complete local- and crystal-structure characterization in Rb{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} as a function of pressure in the 0-16 GPa range. We show that pressure reduces the axial (long) and equatorial (short) Cu-Cl distances, R{sub ax} and R{sub eq}, as well as the intralayer and interlayer Cu-Cu distances, d{sub Cu-Cu} and d{sub inter}. Interestingly, the variation of R{sub ax} is an order of magnitude bigger than that of the corresponding R{sub eq}, yielding a reduction of the JTD. However, no evidence of JTD suppression has been observed below 16 GPa. Pressure-induced CuCl{sub 6} tilting preserves the JTD in a wide pressure range. Estimates based on structural data suggest that JT suppression would occur at about 40 GPa.

  20. Variation of the Jahn-Teller distortion with pressure in the layered perovskite Rb2CuCl4: local and crystal compressibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, F; RodrIguez, F; Valiente, R; Hanfland, M; Itie, J P

    2007-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of pressure on the Jahn-Teller distortion (JTD) associated with the axially elongated CuCl 6 octahedra in the A 2 CuCl 4 perovskite layer (A: Rb, CH 3 NH 3 , C 2 H 5 NH 3 , C 3 H 7 NH 3 ). The aim is to elucidate whether pressure favours disappearance of the JTD in the antiferrodistortive (AFD) structure exhibited by Cu 2+ within the layers or whether it induces tilts of the CuCl 6 octahedra preserving the molecular distortion associated with the JT effect. We have carried out x-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments under pressure along the compound series, whose interlayer distances at ambient pressure vary from 7.77 to 12.33 A. The use of both XAS and XRD techniques allows us a complete local- and crystal-structure characterization in Rb 2 CuCl 4 as a function of pressure in the 0-16 GPa range. We show that pressure reduces the axial (long) and equatorial (short) Cu-Cl distances, R ax and R eq , as well as the intralayer and interlayer Cu-Cu distances, d Cu-Cu and d inter . Interestingly, the variation of R ax is an order of magnitude bigger than that of the corresponding R eq , yielding a reduction of the JTD. However, no evidence of JTD suppression has been observed below 16 GPa. Pressure-induced CuCl 6 tilting preserves the JTD in a wide pressure range. Estimates based on structural data suggest that JT suppression would occur at about 40 GPa

  1. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  2. Safety assessment of allergic contact dermatitis hazards: an analysis supporting reduced animal use for the murine local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, Joseph K; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Salicru, Eleni; Paris, Michael; Tice, Raymond R; Stokes, William S

    2011-02-01

    The original Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 429 (OECD TG 429) for the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) required five mice/group if mice were processed individually. We used data from 83 LLNA tests (275 treated groups) to determine the impact on the LLNA outcome of reducing the group size from five to four. From DPM measurements, we formed all possible four- and five-mice combinations for the treated and control groups. Stimulation index (SI) values from each four-mice combination were compared with those from five-mice combinations, and agreement (both SILLNA performance. This analysis supported the recent update to OECD TG 429 allowing a minimum of four mice/group when each mouse is processed individually. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Lampoltshammer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors’ by use of local sensors’ intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units.

  4. Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; de Freitas, Edison Pignaton; Nowotny, Thomas; Plank, Stefan; da Costa, João Paulo Carvalho Lustosa; Larsson, Tony; Heistracher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors' by use of local sensors' intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units. PMID:24618777

  5. Variation of local critical current and its influence on overall current of bent multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S.; Doko, D.; Rokkaku, H.; Fujimoto, M.; Okuda, H.; Hojo, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Osamura, K.; Mimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between the local and overall currents in a multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag/Ag alloy composite tape under bending strain was studied. The correlation of the measured distributed local critical current and n-value to overall critical current was described comprehensively with a voltage summation model that regards the overall sample to be composed of a series circuit. The analysis of the measured critical current and n-value revealed that the distribution of local critical current could be described with the Weibull distribution function and the n-value could be expressed as a function of critical current as a first approximation. By combining the Weibull distribution function of the local critical current, the empirical formula of the n-value as a function of critical current, voltage summation model and Monte Carlo method, the overall current and n-value could be predicted fairly well from those of local elements

  6. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  7. Reduce in Variation and Improve Efficiency of Target Volume Delineation by a Computer-Assisted System Using a Deformable Image Registration Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Bhide, Shreerang FRCR; Chen, Hansen; Asper, Joshua PAC; Bush, Steven; Franklin, Gregg; Kavadi, Vivek; Liengswangwong, Vichaivood; Gordon, William; Raben, Adam; Strasser, Jon; Koprowski, Christopher; Frank, Steven; Chronowski, Gregory; Ahamad, Anesa; Malyapa, Robert; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a computer-assisted target volume delineation (CAT) system using a deformable image registration approach can reduce the variation of target delineation among physicians with different head and neck (HN) IMRT experiences and reduce the time spent on the contouring process. Materials and Methods: We developed a deformable image registration method for mapping contours from a template case to a patient case with a similar tumor manifestation but different body configuration. Eight radiation oncologists with varying levels of clinical experience in HN IMRT performed target delineation on two HN cases, one with base-of-tongue (BOT) cancer and another with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), by first contouring from scratch and then by modifying the contours deformed by the CAT system. The gross target volumes were provided. Regions of interest for comparison included the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and normal organs. The volumetric and geometric variation of these regions of interest and the time spent on contouring were analyzed. Results: We found that the variation in delineating CTVs from scratch among the physicians was significant, and that using the CAT system reduced volumetric variation and improved geometric consistency in both BOT and NPC cases. The average timesaving when using the CAT system was 26% to 29% for more experienced physicians and 38% to 47% for the less experienced ones. Conclusions: A computer-assisted target volume delineation approach, using a deformable image-registration method with template contours, was able to reduce the variation among physicians with different experiences in HN IMRT while saving contouring time

  8. Morphological variation of freshwater crabs Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae among localities from the middle Paraná River basin during different hydrological periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Torres

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Measures of hydrologic connectivity have been used extensively to describe spatial connections in riverine landscapes. Hydrologic fluctuations constitute an important macrofactor that regulates other environmental variables and can explain the distribution and abundance of organisms. We analysed morphological variations among individuals of two freshwater crab species, Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus, from localities of the middle Paraná River basin during two phases of the local hydrological regime. Specimens were sampled at sites (localities of Paraná River, Saladillo Stream, Salado River and Coronda River when water levels were falling and rising. The conductivity, pH, temperature and geographical coordinates were recorded at each site. The dorsal cephalothorax of each crab was represented using 16 landmarks for Z. collastinensis and 14 landmarks for T. borellianus. The Canonical Variate Analyses showed differences in shape (for both species among the crabs collected from the Paraná and Salado Rivers during the two hydrologic phases. We did not find a general distribution pattern for shape among the crab localities. During falling water, the shapes of Z. collastinensis were not related to latitude-longitude gradient (i.e., showing greater overlap in shape, while during rising water the shapes were ordered along a distributional gradient according to geographical location. Contrary, shapes of T. borellianus were related to latitude-longitude during falling water and were not related to distributional gradient during rising water. The cephalothorax shape showed, in general, no statistically significant covariations with environmental variables for either species. These results show that each freshwater crab species, from different localities of the middle Paraná River, remain connected; however, these connections change throughout the hydrologic regime of the floodplain system. This study was useful for delineating

  9. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  10. Seasonal variations of nitrate reducing and denitrifying bacteria utilizing hexadecane in Mandovi estuary, Goa, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sousa, T.D.; Ingole, B.; Sousa, S.D.; Bhosle, S.

    > cfu/ml on minimal media containing hexadecane as the sole carbon source. Highest bacterial counts were obtained during the monsoons. 22% of bacteria capable of hexadecane utilization were nitrate reducing and 12% were denitrifying. 29...

  11. An evaluation of multiple-schedule variations to reduce high-rate requests in the picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Robin; Hanley, Gregory P

    2016-06-01

    Using procedures similar to those of Tiger, Hanley, and Heal (2006), we compared two multiple-schedule variations (S+/S- and S+ only) to treat high-rate requests for edible items in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Two individuals with autism participated, after they showed persistent requests for edible items after PECS training. Stimulus control was achieved only with the multiple schedule that involved presentation of a discriminative stimulus during reinforcement components and its removal during extinction components (S+ only). Discriminated requests were maintained for the 1 participant who experienced schedule thinning. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Wide variation of prostate-specific antigen doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade, prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Klotz, Laurence; Deboer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C

    2004-08-01

    To assess the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate carcinoma. A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress since November 1995 to assess the feasibility of a watchful-observation protocol with selective delayed intervention for clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate adenocarcinoma. The PSA doubling time was estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) against time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. As of March 2003, 231 patients had at least 6 months of follow-up (median 45) and at least three PSA measurements (median 8, range 3-21). The distribution of the doubling time was: 50 years, 56. The median doubling time was 7.0 years; 42% of men had a doubling time of >10 years. The doubling time of untreated clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate cancer varies widely.

  13. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latter David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA group (19 patients received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each (P = 0.82. Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit than in placebo group (median 2 units (P = 0.03. Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient.

  14. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roel J; Smout, Andre J P M; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-12-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an alginate formulation in relation to the acid pocket and the corresponding effects on reflux parameters and acid pocket positioning in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic GERD and large hiatal hernias to groups who were given either (111)In-labeled alginate-antacid (n = 8, Gaviscon Double Action Liquid) or antacid (n = 8, Antagel) after a standard meal. The relative positions of labeled alginate and acid pocket were analyzed for 2 hours by using scintigraphy; reflux episodes were detected by using high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring. The alginate-antacid label localized to the acid pocket. The number of acid reflux episodes was significantly reduced in patients receiving alginate-antacid (3.5; range, 0-6.5; P = .03) compared with those receiving antacid (15; range, 5-20), whereas time to acid reflux was significantly increased in patients receiving alginate-antacid (63 minutes; range, 23-92) vs those receiving antacid (14 minutes; range, 9-23; P = .01). The acid pocket was located below the diaphragm in 71% of patients given alginate-antacid vs 21% of those given antacid (P = .08). There was an inverse correlation between a subdiaphragm position of the acid pocket and acid reflux (r = -0.76, P acid pocket and displaces it below the diaphragm to reduce postprandial acid reflux. These findings indicate the importance of the acid pocket in GERD pathogenesis and establish alginate-antacid as an appropriate therapy for postprandial acid reflux. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemistry study of the influence of local hydrogen generation in carbon steel bio-corrosion mechanisms in presence of iron reducing bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.; Libert, M.; Tribollet, B.; Vivier, V.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The safe disposal of nuclear waste is a major concern for the nuclear energy industry. The high-level long-lived waste (HLNW) should be maintained for millions of years in clay formations at 500 metres depth in order to prevent the migration of radionuclides. Thence, different kinds of materials such as, carbon steel, stainless steel, concrete, clay, etc., are chosen aiming to last as long as possible and to preserve the radioactivity properties. In contrast, the anoxic corrosion of the different metallic envelopes is an expected phenomenon due to the changes on the environmental conditions (such as re-saturation) within HLNW repositories. In this context, corrosion products like iron oxides (i.e. magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 ), and hydrogen will be also expected. On the one hand, hydrogen poses a significant threat to the nuclear waste repository when it is accumulated for a long time in the surrounding clay - such hydrogen production may damage the barrier properties of the geological formation, affecting the safety of the repository. On the other hand, hydrogen production represents a new energy source for bacterial growth, especially in such environments with low content of biodegradable organic matter. Moreover, some hydrogeno-trophic bacteria can also use Fe 3+ as an electron acceptor for their development. Therefore, the biological activity and biofilm formation could interfere in the metal corrosion behaviour. This phenomenon is widely known by MIC (Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion), which can represent a huge problem when promoting local corrosion. The objective of this study is to better understand the influence of local hydrogen formation in the carbon steel bio-corrosion process in the presence of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model of Iron Reducing Bacteria (IRB), in order to evaluate the impact of the bacterial activity in terms of long term behaviour of geological disposal materials. In this study

  16. Increased tumor localization and reduced immune response to adenoviral vector formulated with the liposome DDAB/DOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jason C; Cavanagh, Heather M A; Burton, Mark A; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Tsokos, Maria; Morris, John C; Kalle, Wouter H J

    2007-04-01

    We aimed to increase the efficiency of adenoviral vectors by limiting adenoviral spread from the target site and reducing unwanted host immune responses to the vector. We complexed adenoviral vectors with DDAB-DOPE liposomes to form adenovirus-liposomal (AL) complexes. AL complexes were delivered by intratumoral injection in an immunocompetent subcutaneous rat tumor model and the immunogenicity of the AL complexes and the expression efficiency in the tumor and other organs was examined. Animals treated with the AL complexes had significantly lower levels of beta-galactosidase expression in systemic tissues compared to animals treated with the naked adenovirus (NA) (P<0.05). The tumor to non-tumor ratio of beta-galactosidase marker expression was significantly higher for the AL complex treated animals. NA induced significantly higher titers of adenoviral-specific antibodies compared to the AL complexes (P<0.05). The AL complexes provided protection (immunoshielding) to the adenovirus from neutralizing antibody. Forty-seven percent more beta-galactosidase expression was detected following intratumoral injection with AL complexes compared to the NA in animals pre-immunized with adenovirus. Complexing of adenovirus with liposomes provides a simple method to enhance tumor localization of the vector, decrease the immunogenicity of adenovirus, and provide protection of the virus from pre-existing neutralizing antibodies.

  17. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization: a cut-down screen to reduce animal requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Gerberick, G Frank; Ryan, Cindy A; Kern, Petra S; Patlewicz, Grace Y; Basketter, David A

    2006-04-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA), an alternative approach to skin-sensitizing testing, has made a significant contribution to animal welfare by permitting a reduction and refinement of animal use. Although there is clearly an aspiration to eliminate the use of animals in such tests, it is appropriate also to consider other opportunities for refinement and reduction of animal use. We have therefore explored the use of a modified version of the LLNA for screening purposes when there is a need to evaluate the sensitizing activity of a large number of chemicals, as will be the case under the auspices of registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH). Using an existing LLNA database of 211 chemicals, we have examined whether a cut-down assay comprising a single high-dose group and a concurrent vehicle control would provide a realistic approach for screening chemicals for sensitizing potential. The analyses reported here suggest this is the case. We speculate that the animal welfare benefits may be enhanced further by reducing the number of animals per experimental group. However, a detailed evaluation will be necessary to provide reassurance that a reduction in group size would provide adequate sensitivity across a range of skin sensitization potencies.

  18. International Geographic Variation in Event Rates in Trials of Heart Failure With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International geographic differences in outcomes may exist for clinical trials of heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), but there are few data for those with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed outcomes by international geographic reg...

  19. Transcriptomic variation of locally-infected skin of Epinephelus coioides reveals the mucosal immune mechanism against Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Anxing; Xu, Yang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Geling; Luo, Xiaochun

    2017-07-01

    Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system. Comparative analyses of infected skin (group Isk) and uninfected skin (group Nsk) from the same challenged fish and control skin (group C) from uninfected control fish were conducted. As a result, a total of 91,082 unigenes with an average length of 2880 base pairs were obtained and among them, 38,704 and 48,617 unigenes were annotated based on homology with matches in the non-redundant and zebrafish database, respectively. Pairwise comparison resulted in 10,115 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the Isk/C group comparison (4,983 up-regulated and 5,132 down-regulated), 2,275 DEGs in the Isk/Nsk group comparison (1,319 up-regulated and 956 down-regulated) and 4,566 DEGs in the Nsk/C group comparison (1,534 up-regulated and 3,032 down-regulated). Seven immune-related categories including 91 differentially-expressed immune genes (86 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) were scrutinized. Both DEGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis and immune-related gene expression analysis were used, and both analyses showed that the genes were more significantly altered in the locally-infected skin than in the uninfected skin of the same challenged fish. This suggests the skin's local immune response is important for host defense against this ectoparasite infection. Innate immune molecules, including hepcidin, C-type lectin, transferrin, transferrin receptor protein, serum amyloid A

  20. Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: control of the aspect ratio by variation of the reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppl, Susanne; Ghielmetti, Nico; Caseri, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Seed-mediated growth methods involving reduction of tetrachloroaurate(III) with ascorbic acid are common for the synthesis of gold nanorods. This study shows, however, that simply by appropriate choice of the reducing agent a drastic influence on the aspect ratio can be attained. Weaker reducing agents, such as dihydroxybenzene isomers (hydroquinone, catechol or resorcinol) or glucose can increase the aspect ratio of the nanorods by an order of magnitude, up to values as high as 100 (nanowires). The increase in aspect ratio is mainly a consequence of an increase in length of the particles (up to 1–3 μm). This effect is probably associated with a decrease in the reduction rate of gold(III) species by dihydroxybenzenes or glucose compared to ascorbic acid. The reduction potential of the reducing agents strongly depends on the pH value, and related effects on the dimensions of the nanoparticles are also reflected in this study. The nanorods exhibited penta-twinned nature without noteworthy defects (e.g. stacking faults and dislocations).

  1. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Luca F. [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie [National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pisters, Katherine M. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dexter, Elisabeth U. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Niland, Joyce C. [Department of Information Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S., E-mail: Nirav.S.Kapadia@hitchcock.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  2. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Luca F.; Jagsi, Reshma; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Pisters, Katherine M.; Dexter, Elisabeth U.; Niland, Joyce C.; Hayman, James A.; Kapadia, Nirav S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  3. Localized rejuvenation of a crystal mush recorded in zircon temporal and compositional variation at the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W Klemetti

    Full Text Available Zircon ages and trace element compositions from recent silicic eruptions in the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC allow for an evaluation of the timing and conditions of rejuvenation (reheating and mobilization of crystals within the LVC magmatic system. The LVC is the southernmost active Cascade volcano and, prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, was the site of the only eruption in the Cascade arc during the last century. The three most recent silicic eruptions from the LVC were very small to moderate-sized lava flows and domes of dacite (1915 and 27 ka eruptions of Lassen Peak and rhyodacite (1.1 ka eruption of Chaos Crags. These eruptions produced mixed and mingled lavas that contain a diverse crystal cargo, including zircon. 238U-230Th model ages from interior and surface analyses of zircon reveal ages from ∼17 ka to secular equilibrium (>350 ka, with most zircon crystallizing during a period between ∼60-200 ka. These data support a model for localized rejuvenation of crystal mush beneath the LVC. This crystal mush evidently is the remnant of magmatism that ended ∼190 ka. Most zircon are thought to have been captured from "cold storage" in the crystal mush (670-725°C, Hf >10,000 ppm, Eu/Eu* 0.25-0.4 locally remobilized by intrusion of mafic magma. A smaller population of zircon (>730°C, Hf 0.4 grew in, and are captured from, rejuvenation zones. These data suggest the dominant method to produce eruptible melt within the LVC is small-scale, local rejuvenation of the crystal mush accompanied by magma mixing and mingling. Based on zircon stability, the time required to heat, erupt and then cool to background conditions is relatively short, lasting a maximum of 10 s-1000 s years. Rejuvenation events in the LVC are ephemeral and permit eruption within an otherwise waning and cooling magmatic body.

  4. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ice Mass Variations and the Local Climatic Factors in the Riparian Zone of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2016-12-01

    Californian icefields are natural basins of fresh water. They provide irrigation water to the farms in the central valley. We analyzed the ice mass loss rates, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST) in Sacramento and San Joaquin basins in California. The digital elevation models from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to calculate ice mass loss rate between the years 2002 and 2015. Additionally, Landsat TIR data were used to extract the land surface temperature. Data from local weather stations were analyzed to understand the spatiotemporal trends in air temperature. The results showed an overall mass recession of -0.8 ± 0.7 m w.e.a-1. We also noticed an about 60% loss in areal extent of the glaciers in the study basins between 2000 and 2015. Local climatic factors, along with the global climate patterns might have influenced the negative trends in the ice mass loss. Overall, there was an increase in the air temperature by 0.07± 0.02 °C in the central valley between 2000 and 2015. Furthermore, LST increased by 0.34 ± 0.4 °C and 0.55± 0.1 °C in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Our preliminary results show the decrease in area and mass of ice mass in the basins, and changing agricultural practices in the valley.

  5. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1 using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2 performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score; and (3 selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes, white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, shiitake (Lentinus edodes, and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa, shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus plus the above mushrooms. Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  6. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Cheng, Wangda [Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiaxing 314016 (China); Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. - Highlights: • Field trials evaluated situation of grain HM in main rice growing areas of Zhejiang. • Forecasting index system to predict rice grain HM concentration was achieved. • Hybrid rice holds higher grain Cd concentration than conventional cultivars. • Low grain HM accumulation rice cultivars were successfully identified. • Developed alleviating regulator which effectively reduced grain toxic HM.

  7. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2014-01-01

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. - Highlights: • Field trials evaluated situation of grain HM in main rice growing areas of Zhejiang. • Forecasting index system to predict rice grain HM concentration was achieved. • Hybrid rice holds higher grain Cd concentration than conventional cultivars. • Low grain HM accumulation rice cultivars were successfully identified. • Developed alleviating regulator which effectively reduced grain toxic HM

  8. Localization of glucagon and insulin cells and its variation with respect to physiological events in Eutropis carinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya. R. Chandavar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to localize glucagon and insulin immunoreactive (IR cells of pancreas during annual seasonal cycle of reproduction and to find out whether they had any effect on the regulation of plasma glucose level in the skink Eutropis carinata. Immunolocalized pancreatic cells revealed significantly different mean numbers in different periods of reproduction. The numbers of glucagon-IR and insulin-IR cells were highest in recrudescent period which was corresponded with low plasma glucose level. Unlike other lizards the arrangement of insulin cells in the central core and glucagon cells at the periphery was absent instead glucagon-IR and insulin-IR cells were paracrine in arrangement. Among the two immunoreactive cells glucagon-IR cells were predominant. Morphological differences between two cell types were observed by electron microscopy after staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Plasma glucose showed cyclic change being highest during reproductive period.

  9. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  10. Age- and season-specific variation in local and long-distance movement behavior of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bloom, Peter H.; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Animal movements can determine the population dynamics of wildlife. We used telemetry data to provide insight into the causes and consequences of local and long-distance movements of multiple age classes of conservation-reliant golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the foothills and mountains near Tehachapi, California. We estimated size and habitat-related correlates of 324 monthly 95 % home ranges and 317 monthly 50 % core areas for 25 birds moving locally over 2.5 years. We also calculated daily, hourly, and total distances traveled for the five of these birds that engaged in long-distance movements. Mean (±SD) monthly home-range size was 253.6 ± 429.4 km2 and core-area size was 26.4 ± 49.7 km2. Consistent with expectations, space used by pre-adults increased with age and was season-dependent but, unexpectedly, was not sex-dependent. For all ages and sexes, home ranges and core areas were dominated by both forest & woodland and shrubland & grassland habitat types. When moving long distances, eagles traveled up to 1588.4 km (1-way) in a season at highly variable speeds (63.7 ± 69.0 km/day and 5.2 ± 10.4 km/h) that were dependent on time of day. Patterns of long-distance movements by eagles were determined by age, yet these movements had characteristics of more than one previously described movement category (migration, dispersal, etc.). Our results provide a context for differentiating among types of movement behaviors and their population-level consequences and, thus, have implications for management and conservation of golden eagle populations.

  11. Variation in the Subcellular Localization and Protein Folding Activity among Arabidopsis thaliana Homologs of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Y. L. Yuen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a′ and two non-catalytic domains (b, b′, in the order a-b-b′-a′. The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes 12 PDI-like proteins, six of which possess the classical PDI domain arrangement (AtPDI1 through AtPDI6. Three additional AtPDIs (AtPDI9, AtPDI10, AtPDI11 possess two thioredoxin domains, but without intervening b-b′ domains. C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusions to each of the nine dual-thioredoxin PDI homologs localized predominantly to the ER lumen when transiently expressed in protoplasts. Additionally, expression of AtPDI9:GFP-KDEL and AtPDI10: GFP-KDDL was associated with the formation of ER bodies. AtPDI9, AtPDI10, and AtPDI11 mediated the oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase when heterologously expressed in the Escherichia coli protein folding mutant, dsbA−. However, only three classical AtPDIs (AtPDI2, AtPDI5, AtPDI6 functionally complemented dsbA−. Interestingly, chemical inducers of the ER unfolded protein response were previously shown to upregulate most of the AtPDIs that complemented dsbA−. The results indicate that Arabidopsis PDIs differ in their localization and protein folding activities to fulfill distinct molecular functions in the ER.

  12. I h and HCN channels in murine spiral ganglion neurons: tonotopic variation, local heterogeneity, and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Manis, Paul B; Davis, Robin L

    2014-08-01

    One of the major contributors to the response profile of neurons in the auditory pathways is the I h current. Its properties such as magnitude, activation, and kinetics not only vary among different types of neurons (Banks et al., J Neurophysiol 70:1420-1432, 1993; Fu et al., J Neurophysiol 78:2235-2245, 1997; Bal and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 84:806-817, 2000; Cao and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 94:821-832, 2005; Rodrigues and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 95:76-87, 2006; Yi et al., J Neurophysiol 103:2532-2543, 2010), but they also display notable diversity in a single population of spiral ganglion neurons (Mo and Davis, J Neurophysiol 78:3019-3027, 1997), the first neural element in the auditory periphery. In this study, we found from somatic recordings that part of the heterogeneity can be attributed to variation along the tonotopic axis because I h in the apical neurons have more positive half-activation voltage levels than basal neurons. Even within a single cochlear region, however, I h current properties are not uniform. To account for this heterogeneity, we provide immunocytochemical evidence for variance in the intracellular density of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel α-subunit 1 (HCN1), which mediates I h current. We also observed different combinations of HCN1 and HCN4 α-subunits from cell to cell. Lastly, based on the physiological data, we performed kinetic analysis for the I h current and generated a mathematical model to better understand varied I h on spiral ganglion function. Regardless of whether I h currents are recorded at the nerve terminals (Yi et al., J Neurophysiol 103:2532-2543, 2010) or at the somata of spiral ganglion neurons, they have comparable mean half-activation voltage and induce similar resting membrane potential changes, and thus our model may also provide insights into the impact of I h on synaptic physiology.

  13. Ligation-mediated PCR with a back-to-back adapter reduces amplification bias resulting from variations in GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Satoru; Kotomura, Naoe; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) is a common technique for amplification of a pool of DNA fragments. Here, a double-stranded oligonucleotide consisting of two primer sequences in back-to-back orientation was designed as an adapter for LM-PCR. When DNA fragments were ligated with this adapter, the fragments were sandwiched between two adapters in random orientations. In the ensuing PCR, ligation products linked at each end to an opposite side of the adapter, i.e. to a distinct primer sequence, were preferentially amplified compared with products linked at each end to an identical primer sequence. The use of this adapter in LM-PCR reduced the impairment of PCR by substrate DNA with a high GC content, compared with the use of traditional LM-PCR adapters. This result suggested that our method has the potential to contribute to reduction of the amplification bias that is caused by an intrinsic property of the sequence context in substrate DNA. A DNA preparation obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using pulldown of a specific form of histone H3 was successfully amplified using the modified LM-PCR, and the amplified products could be used as probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2014-10-15

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH₄)₂SO₄ as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Variations in local adaptation of allopatric Fasciola hepatica to French Galba truncatula in relation to parasite origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Lounnas, M; Djuikwo Teukeng, F F; Mouzet, R; Courtioux, B; Hurtrez-Boussès, S; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G; Rondelaud, D

    2013-07-01

    Two French populations of Galba truncatula were subjected to experimental infections with Egyptian and French isolates of Fasciola sp. miracidia, originating from cattle and sheep, to compare characteristics of snail infections in allopatric and sympatric groups. All sampled Egyptian isolates were identified as Fasciola hepatica using microsatellite markers. Compared to snails infected with French miracidia, snail survival at day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater in the Egyptian groups, while prevalence of infection was significantly lower (in an Egyptian group infected with cattle-derived miracidia) or did not show any significant differences in the other three cases. The total number of metacercariae was significantly higher in the four Egyptian groups. However, snail population and the mammalian origin of F. hepatica had also a significant effect on this parameter. The dissection of snail cadavers showed a significantly higher number of free rediae in the Egyptian groups, even if snail population also had a significant effect on the redial burden. Both Egyptian isolates of F. hepatica could easily develop in French snails, causing a low mortality in snails and inducing a metacercarial production higher than that noted in sympatric infections. However, the mammalian origin of F. hepatica eggs and the quality of snail populations as intermediate hosts had to be taken into account for studying local adaptation in reason of their effects on this process.

  16. Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Tschapek, Marika; Erlenwein, Joachim; Petzke, Frank

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated change in the distribution of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity and pressure pain sensitivity across the low back in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from multiple locations over the lumbar erector spinae muscle with a 13×5 grid of electrodes from 19 people with chronic nonspecific LBP and 17 control subjects as they performed a repetitive lifting task. The EMG root mean square (RMS) was computed for each location of the grid to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded before and after the lifting task over a similar area of the back. For the control subjects, the EMG RMS progressively increased more in the caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae during the repetitive task, resulting in a shift in the distribution of muscle activity. In contrast, the distribution of muscle activity remained unaltered in the LBP group despite an overall increase in EMG amplitude. PPT was lower in the LBP group after completion of the repetitive task compared to baseline (average across all locations: pre: 268.0±165.9 kPa; post: 242.0±166.7 kPa), whereas no change in PPT over time was observed for the control group (320.1±162.1 kPa; post: 322.0±179.5 kPa). The results demonstrate that LBP alters the normal adaptation of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity to exercise, which occurs in the presence of exercise-induced hyperalgesia. Reduced variability of muscle activity may have important implications for the provocation and recurrence of LBP due to repetitive tasks. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Climatic change and local policy, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Policy options and implementation strategies to reduce emission of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schol, E.; Van den Bosch, A.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Roemer, J.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Dinkelman, D.H.; Kok, I.C.; De Paauw, K.F.B.

    1998-04-01

    Insight is given into the local policy options with respect to climate change, in this case within the sphere of influence of Amsterdam local authorities. A list of new policy options for CO2-reduction has been made with the assistance of local policy makers and representatives of interest groups. These policy options have been divided into three qualitative scenarios: Institutional Cultural Change, Technological Innovation and Least Regrets. The environmental, economic and other effects have been described for each policy option. The three most interesting policy options have been selected by local policy makers and representatives of interest groups during a workshop. Implementation strategies have been developed for the options selected. These strategies have been discussed during a second workshop. The reduction target, stabilization of CO2-emissions in 2015 compared to 1993, can be realized by a combination of all the new policy options. The three selected policy options count for 40% of this total CO2-emission reduction. Finally, a general outline on the methodology to construct local policies for climate protection has been described. This methodology can also be applied to other cities and municipal administrators, e.g. participants of Cities for Climate Protection, an initiative of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, or the Netherlands Climate Association. 136 refs

  18. Flip-flop logic circuit based on fully solution-processed organic thin film transistor devices with reduced variations in electrical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Yoshimura, Yudai; Adib, Faiz Adi Ezarudin Bin; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    Organic reset-set (RS) flip-flop logic circuits based on pseudo-CMOS inverters have been fabricated using full solution processing at a relatively low process temperatures of 150 °C or less. The work function for printed silver electrodes was increased from 4.7 to 5.4 eV through surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) material. A bottom-gate, bottom-contact organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) device using a solution-processable small-molecular semiconductor material exhibited field-effect mobility of 0.40 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the saturation region and a threshold voltage (VTH) of -2.4 V in ambient air operation conditions. In order to reduce the variations in mobility and VTH, we designed a circuit with six transistors arranged in parallel, in order to average out their electrical characteristics. As a result, we have succeeded in reducing these variations without changing the absolute values of the mobility and VTH. The fabricated RS flip-flop circuits were functioned well and exhibited short delay times of 3.5 ms at a supply voltage of 20 V.

  19. Expression and Genetic Variation in Neuroendocrine Signaling Pathways in Lethal and Nonlethal Prostate Cancer among Men Diagnosed with Localized Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Donghao; Carlsson, Jessica; Penney, Kathryn L; Davidsson, Sabina; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Mucci, Lorelei A; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Andrén, Ove; Fang, Fang; Fall, Katja

    2017-12-01

    Background: Recent data suggest that neuroendocrine signaling pathways may play a role in the progression of prostate cancer, particularly for early-stage disease. We aimed to explore whether expression of selected genes in the adrenergic, serotoninergic, glucocorticoid, and dopaminergic pathways differs in prostate tumor tissue from men with lethal disease compared with men with nonlethal disease. Methods: On the basis of the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort, we included 511 men diagnosed with incidental prostate cancer through transurethral resection of the prostate during 1977-1998 with follow-up up to 30 years. For those with tumor tissue ( N = 262), we measured mRNA expression of 223 selected genes included in neuroendocrine pathways. Using DNA from normal prostate tissue ( N = 396), we genotyped 36 SNPs from 14 receptor genes. Lethal prostate cancer was the primary outcome in analyses with pathway gene expression and genetic variants. Results: Differential expression of genes in the serotoninergic pathway was associated with risk of lethal prostate cancer ( P = 0.007); similar but weaker associations were noted for the adrenergic ( P = 0.014) and glucocorticoid ( P = 0.020) pathways. Variants of the HTR2A (rs2296972; P = 0.002) and NR3CI (rs33388; P = 0.035) genes (within the serotoninergic and glucocorticoid pathways) were associated with lethal cancer in overdominant models. These genetic variants were correlated with expression of several genes in corresponding pathways ( P pathways, particularly serotoninergic pathway, are associated with lethal outcome in the natural course of localized prostate cancer. Impact: This study provides evidence of the role of neuroendocrine pathways in prostate cancer progression that may have clinical utility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(12); 1781-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Geographic body size variation in the periodical cicadas Magicicada: implications for life cycle divergence and local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T; Ito, H; Kakishima, S; Yoshimura, J; Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Seven species in three species groups (Decim, Cassini and Decula) of periodical cicadas (Magicicada) occupy a wide latitudinal range in the eastern United States. To clarify how adult body size, a key trait affecting fitness, varies geographically with climate conditions and life cycle, we analysed the relationships of population mean head width to geographic variables (latitude, longitude, altitude), habitat annual mean temperature (AMT), life cycle and species differences. Within species, body size was larger in females than males and decreased with increasing latitude (and decreasing habitat AMT), following the converse Bergmann's rule. For the pair of recently diverged 13- and 17-year species in each group, 13-year cicadas were equal in size or slightly smaller on average than their 17-year counterparts despite their shorter developmental time. This fact suggests that, under the same climatic conditions, 17-year cicadas have lowered growth rates compared to their 13-years counterparts, allowing 13-year cicadas with faster growth rates to achieve body sizes equivalent to those of their 17-year counterparts at the same locations. However, in the Decim group, which includes two 13-year species, the more southerly, anciently diverged 13-year species (Magicicada tredecim) was characterized by a larger body size than the other, more northerly 13- and 17-year species, suggesting that local adaptation in warmer habitats may ultimately lead to evolution of larger body sizes. Our results demonstrate how geographic clines in body size may be maintained in sister species possessing different life cycles. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. The interstellar medium and star formation in local galaxies: Variations of the star formation law in simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to model the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated local disk galaxies. The simulation includes a treatment for star formation and stellar feedback. We get a highly supersonic turbulent disk, which is fragmented at multiple scales and characterized by a multi-phase ISM. We show that a Kennicutt-Schmidt relation only holds when averaging over large scales. However, values of star formation rates and gas surface densities lie close in the plot for any averaging size. This suggests an intrinsic relation between stars and gas at cell-size scales, which dominates over the global dynamical evolution. To investigate this effect, we develop a method to simulate the creation of stars based on the density field from the snapshots, without running the code again. We also investigate how the star formation law is affected by the characteristic star formation timescale, the density threshold, and the efficiency considered in the recipe. We find that the slope of the law varies from ∼1.4 for a free-fall timescale, to ∼1.0 for a constant depletion timescale. We further demonstrate that a power law is recovered just by assuming that the mass of the new stars is a fraction of the mass of the cell m * = ερ gas Δx 3 , with no other physical criteria required. We show that both efficiency and density threshold do not affect the slope, but the right combination of them can adjust the normalization of the relation, which in turn could explain a possible bi-modality in the law.

  2. TU-F-17A-09: Four-Dimensional Cone Beam CT Ventilation Imaging Can Detect Interfraction Lung Function Variations for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, J; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Hugo, G; Weiss, E; Williamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI) is a novel functional lung imaging modality requiring validation. We hypothesize that 4D-CBCT VI satisfies a necessary condition for validity: that intrafraction variations (e.g. due to poor 4D-CBCT image quality) are substantially different to interfraction variations (e.g. due to changes in underlying function). We perform the first comparison of intrafraction (pre/post fraction) and interfraction (week-to-week) 4D-CBCT VIs for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: A total of 215 4D-CBCT scans were acquired for 19 LA NSCLC patients over 4-6 weeks of radiation therapy, including 75 pairs of pre-/post-fraction scans on the same day. 4D-CBCT VIs were obtained by applying state-of-the-art, B-spline deformable image registration to obtain the Jacobian determinant of deformation between the end-exhale and end-inhale phases. All VIs were deformably registered to the corresponding first day scan, normalized between the 10th and 90th percentile values and cropped to the ipsilateral lung only. Intrafraction variations were assessed by computing the mean and standard deviation of voxel-wise differences between all same-day pairs of pre-/post-fraction VIs. Interfraction differences were computed between first-day VIs and treatment weeks 2, 4 and 6 for all 19 patients. We tested the hypothesis by comparing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of intrafraction and interfraction ventilation differences using two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Results: The (mean ± std. dev.) of intrafraction differences was (−0.007 ± 0.079). Interfraction differences for weeks 2, 4 and 6 were (−0.035 ± 0.103), (−0.006 ± 0.094) and (−0.019 ± 0.127) respectively. For week 2, the changes in CDFs for intrafraction and interfraction differences approached statistical significance (p=0.099). Conclusion: We have shown that 4D-CBCT VI

  3. [Towards the problem of necessity to reduce the medical evacuation stages in conditions of local wars and armed conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaĭdar, B V; Ivantsov, V A; Sidel'nikov, V O; Rusev, I T; Madaĭ, D Iu; Kokoev, V G; Zinov'ev, E V; Mutalibov, M M

    2004-06-01

    The article is devoted to the review of modern opinions concerning the experience of military operation medical support in conditions of local wars and military conflicts. On the base of analysis of medical assistance rendered to the wounded and casualties in Republic of Chechnya the advantages and defects of different approaches are discussed. The experience in rendering assistance to the casualties in the Armed Forces of NATO countries during the local wars for the last decades is discussed. It is shown that the optimal variant of organization of treatment-and-evacuation measures during the local armed conflicts and wars is the two-stage scheme of evacuation: the first medical aid--the qualified (specialized) medical aid.

  4. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  5. Global and local structural variations near the antiferroelectric regime in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavelu, Karthik [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, ODF-Campus-502205 (India); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, ODF-Campus-502205 (India); Rayaprol, S. [UGC-DAE CSR Mumbai Centre, BARC Campus, Mumbai - 400085 (India); Siruguri, V. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India); Sastry, P. U.; Asthana, Saket, E-mail: asthanas@iith.ac.in

    2015-06-24

    Rietveld refinement of neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} shows R3c phase stabilization at room temperature. The intermediate antiferroelectric region between 180°C to 280°C exhibits phase coexistence i.e R3c + Pnma, along with decrease in octahedral tilt angle and increase in unit cell volume. The local structural changes observed from Raman scattering in the A-O, Ti-O and TiO{sub 6} phonon modes favor the global structural variation. A possible antiparallel cation displacement due to Pnma phase formation leads to the origin of antiferroelectric ordering in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}.

  6. Local variation in Bi crystal sites of epitaxial GaAsBi studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukkanen, P., E-mail: pekka.laukkanen@utu.fi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Punkkinen, M.P.J., E-mail: marko.punkkinen@utu.fi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Lahti, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Puustinen, J. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Tuominen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Hilska, J. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Mäkelä, J.; Dahl, J.; Yasir, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kuzmin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Osiecki, J.R.; Schulte, K. [The MAX IV laboratory, P. O. Box 118, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kokko, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • XPS is used to study bulk-like properties of GaAsBi crystals. • Surface effects are removed from XPS signal by an epitaxial AlAs cap film. • Local variation of Bi composition is found. • The result is consistent with photoluminescence and theoretical results. • Ga vacancies and Bi crystallites are suggested to be dominating defects. - Abstract: Epitaxial Bi-containing III–V crystals (III-V{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x}) have attracted increasing interest due to their potential in infrared applications. Atomic-scale characterization and engineering of bulk-like III-V{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} properties (e.g., Bi incorporation and defect formation) are challenging but relevant to develop applications. Toward that target, we report here that the traditional surface-science measurement of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a potential, non-destructive method to be combined in the studies of bulk-like properties, when surface effects are properly removed. We have investigated epitaxial GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} films, capped by epitaxial AlAs layers, with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. The Bi5d core-level spectra of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} together with ab-initio calculations give direct evidence of variation of Bi bonding environment in the lattice sites. The result agrees with photoluminescence (PL) measurement which shows that the studied GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} films include local areas with higher Bi content, which contribute to PL but do not readily appear in x-ray diffraction (XRD). The measured and calculated Bi core-level shifts show also that Ga vacancies and Bi clusters are dominant defects.

  7. Topographical Variation of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage Thickness, T1rho and T2 Relaxation Times Is Related to Local Loading during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossom, Sam; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Assche, Dieter; Jonkers, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated. Design MR images were acquired in 14 healthy adults and cartilage thickness and T1rho and T2 relaxation times were determined. Experimental gait data was collected and processed using musculoskeletal modeling to identify weight-bearing zones and estimate the contact force impulse during gait. Variation of the cartilage properties (i.e., thickness, T1rho, and T2) over the femoral cartilage was analyzed and compared between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing zone of the medial and lateral condyle as well as the trochlea. Results Medial condyle cartilage thickness was correlated to the contact force impulse ( r = 0.78). Lower T1rho, indicating increased proteoglycan content, was found in the medial weight-bearing zone. T2 was higher in all weight-bearing zones compared with the non-weight-bearing zones, indicating lower relative collagen content. Conclusions The current results suggest that medial condyle cartilage is adapted as a long-term protective response to localized loading during a frequently performed task and that the weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle has superior weight bearing capacities compared with the non-weight-bearing zones.

  8. High-ambitious local climate policies to reduce CO2 emissions : Municipal strategies to approach homeowners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Municipalities are the constructors of local climate policies and the upholders of building law. But regarding the existing housing stock, they are lacking effective legal instruments to improve the energy efficiency of this stock, which is occupied by different homeowner categories. Regarding

  9. Reducing the Strength: a mixed methods evaluation of alcohol retailers’ willingness to voluntarily reduce the availability of low cost, high strength beers and ciders in two UK local authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Sumpter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the Strength is an increasingly popular intervention in which local authorities ask retailers to stop selling ‘super-strength’ beers and ciders. The intervention cannot affect alcohol availability, nor consumption, unless retailers participate. In this paper, we ask whether and why retailers choose or refuse to self-impose restrictions on alcohol sales in this way. Methods Mixed method assessment of retailers’ participation in Reducing the Strength in two London (UK local authorities. Compliance rates and the cheapest available unit of alcohol at each store were assessed. Qualitative interviews with retailer managers and staff (n = 39 explored attitudes towards the intervention and perceptions of its impacts. Results Shops selling super-strength across both areas fell from 78 to 25 (18 % of all off-licences. The median price of the cheapest unit of alcohol available across all retailers increased from £0.29 to £0.33 and in shops that participated in Reducing the Strength it rose from £0.33 to £0.43. The project received a mixed response from retailers. Retailers said they participated to deter disruptive customers, reduce neighbourhood disruptions and to maintain a good relationship with the local authority. Reducing the Strength participants and non-participants expressed concern about its perceived financial impact due to customers shopping elsewhere for super-strength. Some felt that customers’ ability to circumvent the intervention would limit its effectiveness and that a larger scale compulsory approach would be more effective. Conclusions Reducing the Strength can achieve high rates of voluntary compliance, reduce availability of super-strength and raise the price of the cheapest available unit of alcohol in participating shops. Questions remain over the extent to which voluntary interventions of this type can achieve wider social or health goals if non-participating shops attract customers

  10. Reducing the Strength: a mixed methods evaluation of alcohol retailers' willingness to voluntarily reduce the availability of low cost, high strength beers and ciders in two UK local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpter, Colin; McGill, Elizabeth; Dickie, Esther; Champo, Enes; Romeri, Ester; Egan, Matt

    2016-05-26

    Reducing the Strength is an increasingly popular intervention in which local authorities ask retailers to stop selling 'super-strength' beers and ciders. The intervention cannot affect alcohol availability, nor consumption, unless retailers participate. In this paper, we ask whether and why retailers choose or refuse to self-impose restrictions on alcohol sales in this way. Mixed method assessment of retailers' participation in Reducing the Strength in two London (UK) local authorities. Compliance rates and the cheapest available unit of alcohol at each store were assessed. Qualitative interviews with retailer managers and staff (n = 39) explored attitudes towards the intervention and perceptions of its impacts. Shops selling super-strength across both areas fell from 78 to 25 (18 % of all off-licences). The median price of the cheapest unit of alcohol available across all retailers increased from £0.29 to £0.33 and in shops that participated in Reducing the Strength it rose from £0.33 to £0.43. The project received a mixed response from retailers. Retailers said they participated to deter disruptive customers, reduce neighbourhood disruptions and to maintain a good relationship with the local authority. Reducing the Strength participants and non-participants expressed concern about its perceived financial impact due to customers shopping elsewhere for super-strength. Some felt that customers' ability to circumvent the intervention would limit its effectiveness and that a larger scale compulsory approach would be more effective. Reducing the Strength can achieve high rates of voluntary compliance, reduce availability of super-strength and raise the price of the cheapest available unit of alcohol in participating shops. Questions remain over the extent to which voluntary interventions of this type can achieve wider social or health goals if non-participating shops attract customers from those who participate.

  11. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C; Aliño, Perry M; Johnson, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  12. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina G Gurney

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general

  13. Modelling Coral Reef Futures to Inform Management: Can Reducing Local-Scale Stressors Conserve Reefs under Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Aliño, Perry M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  14. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-09

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).

  15. Counterintelligence Screening Needed lo Reduce Security Threat That Unscreened Local National Linguists Pose to U.S. Forces (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program MEP Mission Essential Personnel MFR Memorandum for Record OCI Organizational Conflict of Interest OCONUS Outside...reports would draw conclusions and recollllllel1dations on the retention, hir.ing, or threat posed by the LNs. MEP would send thjl MFRs to tlie...office responsible for issning badges on the local installations if the MFRs had no negative CI infonnation. If the MFRs had CI exploitable information

  16. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer reduces volume of bowel treated to high dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, M. Teresa Guerrero; Henrys, Anthony J.; Adams, Elisabeth J.; Norman, Andrew R.; Bedford, James L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.; Dearnaley, David P.; Tait, Diana M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to spare the bowel in rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: The targets (pelvic nodal and rectal volumes), bowel, and bladder were outlined in 5 patients. All had conventional, three-dimensional conformal RT and forward-planned multisegment three-field IMRT plans compared with inverse-planned simultaneous integrated boost nine-field equally spaced IMRT plans. Equally spaced seven-field and five-field and five-field, customized, segmented IMRT plans were also evaluated. Results: Ninety-five percent of the prescribed dose covered at least 95% of both planning target volumes using all but the conventional plan (mean primary and pelvic planning target volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose was 32.8 ± 13.7 Gy and 23.7 ± 4.87 Gy, respectively), reflecting a significant lack of coverage. The three-field forward planned IMRT plans reduced the volume of bowel irradiated to 45 Gy and 50 Gy by 26% ± 16% and 42% ± 27% compared with three-dimensional conformal RT. Additional reductions to 69 ± 51 cm 3 to 45 Gy and 20 ± 21 cm 3 to 50 Gy were obtained with the nine-field equally spaced IMRT plans-64% ± 11% and 64% ± 20% reductions compared with three-dimensional conformal RT. Reducing the number of beams and customizing the angles for the five-field equally spaced IMRT plan did not significantly reduce bowel sparing. Conclusion: The bowel volume irradiated to 45 Gy and 50 Gy was significantly reduced with IMRT, which could potentially lead to less bowel toxicity. Reducing the number of beams did not reduce bowel sparing and the five-field customized segmented IMRT plan is a reasonable technique to be tested in clinical trials

  17. In Vivo Zonal Variation and Liver Cell-Type Specific NF-κB Localization after Chronic Adaptation to Ethanol and following Partial Hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhan Nilakantan

    Full Text Available NF-κB is a major inflammatory response mediator in the liver, playing a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. We investigated zonal as well as liver cell type-specific distribution of NF-κB activation across the liver acinus following adaptation to chronic ethanol intake and 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx. We employed immunofluorescence staining, digital image analysis and statistical distributional analysis to quantify subcellular localization of NF-κB in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. We detected significant spatial heterogeneity of NF-κB expression and cellular localization between cytoplasm and nucleus across liver tissue. Our main aims involved investigating the zonal bias in NF-κB localization and determining to what extent chronic ethanol intake affects this zonal bias with in hepatocytes at baseline and post-PHx. Hepatocytes in the periportal area showed higher NF-κB expression than in the pericentral region in the carbohydrate-fed controls, but not in the ethanol group. However, the distribution of NF-κB nuclear localization in hepatocytes was shifted towards higher levels in pericentral region than in periportal area, across all treatment conditions. Chronic ethanol intake shifted the NF-κB distribution towards higher nuclear fraction in hepatocytes as compared to the pair-fed control group. Ethanol also stimulated higher NF-κB expression in a subpopulation of HSCs. In the control group, PHx elicited a shift towards higher NF-κB nuclear fraction in hepatocytes. However, this distribution remained unchanged in the ethanol group post-PHx. HSCs showed a lower NF-κB expression following PHx in both ethanol and control groups. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake attenuates the liver zonal variation in NF-κB expression and limits the PHx-induced NF-κB activation in hepatocytes, but does not alter the NF-κB expression changes in HSCs in response to PHx. Our findings provide new

  18. Use of Pre-Injection Diffusion of Local Anaesthetic as a Means of Reducing Needle Penetration Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Sandalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution influences the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate. Methods: A placebo-controlled, randomised, doubleblind split-mouth investigation was conducted. 25 healthy adult volunteers were recruited and each received two needle penetrations in a random order during one visit. The penetration sites were 1 cm from the gingival margin of the first maxillary premolars on each side of the mouth. 30 gauge-13 mm needles which were attached to syringes that contained either 2% lidocaine with 0.125mg/ml epinephrine or physiological saline were used. For each penetration an operator encouraged a drop of solution to appear at the end of the needle and placed this drop with the bevel of the needle flat on the palate for 20 seconds. The discomfort was noted on a 100 mm visual analogue scale with end points marked “No pain” and “Unbearable pain”. Results: There was no significant difference in penetration discomfort between solutions, (mean VAS = 26.80±19.36mm for lidocaine and 26.20±18.39mm for saline however the 2nd penetration was significantly more uncomfortable than the first (mean VAS = 31.00±19.84 mm and 22.00±16.65 mm respectively. Conclusion: Pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution did not influence the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate.

  19. Use of diffusion-weighted MRI to modify radiosurgery planning in brain metastases may reduce local recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rasheed; Pomschar, Andreas; Jenkinson, Michael D; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Belka, Claus; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective and well tolerated treatment for selected brain metastases; however, local recurrence still occurs. We investigated the use of diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) as an adjunct for SRS treatment planning in brain metastases. Seventeen consecutive patients undergoing complete surgical resection of a solitary brain metastasis underwent image analysis retrospectively. SRS treatment plans were generated based on standard 3D post-contrast T1-weighted sequences at 1.5T and then separately using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in a blinded fashion. Control scans immediately post operation confirmed complete tumour resection. Treatment plans were compared to one another and with volume of local recurrence at progression quantitatively and qualitatively by calculating the conformity index (CI), the overlapping volume as a proportion of the total combined volume, where 1 = identical plans and 0 = no conformation whatsoever. Gross tumour volumes (GTVs) using ADC and post-contrast T1-weighted sequences were quantitatively the same (related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test = -0.45, p = 0.653) but showed differing conformations (CI 0.53, p recurrence than the standard plan (median 3.53 cm 3 vs. 3.84 cm 3 , p = 0.002). ADC maps may be a useful tool in addition to the standard post-contrast T1-weighted sequence used for SRS planning.

  20. Stochastic reduced-order model for an automotive vehicle in presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoux , A.; Batou , Anas; Soize , Christian; Gagliardini , L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper is devoted to the construction of a stochastic reduced-order model for dynamical structures having a high modal density in the low-frequency range, such as an automotive vehicle. This type of structure is characterized by the fact that it exhibits, in the low-frequency range, not only the classical global elastic modes but also numerous local elastic modes which cannot easily be separated from the global elastic modes. An approach has recently been proposed ...

  1. Testing local Lorentz and position invariance and variation of fundamental constants by searching the derivative of the comparison frequency between a cryogenic sapphire oscillator and hydrogen maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Wolf, Peter; Bize, Sebastien; Santarelli, Giorgio; Flambaum, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The cryogenic sapphire oscillator at the Paris Observatory has been continuously compared to various hydrogen masers since 2001. The early data sets were used to test local Lorentz invariance in the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl (RMS) framework by searching for sidereal modulations with respect to the cosmic microwave background, and represent the best Kennedy-Thorndike experiment to date. In this work, we present continuous operation over a period of greater than six years from September 2002 to December 2008 and present a more precise way to analyze the data by searching the time derivative of the comparison frequency. Because of the long-term operation we are able to search both sidereal and annual modulations. The results give P KT =β RMS -α RMS -1=-1.7(4.0)x10 -8 for the sidereal and -23(10)x10 -8 for the annual term, with a weighted mean of -4.8(3.7)x10 -8 , a factor of 8 better than previous. Also, we analyze the data with respect to a change in gravitational potential for both diurnal and annual variations. The result gives β H-Maser -β CSO =-2.7(1.4)x10 -4 for the annual and -6.9(4.0)x10 -4 for the diurnal terms, with a weighted mean of -3.2(1.3)x10 -4 . This result is 2 orders of magnitude better than other tests that use electromagnetic resonators. With respect to fundamental constants a limit can be provided on the variation with ambient gravitational potential and boost of a combination of the fine structure constant (α), the normalized quark mass (m q ), and the electron to proton mass ratio (m e /m p ), setting the first limit on boost dependence of order 10 -10 .

  2. Local irrigation of the surgical field with antibiotics in the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in herniated lumbar disc surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kërveshi, Armend; Halili, Nehat; Kastrati, Bujar; Qosja, Faik; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-12-01

    Reported rate of infections after lumbar discectomy is 1%-15 %. This complication may result in disability or even the death. The aim of the study is to assess the rate of infection associated with lumbar discectomies when combined systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis was employed. In this retrospective study we analyzed all patients operated for herniated lumbar disc from 2009 -2012 in our institute. Beside of receiving systemic prophylaxis with 2g of Cefazoline, all patients had their operative field irrigated at the end of operation with Amikacin sulfate injection. Wound was considered infected when local and systemic signs of infection were revealed and were associated with elevated ESR, leukocytosis and elevated CRP. Assessment of infection is done by neurosurgeon during the hospitalization and later at outpatient's clinic along postoperative course of three months. A total of 604 patients were operated, of those 285 patients (47.2 %) females and 319 males (52.8 %), 12 patients were operated on two levels (1.98 %). Average patient age was 32.5 years (range 20-65 years) Localization of herniated disc was: in L/2-L/3 20 patients or 3.3 %, the L/3-L/4 level 42 patients or 7 % , the L/4 -L /5 262 patients or 43.3 % at the level L/V- S/1 280 patients or 46.3 %. Three patients (0.49%) developed wound infection, two of them superficial infection only with local signs: local pain, redness and leakage. They were treated with oral antibiotics. One with deep wound infection. He presented with local and systemic signs and treated with i.v antibiotics. All the cultures from wound swab revealed staphylococcus aureus. Prophylaxis with systemic antibiotic (Cefazoline 2.0) intravenous administration 30 minutes before the incision and irrigation of operative field with local antibiotic Amikacine sulfate at the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in patients operated for herniated lumbar disc when compared with systemic antibiotic prophylaxis only.

  3. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.

  4. Sub-micron magnetic patterns and local variations of adhesion force induced in non-ferromagnetic amorphous steel by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Feng, Yuping [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E08193 (Spain); Nieto, Daniel [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); García-Lecina, Eva [Unidad de Superficies Metálicas, IK4-CIDETEC, E20009 Donostia-San Sebastián Gipuzkoa (Spain); Mcdaniel, Clare [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Díaz-Marcos, Jordi [Unitat de Tècniques Nanomètriques, Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Flores-Arias, María Teresa [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); O’Connor, Gerard M. [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Baró, Maria Dolors [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E08193 (Spain); Pellicer, Eva, E-mail: eva.pellicer@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E08193 (Spain); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Formation of ripples after femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation (FSPLI) of metallic glass was studied. • Magnetic patterning at the surface of non-ferromagnetic amorphous steel was induced by FSPLI. • The origin of the generated ferromagnetism is the laser-induced devitrification. - Abstract: Periodic ripple and nanoripple patterns are formed at the surface of amorphous steel after femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation (FSPLI). Formation of such ripples is accompanied with the emergence of a surface ferromagnetic behavior which is not initially present in the non-irradiated amorphous steel. The occurrence of ferromagnetic properties is associated with the laser-induced devitrification of the glassy structure to form ferromagnetic (α-Fe and Fe{sub 3}C) and ferrimagnetic [(Fe,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}] phases located in the ripples. The generation of magnetic structures by FSPLI turns out to be one of the fastest ways to induce magnetic patterning without the need of any shadow mask. Furthermore, local variations of the adhesion force, wettability and nanomechanical properties are also observed and compared to those of the as-cast amorphous alloy. These effects are of interest for applications (e.g., biological, magnetic recording, etc.) where both ferromagnetism and tribological/adhesion properties act synergistically to optimize material performance.

  5. Dose establishing a safety margin reduce local recurrence in subsegmental transarterial chemoembolization for small nodular hepatocellular carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyo Jin; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Hur, Sae Beam; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and ≤ 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs

  6. Seasonal variation in the effect of constant ambient temperature of 24 C in reducing FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Laffin, Stephen; Davis, Royal; Treves, S. Ted; Grant, Frederick D.; Drubach, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that warming patients prior to and during 18 F-FDG uptake by controlling the room temperature can decrease uptake by brown adipose tissue (BAT). The aim of this study is to determine if this effect is subject to seasonal variation. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients referred for whole-body 18 F-FDG PET between December 2006 and December 2008. After December 2007, all patients were kept in the PET injection room at a constant 24 C for 30 min before and until 1 h following FDG administration. Patients over 22 years of age and those who received pre-medication known to reduce FDG uptake by BAT were excluded. One hundred and three patients were warmed to 24 C prior to scanning. The number of patients showing uptake by BAT in this group was compared to a control group of 99 patients who underwent PET prior to December 2007 when the injection room temperature was 21 C. Uptake by BAT occurred in 9% of studies performed after patient warming (24 C), compared to 27% of studies performed on the control group (21 C) (p 0.05). Maintaining room temperature at a constant 24 C for 30 min prior to and 1 h after IV tracer administration significantly decreases FDG uptake by BAT in children. This effect is greatest in the summer and winter. (orig.)

  7. Local cooling reduces skin ischemia under surface pressure in rats: an assessment by wavelet analysis of laser Doppler blood flow oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Yih-Kuen; Liao, Fuyuan; Lee, Bernard; Foreman, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of local cooling on skin blood flow response to prolonged surface pressure and to identify associated physiological controls mediating these responses using the wavelet analysis of blood flow oscillations in rats. Twelve Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three protocols, including pressure with local cooling (Δt = −10 °C), pressure with local heating (Δt = 10 °C) and pressure without temperature changes. Pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The 3 h loading period was divided into non-overlapping 30 min epochs for the analysis of the changes of skin blood flow oscillations using wavelet spectral analysis. The wavelet amplitudes and powers of three frequencies (metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic) of skin blood flow oscillations were calculated. The results showed that after an initial loading period of 30 min, skin blood flow continually decreased under the conditions of pressure with heating and of pressure without temperature changes, but maintained stable under the condition of pressure with cooling. Wavelet analysis revealed that stable skin blood flow under pressure with cooling was attributed to changes in the metabolic and myogenic frequencies. This study demonstrates that local cooling may be useful for reducing ischemia of weight-bearing soft tissues that prevents pressure ulcers. (paper)

  8. To Reduce of HC and SO2 Emission from Engine’s Exhaust with Local of TiO2 to Inserted in Active Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2007-01-01

    The Active carbon can be use to adsorb of emission HC and SO 2 gas from Engine’s exhaust. The result of this research, to make active carbon with 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm length in Engine’s exhaust can be reduce of HC are 78.480 %, 81.500 % and 86.320 %. The inserted of 5, 10, 15 % TiO 2 in active carbon with 15 cm length can be reduce of HC are 88.290 %, 91.550 % and 94.920 %. With 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm length of variation in Engine’s exhaust can be reduce of SO 2 are 48.630 %, 60.517 % and 60.517 %. The inserted of 5, 10, 15 % TiO 2 in active carbon to make 15 cm length can be reduce of SO 2 are 80.223 %, 82.594 % and 87.696 %. The result of this research to known that the make of 15 % of TiO 2 inserted in active carbon is more effective with 5 % and 10 % of TiO 2 . (author)

  9. Correlated inter-regional variations in low frequency local field potentials and resting state BOLD signals within S1 cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George H; Yang, Pai-Feng; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min

    2016-08-01

    The hypothesis that specific frequency components of the spontaneous local field potentials (LFPs) underlie low frequency fluctuations of resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) signals was tested. The previous analyses of rsfMRI signals revealed differential inter-regional correlations among areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized monkeys (Wang et al. [2013]: Neuron 78:1116-1126). Here LFP band(s) which correlated between S1 regions, and how these inter-regional correlation differences covaried with rsfMRI signals were examined. LFP signals were filtered into seven bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma low, gamma high, and gamma very high), and then a Hilbert transformation was applied to obtain measures of instantaneous amplitudes and temporal lags between regions of interest (ROI) digit-digit pairs (areas 3b-area 1, area 3a-area 1, area 3a-area 3b) and digit-face pairs (area 3b-face, area 1-face, and area 3a-face). It was found that variations in the inter-regional correlation strengths between digit-digit and digit-face pairs in the delta (1-4 Hz), alpha (9-14 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), and gamma (31-50 Hz) bands parallel those of rsfMRI signals to varying degrees. Temporal lags between digit-digit area pairs varied across LFP bands, with area 3a mostly leading areas 1/2 and 3b. In summary, the data demonstrates that the low and middle frequency range (1-50 Hz) of spontaneous LFP signals similarly covary with the low frequency fluctuations of rsfMRI signals within local circuits of S1, supporting a neuronal electrophysiological basis of rsfMRI signals. Inter-areal LFP temporal lag differences provided novel insights into the directionality of information flow among S1 areas at rest. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2755-2766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The variation of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in M4-generation seeds of an irradiated local sorghum variety originating from northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.; Buah, S.S.J.; Abdulai, M.S.; Nyamekye, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Natural genetic variability in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is very large, however, a number of attempts have been made to broaden its genetic base by induced mutations. Most authors refer to visible characters in plant and grain. Occasionally, effects on grain quality, e.g. high lysine/high protein, are reported. Sorghum in northern Ghana, commonly called 'guinea corn', is a widely cultivated cereal crop and can be found in three local races among which the caudatum race is represented by 'Naga White', an improved local variety originating from the Upper East Region of Ghana. It is characterized by short straw, earliness, good grain yield, a semi-loose head, and white grains, but with a relatively poor grain quality. The objective in several breeding programmes was the improvement of its grain quality, and an induced mutations programme was started at Nyankpala Agricultural Experiment Station (NAES) in 1988. About 10,000 seeds of Naga White were treated with 200Gy from a 60 Co gamma-rays source. The M 1 -generation was planted at NAES and multiplied up to M 4 in 1991, subject to selection for agronomic value. Protein contents (Nx5.7) varied from 9 to 10% for grains of parental genotype and from 8 to 12% in M 2 grains harvested in 1990. In 1992, the agronomically best 112 seed samples of M 4 lines were analyzed for N and P contents, 1000-grain weight (GW) and protein contents. Protein contents ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, phosphorus from 0.15 to 0.45%, and thousand grain weight varied from 11.8 to 19.0 g. The coefficient of the phenotypic correlation between N and P was + 0.337, and several lines with both high N and P contents could be identified. The coefficients of correlation between grain size and both N and P contents were slightly negative but not statistically significant. The coefficient of variation for the P content was twice as high as that for the N content. This might indicate a considerable microvariability in soil phosphorus due to

  11. A comparison of climatological subseasonal variations in the wintertime storm track activity between the North Pacific and Atlantic: local energetics and moisture effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Jin, Fei-Fei [University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Lee, Woo-Jin [Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Distinct differences of the storm track-jet relationship over the North Pacific and North Atlantic are investigated in terms of barotropic and baroclinic energetics using NCEP-2 reanalysis data for the period of 1979-2008. From fall to midwinter the Pacific storm track (PST) activity weakens following the southward shift of the Pacific jet, whereas the Atlantic storm track (AST) activity remains steady in position and intensifies regardless of the slight southward shift of the Atlantic jet. This study is devoted to seeking for the factors that can contribute to this conspicuous difference between the two storm tracks on climatological subseasonal variation by analyzing eddy properties and local energetics. Different eddy properties over the two oceans lead to different contribution of barotropic energy conversion to the initiation of storm tracks. In the North Atlantic, meridionally elongated eddies gain kinetic energy efficiently from stretching deformation of the mean flow in the jet entrance. On the other hand, the term associated with shearing deformation is important for the initiation of PST. Analysis of baroclinic energetics reveals that the intensification of the AST activity in midwinter is mainly attributed to coincidence between location of maximum poleward and upward eddy heat fluxes and that of the largest meridional temperature gradient over slight upstream of the AST. The relatively large amount of precipitable water and meridional eddy moisture flux along baroclinic energy conversion axis likely provides a more favorable environment for baroclinic eddy growth over the North Atlantic than over the North Pacific. In the meantime, the midwinter minimum of the PST activity is attributable to the southward shift of the Pacific jet stream that leads to discrepancy between core region of poleward and upward heat fluxes and that of meridional thermal gradient. Weakening of eddy-mean flow interaction due to eddy shape and reduction of moist effect are also

  12. Geographic variation in Chinese children' forced vital capacity and its association with long-term exposure to local PM10: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Qin; Guo, Yuming; Song, Jie-Yun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between Chinese children's forced vital capacity (FVC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ). The FVC data of 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 was collected from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CNSSCH). The local annual average concentration of PM 10 , relative humidity, ambient temperature, and other air pollutant data of 30 cities was collected from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. Then, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the association between children's FVC and PM 10 . The obvious geographic variation in FVC was found in children of 30 Chinese cities ranging from 1647 ml in Xining to 2571 ml in Beijing. The annual average concentration of PM 10 was also different, ranging from 40 μg/m 3 in Haikou to 155 μg/m 3 in Lanzhou. After adjusted individual characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and other air pollutants (e.g., NO 2 and SO 2 ) in the generalized additive model, we found that the increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of FVC in Chinese children. A 10-μg/m 3 increase of PM 10 was associated with 1.33-ml decrease in FVC (95% confidence interval: -2.18 to -0.47). We also found a larger effect estimate of PM 10 on FVC in boys than that in girls. Consistent associations were found in both physically inactive and active children. The increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of children's FVC. We should develop proper public health policy to protect children's respiratory health during growth and development in polluted areas.

  13. Quadrature representation of finite element variational forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the conventional run-time quadrature approach for the numerical integration of local element tensors associated with finite element variational forms, and in particular automated optimizations that can be performed to reduce the number of floating point operations...

  14. Genetics and variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The broad genotypic variability in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), that results in equally broad phenotypic variability among clones is important to the ecology and management of this species. This chapter considers principles of aspen genetics and variation, variation in aspen over its range, and local variation among clones. For a more...

  15. Extraordinary improvement of gas-sensing performances in SnO2 nanofibers due to creation of local p-n heterojunctions by loading reduced graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Katoch, Akash; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2015-02-11

    We propose a novel approach to improve the gas-sensing properties of n-type nanofibers (NFs) that involves creation of local p-n heterojunctions with p-type reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets (NSs). This work investigates the sensing behaviors of n-SnO2 NFs loaded with p-RGO NSs as a model system. n-SnO2 NFs demonstrated greatly improved gas-sensing performances when loaded with an optimized amount of p-RGO NSs. Loading an optimized amount of RGOs resulted in a 20-fold higher sensor response than that of pristine SnO2 NFs. The sensing mechanism of monolithic SnO2 NFs is based on the joint effects of modulation of the potential barrier at nanograin boundaries and radial modulation of the electron-depletion layer. In addition to the sensing mechanisms described above, enhanced sensing was obtained for p-RGO NS-loaded SnO2 NFs due to creation of local p-n heterojunctions, which not only provided a potential barrier, but also functioned as a local electron absorption reservoir. These mechanisms markedly increased the resistance of SnO2 NFs, and were the origin of intensified resistance modulation during interaction of analyte gases with preadsorbed oxygen species or with the surfaces and grain boundaries of NFs. The approach used in this work can be used to fabricate sensitive gas sensors based on n-type NFs.

  16. Multi-subject atlas-based auto-segmentation reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A multi-institution clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Yi, Jun-Lin; Chen, Nian-Yong; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Jason; Tung, Stewart; Kong, Lin; Lin, Shao-Jun; Pan, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Guang-Shun; Hu, Jiang; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Jun; Lu, Jia-De; Yan, Di; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess whether consensus guideline-based atlas-based auto-segmentation (ABAS) reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk (OARs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: Eight radiation oncologists from 8 institutes contoured 20 OARs on planning CT images of 16 patients via manual contouring and manually-edited ABAS contouring. Interobserver variation [volume coefficient of variation (CV), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), three-dimensional isocenter difference (3D-ICD)] and dosimetric parameters were compared between the two methods of contouring for each OAR. Results: Interobserver variation was significant for all OARs in manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation (P < 0.05). Edited ABAS significantly improved multiple metrics and reduced dosimetric parameter variation for most OARs; brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), larynx and pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) obtained most benefit (range of mean DSC, volume CV and main ICD values was 0.36–0.83, 12.1–84.3%, 2.2–5.0 mm for manual contouring and 0.42–0.86, 7.2–70.6%, 1.2–3.5 mm for edited ABAS contouring, respectively; range of dose CV reduction: 1.0–3.0%). Conclusion: Substantial objective interobserver differences occur during manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation. Edited ABAS reduced interobserver variation and improved dosimetric parameter consistency, particularly for brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, TMJ, larynx and PCM

  17. EGFR-TK inhibition before radiotherapy reduces tumour volume but does not improve local control: Differential response of cancer stem cells and nontumourigenic cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Prager, Jenny; Zhou Xuanjing; Yaromina, Ala; Doerfler, Annegret; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Baumann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Waiting times before radiotherapy may reduce tumour control probability due to proliferation of tumour cells. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the growth inhibiting effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-inhibitors after surgery or tumour transplantation results in a lower tumour mass at time of irradiation and can thereby improve local tumour control. Materials and methods: The EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBX1382BS was applied over 14 days starting from microscopically non-in-sano-resection of FaDu tumours or from tumour transplantation, followed by irradiation (5f/5d). Endpoint was local tumour control. In addition, vital tumour areas, pimonidazole hypoxic fraction, BrdU labelling index, and colony forming ability in vitro were tested in control tumours and after BIBX1382BS treatment (starting from transplantation). Results: The tumour volume at start of irradiation was significantly lower in the BIBX1382BS treated tumours as compared to the control groups by factors of 11 (post-surgery setting) and 2.7 (transplantation setting). However, the reduced volume did not translate into improved local control after irradiation. The TCD 50 values after surgery were 25.4 Gy [95% CI 18; 33 Gy] in the control group and 30.5 Gy [24; 37] in the BIBX1382BS group (p = 0.25). Treatment after transplantation resulted in TCD 50 values of 41.1 Gy [35; 47] in the control group and 41.1 Gy [33; 49] in the BIBX1382BS group (p = 1). While the proportion of S-phase cells decreased after BIBX1382BS treatment, no differences were observed between the pimonidazole hypoxic fractions and in vitro colony forming ability. Conclusions: EGFR-TK inhibition with BIBX1382BS over 14 days between macroscopically complete tumour resection or tumour transplantation and start of radiotherapy significantly reduced tumour volume but did not improve local tumour control. One possible explanation is that the EGFR-TK inhibitor has a higher activity in

  18. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  19. Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake reduce contamination of forage grasses? - Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium accumulation by forage grasses be used to reduce contamination of cows' milk in radiologically contaminated areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, B. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Broadley, M.; Crout, N.M.J.; King, J.; Young, S. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Lovatt, A. [Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3E E (United Kingdom); Thomson, R. [Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh, EH12 9FJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium primarily enter the food chain via plant root uptake, including indirectly via animal fodders. Inter-species variation in caesium and strontium accumulation in plants has previously been reported to be over two orders of magnitude. This variation could be exploited to select crops with relatively low uptake to reduce transfer of these radionuclides to consumers in contaminated areas. Exploiting intra-species (i.e. inter-cultivar) variation in caesium and strontium uptake has not yet been evaluated as a remediation strategy as sufficient data have not been available. As cows' milk has been one of the main contributors to human dose following the Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, we have chosen to focus on elucidating the extent and nature of inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake in forage grasses. A total of 412 cultivars from four species of forage grass; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; 284 cultivars), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; 17 cultivars), hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum; 101 cultivars) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; 10 cultivars) were sampled from 20 sets of experimental plots in Aberystwyth (Wales, UK) and Edinburgh (Scotland, UK). Fifty-nine cultivars were grown in both locations. At least three replicates of the same cultivar were grown in each set of plots. Vegetation samples from 2208 plots were collected both in spring 2013 (May-June) and summer 2013 (August-September). The samples were oven-dried and milled then analysed for elemental composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable caesium and strontium were measured as a proxy measurement for radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentrations. Concentrations of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium (potassium and calcium) and a number of other elements were measured. Soil samples from the experimental plots were also collected, dried, milled and analysed using ICP-MS. This paper will present

  20. Along-strike Variations in the Himalayas Illuminated by the Aftershock Sequence of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake Using the NAMASTE Local Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Karplus, M. S.; Nabelek, J.; Sapkota, S. N.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.; Velasco, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake, more than 8,000 people were killed from a combination of infrastructure failure and triggered landslides. This earthquake produced 4 m of peak co-seismic slip as the fault ruptured 130 km east under densely populated cities, such as Kathmandu. To understand earthquake dynamics in this part of the Himalayas and help mitigate similar future calamities by the next destructive event, it is imperative to study earthquake activities in detail and improve our understanding of the source and structural complexities. In response to the Gorkha event, multiple institutions developed and deployed a 10-month long dense seismic network called NAMASTE. It blanketed a 27,650 km2 area, mainly covering the rupture area of the Gorkha earthquake, in order to capture the dynamic sequence of aftershock behavior. The network consisted of a mix of 45 broadband, short-period, and strong motion sensors, with an average spacing of 20 km. From the first 6 months of data, starting approximately 1.5 after the mainshock, we develop a robust catalog containing over 3,000 precise earthquake locations, and local magnitudes that range between 0.3 and 4.9. The catalog has a magnitude of completeness of 1.5, and an overall low b-value of 0.78. Using the HypoDD algorithm, we relocate earthquake hypocenters with high precision, and thus illustrate the fault geometry down to depths of 25 km where we infer the location of the gently-dipping Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Above the MFT, the aftershocks illuminate complex structure produced by relatively steeply dipping faults. Interestingly, we observe sharp along-strike change in the seismicity pattern. The eastern part of the aftershock area is significantly more active than the western part. The change in seismicity may reflect structural and/or frictional lateral heterogeneity in this part of the Himalayan fault system. Such along-strike variations play an important role in rupture complexities and

  1. Local cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia arising on the background of the reduced resistance of the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Malanicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to study the features of the cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia, proceeding against a background of reduced resistance of the organism for improving treatment methods. 53 children aged 3 to 7 years were examined. The main group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia, which ran against a background of reduced resistance of the body. The comparison group consisted of 23 children with community-acquired pneumonia who had good resistance. Local immunity was studied on the basis of  valuation of cytokine status parameters (tumor necrotic factor-α, interleukin-8, and interferon-γ and cellular composition with an estimate of destructive changes in neutrophils in induced sputum. It was revealed that in the main group of children there is a depression of the neutrophils’ release into the bronchial secretion and a marked increase in the number of neutrophils with maximum signs of destruction of the nucleus and cytoplasm against the background of cytokine status imbalance, manifested in an increase in the content of the tumor necrotic factor-α and a decrease in interleukin-8 and interferon- γ. Inclusion in the traditional therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in children who have a reduced resistance, anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride, eliminates the imbalance of proinflammatory cytokines and increases the release of functionally complete neutrophils in the bronchial secret.

  2. Treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage I, II) of the elderly : usefulness of local and regional irradiation and brief reduced-dose chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Izuno, Itaru; Takei, Kazuyoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Sasaki, Shigeru; Gomi, Koutarou; Kiyono, Kunihiro; Takizawa, Masaomi; Sone, Shusuke

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the usefulness and safety of a new treatment regimen consisting of irradiation to the involved area and adjacent lymph-node area, and reduced-dose chemotherapy for elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Materials and Methods: The core of this study was 38 elderly patients older than 65 years old with intermediate or high grade NHL, and concomitantly suffering from some other geriatric disease. They received involved-area irradiation (40 Gy), adjacent lymph-node irradiation (30 Gy), and reduced-dose chemotherapy (50-70 % ACOP 2 cycles or 70 % MACOP-B 4 weeks). Results: The completion rate of the treatment regimen was 100 %. The 5-year local control rate was 98 %. The 5-year disease free survival rate and the 5-year cause-specific survival rate for all patients were 70 % and 82 %, respectively. No treatment deaths were observed, and the rate of serious complications arising from the treatment was 3 %. Conclusion: Chemotherapy with a dose reduced to 50% or 70% of that prescribed in the original ACOP or MACOP-B, and irradiation to both the involved area and the adjacent lymph-node area are useful for treating elderly patients with Stage I, II intermediate B-cell NHL, who are at the same time suffering from some other geriatric disease

  3. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Brie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading

  4. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  5. Reduced blood nrf-2 mRNA in local overweight boys at risk of metabolic complications: a study in San Luis City, San Luis, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Lucas D; Moyano, Marta; Frau, Martín; Flores, Orlando; Siewert, Susana; Zirulnick, Fanny; Ramirez, Dario C; Giménez, Maria S

    2013-10-01

    Childhood overweight (OW) is a matter of public health concern because of its long-term impact on adulthood health. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) regulates the antioxidant/lipogenic response to a sustained positive energy balance that prevails during weight gain. Here we aimed at studying a possible link between OW and Nrf-2-dependent antioxidant/lipogenic response in a local population of boys at risk of metabolic complications. We measured clinical and biochemical parameters related to lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and metabolic syndrome in a population of OW boys [body mass index (BMI) percentile ≥85(th) and Luis City, San Luis, Argentina. Compared to NW, OW boys had lower insulin sensitivity, an altered plasma lipid profile, and increased markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory fatty acids. OW boys also had a higher atherogenic index and peripheral insulin resistance than NW boys. We also found that glutathione peroxidase activity and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio were lower in OW boys than NW boys, suggesting that OW boys may have an altered antioxidant response to oxidative stress. Finally, Nrf-2 expression negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome parameters in OW boys. Our data suggest that OW boys have a reduced antioxidant and lipogenic response to a positive energy balance, resulting in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and risk of developing metabolic complications. Our data also provide a rationale for nutritional interventions aimed at restoring Nrf-2 expression to reduce the risk of metabolic complications in OW boys.

  6. [Formaldehyde-reducing efficiency of a newly developed dissection-table-connected local ventilation system in the gross anatomy laboratory room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koh; Oba, Jun

    2010-03-01

    In compliance with health and safety management guidelines against harmful formaldehyde (FA) levels in the gross anatomy laboratory, we newly developed a dissection-table-connected local ventilation system in 2006. The system was composed of (1) a simple plenum-chambered dissection table with low-cost filters, (2) a transparent vinyl flexible duct for easy mounting and removal, which connects the table and the exhaust pipe laid above the ceiling, and (3) an intake creating a downward-flow of air, which was installed on the ceiling just above each table. The dissection table was also designed as a separate-component system, of which the upper plate and marginal suction inlets can be taken apart for cleaning after dissection, and equipped with opening/closing side-windows for picking up materials dropped during dissection and a container underneath the table to receive exudate from the cadaver through a waste-fluid pipe. The local ventilation system dramatically reduced FA levels to 0.01-0.03 ppm in the gross anatomy laboratory room, resulting in no discomforting FA smell and irritating sensation while preserving the student's view of room and line of flow as well as solving the problems of high maintenance cost, sanitation issues inside the table, and working-inconvenience during dissection practice. Switching ventilation methods or power-modes, the current local ventilation system was demonstrated to be more than ten times efficient in FA reduction compared to the whole-room ventilation system and suggested that 11 m3/min/table in exhaust volume should decrease FA levels in both A- and B-measurements to less than 0.1 ppm in 1000 m3 space containing thirty-one 3.5%-FA-fixed cadavers.

  7. The nonholonomic variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz

    2009-05-08

    A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic

  8. Does a local financial incentive scheme reduce inequalities in the delivery of clinical care in a socially deprived community? A longitudinal data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidewell, Liz; West, Robert; Hackett, Julia E C; Carder, Paul; Doran, Tim; Foy, Robbie

    2015-05-14

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with inequalities in health care and outcomes. Despite concerns that the Quality and Outcomes Framework pay-for-performance scheme in the UK would exacerbate inequalities in primary care delivery, gaps closed over time. Local schemes were promoted as a means of improving clinical engagement by addressing local health priorities. We evaluated equity in achievement of target indicators and practice income for one local scheme. We undertook a longitudinal survey over four years of routinely recorded clinical data for all 83 primary care practices. Sixteen indicators were developed that covered five local clinical and public health priorities: weight management; alcohol consumption; learning disabilities; osteoporosis; and chlamydia screening. Clinical indicators were logit transformed from a percentage achievement scale and modelled allowing for clustering of repeated measures within practices. This enabled our study of target achievements over time with respect to deprivation. Practice income was also explored. Higher practice deprivation was associated with poorer performance for five indicators: alcohol use registration (OR 0.97; 95 % confidence interval 0.96,0.99); recorded chlamydia test result (OR 0.97; 0.94,0.99); osteoporosis registration (OR 0.98; 0.97,0.99); registration of repeat prednisolone prescription (OR 0.98; 0.96,0.99); and prednisolone registration with record of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan/referral (OR 0.92; 0.86,0.97); practices in deprived areas performed better for one indicator (registration of osteoporotic fragility fracture (OR 1.26; 1.04,1.51). The deprivation-achievement gap widened for one indicator (registered females aged 65-74 with a fracture referred for a DEXA scan; OR 0.97; 0.95,0.99). Two other indicators indicated a similar trend over two years before being withdrawn (registration of fragility fracture and over-75 s with a fragility fracture assessed and treated for

  9. Treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage I, II) of the elderly: usefulness of local and regional irradiation and reduced dose chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Izuno, Itaru; Takei, Kazuyoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Sasaki, Shigeru; Gomi, Koutarou; Sone, Shusuke

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the usefulness and safety of a new treatment regimen consisting of irradiation to the involved area and adjacent lymph node area, and reduced dose chemotherapy for elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: The core of this study was 38 elderly patients older than 65 years old with intermediate or high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and concomitantly suffering from some other geriatric disease. They received involved area irradiation (40 Gy), adjacent lymph node irradiation (30 Gy), and reduced dose chemotherapy (two cycles of 50-70% ACOP: Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone or 70% MACOP-B: Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Methotrexate, Bleomycin, Prednisone for 4 weeks). Results: The completion rate of the treatment regimen was 100%. The 5-year local control rate was 98%. The 5-year disease-free survival rate and the 5-year cause-specific survival rate for all patients were 70 and 82%, respectively. No treatment deaths were observed, and the rate of serious complications arising from the treatment was 3%. Conclusions: The newly conducted treatment regimen proved to be safe and useful for elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma concomitantly suffering from some other geriatric disease

  10. Lateral rectal shielding reduces late rectal morbidity after high dose three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: further evidence for a dose effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W Robert; Hanks, Gerald E; Hanlon, Alexandra; Schultheiss, Timothy E

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Using conventional treatment methods for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer central axis doses must be limited to 65-70 Gy to prevent significant damage to nearby normal tissues. A fundamental hypothesis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) is that, by defining the target organ(s) accurately in three dimensions, it is possible to deliver higher doses to the target without a significant increase in normal tissue complications. This study examines whether this hypothesis holds true and whether a simple modification of treatment technique can reduce the incidence of late rectal morbidity in patients with prostate cancer treated with 3DCRT to minimum planning target volume (PTV) doses of 71-75 Gy. Materials and Methods: 257 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer completed 3DCRT by December 31, 1993 and received a minimum PTV dose of 71-75 Gy. The median follow-up time was 22 months (range 4-67 months) and 98% of patients had followup of longer than 12 months. The calculated dose at the center of the prostate was <74 Gy in 19 patients, 74-76 Gy in 206 patients and >76 Gy in 32 patients. Late rectal morbidity was graded according to the LENT scoring system. Eighty-eight consecutive patients were treated with a rectal block added to the lateral fields. In these patients the posterior margin from the prostate to the block edge was reduced from the standard 15 mm to 7.5 mm for the final 10 Gy which reduced the dose to portions of the anterior rectal wall by approximately 4-5 Gy. Estimates of rates for rectal morbidity were determined by Kaplan-Meier actuarial analyses. Differences in morbidity percentages were evaluated by the Pearson chi square test. Results: Grade 2-3 rectal morbidity developed in 46 of 257 patients (18%) and in the majority of cases consisted of rectal bleeding. No patient has developed grade 4 or 5 rectal morbidity. The actuarial rate of grade 2-3 morbidity is 22% at 24 months and the median

  11. Genetic variation in PCAF, a key mediator in epigenetics, is associated with reduced vascular morbidity and mortality: evidence for a new concept from three independent prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, D.; Trompet, S.; Craen, A.J.M.; Thijssen, P.E.; Quax, P.H.A.; de Vries, M.R.; Wierda, R.J.; van den Elsen, P.J.; Monraats, P.S.; Ewing, M.M.; Heijmans, B.T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Doevendans, P.A.F.M.; Tio, R.A.; de Winter, R.J.; de Maat, M.P.M.; Lakoubova, O.A.; Sattar, N.; Sheperd, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Jukema, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study was designed to investigate the counterbalancing influence of genetic variation in the promoter of the gene encoding P300/CBP associated factor (PCAF), a lysine acetyltransferase (KAT), on coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. Methods and results: The association of genetic

  12. Local and regional irradiation and brief reduced-dose chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin'n lymphoma (stage IE, IIE) of Waldeyer's ring with adult diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Shikama, Naoto; Gomi, Koutarou; Izuno, Itaru; Takei, Kazuyoshi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Kiyono, Kunihiro

    1997-01-01

    Usually, the middle-aged patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and concomitant other adult diseases can not be tolerable for intensive chemotherapy. Then we introduced a new regimen composed of radiation for local and surrounding lymph node areas, and brief reduced-dose chemotherapy into treatment for such patients. Thirty-eight patients with Stage I E or Stage II E non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring were a core of this study. Histopathologically they were diagnosed as diffuse intermediate grade. In addition, they suffered from other adult diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cereblovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver diseases, etc. They were treated by the combined modality composed of reduced-dose chemotherapy (70%-ACOP: 2 cycles or 70%-MACOP-B: 8 weeks) and regional lymph node irradiation (30 Gy) puls boost irradiation (10 Gy) to involved area (total 40 Gy). No relapses were observed in the radiation field, the 5-year disease-free survival rate and cause-specific survival rate for all patients were 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. There were no differences of the 5-year disease-free survival rate between stage I E and II E , among the pathological subtypes, among the complications and etc. The regimen composed of regional lymph node irradiation (30 Gy) puls boost irradiation (10 Gy) to involved area (total 40 Gy) and reduced-dose chemotherapy (70%-dose ACOP, 70%-dose MACOP-B) is a safe and useful approach to treatment for diffuse intermediate grade of B cell lymphoma in middle-aged patients having other adult diseases. (author)

  13. Dependence of critical current on sample length analyzed by the variation of local critical current bent of BSCCO superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Shin, J.K.; Ochiai, S.; Okuda, H.; Osamura, K.; Otto, A.; Malozemoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using the high critical current type BSCCO composite tape fabricated at American Superconductor Corporation, the relation of overall critical current to the distribution of local critical current and the dependence of overall critical current on sample length of the bent samples were studied experimentally and analytically. The measured overall critical current was described well from the distribution of local critical current and n-value of the constituting short elements, by regarding the overall sample to be composed of local series circuits and applying the voltage summation model. Also the dependence of overall critical current on sample length could be reproduced in computer satisfactorily by the proposed simulation method

  14. School buses, air pollution and children's health : improving children's health and local air quality by reducing school bus emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The exhaust gases from school buses was examined and recommendations were presented for the establishment of a healthy school bus program in Ontario that is directed at improving children's health and local air quality. The Ontario Public Health Association is concerned with school bus emissions because they are heavy-duty vehicles that emit large quantities of diesel-related air pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and diesel particulates. In addition, school buses can be self-polluting vehicles that expose children on-board to high levels of fine particulates and diesel particulate matter. Both these pollutants have been associated with a range of acute and chronic health problems such as asthma, respiratory infections, allergies, and school absences. With nearly 800,000 Ontario children being transported on school buses annually, these exposures can represent a serious public health concern, as childhood exposures can also influence the health of exposed individuals later in life. Exposure studies have found that tailpipe and engine emissions contribute greatly to concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses. The studies also showed that on-board concentrations were also influenced by local air quality in the communities studied, traffic density, wind direction, the configuration of windows, idling and queuing patterns. It was recommended that the use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel along with the installation of diesel particulate filters and closed crankcase filters can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses to almost ambient air levels, even under idling conditions. This report recommended the replacement of pre-1994 school buses, the retrofitting of 1994-2003 school buses with filters, and maintaining proper maintenance, idling and vehicle operation practices. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Indicator 1.07. Number and geographic distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation and locally adapted genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Flather; M. S Knowles; C. H. Sieg

    2011-01-01

    This indicator provides information on the number and distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation across their geographic range. Comparing a species' current geographic distribution with its historic distribution is the basis for identifying those species whose range has contracted significantly. Human activities are accelerating...

  16. Automated Analysis of Flow Cytometry Data to Reduce Inter-Lab Variation in the Detection of Major Histocompatibility Complex Multimer-Binding T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natasja Wulff; Chandran, P. Anoop; Qian, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Manual analysis of flow cytometry data and subjective gate-border decisions taken by individuals continue to be a source of variation in the assessment of antigen-specific T cells when comparing data across laboratories, and also over time in individual labs. Therefore, strategies to provide...... automated analysis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimer-binding T cells represent an attractive solution to decrease subjectivity and technical variation. The challenge of using an automated analysis approach is that MHC multimer-binding T cell populations are often rare and therefore...... laboratories. We used three different methods, FLOw Clustering without K (FLOCK), Scalable Weighted Iterative Flow-clustering Technique (SWIFT), and ReFlow to analyze flow cytometry data files from 28 laboratories. Each laboratory screened for antigen-responsive T cell populations with frequency ranging from 0...

  17. Inclusion of ecologically based trait variation in plant functional types reduces the projected land carbon sink in an earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Brovkin, Victor; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2015-08-01

    Earth system models demonstrate large uncertainty in projected changes in terrestrial carbon budgets. The lack of inclusion of adaptive responses of vegetation communities to the environment has been suggested to hamper the ability of modeled vegetation to adequately respond to environmental change. In this study, variation in functional responses of vegetation has been added to an earth system model (ESM) based on ecological principles. The restriction of viable mean trait values of vegetation communities by the environment, called 'habitat filtering', is an important ecological assembly rule and allows for determination of global scale trait-environment relationships. These relationships were applied to model trait variation for different plant functional types (PFTs). For three leaf traits (specific leaf area, maximum carboxylation rate at 25 °C, and maximum electron transport rate at 25 °C), relationships with multiple environmental drivers, such as precipitation, temperature, radiation, and CO2 , were determined for the PFTs within the Max Planck Institute ESM. With these relationships, spatiotemporal variation in these formerly fixed traits in PFTs was modeled in global change projections (IPCC RCP8.5 scenario). Inclusion of this environment-driven trait variation resulted in a strong reduction of the global carbon sink by at least 33% (2.1 Pg C yr(-1) ) from the 2nd quarter of the 21st century onward compared to the default model with fixed traits. In addition, the mid- and high latitudes became a stronger carbon sink and the tropics a stronger carbon source, caused by trait-induced differences in productivity and relative respirational costs. These results point toward a reduction of the global carbon sink when including a more realistic representation of functional vegetation responses, implying more carbon will stay airborne, which could fuel further climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chemo-radiotherapy for localized pancreatic cancer: increased dose intensity and reduced acute toxicity with concomitant radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poen, Joseph C.; Collins, Helen L.; Niederhuber, John E.; Oberhelman, Harry A.; Vierra, Mark A.; Bastidas, Augusto J.; Young, Harvey S.; Slosberg, Edward A.; Jeffrey, Brooke R.; Longacre, Teri A.; Goffinet, Don R.

    1996-01-01

    intensity was significantly greater for the PVI treatment group. Cumulative 5-FU dose (mean = 7.1 gm/m 2 vs. 2.5 gm/m 2 , p 2 /wk vs. 0.5 gm/m2/wk, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy, 93% of those receiving PVI 5-FU were able to maintain a radiotherapy dose intensity of ≥ 900 cGy/wk throughout treatment, compared with 63% of those receiving bolus 5-FU (p = 0.03). No difference was seen for patients with locally advanced disease (67% vs. 76%, p = ns). Hematologic toxicity was reduced for patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Grade II-III neutropenia was less common for patients treated with PVI (10% vs. 34%, p = 0.04) compared with patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Thrombocytopenia was limited to Grade I in both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal toxicity as assessed by percent body weight loss during treatment was similar in the two treatment groups and was independent of disease stage. Mean percent weight loss for PVI and bolus 5-FU regimens were 4.7% and 4.1%, respectively (p = ns). Weight loss ≥ 5% body weight (32% vs. 31%) and ≥ 10% (10% vs. 7.7%, p = ns) were also similar between treatment groups. RT treatment interruptions for hematologic, gastrointestinal or other acute toxicities were less common for patients receiving PVI 5-FU (5% vs. 20%, p = 0.11) compared with patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Conclusion: Concurrent radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-FU was well tolerated treatment for patients with localized pancreatic cancer and allowed for a 2.6 fold increase in 5-FU dose intensity for all patients, significantly greater radiotherapy dose intensity for resected patients and equivalent or reduced acute hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Longer follow-up will be needed to assess late effects and the impact on overall survival

  19. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated that the ......The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated...... that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...

  20. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  1. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-21

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  2. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferriday

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12 attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i video-recordings of the mouth and (ii real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24 consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert. When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  3. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Further Reduces Normal Tissue Exposure During Definitive Therapy for Locally Advanced Distal Esophageal Tumors: A Dosimetric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gomez, Daniel; Palmer, Matthew B.; Riley, Beverly A.; Mayankkumar, Amin V.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Likhacheva, Anna; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: We have previously found that {<=} 75% of treatment failures after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable esophageal cancer appear within the gross tumor volume and that intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT) might allow dose escalation to the tumor without increasing normal tissue toxicity. Proton therapy might allow additional dose escalation, with even lower normal tissue toxicity. In the present study, we compared the dosimetric parameters for photon IMRT with that for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for unresectable, locally advanced, distal esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Four plans were created for each of 10 patients. IMPT was delivered using anteroposterior (AP)/posteroanterior beams, left posterior oblique/right posterior oblique (LPO/RPO) beams, or AP/LPO/RPO beams. IMRT was delivered with a concomitant boost to the gross tumor volume. The dose was 65.8 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume in 28 fractions. Results: Relative to IMRT, the IMPT (AP/posteroanterior) plan led to considerable reductions in the mean lung dose (3.18 vs. 8.27 Gy, p < .0001) and the percentage of lung volume receiving 5, 10, and 20 Gy (p {<=} .0006) but did not reduce the cardiac dose. The IMPT LPO/RPO plan also reduced the mean lung dose (4.9 Gy vs. 8.2 Gy, p < .001), the heart dose (mean cardiac dose and percentage of the cardiac volume receiving 10, 20, and 30 Gy, p {<=} .02), and the liver dose (mean hepatic dose 5 Gy vs. 14.9 Gy, p < .0001). The IMPT AP/LPO/RPO plan led to considerable reductions in the dose to the lung (p {<=} .005), heart (p {<=} .003), and liver (p {<=} .04). Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, IMPT for distal esophageal cancer lowered the dose to the heart, lung, and liver. The AP/LPO/RPO beam arrangement was optimal for sparing all three organs. The dosimetric benefits of protons will need to be tailored to each patient according to their specific cardiac and pulmonary risks. IMPT for

  4. Variation Process of Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes due to Interaction With Chorus and EMIC Rising-tone Emissions Localized in Longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using results of test particle simulations of a large number of electrons interacting with a pair of chorus emissions, we create Green's functions to model the electron distribution function after all of the possible interactions with the waves [Omura et al., 2015]. Assuming that the waves are generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dawn side, we repeat taking the convolution integral of the Green's function with the distribution function of the electrons injected into the generation region of the localized waves. From numerical and theoretical analyses, we find that electron acceleration process only takes place efficiently below 4 MeV. Because extremely relativistic electrons go through the wave generation region rapidly due to grad-B0 and curvature drift, they don't have enough interaction time to be accelerated. In setting up the electrons after all interaction with chorus emissions as initial electron distribution function, we also compute the loss process of radiation belt electron fluxes due to interaction with EMIC rising-tone emissions generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dusk side [Kubota and Omura,2017]. References: (1) Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562, doi:10.1002/2015JA021563. (2) Kubota, Y., and Y. Omura (2017), Rapid precipitation of radiation belt electrons induced by EMIC rising tone emissions localized in longitude inside and outside the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 293-309, doi:10.1002/2016JA023267.

  5. Localization of glucagon and insulin cells and its variation with respect to physiological events in Eutropis carinata

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya. R. Chandavar; Prakash. R. Naik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to localize glucagon and insulin immunoreactive (IR) cells of pancreas during annual seasonal cycle of reproduction and to find out whether they had any effect on the regulation of plasma glucose level in the skink Eutropis carinata. Immunolocalized pancreatic cells revealed significantly different mean numbers in different periods of reproduction. The numbers of glucagon-IR and insulin-IR cells were highest in recrudescent period which was corresponde...

  6. A facile approach for reducing the working voltage of Au/TiO2/Au nanostructured memristors by enhancing the local electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Bafrani, Hamidreza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Bagheri Shouraki, Saeed; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2018-01-01

    Memristor devices have attracted tremendous interest due to different applications ranging from nonvolatile data storage to neuromorphic computing units. Exploring the role of surface roughness of the bottom electrode (BE)/active layer interface provides useful guidelines for the optimization of the memristor switching performance. This study focuses on the effect of surface roughness of the BE electrode on the switching characteristics of Au/TiO2/Au three-layer memristor devices. An optimized wet-etching treatment condition was found to modify the surface roughness of the Au BE where the measurement results indicate that the roughness of the Au BE is affected by both duration time and solution concentrations of the wet-etching process. Then we fabricated arrays of TiO2-based nanostructured memristors sandwiched between two sets of cross-bar Au electrode lines (junction area 900 μm2). The results revealed a reduction in the working voltages in current-voltage characteristic of the device performance when increasing the surface roughness at the Au(BE)/TiO2 active layer interface. The set voltage of the device (Vset) significantly decreased from 2.26-1.93 V when we increased the interface roughness from 4.2-13.1 nm. The present work provides information for better understanding the switching mechanism of titanium-dioxide-based devices, and it can be inferred that enhancing the roughness of the Au BE/TiO2 active layer interface leads to a localized non-uniform electric field distribution that plays a vital role in reducing the energy consumption of the device.

  7. Flicker Reduction in LED-LCDs with Local Backlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Local backlight dimming of LCD with LED backlight can reduce power consumption and improve quality of displayed images and videos. However, important variations of LED over time produce a visually annoying artifact called flickering. In this work, we propose a new algorithm to reduce flickering w...

  8. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  9. Prolonged C1 Inhibitor Administration Improves Local Healing of Burn Wounds and Reduces Myocardial Inflammation in a Rat Burn Wound Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begieneman, Mark P. V.; Kubat, Bela; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Hahn, Nynke E.; Stumpf-Stolker, Yvette; Tempelaars, Miranda; Middelkoop, Esther; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; van Ham, Marieke S.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Krijnen, Paul A. J.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors found persistent presence of acute inflammation markers such as C-reactive protein and complement factors locally in burn wounds. This persistence of acute inflammation may not only delay local burn wound healing but also have a systemic effect, for instance on the

  10. Treatment of localized periodontal disease in pregnancy does not reduce the occurrence of preterm birth: results from the Periodontal Infections and Prematurity Study (PIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macones, George A; Parry, Samuel; Nelson, Deborah B; Strauss, Jerome F; Ludmir, Jack; Cohen, Arnold W; Stamilio, David M; Appleby, Dina; Clothier, Bonnie; Sammel, Mary D; Jeffcoat, Marjorie

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether treating periodontal disease (PD) in pregnancy will reduce the incidence of spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD) at periodontal disease does not reduce the incidence of SPTD. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  12. Variations in local elastic modulus along the length of the aorta as observed by use of a scanning haptic microscope (SHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Takeshi; Oie, Tomonori; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Toru; Omata, Sadao; Kanda, Keiichi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2011-12-01

    Variations in microscopic elastic structures along the entire length of canine aorta were evaluated by use of a scanning haptic microscope (SHM). The total aorta from the aortic arch to the abdominal aorta was divided into 6 approximately equal segments. After embedding the aorta in agar, it was cut into horizontal circumferential segments to obtain disk-like agar portions containing ring-like samples of aorta with flat surfaces (thickness, approximately 1 mm). The elastic modulus and topography of the samples under no-load conditions were simultaneously measured along the entire thickness of the wall by SHM by using a probe with a diameter of 5 μm and a spatial resolution of 2 μm at a rate of 0.3 s/point. The elastic modulus of the wall was the highest on the side of the luminal surface and decreased gradually toward the adventitial side. This tendency was similar to that of the change in the elastin fiber content. During the evaluation of the mid-portion of each tunica media segment, the highest elastic modulus (40.8 ± 3.5 kPa) was identified at the thoracic section of the aorta that had the highest density of elastic fibers. Under no-load conditions, portions of the aorta with high elastin density have a high elastic modulus.

  13. Segmentation editing improves efficiency while reducing inter-expert variation and maintaining accuracy for normal brain tissues in the presence of space-occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeley, M A; Chen, A; Cmelak, A; Malcolm, A; Jaboin, J; Niermann, K; Yang, Eddy S; Yu, David S; Datteri, R D; Noble, J; Dawant, B M; Donnelly, E; Moretti, L

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation has become a vital and often rate-limiting step in modern radiotherapy treatment planning. In recent years, the pace and scope of algorithm development, and even introduction into the clinic, have far exceeded evaluative studies. In this work we build upon our previous evaluation of a registration driven segmentation algorithm in the context of 8 expert raters and 20 patients who underwent radiotherapy for large space-occupying tumours in the brain. In this work we tested four hypotheses concerning the impact of manual segmentation editing in a randomized single-blinded study. We tested these hypotheses on the normal structures of the brainstem, optic chiasm, eyes and optic nerves using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume, and signed Euclidean distance error to evaluate the impact of editing on inter-rater variance and accuracy. Accuracy analyses relied on two simulated ground truth estimation methods: simultaneous truth and performance level estimation and a novel implementation of probability maps. The experts were presented with automatic, their own, and their peers’ segmentations from our previous study to edit. We found, independent of source, editing reduced inter-rater variance while maintaining or improving accuracy and improving efficiency with at least 60% reduction in contouring time. In areas where raters performed poorly contouring from scratch, editing of the automatic segmentations reduced the prevalence of total anatomical miss from approximately 16% to 8% of the total slices contained within the ground truth estimations. These findings suggest that contour editing could be useful for consensus building such as in developing delineation standards, and that both automated methods and even perhaps less sophisticated atlases could improve efficiency, inter-rater variance, and accuracy. (paper)

  14. A study on influence of heat input variation on microstructure of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weld metal produced by GTAW process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arivazhagan, B.; Srinivasan, G.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel is a major structural material for test blanket module (TBM) to be incorporated in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme to study the breeding of tritium in fusion reactors. This material has been mainly developed to achieve significant reduction in the induced radioactivity from the structural material used. Fabrication of TBM involves extensive welding, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process is one of the welding processes being considered for this purpose. In the present work, the effect of heat input on microstructure of indigenously developed RAFM steel weld metal produced by GTAW process has been studied. Autogenous bead-on-plate welding, autogenous butt-welding, butt-welding with filler wire addition, and pulsed welding on RAFMS have been carried out using GTAW process respectively. The weld metal is found to contain δ-ferrite and its volume fraction increased with increase in heat input. This fact suggests that δ-ferrite content in the weld metal is influenced by the cooling rate during welding. It was also observed that the hardness of the weld metal decreased with increase in δ-ferrite content. This paper highlights the effect of heat input and PWHT duration on microstructure and hardness of welds.

  15. Seasonal and Local Time Variations of E-Region Field-Aligned Irregularities Observed with 30.8-MHz Radar at Kototabang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A VHF backscatter radar with operating frequency 30.8 MHz has been operated at Kototabang (0.20°S, 100.32°E; dip latitude 10.36°S, Indonesia, since February 2006. We analyzed E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs observed by this radar through a year of 2007 and found that the E-region FAI observed at Kototabang can be classified into two groups. One is “descending FAI”. Altitude of the FAI echo region descends with time from 102 km to 88 km altitude during 0700–1000 and 1900–0000 LT in June solstice season. The other is “low-altitude FAI”, which is observed in an altitude range from 88 to 94 km mainly during nighttime. The observed Doppler velocity show distinct local time and altitude dependence. The seasonally averaged zonal velocity above (below approximately 94 km altitude is westward (eastward during daytime and eastward (westward during nighttime. Meridional/vertical velocity perpendicular to the geomagnetic fields is upward during daytime and downward during nighttime. The direction of the FAI velocity above approximately 94 km altitude is consistent with that of the background E × B plasma drifts reported previously.

  16. Foliar manganese accumulation by Maytenus founieri (Celastraceae) in its native New Caledonian habitats: populational variation and localization by X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D R; Woodrow, I E; Jaffré, T; Dumontet, V; Marshall, A T; Baker, A J M

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulation by plants is a rare phenomenon that has potential practical benefits. The majority of manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulators discovered to date occur in New Caledonia, and little is known about their ecophysiology. This study reports on natural populations of one such species, the endemic shrub Maytenus founieri. Mean foliar Mn concentrations of two populations growing on ultramafic substrates with varying soil pHs were obtained. Leaf anatomies were examined by light microscopy, while the spatial distributions of foliar Mn in both populations were examined by qualitative scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Plants growing on two different substrates were found to have very different mean dry weight (DW) foliar Mn concentrations. Light microscopy showed that the leaves had very distinct thick dermal structures, consisting of multiple layers of large cells in the hypodermis. In vivo X-ray microprobe analyses revealed that, in both populations, Mn sequestration occurred primarily in these dermal tissues. The finding here that foliar Mn is most highly localized in the nonphotosynthetic tissues of M. founieri contrasts with results from similar studies on other woody species that accumulate high Mn concentrations in their shoots.

  17. Meat batter production in an extended vane pump-grinder injecting curing salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: variation of curing salt amount injected with the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Terjung, Eva-Maria; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump-grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0-100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages. The amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg -1 . Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L * ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a * from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b * from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump-grinder system by up to 23%. The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an 'ice-free' meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.

  19. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David A. [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of using different computed tomography (CT) scanners on the accuracy of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images in classifying regional disease patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian classifiers were applied to multicenter data. Methods: Two experienced radiologists marked sets of 600 rectangular 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two scanners (GE and Siemens), including 100 ROIs for each of local patterns of lungs-normal lung and five of regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). Each ROI was assessed using 22 quantitative features belonging to one of the following descriptors: histogram, gradient, run-length, gray level co-occurrence matrix, low-attenuation area cluster, and top-hat transform. For automatic classification, a Bayesian classifier and a SVM classifier were compared under three different conditions. First, classification accuracies were estimated using data from each scanner. Next, data from the GE and Siemens scanners were used for training and testing, respectively, and vice versa. Finally, all ROI data were integrated regardless of the scanner type and were then trained and tested together. All experiments were performed based on forward feature selection and fivefold cross-validation with 20 repetitions. Results: For each scanner, better classification accuracies were achieved with the SVM classifier than the Bayesian classifier (92% and 82%, respectively, for the GE scanner; and 92% and 86%, respectively, for the Siemens scanner). The classification accuracies were 82%/72% for training with GE data and testing with Siemens data, and 79%/72% for the reverse. The use of training and test data obtained from the HRCT images of different scanners lowered the classification accuracy compared to the use of HRCT images from the same scanner. For

  20. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of using different computed tomography (CT) scanners on the accuracy of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images in classifying regional disease patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian classifiers were applied to multicenter data. Methods: Two experienced radiologists marked sets of 600 rectangular 20 × 20 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two scanners (GE and Siemens), including 100 ROIs for each of local patterns of lungs—normal lung and five of regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). Each ROI was assessed using 22 quantitative features belonging to one of the following descriptors: histogram, gradient, run-length, gray level co-occurrence matrix, low-attenuation area cluster, and top-hat transform. For automatic classification, a Bayesian classifier and a SVM classifier were compared under three different conditions. First, classification accuracies were estimated using data from each scanner. Next, data from the GE and Siemens scanners were used for training and testing, respectively, and vice versa. Finally, all ROI data were integrated regardless of the scanner type and were then trained and tested together. All experiments were performed based on forward feature selection and fivefold cross-validation with 20 repetitions. Results: For each scanner, better classification accuracies were achieved with the SVM classifier than the Bayesian classifier (92% and 82%, respectively, for the GE scanner; and 92% and 86%, respectively, for the Siemens scanner). The classification accuracies were 82%/72% for training with GE data and testing with Siemens data, and 79%/72% for the reverse. The use of training and test data obtained from the HRCT images of different scanners lowered the classification accuracy compared to the use of HRCT images from the same scanner. For integrated ROI

  1. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Variational model for one-dimensional quantum magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudasov, Yu. B.; Kozabaranov, R. V.

    2018-04-01

    A new variational technique for investigation of the ground state and correlation functions in 1D quantum magnets is proposed. A spin Hamiltonian is reduced to a fermionic representation by the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The ground state is described by a new non-local trial wave function, and the total energy is calculated in an analytic form as a function of two variational parameters. This approach is demonstrated with an example of the XXZ-chain of spin-1/2 under a staggered magnetic field. Generalizations and applications of the variational technique for low-dimensional magnetic systems are discussed.

  3. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  4. Evaluation of a Regional Retrofit Programme to Upgrade Existing Housing Stock to Reduce Carbon Emissions, Fuel Poverty and Support the Local Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Louise Patterson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever legally binding global climate deal that will be adopted by 195 countries was introduced in Paris in 2015, highlighting that climate change is being recognised as a real and urgent global problem. Legislative interventions need to be accompanied by significant action across all sectors of the built environment through reducing energy demand, providing energy supply from low carbon sources and combining with this with energy storage to enable necessary targets to be met. Retrofitting existing buildings is critical to making these cuts as 80% of buildings currently in existence will still be present in 2050. These retrofits need to be undertaken rapidly using replicable and affordable solutions that benefit both the householder whilst significantly reducing emissions. This paper will present an evaluation of a £9.6 million regional scale retrofit programme funded under the Welsh Governments Arbed 1 Programme which aimed to reduce fuel poverty, reduce carbon emissions and support the energy efficiency and renewable supply chain and encourage recruitment and training in the sector. Results have been obtained from desk top data collection and energy modelling calculations. The evaluation work presents the technical, environmental and economic impacts of the programme and demonstrates lessons learnt to help improve the implementation of the other regional retrofit projects providing evidence of the impacts of a large scale retrofit programme that are necessary for the deep carbon reductions required in the near future.

  5. Using Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Examine the Local HIV Test and Treatment Care Continuum in Order to Reduce Community Viral Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Lounsbury, David; Green, Helena Danielle; Abbott, Maryann; Berman, Marcie; Rohena, Lucy; Gonzalez, Rosely; Lang, Shawn; Mosher, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Achieving community-level goals to eliminate the HIV epidemic requires coordinated efforts through community consortia with a common purpose to examine and critique their own HIV testing and treatment (T&T) care system and build effective tools to guide their efforts to improve it. Participatory system dynamics (SD) modeling offers conceptual, methodological, and analytical tools to engage diverse stakeholders in systems conceptualization and visual mapping of dynamics that undermine community-level health outcomes and identify those that can be leveraged for systems improvement. We recruited and engaged a 25-member multi-stakeholder Task Force, whose members provide or utilize HIV-related services, to participate in SD modeling to examine and address problems of their local HIV T&T service system. Findings from the iterative model building sessions indicated Task Force members' increasingly complex understanding of the local HIV care system and demonstrated their improved capacity to visualize and critique multiple models of the HIV T&T service system and identify areas of potential leverage. Findings also showed members' enhanced communication and consensus in seeking deeper systems understanding and options for solutions. We discuss implications of using these visual SD models for subsequent simulation modeling of the T&T system and for other community applications to improve system effectiveness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  6. Esophageal stent fixation with endoscopic suturing device improves clinical outcomes and reduces complications in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer prior to neoadjuvant therapy: a large multicenter experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juliana; Siddiqui, Ali A; Kowalski, Thomas E; Loren, David E; Khalid, Ammara; Soomro, Ayesha; Mazhar, Syed M; Rosé, Julian; Isby, Laura; Kahaleh, Michel; Kalra, Ankush; Sarkisian, Alex M; Kumta, Nikhil A; Nieto, Jose; Sharaiha, Reem Z

    2017-03-01

    Endoscopic placement of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) to treat malignant dysphagia in patients with esophageal cancer significantly improves dysphagia; however, these stents have a high migration rate. To determine whether FCSEMS fixation using an endoscopic suturing device treated malignant dysphagia and prevented stent migration in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy when compared to patients with FCSEMS placement alone. A review of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who underwent FCSEMS placement at 3 centers was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A (n = 26) was composed of patients who underwent FCSEMS placement with suture placement, and Group B (n = 67) was composed of patients with FCSEMS placement alone. There were no significant differences between Groups A and B in demographics, and tumor characteristics. The technical success rate for stent placement was 100 %. There was no difference between Groups A and B in the median stent diameter and stent lengths. Mean dysphagia score obtained at 1 week after stent placement had improved significantly from baseline (2.4 and 1, respectively, p esophageal FCSEMSs by using an endoscopic suturing device in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy was shown to be feasible, safe, and relatively effective at preventing stent migration compared to those who had stent placed alone.

  7. On exterior variational calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Exterior variational calculus is introduced through examples in field theory. It provides a very simple technique to decide on the existence of Lagrangians for given equations of motions and, in the case, to find them. Only local aspects are discussed but the analogy to exterior calculus on finite dimensional manifolds is complete, strongly suggesting its suitability to the study of topological aspects. (Author) [pt

  8. Components of natural irradiation and local variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the natural radiation environment and of the human exposures from natural radiation sources. Any form of life on earth is unavoidably associated with exposure to natural radiation. There are two kinds of sources of natural radiation: sources in the extraterrestrial environment (i.e. cosmic rays); terrestrial sources (i.e. the radioactive substances in the earth's crust). Both types of sources irradiate the human body from outside but also from inside as naturally occuring nuclides are taken up into the body through normal physiological pathways. When living in a natural environment, man is exposed to all these sources. On the average, the exposure from natural radiation is much greater than the exposures from artificial sources. The extraterrestrial sources and the terrestrial sources will be considered in succession. Some emphasis will be placed on the internal exposures but external exposures will also be discussed. The exposures will be expressed in terms of effective dose equivalent, which is a quantity assumed to be proportional to the radiation risk. Most of the information will be taken from the latest UNSCEAR report, which periodically reviews the information on the sources and effects of ionizing radiation [fr

  9. Reducing perceived barriers to nursing homes data entry in the advancing excellence campaign: the role of LANEs (Local Area Networks for Excellence).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakerjian, Debra; Bonner, Alice; Benner, Carol; Caswell, Cheryl; Weintraub, Alissa; Koren, Mary Jane

    2011-09-01

    Advancing Excellence (AE) is a coalition-based campaign concerned with how society cares for its elderly and disabled citizens. The purpose of this project was to work with a small group of volunteer nursing homes and with local quality improvement networks called LANEs (Local Area Networks for Excellence) in 6 states in a learning collaborative. The purpose of the collaborative was to determine effective ways for LANEs to address and mitigate perceived barriers to nursing home data entry in the national Advancing Excellence campaign and to test methods by which local quality improvement networks could support nursing homes as they enter data on the AE Web site. A semistructured telephone survey of nursing homes was conducted in 6 states. Participants included LANEs from California, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Washington. Facility characteristics were obtained from a series of questions during the telephone interview. Three states (GA, MA, OK) piloted a new spreadsheet and process for entering data on staff turnover, and 3 states (CA, MI, WA) piloted a new spreadsheet and process for entering data on consistent assignment. Many of the nursing homes we contacted had not entered data for organizational goals on the national Web site, but all were able to do so with telephone assistance from the LANE. Eighty-five percent of nursing homes said they would be able to collect information on advance directives if tools (eg, spreadsheets) were provided. Over 40% of nursing homes, including for-profit homes, were willing to have staff and residents/families enter satisfaction data directly on an independent Web site. Nursing homes were able to convey concerns and questions about the process of goal entry, and offer suggestions to the LANEs during semistructured telephone interviews. The 6 LANEs discussed nursing home responses on their regularly scheduled calls, and useful strategies were shared across states. Nursing homes reported that they are using

  10. Reduced Arteriovenous Shunting Capacity After Local Heating and Redistribution of Baseline Skin Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetes Assessed With Velocity-Resolved Quantitative Laser Doppler Flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Ingemar; Larsson, Marcus; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Länne, Toste; Östgren, Carl J.; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the microcirculatory velocity distribution in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic control subjects at baseline and after local heating. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The skin blood flow response to local heating (44°C for 20 min) was assessed in 28 diabetic patients and 29 control subjects using a new velocity-resolved quantitative laser Doppler flowmetry technique (qLDF). The qLDF estimates erythrocyte (RBC) perfusion (velocity × concentration), in a physiologically relevant unit (grams RBC per 100 g tissue × millimeters per second) in a fixed output volume, separated into three velocity regions: v 10 mm/s. RESULTS The increased blood flow occurs in vessels with a velocity >1 mm/s. A significantly lower response in qLDF total perfusion was found in diabetic patients than in control subjects after heat provocation because of less high-velocity blood flow (v >10 mm/s). The RBC concentration in diabetic patients increased sevenfold for v between 1 and 10 mm/s, and 15-fold for v >10 mm/s, whereas no significant increase was found for v <1 mm/s. The mean velocity increased from 0.94 to 7.3 mm/s in diabetic patients and from 0.83 to 9.7 mm/s in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS The perfusion increase occurs in larger shunting vessels and not as an increase in capillary flow. Baseline diabetic patient data indicated a redistribution of flow to higher velocity regions, associated with longer duration of diabetes. A lower perfusion was associated with a higher BMI and a lower toe-to-brachial systolic blood pressure ratio. PMID:20393143

  11. Influencing connectivity and cross-frequency coupling by real-time source localized neurofeedback of the posterior cingulate cortex reduces tinnitus related distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vanneste

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we are using source localized neurofeedback to moderate tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity in the posterior cingulate cortex has a moderating effect on tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network and other functionally connected brain areas. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were included in the study. Twenty-three tinnitus patients received neurofeedback training of the posterior cingulate cortex with the aim of up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity, while 17 patients underwent training of the lingual gyrus as a control situation. A second control group consisted of 18 tinnitus patients on a waiting list for future tinnitus treatment. Results: This study revealed that neurofeedback training of the posterior cingulate cortex results in a significant decrease of tinnitus related distress. No significant effect on neural activity of the target region could be obtained. However, functional and effectivity connectivity changes were demonstrated between remote brain regions or functional networks as well as by altering cross frequency coupling of the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion: This suggests that neurofeedback could remove the information, processed in beta and gamma, from the carrier wave, alpha, which transports the high frequency information and influences the salience attributed to the tinnitus sound. Based on the observation that much pathology is the result of an abnormal functional connectivity within and between neural networks various pathologies should be considered eligible candidates for the application of source localized EEG based neurofeedback training. Keywords: Posterior cingulate

  12. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  13. Variational submanifolds of Euclidean spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, D.; Urban, Z.; Volná, J.

    2018-03-01

    Systems of ordinary differential equations (or dynamical forms in Lagrangian mechanics), induced by embeddings of smooth fibered manifolds over one-dimensional basis, are considered in the class of variational equations. For a given non-variational system, conditions assuring variationality (the Helmholtz conditions) of the induced system with respect to a submanifold of a Euclidean space are studied, and the problem of existence of these "variational submanifolds" is formulated in general and solved for second-order systems. The variational sequence theory on sheaves of differential forms is employed as a main tool for the analysis of local and global aspects (variationality and variational triviality). The theory is illustrated by examples of holonomic constraints (submanifolds of a configuration Euclidean space) which are variational submanifolds in geometry and mechanics.

  14. What type of rural? Assessing the variations in life expectancy at birth at small area-level for a small population province using classes of locally defined settlement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mikiko; Read Guernsey, Judith; Andreou, Pantelis

    2014-02-13

    Although efforts have been made to articulate rural-urban health inequalities in recent years, results have been inconsistent due to different geographical scales used in these studies. Small-area level investigations of health inequalities will likely show more detailed pictures of health inequalities among diverse rural communities, but they are difficult to conduct, particularly in a small population region. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare life expectancy at birth for females and males across small-areas classified by locally defined settlement types for a small province in Canada; 2) to assess whether any of the settlement types explains variations in life expectancy over and above the extent of socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation; and 3) to examine variations in life expectancies within a (larger) area unit used as the basis of health inequality investigations in previous studies. Seven settlement types were determined for the 'community' units based on population per-kilometre-road density and settlement forms. Mean life expectancies at birth for both genders were compared by settlement type, both for the entire province and within the Halifax Regional Municipality--the province's only census designated metropolitan area, but also contains rural settlements. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the statistical associations between life expectancy and the settlement types, adjusting for indicators of community-level deprivation. While types of communities considered as 'rural' generally had lower life expectancy for both genders, the effects of living in any settlement type were attenuated once adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation and social isolation. An exception was the village and settlement cluster type, which had additionally negative effects on health for females. There were some variations observed within the Halifax Regional Municipality, suggesting the importance of further investigating a variety of

  15. Abundant off-target edits from site-directed RNA editing can be reduced by nuclear localization of the editing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa; Montiel-Gonzalez, Maria Fernanda; Eisenberg, Eli; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2018-01-02

    Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a general strategy for making targeted base changes in RNA molecules. Although the approach is relatively new, several groups, including our own, have been working on its development. The basic strategy has been to couple the catalytic domain of an adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing enzyme to a guide RNA that is used for targeting. Although highly efficient on-target editing has been reported, off-target events have not been rigorously quantified. In this report we target premature termination codons (PTCs) in messages encoding both a fluorescent reporter protein and the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein transiently transfected into human epithelial cells. We demonstrate that while on-target editing is efficient, off-target editing is extensive, both within the targeted message and across the entire transcriptome of the transfected cells. By redirecting the editing enzymes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, off-target editing is reduced without compromising the on-target editing efficiency. The addition of the E488Q mutation to the editing enzymes, a common strategy for increasing on-target editing efficiency, causes a tremendous increase in off-target editing. These results underscore the need to reduce promiscuity in current approaches to SDRE.

  16. Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2014-12-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pollen limitation and reduced reproductive success are associated with local genetic effects in Prunus virginiana, a widely distributed self-incompatible shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Good, Sara V

    2014-03-01

    A vast quantity of empirical evidence suggests that insufficient quantity or quality of pollen may lead to a reduction in fruit set, in particular for self-incompatible species. This study uses an integrative approach that combines field research with marker gene analysis to understand the factors affecting reproductive success in a widely distributed self-incompatible species, Prunus virginiana (Rosaceae). Twelve patches of P. virginiana distributed within three populations that differed in degree of disturbance were examined. Two of the sites were small (7-35 km(2)) remnants of forest in an intensively used agricultural landscape, while the third was continuous (350 km(2)) and less disturbed. Field studies (natural and hand cross-pollinations) were combined with marker gene analyses (microsatellites and S-locus) in order to explore potential factors affecting pollen delivery and consequently reproductive success at landscape (between populations) and fine scales (within populations). Reductions in reproductive output were found in the two fragments compared with the continuous population, and suggest that pollen is an important factor limiting fruit production. Genetic analyses carried out in one of the fragments and in the continuous site suggest that even though S-allele diversity is high in both populations, the fragment exhibits an increase in biparental inbreeding and correlated paternity. The increase in biparental inbreeding in the fragment is potentially attributable to variation in the density of individuals and/or the spatial distribution of genotypes among populations, both of which could alter mating dynamics. By using a novel integrative approach, this study shows that even though P. virginiana is a widespread species, fragmented populations can experience significant reductions in fruit set and pollen limitation in the field. Deatiled examination of one fragmented population suggests that these linitations may be explained by an increase in

  18. Variación florística de especies arbóreas a escala local en un bosque de tierra firme en la Amazonia colombiana Floristic variation of canopy tree species at a local scale on tierra firme forests in colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastian Barreto Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en cinco hectáreas de una parcela permanente establecida en el Parque Nacional Amacayacu, Amazonia colombiana. En éste, se evaluó el efecto de la variación ambiental y la configuración espacial sobre los patrones florísticos de las especies arbóreas (DAP>10 cm a escala local en un bosque de tierra firme. Se estudió la variación florística y ambiental en cuadrantes de 20x20 m. Adicionalmente, se consideraron diferentes categorías de abundancia (total, alta, media y baja. Se utilizó el Análisis de Correspondencia Linealizado y el Análisis de Correspondencia Canónica, seguido de una partición de la variación, para cuantificar la magnitud a la cual el ambiente y la limitación en dispersión determinan la variación florística. La fracción espacial, representando procesos de autocorrelación como la limitación en dispersión, se analizó mediante dos métodos: Asumiendo un polinomio de tercer grado y por el método de Coordenadas Principales de Matrices Vecinas (PCNM. La diversidad beta de la parcela fue baja. El PCNM aparece como el método de análisis más apropiado para estudios a esta escala. Las diferencias florísticas explicadas a lo largo de la parcela de 5-ha fueron principalmente asociadas con procesos biológicos como la limitación en dispersión. La mayor parte de la variación florística, no obstante, no fue explicada por las variables ambientales o espaciales consideradas. En conclusión, estos resultados sugieren que procesos aleatorios son determinantes esenciales de la variación espacial de las especies arbóreas a escala local en tierra firme en los bosques en el Parque Nacional Amacayacu.This study was carried out in a 5-ha permanent plot established in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. We assessed the extent at which floristic patterns of tree species were determined by either the environmental variation or the spatial configuration in tierra firme

  19. Reducing Disparities in Cancer Screening and Prevention through Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with Local Libraries: A Comprehensive Dynamic Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Bruce D; Weiss, Elisa; Lounsbury, David; Michel, Tamara; Gordon, Alexis; Erb-Downward, Jennifer; Sabino-Laughlin, Eilleen; Carpenter, Alison; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Bulone, Linda; Kemeny, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation. This process was phased into neighborhoods in random, stepped-wedge sequence. Population-level outcomes included self-reported screening adherence and smoking cessation, based on street intercept interviews. Event-history regressions (n = 9374) demonstrated that adherence outcomes were associated with program implementation, as were mediators such as awareness of screening programs and cancer information seeking. Findings varied by ethnicity, and were strongest among respondents born outside the U.S. or least engaged in care. This intervention impacted health behavior in diverse, underserved and vulnerable neighborhoods. It has been sustained as a routine library system program for several years after conclusion of grant support. In sum, participatory research with the public library system offers a flexible, scalable approach to reduce cancer health disparities. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  20. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M.; Barrows, Frederic T.; Biga, Peggy R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five-weeks of high-fat (HFD; 25% lipid) dietary intake increased white muscle lipid content, and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10% lipid) intake. In addition HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and -1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, -1b, and -2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:24264425

  1. Quantification of local mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...

  2. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a local policy to reduce sodium consumption in the County of Los Angeles government, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Dunet, Diane O; Simon, Paul A

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 organizations from the County of Los Angeles government departments that purchased, distributed, or sold food; public and private non-County entities that had previously implemented food procurement policies in their organizations; and large organizations that catered food to the County. Study participants reported 3 key facilitators: their organization's authority to impose nutrition standards, their organization's desire to provide nutritious food, and the opportunity to build on existing nutrition policies. Eight key barriers were identified: 1) unique features among food service settings, 2) costs and unavailability of low-sodium foods, 3) complexity of food service arrangements, 4) lack of consumer demand for low-sodium foods, 5) undesirable taste of low-sodium foods, 6) preference for prepackaged products, 7) lack of knowledge and experience in operationalizing sodium standards, and 8) existing multiyear contracts that are difficult to change. Despite perceived barriers, several participants indicated that their organizations have successfully implemented nutritional standards that include limits on sodium. Developing or changing policies for procuring food represents a potentially feasible strategy for reducing sodium consumption in food service venues controlled by the County of Los Angeles. The facilitators and barriers identified here can inform the formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation of sodium reduction policies in other jurisdictions.

  3. Can Energy Structure Optimization, Industrial Structure Changes, Technological Improvements, and Central and Local Governance Effectively Reduce Atmospheric Pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Area in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region has been achieved by consuming large amounts of fossil fuels. This produces a large number of pollutants, which damage the physical and mental health of residents, and prevent sustainable economic development. The most urgent task at present is improving the quality of the environment. This paper takes carbon emission as a pollution index, and adopts an extended stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT model in order to study the impact of the optimization of industry structure (in particular the reduction of the proportion of energy-intensive secondary industry, the optimization of the energy structure, and technological improvements on the atmospheric environmental quality. We obtain some important and enlightening discoveries. First of all, the rapid economic growth that has been based on magnanimous fossil fuel consumption is still the main reason for the deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This means that the main driving force of economic growth still comes from high pollution industries, despite a strategy for the transformation of the pattern of economic growth having been proposed for many years. Second, the optimization of the industrial structure has not played a significant role in promoting the reduction of carbon emissions. Through further research, we believe that this may be due to the low-quality development of the third industry. In other words, the traditional service industry related to high energy consumption accounts for a large proportion in regional total output, while the high-end service industry related to small pollution accounts for a relatively small proportion. Third, reducing the consumption of coal and improving the technological level can effectively curb the deterioration of the environmental quality. In addition, we find that transboundary pollution is an important factor affecting the environment in

  4. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S{sub 1} state of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. II. The S{sub 1} rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changala, P. Bryan, E-mail: bryan.changala@colorado.edu; Baraban, Joshua H.; Field, Robert W. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Merer, Anthony J. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S{sub 1} state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm{sup −1} above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm{sup −1} above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν{sub 4} (torsion) and ν{sub 6} (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x{sub 36} cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν{sub 6} and ν{sub 3} (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C–C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier.

  5. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  6. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; Haas-Kock, Danielle F.M. de; Beukema, Jannet C.; Neelis, Karen J.; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H.; Linden, Yvette van der; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; Herk, Marcel B. van; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. Methods and materials: The CTV’s for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes according to local guidelines (phase 1). After observer variation analysis a workshop was organized to establish delineation guidelines and a digital atlas, with which the same observers re-delineated the dataset (phase 2). Variation in volume, most caudal and cranial slice and local surface distance variation were analyzed. Results: The average delineated CTV volume decreased from 620 to 460 cc (p < 0.001) in phase 2. Variation in the caudal CTV border was reduced significantly from 1.8 to 1.2 cm SD (p = 0.01), while it remained 0.7 cm SD for the cranial border. The local surface distance variation (cm SD) reduced from 1.02 to 0.74 for anterior, 0.63 to 0.54 for lateral, 0.33 to 0.25 for posterior and 1.22 to 0.46 for the sphincter region, respectively. Conclusions: The large variation in target volume delineation could significantly be reduced by use of consensus guidelines and a digital delineation atlas. Despite the significant reduction there is still a need for further improvement.

  7. Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Corradino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  8. Botulinum toxin A for oral cavity cancer patients: in microsurgical patients BTX injections in major salivary glands temporarily reduce salivary production and the risk of local complications related to saliva stagnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradino, Bartolo; Di Lorenzo, Sara; Moschella, Francesco

    2012-10-24

    In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection) and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence) could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  9. Sparse maps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. I. An efficient and simple linear scaling local MP2 method that uses an intermediate basis of pair natural orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinski, Peter; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank, E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Valeev, Edward F., E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    In this work, a systematic infrastructure is described that formalizes concepts implicit in previous work and greatly simplifies computer implementation of reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. The key concept is sparse representation of tensors using chains of sparse maps between two index sets. Sparse map representation can be viewed as a generalization of compressed sparse row, a common representation of a sparse matrix, to tensor data. By combining few elementary operations on sparse maps (inversion, chaining, intersection, etc.), complex algorithms can be developed, illustrated here by a linear-scaling transformation of three-center Coulomb integrals based on our compact code library that implements sparse maps and operations on them. The sparsity of the three-center integrals arises from spatial locality of the basis functions and domain density fitting approximation. A novel feature of our approach is the use of differential overlap integrals computed in linear-scaling fashion for screening products of basis functions. Finally, a robust linear scaling domain based local pair natural orbital second-order Möller-Plesset (DLPNO-MP2) method is described based on the sparse map infrastructure that only depends on a minimal number of cutoff parameters that can be systematically tightened to approach 100% of the canonical MP2 correlation energy. With default truncation thresholds, DLPNO-MP2 recovers more than 99.9% of the canonical resolution of the identity MP2 (RI-MP2) energy while still showing a very early crossover with respect to the computational effort. Based on extensive benchmark calculations, relative energies are reproduced with an error of typically <0.2 kcal/mol. The efficiency of the local MP2 (LMP2) method can be drastically improved by carrying out the LMP2 iterations in a basis of pair natural orbitals. While the present work focuses on local electron correlation, it is of much broader applicability to computation with sparse tensors in

  10. A min-max variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, P.G.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper a variational principle for min-max problems is proved that is of the same spirit as Deville-Godefroy-Zizler's variational principle for minimization problems. A localization theorem in which the mini-max points for the perturbed function with respect top a given ε-min-max point are localized is presented. 3 refs

  11. Metaleptic Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Pernot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Les derniers romans de Gabriel Josipovici offrent beaucoup de variété, allant de la parodie, de la fiction comique légère, dans Only Joking et Making Mistakes, à des sujets plus graves, plus personnels, ontologiques. Dans un court roman, Everything Passes, et dans un roman majeur, Goldberg: Variations, le lecteur est amené à se poser des questions sur la nature mystérieuse de la réalité, qui est, trop souvent, acceptée sans conteste par de nombreux roma...

  12. Long-term Results of Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced or Unfavorably Located Choroidal Melanoma: Usefulness of CT-based 2-Port Orthogonal Therapy for Reducing the Incidence of Neovascular Glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Nomiya, Takuma; Kamada, Tadashi; Tokumaru, Sunao; Mizota, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term results of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in patients with choroidal melanoma, and to assess the usefulness of CT-based 2-port irradiation in reducing the risk of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2012, a total of 116 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma received CT-based C-ion RT. Of these patients, 114 were followed up for more than 6 months and their data analyzed. The numbers of T3 and T2 patients (International Union Against Cancer [UICC], 5th edition) were 106 and 8, respectively. The total dose of C-ion RT varied from 60 to 85 GyE, with each dose given in 5 fractions. Since October 2005, 2-port therapy (51 patients) has been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of NVG. A dose-volume histogram analysis was also performed in 106 patients. Results: The median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 0.5-10.6 years). The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control, distant metastasis-free survival, and eye retention rates were 80.4% (95% confidence interval 89.0%-71.8%), 82.2% (90.6%-73.8%), 92.8% (98.5%-87.1%), 72.1% (81.9%-62.3%), and 92.8% (98.1%-87.5%), respectively. The overall 5-year NVG incidence rate was 35.9% (25.9%-45.9%) and that of 1-port group and 2-port group were 41.6% (29.3%-54.0%) and 13.9% (3.2%-24.6%) with statistically significant difference (P<.001). The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the average irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body was significantly lower in the non-NVG group than in the NVG group at all dose levels, and significantly lower in the 2-port group than in the 1-port group at high dose levels. Conclusions: The long-term results of C-ion RT for choroidal melanoma are satisfactory. CT-based 2-port C-ion RT can be used to reduce the high-dose irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body and the resulting risk of NVG

  13. Long-term Results of Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced or Unfavorably Located Choroidal Melanoma: Usefulness of CT-based 2-Port Orthogonal Therapy for Reducing the Incidence of Neovascular Glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Nomiya, Takuma; Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Yoshitaka [Department of Ophthalmology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term results of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in patients with choroidal melanoma, and to assess the usefulness of CT-based 2-port irradiation in reducing the risk of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2012, a total of 116 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma received CT-based C-ion RT. Of these patients, 114 were followed up for more than 6 months and their data analyzed. The numbers of T3 and T2 patients (International Union Against Cancer [UICC], 5th edition) were 106 and 8, respectively. The total dose of C-ion RT varied from 60 to 85 GyE, with each dose given in 5 fractions. Since October 2005, 2-port therapy (51 patients) has been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of NVG. A dose-volume histogram analysis was also performed in 106 patients. Results: The median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 0.5-10.6 years). The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control, distant metastasis-free survival, and eye retention rates were 80.4% (95% confidence interval 89.0%-71.8%), 82.2% (90.6%-73.8%), 92.8% (98.5%-87.1%), 72.1% (81.9%-62.3%), and 92.8% (98.1%-87.5%), respectively. The overall 5-year NVG incidence rate was 35.9% (25.9%-45.9%) and that of 1-port group and 2-port group were 41.6% (29.3%-54.0%) and 13.9% (3.2%-24.6%) with statistically significant difference (P<.001). The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the average irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body was significantly lower in the non-NVG group than in the NVG group at all dose levels, and significantly lower in the 2-port group than in the 1-port group at high dose levels. Conclusions: The long-term results of C-ion RT for choroidal melanoma are satisfactory. CT-based 2-port C-ion RT can be used to reduce the high-dose irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body and the resulting risk of NVG.

  14. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongxin; Liu Shixing; Liu Chang; Chang Peng

    2009-01-01

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  15. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yongxin, E-mail: yxguo@lnu.edu.c [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Shixing [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Chang; Chang Peng [Department of Applied Mechanics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2009-10-19

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  16. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure......), or the research methods— more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more openended research issues...

  17. Heat Transfer Coefficient Variations in Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, Michael E.; Holloway, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    The single-phase heat transfer performance of a PWR nuclear fuel rod bundle is enhanced by the use of mixing vanes attached to the downstream edges of the support grid straps. This improved single-phase performance will delay the onset of nucleate boiling, thereby reducing corrosion and delaying crud-related issues. This paper presents the variation in measured single-phase heat transfer coefficients (HTC) for several grid designs. Then, this variation is compared with observations of actual in-core crud patterns. While crud deposition is a function of a number of parameters including rod heat flux, the HTC is assumed to be a primary factor in explaining why crud deposition is a local phenomenon on nuclear fuel rods. The data from this study will be used to examine this assumption by providing a comparison between HTC variations and crud deposition patterns. (authors)

  18. Error estimation for variational nodal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Lewis, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive grid methods are widely employed in finite element solutions to both solid and fluid mechanics problems. Either the size of the element is reduced (h refinement) or the order of the trial function is increased (p refinement) locally to improve the accuracy of the solution without a commensurate increase in computational effort. Success of these methods requires effective local error estimates to determine those parts of the problem domain where the solution should be refined. Adaptive methods have recently been applied to the spatial variables of the discrete ordinates equations. As a first step in the development of adaptive methods that are compatible with the variational nodal method, the authors examine error estimates for use in conjunction with spatial variables. The variational nodal method lends itself well to p refinement because the space-angle trial functions are hierarchical. Here they examine an error estimator for use with spatial p refinement for the diffusion approximation. Eventually, angular refinement will also be considered using spherical harmonics approximations

  19. Variational and quasi-variational inequalities in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kravchuk, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The essential aim of the present book is to consider a wide set of problems arising in the mathematical modelling of mechanical systems under unilateral constraints. In these investigations elastic and non-elastic deformations, friction and adhesion phenomena are taken into account. All the necessary mathematical tools are given: local boundary value problem formulations, construction of variational equations and inequalities, and the transition to minimization problems, existence and uniqueness theorems, and variational transformations (Friedrichs and Young-Fenchel-Moreau) to dual and saddle-point search problems. Important new results concern contact problems with friction. The Coulomb friction law and some others are considered, in which relative sliding velocities appear. The corresponding quasi-variational inequality is constructed, as well as the appropriate iterative method for its solution. Outlines of the variational approach to non-stationary and dissipative systems and to the construction of the go...

  20. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Variação na diversidade de vespas sociais em escala local numa floresta pluvial amazônica em Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.Vespas sociais são importantes nos ecossistemas neotropicais pela abundância e diversidade. A maioria dos inventários recentes não têm dedicado atenção aos atributos espaciais dos espécimes coletados. Dados espaciais são importantes para estudar e mitigar impactos sobre ecossistemas naturais e proteger espécies. Este artigo descreve e

  1. Meet the local policy workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla L.; Vallgårda, Signild; Jensen, Anja MB

    2018-01-01

    Reporting on an interview and observation based study in Danish municipalities, this article deals with local policy workers, and takes departure in the great variation we observed in implementation of centrally issued health promotion guidelines. We present five types of local policy workers, ea...

  2. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  3. An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations

  4. Black hole thermodynamics from a variational principle: asymptotically conical backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ok Song [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Kim Il Sung University,Ryongnam Dong, TaeSong District, Pyongyang, D.P.R. (Korea, Republic of); ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Cvetič, Mirjam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania,209 S 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor,Mladinska 3, SI2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-03-14

    The variational problem of gravity theories is directly related to black hole thermodynamics. For asymptotically locally AdS backgrounds it is known that holographic renormalization results in a variational principle in terms of equivalence classes of boundary data under the local asymptotic symmetries of the theory, which automatically leads to finite conserved charges satisfying the first law of thermodynamics. We show that this connection holds well beyond asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we formulate the variational problem for N=2 STU supergravity in four dimensions with boundary conditions corresponding to those obeyed by the so called ‘subtracted geometries’. We show that such boundary conditions can be imposed covariantly in terms of a set of asymptotic second class constraints, and we derive the appropriate boundary terms that render the variational problem well posed in two different duality frames of the STU model. This allows us to define finite conserved charges associated with any asymptotic Killing vector and to demonstrate that these charges satisfy the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics. Moreover, by uplifting the theory to five dimensions and then reducing on a 2-sphere, we provide a precise map between the thermodynamic observables of the subtracted geometries and those of the BTZ black hole. Surface terms play a crucial role in this identification.

  5. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  6. Observer variation in skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, W.P.; Park, W.M.

    1983-08-01

    The factors that affect observer variation in bone radiology are analysed from data in the literature and on the basis of studies carried out at McMaster University on the hands and sacroiliac joints. A plea is made for presenting results in terms of Kappa statistics so that agreement due purely to chance is eliminated. In the conclusions the main variables that affect concordance are listed so that strategies can be developed to reduce observer variation. This is important in serial studies to ensure that the observer variations are smaller than the effect one wishes to measure.

  7. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  8. Does initial 45Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduce late complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? A cohort control study using definitive chemoradiotherapy with high-dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chien, Chun-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Comparing initial 45 Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and non-IMRT in terms of the late toxicities associated with advanced cervical cancer that has also been treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB). This retrospective study included 320 stage IB2-IIIB cervical cancer patients treated with CCRT (83 IMRT and 237 non-IMRT). The two groups had similar stage and HDRICB ratings. Following 45 Gy to the pelvis, HDRICB of 24 Gy in four courses was prescribed. Late toxicities, including rectal complications (RC), bladder complications (BC) and non-rectal intestinal injury (NRRII), were scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the complications. With a median follow-up duration of 33 and 77 months for IMRT and non-IMRT, 33 patients had Grade 2 or higher late RC (7.2% IMRT, 11.4% non-IMRT), whereas that for BC was 40 (9.6% IMRT, 13.5% non-IMRT) and for NRRII was 48 (12.0% IMRT, 16.0% non-IMRT). The cumulative rate for total grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities was 8.4% and 11.8% (p = 0.33). IMRT did not reduce the OR for all endpoints; however, the ORs for rectum and bladder reference doses to Point A were associated with RC and BC. Locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with initial 45Gy of pelvic IMRT and HDRICB have similar treatment-related late toxicities as those treated with non-IMRT. Optimization of the brachytherapy scheme is essential to minimize late toxicities

  9. Wolbachia mediate variation of host immunocompetence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Braquart-Varnier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After decades during which endosymbionts were considered as silent in their hosts, in particular concerning the immune system, recent studies have revealed the contrary. In the present paper, we addressed the effect of Wolbachia, the most prevalent endosymbiont in arthropods, on host immunocompetence. To this end, we chose the A. vulgare-Wolbachia symbiosis as a model system because it leads to compare consequences of two Wolbachia strains (wVulC and wVulM on hosts from the same population. Moreover, A. vulgare is the only host-species in which Wolbachia have been directly observed within haemocytes which are responsible for both humoral and cellular immune responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled gravid females from the same population that were either asymbiotic, infected with wVulC, or infected with wVulM. The offspring from these females were tested and it was revealed that individuals harbouring wVulC exhibited: (i lower haemocyte densities, (ii more intense septicaemia in their haemolymph and (iii a reduced lifespan as compared to individuals habouring wVulM or asymbiotic ones. Therefore, individuals in this population of A. vulgare appeared to suffer more from wVulC than from wVulM. Symbiotic titer and location in the haemocytes did not differ for the two Wolbachia strains showing that these two parameters were not responsible for differences observed in their extended phenotypes in A. vulgare. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The two Wolbachia strains infecting A. vulgare in the same population induced variation in immunocompetence and survival of their hosts. Such variation should highly influence the dynamics of this host-symbiont system. We propose in accordance with previous population genetic works, that wVulM is a local strain that has attenuated its virulence through a long term adaptation process towards local A. vulgare genotypes whereas wVulC, which is a widespread and invasive strain, is not locally adapted.

  10. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  11. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  12. Local Perceptions of Climate Variability and Change in Tropical Forests of Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Boissière

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People everywhere experience changes and events that impact their lives. Knowing how they perceive, react, and adapt to climatic changes and events is helpful in developing strategies to support adaptation to climate change. Mamberamo in Papua, Indonesia, is a sparsely populated watershed of 7.8 million hectares possessing rich tropical forests. Our study compares scientific and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK on climate, and analyzes how local people in Mamberamo perceive and react to climatic variations. We compared meteorological data for the region with local views gathered through focus group discussions and interviews in six villages. We explored the local significance of seasonality, climate variability, and climate change. Mamberamo is subject to strikingly low levels of climatic variation; nonetheless local people highlighted certain problematic climate-related events such as floods and droughts. As our results illustrate, the implications vary markedly among villages. People currently consider climate variation to have little impact on their livelihoods when contrasted with other factors, e.g., logging, mining, infrastructure development, and political decentralization. Nonetheless, increased salinity of water supplies, crop loss due to floods, and reduced hunting success are concerns in specific villages. To gain local engagement, adaptation strategies should initially focus on factors that local people already judge important. Based on our results we demonstrate that TEK, and an assessment of local needs and concerns, provide practical insights for the development and promotion of locally relevant adaptation strategies. These insights offer a foundation for further engagement.

  13. Natural resources management by local associations in Ifedore local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of natural resource by local associations not only in its socio ecological but also in its socio economic context will go a long way in reducing environmental degradation in some local communities. This study examined the operational capacity for natural resource management by local associations in Ifedore ...

  14. Local orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Critically aligned experiments are sensitive to small changes in the electron beam orbit. At the NSLS storage rings, the electron beam and photon beam motions have been monitored over the past several years. In the survey conducted in 1986 by the NSLS Users Executive Committee, experimenters requested the vertical beam position variation and the vertical angle variation, within a given fill, remain within 10 μm and 10 μr, respectively. This requires improvement in the beam stability by about one order of magnitude. At the NSLS and SSRL storage rings, the beam that is originally centered on the position monitor by a dc orbit correction is observed to have two kinds of motion: a dc drift over a storage period of several hours and a beam bounce about its nominal position. These motions are a result of the equilibrium orbit not being held perfectly stable due to time-varying errors introduced into the magnetic guide field by power supplies, mechanical vibration of the magnets, cooling water temperature variations, etc. The approach to orbit stabilization includes (1) identifying and suppressing as many noise sources on the machine as possible, (2) correcting the beam position globally (see Section 6) by controlling a number of correctors around the circumference of the machine, and (3) correcting the beam position and angle at a given source location by position feedback using local detectors and local orbit bumps. The third approach, called Local Orbit Feedback will be discussed in this section

  15. Vascular Variations Associated with Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakdogen, Metin; Emon, Selin Tural; Somay, Hakan; Engin, Taner; Is, Merih; Hakan, Tayfun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the vascular variations in patients with intracranial aneurysm in circle of Willis. We used the data on 128 consecutive intracranial aneurysm cases. Cerebral angiography images were analyzed retrospectively. Arteries were grouped as anterior cerebral arterial system (ACS), posterior cerebral arterial system (PCS) and middle cerebral arterial system (MCS) for grouping vascular variations. Lateralization, being single/multiple, gender; and also any connection with accompanying aneurysms" number, localization, dimension, whether bleeding/incidental aneurysm has been inspected. Variations were demonstrated in 57.8% of the cases. The most common variation was A1 variation (34.4%). The rate of variations was 36.7%, 24.2% and 10.2% respectively in ACS, PCS and MCS. MCS variations were significantly higher in males. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm observance rates were significantly higher and posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm and middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm observance rates were significantly lower when compared to "no ACS variation detected" cases. In "PCS variation detected" cases, PCoA aneurysm observance rates and coexistence of multiple variations were significantly higher. The rate of vascular variations in patients with aneurysms was 57.8%. Arterial hypoplasia and aplasia were the most common variations. ACS was the most common region that variations were located in; they were mostly detected on the right side. Coexistence of ACoA aneurysm was higher than PCoA and MCA aneurysms. In the PCS variations group, PCoA aneurysms were the most common aneurysms that accompanying the variation and multiple variations were more common than in the other two groups. The variations in MCS were most common in males.

  16. Bespoke Bias for Obtaining Free Energy Differences within Variationally Enhanced Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, James; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-05-10

    Obtaining efficient sampling of multiple metastable states through molecular dynamics and hence determining free energy differences is central for understanding many important phenomena. Here we present a new biasing strategy, which employs the recent variationally enhanced sampling approach (Valsson and Parrinello Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 090601). The bias is constructed from an intuitive model of the local free energy surface describing fluctuations around metastable minima and depends on only a few parameters which are determined variationally such that efficient sampling between states is obtained. The bias constructed in this manner largely reduces the need of finding a set of collective variables that completely spans the conformational space of interest, as they only need to be a locally valid descriptor of the system about its local minimum. We introduce the method and demonstrate its power on two representative examples.

  17. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  18. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where D ( [ 0 , ∞ ) , R ) denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on [ 0 , ∞ ) such that for a locally square integrable martingale ( M t ) with r.c.l.l. paths,. Ψ ( M . ( ) ) = A . ( ). gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as [ M , M ] t ) of ( M t ) . We also show that this process ( A t ) is the unique increasing ...

  19. An Efficient Local Correlation Matrix Decomposition Approach for the Localization Implementation of Ensemble-Based Assimilation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqin; Tian, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    Ensemble-based data assimilation methods often use the so-called localization scheme to improve the representation of the ensemble background error covariance (Be). Extensive research has been undertaken to reduce the computational cost of these methods by using the localized ensemble samples to localize Be by means of a direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C. However, the computational costs of the direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C are still extremely high due to its high dimension. In this paper, we propose an efficient local correlation matrix decomposition approach based on the concept of alternating directions. This approach is intended to avoid direct decomposition of the correlation matrix. Instead, we first decompose the correlation matrix into 1-D correlation matrices in the three coordinate directions, then construct their empirical orthogonal function decomposition at low resolution. This procedure is followed by the 1-D spline interpolation process to transform the above decompositions to the high-resolution grid. Finally, an efficient correlation matrix decomposition is achieved by computing the very similar Kronecker product. We conducted a series of comparison experiments to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed local correlation matrix decomposition approach. The effectiveness of the proposed correlation matrix decomposition approach and its efficient localization implementation of the nonlinear least-squares four-dimensional variational assimilation are further demonstrated by several groups of numerical experiments based on the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model.

  20. Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Is Localized Scleroderma Diagnosed? Doctors who are familiar with scleroderma, or who are experts at examining ... systemic treatment with a medication or other treatment interventions (for example, ultraviolet light), are reserved for more ...

  1. Local Political Culture and Use of Local Media: Is There a Relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    this model also turned out to be quite apt in explaining variation in local media use, the citizen role model was at least as good as this model in explaining these variations. Thus, our model of the four citizen roles/four different local cultures seems to be very robust when it comes to explaining...

  2. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  3. Variation and Mathematics Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper put forwards variation as a theme to structure mathematical experience and mathematics pedagogy. Patterns of variation from Marton's Theory of Variation are understood and developed as types of variation interaction that enhance mathematical understanding. An idea of a discernment unit comprising mutually supporting variation…

  4. Use of Landsat series data to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of land degradation in a dispersive soil environment: A case of King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Seutloali, Khoboso; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    Land degradation as a result of inappropriate land use practices, such as overgrazing and cultivation on steep slopes, etc. is one of the major global environmental challenges. Specifically, land degradation threatens the productivity and sustainability of the natural environment, agriculture, and most importantly rural economies in most developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan region. The main aim of this study was therefore, to assess the potential and strength of using the free or readily available Landsat series data in mapping degraded land areas at the King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (1984-2010). Data analysis was done using a robust non-parametric classification ensemble; Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show that degraded areas vary over the years. For example, the results show that the year 1994 and 2004 incurred high degradation levels, when compared to the year 1984 and 2010. Moreover, the observed degradation significantly (α = 0.05) varies with soil type. The chromic acrisols have the highest levels of erosion (approx. 80% in 1984), when compared to humic-umbric acrisols (less than 10% for the entire period under study). It can also be observed that considerable part of degradation occurred in the northern part of the municipal district. Overall, the findings of this research underlines the importance and efficacy of multispectral Landsat series data-set in mapping and monitoring levels of land degradation in data-scarce catchments.

  5. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  6. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  7. Scaling and root planning, and locally delivered minocycline reduces the load of Prevotella intermedia in an interdependent pattern, correlating with symptomatic improvements of chronic periodontitis: a short-term randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Wang, Y.; Sun, W.; Chen, H.; Wu, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the respective or combinatory efficacy of locally delivered 2% minocycline (MO) and scaling and root planning (SRP) by assessing both clinical parameters and the loads of four main periodontal pathogens in treating chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods: Seventy adults with CP

  8. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  9. Diet of residents of Bryansk region western areas and it's variation resulted from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.; Kaplun, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the examination of 955 inhabitants of the Bryansk region areas affected greatly by the Chernobyl accident. The examination was carried out in August-September, 1987. The examination was conducted to estimate the efficiency of the protective measures taken to reduce the levels of population irradiation at the alimentary in take of radionuclides. The ratios characteristic for the urban and rural population and the variations of the rations resulted from the accident became one the objects of the investigation. Milk consumption by all groups of the population is determined to reduce abruptly thus affecting the usual structure of nutrition. Consumption of meat, of fish from local lakes and rivers, of mushrooms, of forest berries reduced, as well. The mentioned variations enabled to decrease the dose of internal irradiation of the population by several times, But protein, microelements and vitamin deficiency in combination with the stress may negative affet the health of the people

  10. 680 SPATIAL VARIATION IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher in Group A water samples, and reduced slightly in the Group B and then the Group C samples, ... Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water quality. ... situation which may likely pose a threat to the.

  11. Local equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  12. Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation

    OpenAIRE

    Corradino, Bartolo; Lorenzo, Sara Di; Moschella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection) and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence) could become major complicat...

  13. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, Lev D

    2007-01-01

    This concise text offers both professionals and students an introduction to the fundamentals and standard methods of the calculus of variations. In addition to surveys of problems with fixed and movable boundaries, it explores highly practical direct methods for the solution of variational problems.Topics include the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries; variational problems with movable boundaries and other problems; sufficiency conditions for an extremum; variational problems of constrained extrema; and direct methods of solving variational problems. Each chapter features nu

  14. Seasonal variation in sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim

    2018-02-01

    This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.

  15. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  16. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. It is proved that the Yang-Mills equations for the introduced ansatz for supertwistor connection are equivalent to free bach equations, describing the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity. Analogous interpretation of the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity coupled to a vector superfield is proposed. It is proved that any complex conformally right or left flat superspace automatically satisfies the Bach equations

  17. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Leach, M.

    2000-01-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  18. Quantum Variational Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska , Agnieszka B.; Torres , Delfim

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Introduces readers to the treatment of the calculus of variations with q-differences and Hahn difference operators Provides the reader with the first extended treatment of quantum variational calculus Shows how the techniques described can be applied to economic models as well as other mathematical systems This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of it...

  19. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  20. Variational estimates of point-kinetics parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Variational estimates of the effect of flux shifts on the integral reactivity parameter of the point-kinetics equations and on regional power fractions were calculated for a variety of localized perturbations in two light water reactor (LWR) model problems representing a small, tightly coupled core and a large, loosely coupled core. For the small core, the flux shifts resulting from even relatively large localized reactivity changes (∼600 pcm) were small, and the standard point-kinetics approximation estimates of reactivity were in error by only ∼10% or less, while the variational estimates were accurate to within ∼1%. For the larger core, significant (>50%) flux shifts occurred in response to local perturbations, leading to errors of the same magnitude in the standard point-kinetics approximation of the reactivity worth. For positive reactivity, the error in the variational estimate of reactivity was only a few percent in the larger core, and the resulting transient power prediction was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more accurate than with the standard point-kinetics approximation. For a large, local negative reactivity insertion resulting in a large flux shift, the accuracy of the variational estimate broke down. The variational estimate of the effect of flux shifts on reactivity in point-kinetics calculations of transients in LWR cores was found to generally result in greatly improved accuracy, relative to the standard point-kinetics approximation, the exception being for large negative reactivity insertions with large flux shifts in large, loosely coupled cores

  1. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  2. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  3. On the Approximate Solutions of Local Fractional Differential Equations with Local Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the local fractional decomposition method, variational iteration method, and differential transform method for analytic treatment of linear and nonlinear local fractional differential equations, homogeneous or nonhomogeneous. The operators are taken in the local fractional sense. Some examples are given to demonstrate the simplicity and the efficiency of the presented methods.

  4. Should the General Practitioner Consider Mesotherapy (Intradermal Therapy) to Manage Localized Pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Mammucari, M; Maggiori, E; Lazzari, M; Natoli, S

    2016-01-01

    Wide variations in the types of pain and response to analgesic pharmacotherapy mean that a variety of treatment strategies are needed. One approach is mesotherapy (intradermal therapy). This consists of microinjections into the skin and is ideally suited to the management of localized pain. Advantages include increasing the duration of drug activity, reduced risk of adverse events and interactions, and possible synergy with other therapies. Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with anot...

  5. Scheduling admissions and reducing variation in bed demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, R.; Out, P.

    2011-01-01

    Variability in admissions and lengths of stay inherently leads to variability in bed occupancy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of these sources of variability on the required amount of capacity and to determine admission quota for scheduled admissions to regulate the occupancy

  6. Effect of Ice-Shell Thickness Variations on the Tidal Deformation of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Kozubek, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of Enceladus's gravity and topography has suggested that the thickness of the ice shell significantly varies laterally - from 30-40 km in the south polar region to 60 km elsewhere. These variations may influence the activity of the geysers and increase the tidal heat production in regions where the ice shell is thinned. Using a model including a regional or global subsurface ocean and Maxwell viscoelasticity, we investigate the impact of these variations on the tidal deformation of the moon and its heat production. For that purpose, we use different numerical approaches - finite elements, local application of 1d spectral method, and a generalized spectral method. Results obtained with these three approaches for various models of ice-shell thickness variations are presented and compared. Implications of a reduced ice shell thickness for the south polar terrain activity are discussed.

  7. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. An ansatz on the form of the supertwistor superconnection is introduced. Because of this restriction on the form of such a superconnection the Yang-Mills equations for the superconnection turn out to be equivalent to the free Bach equations describing the dynamics of simple conformal supergravity. It is shown that the equations of motion of conformal supergravity interacting with a vector superfield admit an analogous interpretation. It is proved that an arbitrary conformally right-flat or left-flat superspace is automatically a solution of the Bach equations

  8. Variation of clinical expression in patients with Stargardt dystrophy and sequence variations in the ABCR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G A; Stone, E M; Grover, S; Derlacki, D J; Haines, H L; Hockey, R R

    1999-04-01

    To report the spectrum of ophthalmic findings in patients with Stargardt dystrophy or fundus flavimaculatus who have a specific sequence variation in the ABCR gene. Twenty-nine patients with Stargardt dystrophy or fundus flavimaculatus from different pedigrees were identified with possible disease-causing sequence variations in the ABCR gene from a group of 66 patients who were screened for sequence variations in this gene. Patients underwent a routine ocular examination, including slitlamp biomicroscopy and a dilated fundus examination. Fluorescein angiography was performed on 22 patients, and electroretinographic measurements were obtained on 24 of 29 patients. Kinetic visual fields were measured with a Goldmann perimeter in 26 patients. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing were used to identify variations in coding sequences of the ABCR gene. Three clinical phenotypes were observed among these 29 patients. In phenotype I, 9 of 12 patients had a sequence change in exon 42 of the ABCR gene in which the amino acid glutamic acid was substituted for glycine (Gly1961Glu). In only 4 of these 9 patients was a second possible disease-causing mutation found on the other ABCR allele. In addition to an atrophic-appearing macular lesion, phenotype I was characterized by localized perifoveal yellowish white flecks, the absence of a dark choroid, and normal electroretinographic amplitudes. Phenotype II consisted of 10 patients who showed a dark choroid and more diffuse yellowish white flecks in the fundus. None exhibited the Gly1961Glu change. Phenotype III consisted of 7 patients who showed extensive atrophic-appearing changes of the retinal pigment epithelium. Electroretinographic cone and rod amplitudes were reduced. One patient showed the Gly1961Glu change. A wide variation in clinical phenotype can occur in patients with sequence changes in the ABCR gene. In individual patients, a certain phenotype seems to be associated with the presence of

  9. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  10. Concerted Cultivation and Music Learning: Global Issues and Local Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    "Concerted cultivation" has been described as a common, urban middle-class practice concerning the enrollment of children in a variety of age-specific activities that may promote the learning of valuable life skills as well as the development of individual abilities (Lareau, 2003). Music is one such activity. This study investigated the…

  11. Spatial Variation in School Performance, a Local Analysis of Socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor pass rates of matric learners at secondary schools in South Africa has been a concern for quite some time. Despite large government spending on education, research has shown that the South African schooling system is struggling to convert resources to student performances and failing to promote social equity.

  12. temporal variation of malaria occurrence in kano municipal local

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    affect females (54%) more than males (46%) and children in age 0-5 and 6-10 years accounted for. 18.6% and 15.1% ... accounting for 63.58% and 36.42 % respectively. The result of ..... season with 1598 cases or 65.49% dominated the wet.

  13. Spatial variation in school performance, a local analysis of socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setup

    family or individual on a hierarchal social structure based on their access to, or control over ... depending on the statistical modelling techniques employed and the choice of independent or ..... Academy for Maths and Science (93%), Heathfield.

  14. Local variation in embryo development rate in annual fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin; Vrtílek, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2018), s. 1359-1370 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diapause * erratic development * escape embryo * killifish * Mozambique * secondary pool Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2016

  15. Reducing Mg acceptor activation-energy in Al(0.83)Ga(0.17)N disorder alloy substituted by nanoscale (AlN)₅/(GaN)₁ superlattice using Mg(Ga) δ-doping: Mg local-structure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hong-xia; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-he; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min

    2014-10-23

    Improving p-type doping efficiency in Al-rich AlGaN alloys is a worldwide problem for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. In order to solve this problem, we calculate Mg acceptor activation energy and investigate its relationship with Mg local structure in nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL), a substitution for Al(0.83)Ga(0.17)N disorder alloy, using first-principles calculations. A universal picture to reduce acceptor activation energy in wide-gap semiconductors is given for the first time. By reducing the volume of the acceptor local structure slightly, its activation energy can be decreased remarkably. Our results show that Mg acceptor activation energy can be reduced significantly from 0.44 eV in Al(0.83)Ga(0.17)N disorder alloy to 0.26 eV, very close to the Mg acceptor activation energy in GaN, and a high hole concentration in the order of 10(19) cm(-3) can be obtained in (AlN)5/(GaN)1 SL by Mg(Ga) δ-doping owing to GaN-monolayer modulation. We thus open up a new way to reduce Mg acceptor activation energy and increase hole concentration in Al-rich AlGaN.

  16. Reducing Mg Acceptor Activation-Energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N Disorder Alloy Substituted by Nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 Superlattice Using MgGa δ-Doping: Mg Local-Structure Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hong-Xia; Shi, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-He; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-Min

    2014-10-01

    Improving p-type doping efficiency in Al-rich AlGaN alloys is a worldwide problem for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. In order to solve this problem, we calculate Mg acceptor activation energy and investigate its relationship with Mg local structure in nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL), a substitution for Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy, using first-principles calculations. A universal picture to reduce acceptor activation energy in wide-gap semiconductors is given for the first time. By reducing the volume of the acceptor local structure slightly, its activation energy can be decreased remarkably. Our results show that Mg acceptor activation energy can be reduced significantly from 0.44 eV in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy to 0.26 eV, very close to the Mg acceptor activation energy in GaN, and a high hole concentration in the order of 1019 cm-3 can be obtained in (AlN)5/(GaN)1 SL by MgGa δ-doping owing to GaN-monolayer modulation. We thus open up a new way to reduce Mg acceptor activation energy and increase hole concentration in Al-rich AlGaN.

  17. Tropical protected areas reduced deforestation carbon emissions by one third from 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Butt, Nathalie

    2017-10-25

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for around one tenth of total anthropogenic carbon emissions, and tropical protected areas (PAs) that reduce deforestation can therefore play an important role in mitigating climate change and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. While the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation has been estimated, the impact on global carbon emissions remains unquantified. Here we show that tropical PAs overall reduced deforestation carbon emissions by 4.88 Pg, or around 29%, between 2000 and 2012, when compared to expected rates of deforestation controlling for spatial variation in deforestation pressure. The largest contribution was from the tropical Americas (368.8 GgC y -1 ), followed by Asia (25.0 GgC y -1 ) and Africa (12.7 GgC y -1 ). Variation in PA effectiveness is largely driven by local factors affecting individual PAs, rather than designations assigned by governments.

  18. Local variances in biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.T.

    1999-01-01

    The present study deals with the (larger-scaled) biomonitoring survey and specifically focuses on the sampling site. In most surveys, the sampling site is simply selected or defined as a spot of (geographical) dimensions which is small relative to the dimensions of the total survey area. Implicitly it is assumed that the sampling site is essentially homogeneous with respect to the investigated variation in survey parameters. As such, the sampling site is mostly regarded as 'the basic unit' of the survey. As a logical consequence, the local (sampling site) variance should also be seen as a basic and important characteristic of the survey. During the study, work is carried out to gain more knowledge of the local variance. Multiple sampling is carried out at a specific site (tree bark, mosses, soils), multi-elemental analyses are carried out by NAA, and local variances are investigated by conventional statistics, factor analytical techniques, and bootstrapping. Consequences of the outcomes are discussed in the context of sampling, sample handling and survey quality. (author)

  19. Contracting out local road and park services: Economic effects and their strategic, contractual, and competitive conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    such as markets, contracts, municipal strategies and contracting history influence these outcomes. Drawing on original survey data from Danish municipalities, we find that competitive tendering has on average reduced costs. Further analysis shows that savings are not associated with lower quality, thus indicating......The economic rationale for contracting out local services is increasingly contested by empirical research. This article aims to contribute to this literature, first by scrutinising the economic effects of contracting out in local road and park services and, second, by exploring how characteristics...... realise larger savings, whereas the characteristics of markets and contracts do not seem to explain variations in cost savings....

  20. Should the General Practitioner Consider Mesotherapy (Intradermal Therapy) to Manage Localized Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammucari, Massimo; Maggiori, Enrica; Lazzari, Marzia; Natoli, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Wide variations in the types of pain and response to analgesic pharmacotherapy mean that a variety of treatment strategies are needed. One approach is mesotherapy (intradermal therapy). This consists of microinjections into the skin and is ideally suited to the management of localized pain. Advantages include increasing the duration of drug activity, reduced risk of adverse events and interactions, and possible synergy with other therapies. Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with another tool for the treatment of local pain. However, it is important to provide patients with full details of the pros and cons of this approach and obtain informed patient consent.

  1. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  2. A teaching intervention in a contouring dummy run improved target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Reducing the interobserver variability in multicentre clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Prokic, Vesna; Doll, Christian; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Nestle, Ursula; Troost, Esther G.C.; Ruecker, Gerta; Avlar, Melanie; Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Mix, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Interobserver variability in the definition of target volumes (TVs) is a well-known confounding factor in (multicentre) clinical studies employing radiotherapy. Therefore, detailed contouring guidelines are provided in the prospective randomised multicentre PET-Plan (NCT00697333) clinical trial protocol. This trial compares strictly FDG-PET-based TV delineation with conventional TV delineation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite detailed contouring guidelines, their interpretation by different radiation oncologists can vary considerably, leading to undesirable discrepancies in TV delineation. Considering this, as part of the PET-Plan study quality assurance (QA), a contouring dummy run (DR) consisting of two phases was performed to analyse the interobserver variability before and after teaching. In the first phase of the DR (DR1), radiation oncologists from 14 study centres were asked to delineate TVs as defined by the study protocol (gross TV, GTV; and two clinical TVs, CTV-A and CTV-B) in a test patient. A teaching session was held at a study group meeting, including a discussion of the results focussing on discordances in comparison to the per-protocol solution. Subsequently, the second phase of the DR (DR2) was performed in order to evaluate the impact of teaching. Teaching after DR1 resulted in a reduction of absolute TVs in DR2, as well as in better concordance of TVs. The Overall Kappa(κ) indices increased from 0.63 to 0.71 (GTV), 0.60 to 0.65 (CTV-A) and from 0.59 to 0.63 (CTV-B), demonstrating improvements in overall interobserver agreement. Contouring DRs and study group meetings as part of QA in multicentre clinical trials help to identify misinterpretations of per-protocol TV delineation. Teaching the correct interpretation of protocol contouring guidelines leads to a reduction in interobserver variability and to more consistent contouring, which should consequently improve the validity of the overall study

  3. A teaching intervention in a contouring dummy run improved target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Reducing the interobserver variability in multicentre clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Troost, Esther G C; Rücker, Gerta; Prokic, Vesna; Avlar, Melanie; Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Mix, Michael; Doll, Christian; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Nestle, Ursula

    2015-06-01

    Interobserver variability in the definition of target volumes (TVs) is a well-known confounding factor in (multicentre) clinical studies employing radiotherapy. Therefore, detailed contouring guidelines are provided in the prospective randomised multicentre PET-Plan (NCT00697333) clinical trial protocol. This trial compares strictly FDG-PET-based TV delineation with conventional TV delineation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite detailed contouring guidelines, their interpretation by different radiation oncologists can vary considerably, leading to undesirable discrepancies in TV delineation. Considering this, as part of the PET-Plan study quality assurance (QA), a contouring dummy run (DR) consisting of two phases was performed to analyse the interobserver variability before and after teaching. In the first phase of the DR (DR1), radiation oncologists from 14 study centres were asked to delineate TVs as defined by the study protocol (gross TV, GTV; and two clinical TVs, CTV-A and CTV-B) in a test patient. A teaching session was held at a study group meeting, including a discussion of the results focussing on discordances in comparison to the per-protocol solution. Subsequently, the second phase of the DR (DR2) was performed in order to evaluate the impact of teaching. Teaching after DR1 resulted in a reduction of absolute TVs in DR2, as well as in better concordance of TVs. The Overall Kappa(κ) indices increased from 0.63 to 0.71 (GTV), 0.60 to 0.65 (CTV-A) and from 0.59 to 0.63 (CTV-B), demonstrating improvements in overall interobserver agreement. Contouring DRs and study group meetings as part of QA in multicentre clinical trials help to identify misinterpretations of per-protocol TV delineation. Teaching the correct interpretation of protocol contouring guidelines leads to a reduction in interobserver variability and to more consistent contouring, which should consequently improve the validity of the overall study

  4. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... of water in the oxidized zone of the aquifer nearly halved, following implementation of action plans to reduce N leaching from agriculture. However, due to denitrification by pyrite oxidation in the aquifer, a plume of sulfate-rich water migrates through the aquifer as a legacy of the historical NO3...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...

  5. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  6. Local recruitment experience in a study comparing the effectiveness of a low glycaemic index diet with a low calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiomo, William; Read, Anna; Golding, Mary; Silcocks, Paul; Razali, Nuguelis; Sarkar, Sabitabrata; Hardiman, Paul; Thornton, Jim

    2009-09-01

    Feasibility of a clinical-trial comparing a low-glycaemic diet with a low-calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with PCOS. A pilot Randomised-Controlled-Trial using different recruitment strategies. A University Hospital in the United Kingdom. Women seen at specialist gynaecology clinics over a 12 month period in one University Hospital, and women self identified through a website and posters. Potential recruits were assessed for eligibility, gave informed consent, randomised, treated and assessed as in the definitive trial. Eligibility and recruitment rates, compliance with the allocated diet for 6 months and with clinical assessments, blood tests, pelvic ultrasound scans and endometrial biopsies. 1433 new and 2598 follow up patients were seen in 153 gynaecology clinics for over 12 months. 441 (11%) potentially eligible women were identified, 19 (0.4%) of whom met the trial entry criteria. Eleven consented to take part, of which 8 (73%) completed the study. Planned future trials on over-weight women with PCOS should be multicentre and should incorporate primary care. This data will help other researchers plan and calculate the sample size and potential recruitment rates in future clinical trials in PCOS. The results will also be useful for inclusion in future meta-analyses.

  7. Caracterización trófica del placóforo intermareal Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile: variación ambiental y patrones dietarios a nivel local y region Trophic characterization of the intertidal placophoran Enoplochiton niger in northern Chile: environmental variation and dietary patterns at local and regional levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVARO G SANHUEZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El rol e impacto de los herbívoros en la trama trófica de comunidades intermareales rocosas podría ser más diverso y complejo de lo considerado hasta ahora, particularmente en el caso de consumidores de mayor tamaño y abundancia como el molusco placóforo Enoplochiton niger. Esta especie es uno de los pastoreadores de mayor tamaño (hasta 20 cm e importancia ecológica en las costas rocosas del norte de Chile, pero también una de las especies menos conocidas en términos tróficos. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación de los patrones dietarios de E. niger en cuatro comunidades del norte de Chile, distribuidas en 1.000 km de costa y muestreadas estacionalmente entre invierno 2004 y otoño 2006. Además se analizó la relación de su dieta con factores biológicos y físicos, incluyendo el efecto potencial del evento El Niño 2004-2005 ocurrido durante el período de estudio. A nivel regional, el espectro dietario de E. niger abarcó un total de 98 recursos (60 ítemes algales y 38 ítemes invertebrados, y los ítemes más importantes fueron organismos sésiles con formas de crecimiento incrustante o en capa. E. niger mostró una gran amplitud de nicho tanto a nivel regional como local (rango: 20,7-28,0; índice de Levins, con una riqueza dietaria a nivel individual independiente del tamaño corporal. Tanto el número de ítemes dietarios consumidos por individuo como la composición taxonómica de la dieta no mostraron diferencias significativas entre comunidades, pero variaron significativamente entre el período asociado al evento El Niño y el período posterior. No hubo ninguna relación clara entre los patrones dietarios de E. niger y los niveles contrastantes de intensidad de surgencia entre las comunidades estudiadas. Los resultados muestran que E. niger es un consumidor generalista y polífago, y un potencial omnívoro, el cual podría tener un alto impacto sobre los patrones de ocupación de espacio en la comunidad intermareal

  8. Local government and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.; Menkveld, M.; Coenen, F.H.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Local government in the Netherlands could play a greater role than they currently do in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the country. This fact formed the motivation for initiating the research project on Local Government and Climate Policy. Many local climate options are known in theory. Options for reduction that lie within the sphere of influence of Dutch local government are, for example, sustainable building or encouraging the utilisation of sustainable energy. But actual practice turns out to be rather refractory. If such options are to be implemented, then one has to overcome institutional barriers, such as the co-operation between different departments in the same local authority. The objective of this research is to improve the contribution that local government makes to climate policy

  9. Fine-scale mapping of natural variation in fly fecundity identifies neuronal domain of expression and function of an aquaporin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan O Bergland

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the molecular genetic basis of standing variation in fitness related traits, we identify a novel factor that regulates the molecular and physiological basis of natural variation in female Drosophila melanogaster fecundity. Genetic variation in female fecundity in flies derived from a wild orchard population is heritable and largely independent of other measured life history traits. We map a portion of this variation to a single QTL and then use deficiency mapping to further refine this QTL to 5 candidate genes. Ubiquitous expression of RNAi against only one of these genes, an aquaporin encoded by Drip, reduces fecundity. Within our mapping population Drip mRNA level in the head, but not other tissues, is positively correlated with fecundity. We localize Drip expression to a small population of corazonin producing neurons located in the dorsolateral posterior compartments of the protocerebrum. Expression of Drip-RNAi using both the pan-neuronal ELAV-Gal4 and the Crz-Gal4 drivers reduces fecundity. Low-fecundity RILs have decreased Crz expression and increased expression of pale, the enzyme encoding the rate-limiting step in the production of dopamine, a modulator of insect life histories. Taken together these data suggest that natural variation in Drip expression in the corazonin producing neurons contributes to standing variation in fitness by altering the concentration of two neurohormones.

  10. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  11. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...

  12. Localized corrosion of carbon steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Development of a specific sensor; Corrosion localisee des aciers au carbone induite par des bacteries sulfato-reductrices. Developpement d'un capteur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort Moros, N.

    2001-11-01

    This work concerns the microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steels in saline anaerobic media (3% of NaCl) containing sulfato-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio gabonensis, DSM 10636). In these media, extreme localised corrosion occurs by pitting under the bio-film covering the metallic substrate. A sensor with concentric electrodes was designed to initiate the phenomenon of bio-corrosion, recreating the favourable conditions for growth of a corrosion pit, and then measuring the corrosion current maintained by bacterial activity. The pit initiation was achieved through either of two methods. The electrochemical conditioning involved driving the potential difference between inner and outer electrodes to values corresponding to a galvanic corrosion that can be maintained by the bacterial metabolism. The mechanical process involved removal of a portion of the bio-film by scratching, yielding galvanic potential differences equivalent to that found by the conditioning technique. This protocol was found to be applicable to a bio-corrosion study on industrial site for the monitoring of the metallic structures deterioration (patent EN 00/06114, May 2000). Thereafter, a fundamental application uses the bio-corrosion sensor for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Electrochemical Noise Analysis (ENA) and current density cartography by the means of micro-electrodes. Thus, the EIS technique reveals the importance of the FeS corrosion products for initiation of bio-corrosion start on carbon steel. In addition, depending on the method used to create a pit, the ENA gives rise to supplementary processes (gaseous release) disturbing the bio-corrosion detection. The beginning of a bio-corrosion process on a clean surface surrounded with bio-film was confirmed by the current density cartography. These different results establish the sensor with concentric electrodes as an indispensable tool for bio-corrosion studies, both in the laboratory and on industrial sites

  13. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  14. Variational principle for nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations