Sample records for reduced fluid models

  1. Reduced order modeling of some fluid flows of industrial interest

    Alonso, D; Terragni, F; Velazquez, A; Vega, J M, E-mail: [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Some basic ideas are presented for the construction of robust, computationally efficient reduced order models amenable to be used in industrial environments, combined with somewhat rough computational fluid dynamics solvers. These ideas result from a critical review of the basic principles of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order modeling of both steady and unsteady fluid flows. In particular, the extent to which some artifacts of the computational fluid dynamics solvers can be ignored is addressed, which opens up the possibility of obtaining quite flexible reduced order models. The methods are illustrated with the steady aerodynamic flow around a horizontal tail plane of a commercial aircraft in transonic conditions, and the unsteady lid-driven cavity problem. In both cases, the approximations are fairly good, thus reducing the computational cost by a significant factor. (review)

  2. Reduced order modeling of fluid/structure interaction.

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Kalashnikova, Irina; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Brake, Matthew Robert


    This report describes work performed from October 2007 through September 2009 under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled 'Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid/Structure Interaction.' This project addresses fundamental aspects of techniques for construction of predictive Reduced Order Models (ROMs). A ROM is defined as a model, derived from a sequence of high-fidelity simulations, that preserves the essential physics and predictive capability of the original simulations but at a much lower computational cost. Techniques are developed for construction of provably stable linear Galerkin projection ROMs for compressible fluid flow, including a method for enforcing boundary conditions that preserves numerical stability. A convergence proof and error estimates are given for this class of ROM, and the method is demonstrated on a series of model problems. A reduced order method, based on the method of quadratic components, for solving the von Karman nonlinear plate equations is developed and tested. This method is applied to the problem of nonlinear limit cycle oscillations encountered when the plate interacts with an adjacent supersonic flow. A stability-preserving method for coupling the linear fluid ROM with the structural dynamics model for the elastic plate is constructed and tested. Methods for constructing efficient ROMs for nonlinear fluid equations are developed and tested on a one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction equation. These methods are combined with a symmetrization approach to construct a ROM technique for application to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  3. An improved model for reduced-order physiological fluid flows

    San, Omer; 10.1142/S0219519411004666


    An improved one-dimensional mathematical model based on Pulsed Flow Equations (PFE) is derived by integrating the axial component of the momentum equation over the transient Womersley velocity profile, providing a dynamic momentum equation whose coefficients are smoothly varying functions of the spatial variable. The resulting momentum equation along with the continuity equation and pressure-area relation form our reduced-order model for physiological fluid flows in one dimension, and are aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. The consequent nonlinear coupled system of equations is solved by the Lax-Wendroff scheme and is then applied to an open model arterial network of the human vascular system containing the largest fifty-five arteries. The proposed model with functional coefficients is compared with current classical one-dimensional theories which assume steady state Hagen-Poiseuille velocity pro...

  4. Electron-scale reduced fluid models with gyroviscous effects

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Tassi, E.


    Reduced fluid models for collisionless plasmas including electron inertia and finite Larmor radius corrections are derived for scales ranging from the ion to the electron gyroradii. Based either on pressure balance or on the incompressibility of the electron fluid, they respectively capture kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) or whistler waves (WWs), and can provide suitable tools for reconnection and turbulence studies. Both isothermal regimes and Landau fluid closures permitting anisotropic pressure fluctuations are considered. For small values of the electron beta parameter e$ , a perturbative computation of the gyroviscous force valid at scales comparable to the electron inertial length is performed at order e)$ , which requires second-order contributions in a scale expansion. Comparisons with kinetic theory are performed in the linear regime. The spectrum of transverse magnetic fluctuations for strong and weak turbulence energy cascades is also phenomenologically predicted for both types of waves. In the case of moderate ion to electron temperature ratio, a new regime of KAW turbulence at scales smaller than the electron inertial length is obtained, where the magnetic energy spectrum decays like \\bot -13/3$ , thus faster than the \\bot -11/3$ spectrum of WW turbulence.

  5. Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.

    Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova; Fike, Jeffrey A.; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Barone, Matthew F.; Maddix, Danielle; Mussoni, Erin E.; Balajewicz, Maciej (UIUC)


    This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.

  6. Reduced models accounting for parallel magnetic perturbations: gyrofluid and finite Larmor radius-Landau fluid approaches

    Tassi, E.; Sulem, P. L.; Passot, T.


    Reduced models are derived for a strongly magnetized collisionless plasma at scales which are large relative to the electron thermal gyroradius and in two asymptotic regimes. One corresponds to cold ions and the other to far sub-ion scales. By including the electron pressure dynamics, these models improve the Hall reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the kinetic Alfvén wave model of Boldyrev et al. (2013 Astrophys. J., vol. 777, 2013, p. 41), respectively. We show that the two models can be obtained either within the gyrofluid formalism of Brizard (Phys. Fluids, vol. 4, 1992, pp. 1213-1228) or as suitable weakly nonlinear limits of the finite Larmor radius (FLR)-Landau fluid model of Sulem and Passot (J. Plasma Phys., vol 81, 2015, 325810103) which extends anisotropic Hall MHD by retaining low-frequency kinetic effects. It is noticeable that, at the far sub-ion scales, the simplifications originating from the gyroaveraging operators in the gyrofluid formalism and leading to subdominant ion velocity and temperature fluctuations, correspond, at the level of the FLR-Landau fluid, to cancellation between hydrodynamic contributions and ion finite Larmor radius corrections. Energy conservation properties of the models are discussed and an explicit example of a closure relation leading to a model with a Hamiltonian structure is provided.

  7. Energy balance and mass conservation in reduced order models of fluid flows

    Mohebujjaman, Muhammad; Rebholz, Leo G.; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian


    In this paper, we investigate theoretically and computationally the conservation properties of reduced order models (ROMs) for fluid flows. Specifically, we investigate whether the ROMs satisfy the same (or similar) energy balance and mass conservation as those satisfied by the Navier-Stokes equations. All of our theoretical findings are illustrated and tested in numerical simulations of a 2D flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number Re = 100. First, we investigate the ROM energy balance. We show that using the snapshot average for the centering trajectory (which is a popular treatment of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions in ROMs) yields an incorrect energy balance. Then, we propose a new approach, in which we replace the snapshot average with the Stokes extension. Theoretically, the Stokes extension produces an accurate energy balance. Numerically, the Stokes extension yields more accurate results than the standard snapshot average, especially for longer time intervals. Our second contribution centers around ROM mass conservation. We consider ROMs created using two types of finite elements: the standard Taylor-Hood (TH) element, which satisfies the mass conservation weakly, and the Scott-Vogelius (SV) element, which satisfies the mass conservation pointwise. Theoretically, the error estimates for the SV-ROM are sharper than those for the TH-ROM. Numerically, the SV-ROM yields significantly more accurate results, especially for coarser meshes and longer time intervals.

  8. A non-intrusive reduced-order model for compressible fluid and fractured solid coupling and its application to blasting

    Xiao, D.; Yang, P.; Fang, F.; Xiang, J.; Pain, C. C.; Navon, I. M.; Chen, M.


    This work presents the first application of a non-intrusive reduced order method to model solid interacting with compressible fluid flows to simulate crack initiation and propagation. In the high fidelity model, the coupling process is achieved by introducing a source term into the momentum equation, which represents the effects of forces of the solid on the fluid. A combined single and smeared crack model with the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation. The non-intrusive reduced order method is then applied to compressible fluid and fractured solid coupled modelling where the computational cost involved in the full high fidelity simulation is high. The non-intrusive reduced order model (NIROM) developed here is constructed through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and a radial basis function (RBF) multi-dimensional interpolation method. The performance of the NIROM for solid interacting with compressible fluid flows, in the presence of fracture models, is illustrated by two complex test cases: an immersed wall in a fluid and a blasting test case. The numerical simulation results show that the NIROM is capable of capturing the details of compressible fluids and fractured solids while the CPU time is reduced by several orders of magnitude. In addition, the issue of whether or not to subtract the mean from the snapshots before applying POD is discussed in this paper. It is shown that solutions of the NIROM, without mean subtracted before constructing the POD basis, captured more details than the NIROM with mean subtracted from snapshots.

  9. Reduced MHD and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Arter, Wayne


    Recent work has shown a relationship between between the equations of Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), used to model magnetic fusion laboratory experiments, and incompressible magnetoconvection (IMC), employed in the simulation of astrophysical fluid dynamics (AFD), which means that the two systems are mathematically equivalent in certain geometries. Limitations on the modelling of RMHD, which were found over twenty years ago, are reviewed for an AFD audience, together with hitherto unpublished material on the role of finite-time singularities in the discrete equations used to model fluid dynamical systems. Possible implications for turbulence modelling are mentioned.

  10. Reduced combustion mechanism for C1-C4 hydrocarbons and its application in computational fluid dynamics flare modeling.

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang


    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators/regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C2H2, C2H4, C6H6). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, using ANSYS Fluent software. Results of non-premixed probability density function (PDF) model and eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model are discussed. It is also noteworthy that when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C1-C4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.

  11. Reduced-order modeling of fluid-structure interaction and vortex-induced vibration systems using an extension of Jourdain's principle

    Mottaghi, S.; Benaroya, H.


    A first-principles variational approach is proposed for reduced-order modeling of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems, specifically vortex-induced vibration (VIV). FSI has to be taken into account in the design and analysis of many engineering applications, yet a comprehensive theoretical development where analytical equations are derived from first principles is nonexistent. An approach where Jourdain's principle is modified and extended for FSI is used to derive reduced-order models from an extended variational formulation where assumptions are explicitly stated. Two VIV models are considered: an elastically supported, inverted pendulum and a translating cylinder, both immersed in a flow and allowed to move transversely to the flow direction. Their reduced-order models are obtained in the form of (i) a single governing equation and (ii) two general coupled equations as well as the coupled lift-oscillator model. Comparisons are made with three existing models. Based on our theoretical results, and especially the reduced-order model, we conclude that the first principles development herein is a viable framework for the modeling of complex fluid-structure interaction problems such as vortex-induced oscillations.




    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling in yarn engineering

    Patanaik, A


    Full Text Available This chapter deals with the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling in reducing yarn hairiness during the ring spinning process and thereby “engineering” yarn with desired properties. Hairiness significantly affects the appearance...

  14. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    Kröger, M; Hess, S


    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  15. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    Tronci, Cesare


    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  16. Shearfree Spherically Symmetric Fluid Models

    Sharif, M


    We try to find some exact analytical models of spherically symmetric spacetime of collapsing fluid under shearfree condition. We consider two types of solutions: one is to impose a condition on the mass function while the other is to restrict the pressure. We obtain totally of five exact models, and some of them satisfy the Darmois conditions.

  17. A new model for shallow elastic fluids

    Bouchut, François


    We propose a new reduced model for gravity-driven free-surface flows of shallow elastic fluids. It is obtained by an asymptotic expansion of the upper-convected Maxwell model for elastic fluids. The viscosity is assumed small (of order epsilon, the aspect ratio of the thin layer of fluid), but the relaxation time is kept finite. Additionally to the classical layer depth and velocity in shallow models, our system describes also the evolution of two scalar stresses. It has an intrinsic energy equation. The mathematical properties of the model are established, an important feature being the non-convexity of the physically relevant energy with respect to conservative variables, but the convexity with respect to the physically relevant pseudo-conservative variables. Numerical illustrations are given, based on a suitable well-balanced finite-volume discretization involving an approximate Riemann solver.

  18. Instrument modifications that produced reduced plate heights supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Berger, Terry A


    The concept of peak fidelity was shown to be helpful in modeling tubing and detector cell dimensions. Connection tubing and flow cell variances were modeled to determine appropriate internal ID's, lengths, and volumes. A low dispersion plumbing configuration, based on these calculations, was assembled to replace the standard plumbing and produced the reported results. The modifications made were straightforward using commercially available parts. The full theoretical efficiency of a 3×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm totally porous particles was achieved for the first time in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Peak fidelity of >0.95 was maintained to below k=2. A reduced plate height as low as 1.87 was measured. Thus, true "ultra high performance" SFC was achieved, with the results a major improvement from all previous SFC reports. Since there were no efficiency losses, none could be attributed to thermal gradients caused by the expansion of the fluid over large pressure drops, under the conditions used. Similarly, changes in diffusion coefficients caused by significant decreases in density during expansion are apparently balanced by the increase in linear velocity, keeping the ratio between the diffusion coefficient and the linear velocity a constant. Changing modifier concentration to change retention was shown to not be a significant problem. All these issues have been a concern in the past. Diffusion coefficients, and viscosity data needs to be collected at high pressures before the actual limits of SFC can be discovered.

  19. Pretreatment with VEGF(R)-inhibitors reduces interstitial fluid pressure, increases intraperitoneal chemotherapy drug penetration, and impedes tumor growth in a mouse colorectal carcinomatosis model.

    Gremonprez, Félix; Descamps, Benedicte; Izmer, Andrei; Vanhove, Christian; Vanhaecke, Frank; De Wever, Olivier; Ceelen, Wim


    Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is currently the standard treatment for selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. However, especially after incomplete cytoreduction, disease progression is common and this is likely due to limited tissue penetration and efficacy of intraperitoneal cytotoxic drugs. Tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs, such as VEGF(R) and PDGFR inhibitors, can lower the heightened interstitial fluid pressure in tumors, a barrier to drug delivery. Here, we investigated whether tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs enhance the effectiveness of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A mouse xenograft model with two large peritoneal implants of colorectal cancer cells was developed to study drug distribution and tumor physiology during intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin perfusion. Mice were treated for six days with either Placebo, Imatinib (anti-PDGFR, daily), Bevacizumab (anti-VEGF, twice) or Pazopanib (anti-PDGFR, -VEGFR; daily) followed by intraperitoneal oxaliplatin chemotherapy. Bevacizumab and Pazopanib significantly lowered interstitial fluid pressure, increased Oxaliplatin penetration (assessed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and delayed tumor growth of peritoneal implants (assessed by MRI). Our findings suggest that VEGF(R)-inhibition may improve the efficacy of IPC, particularly for patients for whom a complete cytoreduction might not be feasible.

  20. Complex fluids modeling and algorithms

    Saramito, Pierre


    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.

  1. Drill-in fluid reduces formation damage, increases production rates

    Hands, N. [Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V., Velsen (Netherlands); Kowbel, K. [Ensco International/NAM, Assen (Netherlands); Maikranz, S. [M-I LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Nouris, R. [M-I LLC, Velsen (Netherlands)


    A sodium formate drill-in fluid system reduced formation damage, resulting in better-than-expected production rates for an off-shore Dutch development well. Programmed to optimize production capacity and reservoir drainage from a Rotliegend sandstone gas discovery, the 5-7/8-in. subhorizontal production interval was drilled and completed barefoot with a unique, rheologically engineered sodium formate drill-in fluid system. The new system, consisting of a sodium formate (NaCOOH) brine as the base fluid and properly sized calcium carbonate as the formation-bridging agent, was selected on the basis of its well-documented record in reducing solids impairment and formation damage in similar sandstone structures in Germany. The system was engineered around the low-shear-rate viscosity (LSRV) concept, designed to provide exceptional rheological properties. After describing the drilling program, the paper gives results on the drilling and completion.

  2. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael


    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  3. Reduced carbonic fluid at magmatic PT conditions: new experimental data.

    Simakin, Alexander; Salova, Tamara; Rinat, Gabitov; Sergey, Isaenko


    -55-12040. References. Simakin AG, Salova TP, Gabitov RI and Isaenko SI. Dry CO2-CO fluid as an important potential deep Earth solvent. Geofluids (2016, online). Simakin AG (2014) Peculiarities of the fluid composition in the dry C-O-S system at PT parameters of the low crust by the data of the thermodynamic modeling. Petrology, 22, 50-59.

  4. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.


    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling

  5. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    Thibes, Ronaldo


    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  6. International journal of computational fluid dynamics real-time prediction of unsteady flow based on POD reduced-order model and particle filter

    Kikuchi, Ryota; Misaka, Takashi; Obayashi, Shigeru


    An integrated method consisting of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based reduced-order model (ROM) and a particle filter (PF) is proposed for real-time prediction of an unsteady flow field. The proposed method is validated using identical twin experiments of an unsteady flow field around a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 1000. In this study, a PF is employed (ROM-PF) to modify the temporal coefficient of the ROM based on observation data because the prediction capability of the ROM alone is limited due to the stability issue. The proposed method reproduces the unsteady flow field several orders faster than a reference numerical simulation based on Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, the effects of parameters, related to observation and simulation, on the prediction accuracy are studied. Most of the energy modes of the unsteady flow field are captured, and it is possible to stably predict the long-term evolution with ROM-PF.

  7. Symmetry breaking in fluid dynamics: Lie group reducible motions for real fluids

    Holm, D.D.


    The physics of fluids is based on certain kinematical invariance principles, which refer to coordinate systems, dimensions, and Galilean reference frames. Other, thermodynamic, symmetry principles are introduced by the material description. In the present work, the interplay between these two kinds of invariance principles is used to solve for classes of one-dimensional non-steady isentropic motions of a fluid whose equation of state is of Mie-Gruneisen type. Also, the change in profile and attenuation of weak shock waves in a dissipative medium is studied at the level of Burgers' approximation from the viewpoint of its underlying symmetry structure. The mathematical method of approach is based on the theory of infinitesimal Lie groups. Fluid motions are characterized according to inequivalent subgroups of the full invariance group of the flow description and exact group reducible solutions are presented.


    Kong Xiaowu; Wei Jianhua; Qiu Minxiu; Wu Genmao


    The traditional lumped parameter model of fluid pipe is introduced and its drawbacks are pointed out.Furthermore, two suggestions are put forward to remove these drawbacks.Firstly, the structure of equivalent circuit is modified, and then the evaluation of equivalent fluid resistance is change to take the frequency-dependent friction into account.Both simulation and experiment prove that this model is precise to characterize the dynamic behaviors of fluid in pipe.

  9. Regularized Reduced Order Models

    Wells, David; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian


    This paper puts forth a regularization approach for the stabilization of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) reduced order models (ROMs) for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. Two regularized ROMs (Reg-ROMs) are proposed: the Leray ROM (L-ROM) and the evolve-then-filter ROM (EF-ROM). These new Reg-ROMs use spatial filtering to smooth (regularize) various terms in the ROMs. Two spatial filters are used: a POD projection onto a POD subspace (Proj) and a new POD differential filter (DF). The four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient and the three-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re = 100). Overall, the most accurate Reg-ROM/filter combination is EF-ROM-DF. Furthermore, the DF generally yields better results than Proj. Finally, the four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are computationally efficient and generally more accurate than the standard Galerkin ROM.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine.

    Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P


    This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards 'digital patient' or 'virtual physiological human' representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges.

  11. Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for Titan Entries

    Romain Savajano


    Full Text Available A reduced chemical kinetic model for Titan's atmosphere has been developed. This new model with 18 species and 28 reactions includes the mainfeatures of a more complete scheme, respecting the radiative fluxes. It has been verified against three key elements: a sensitivity analysis, the equilibrium chemical composition using shock tube simulations in CHEMKIN, and the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFDs simulations.

  12. Model Reduction via Reducibility Matrix

    Musa Abdalla; Othman Alsmadi


    In this work, a new model reduction technique is introduced. The proposed technique is derived using the matrix reducibility concept. The eigenvalues of the reduced model are preserved; that is, the reduced model eigenvalues are a subset of the full order model eigenvalues. This preservation of the eigenvalues makes the mathematical model closer to the physical model. Finally, the outcomes of this method are fully illustrated using simulations of two numeric examples.

  13. Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt


    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

  14. Stuck pipe risk reducing due drilling fluid treating

    POPOV Anatoly Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available Drilling fluids for deep and extended reach wells are complex multicomponent systems that contain dissolved salts, polymers, surfactants and coarse solids. Complexity of drilling mud is caused by wide range of functions: creating pressure on the formation, retention of cuttings particles in suspension, bottomhole cleaning and transportation of sludge on the surface, preservation of reservoir properties of the target formation and other. Tribological properties are one of the most important properties of the drilling fluids. It is possible to control properties through introduction of lubricant additives. Their components are characterized by high, sometimes unique, surface activity, they create superplastic nanofilms on the surface of the protective pipe, contribute to chemical modification of the surface layers of metal. The choice of such components is complicated, first of all, by price (to construct wells one needs large volumes of mud, and secondly by strict environmental requirements. Therefore, when lubricant additive is developed, it is necessary to ground the choice of rational content for each of its components. This necessitates the use of mathematical modeling methods, i.e. construction of regression equations according to several experiments of the planned experiment. The paper presents a possible way to use the two-step method of choosing the rational ratio of the components in the lubricant additive. As a rule tribological properties of drilling fluids are considered from three different points of view or different positions – friction pairs: «metal – rock», «metal – metal» and «metal – filter cake». This article is devoted to the study of drilling fluids in relation to a pair of «metal – filter cake».

  15. A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows.

    Pitman, E Bruce; Le, Long


    Geophysical mass flows--debris flows, avalanches, landslides--can contain O(10(6)-10(10)) m(3) or more of material, often a mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. These flows can be tens of meters in depth and hundreds of meters in length. The range of scales and the rheology of this mixture presents significant modelling and computational challenges. This paper describes a depth-averaged 'thin layer' model of geophysical mass flows containing a mixture of solid material and fluid. The model is derived from a 'two-phase' or 'two-fluid' system of equations commonly used in engineering research. Phenomenological modelling and depth averaging combine to yield a tractable set of equations, a hyperbolic system that describes the motion of the two constituent phases. If the fluid inertia is small, a reduced model system that is easier to solve may be derived.

  16. Inflation in a viscous fluid model

    Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, Institut de Ciencies de lEspai (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Passeig Lluis Companys, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)


    We explore a fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model in which the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid includes bulk viscosity. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology, i.e., the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit EoS for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of a fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of a fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Moreover, we show that the singular inflation can occur in a fluid model. Furthermore, we show that a fluid description of inflation can be equivalent to the description of inflation in terms of scalar field theories. (orig.)

  17. Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure

    Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas


    Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.

  18. Modelling reduced sparse data

    Kozera, Ryszard; Noakes, Lyle


    In this paper we discuss the problem of fitting to an ordered collection of points in arbitary Euclidean space called reduced data. We are not given here the corresponding interpolation knots. Instead, these are estimated by new knots upon minimizing a relevant highly nonlinear optimization scheme based on natural spline interpolation. The existence of a global minimizer (i.e. the collection of interpolation knots in ascending order) is also addressed in this paper. Finally, Leap-Frog optimization tool is used to compute these knots approximating the unknown interpolation knots. This numerical scheme is subsequently compared with the Secant Method. Two illustrative examples are given.

  19. Hidden Symmetry of a Fluid Dynamical Model

    Neves, C


    A connection between solutions of the relativistic d-brane system in (d+1) dimensions with the solutions of a Galileo invariant fluid in d-dimensions is by now well established. However, the physical nature of the light-cone gauge description of a relativistic membrane changes after the reduction to the fluid dynamical model since the gauge symmetry is lost. In this work we argue that the original gauge symmetry present in a relativistic d-brane system can be recovered after the reduction process to a d-dimensional fluid model. To this end we propose, without introducing Wess-Zumino fields, a gauge invariant theory of isentropic fluid dynamics and show that this symmetry corresponds to the invariance under local translation of the velocity potential in the fluid dynamics picture. We show that different but equivalent choices of the sympletic sector lead to distinct representations of the embedded gauge algebra.

  20. Reducing pressure oscillations in discrete fluid power systems

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen


    Discrete fluid power systems featuring transmission lines inherently include pressure oscillations. Experimental verification of a discrete fluid power power take off system for wave energy converters has shown the cylinder pressure to oscillate as force shifts are performed. This article...

  1. A mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G


    We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  2. An entrainment model for fluid mud

    Kranenburg, C.


    An entrainment model for fluid mud is derived by integrating the equation for turbulent kinetic energy across the mixed layer and introducing some modelling assumptions. The resulting entrainment model is similar to models of mixed-layer deepening in lakes and reservoirs, but in addition accounts fo

  3. An entrainment model for fluid mud

    Kranenburg, C.


    An entrainment model for fluid mud is derived by integrating the equation for turbulent kinetic energy across the mixed layer and introducing some modelling assumptions. The resulting entrainment model is similar to models of mixed-layer deepening in lakes and reservoirs, but in addition accounts fo

  4. Hybrid fluid/kinetic model for parallel heat conduction

    Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.; Held, E.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    It is argued that in order to use fluid-like equations to model low frequency ({omega} < {nu}) phenomena such as neoclassical tearing modes in low collisionality ({nu} < {omega}{sub b}) tokamak plasmas, a Chapman-Enskog-like approach is most appropriate for developing an equation for the kinetic distortion (F) of the distribution function whose velocity-space moments lead to the needed fluid moment closure relations. Further, parallel heat conduction in a long collision mean free path regime can be described through a combination of a reduced phase space Chapman-Enskog-like approach for the kinetics and a multiple-time-scale analysis for the fluid and kinetic equations.

  5. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  6. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Qian Duan


    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  7. Reducing Fatigue Loading Due to Pressure Shift in Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen


    Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems is one of the topologies gaining focus in the pursuit of lowering energy losses in fluid power transmission systems. The cylinder based Fluid Power Force System considered in this article is constructed with a multi-chamber cylinder, a number of constant pressure...... power force system. The current paper investigates the correlation between pressure oscillations in the cylinder chambers and valve flow in the manifold. Furthermore, the correlation between the pressure shifting time and the pressure overshoot is investigated. The study therefore focus on how to shape...... the valve flow in the manifold to reduce the added fatigue loads. A simple transmission line model is developed for the analysis. Two inputs are given in the Laplace domain and the time domain solution of the cylinder pressure to the given inputs are derived through inverse Laplace transformation. Based...

  8. A computational model for doctoring fluid films in gravure printing

    Hariprasad, Daniel S.; Grau, Gerd; Schunk, P. Randall; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto


    The wiping, or doctoring, process in gravure printing presents a fundamental barrier to resolving the micron-sized features desired in printed electronics applications. This barrier starts with the residual fluid film left behind after wiping, and its importance grows as feature sizes are reduced, especially as the feature size approaches the thickness of the residual fluid film. In this work, various mechanical complexities are considered in a computational model developed to predict the residual fluid film thickness. Lubrication models alone are inadequate, and deformation of the doctor blade body together with elastohydrodynamic lubrication must be considered to make the model predictive of experimental trends. Moreover, model results demonstrate that the particular form of the wetted region of the blade has a significant impact on the model's ability to reproduce experimental measurements.

  9. Interfacial Fluid Mechanics A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    Ajaev, Vladimir S


    Interfacial Fluid Mechanics: A Mathematical Modeling Approach provides an introduction to mathematical models of viscous flow used in rapidly developing fields of microfluidics and microscale heat transfer. The basic physical effects are first introduced in the context of simple configurations and their relative importance in typical microscale applications is discussed. Then,several configurations of importance to microfluidics, most notably thin films/droplets on substrates and confined bubbles, are discussed in detail.  Topics from current research on electrokinetic phenomena, liquid flow near structured solid surfaces, evaporation/condensation, and surfactant phenomena are discussed in the later chapters. This book also:  Discusses mathematical models in the context of actual applications such as electrowetting Includes unique material on fluid flow near structured surfaces and phase change phenomena Shows readers how to solve modeling problems related to microscale multiphase flows Interfacial Fluid Me...

  10. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    S. K. Pandey


    Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.

  11. Fluid and hybrid models for streamers

    Bonaventura, Zdeněk


    Streamers are contracted ionizing waves with self-generated field enhancement that propagate into a low-ionized medium exposed to high electric field leaving filamentary trails of plasma behind. The widely used model to study streamer dynamics is based on drift-diffusion equations for electrons and ions, assuming local field approximation, coupled with Poisson's equation. For problems where presence of energetic electrons become important a fluid approach needs to be extended by a particle model, accompanied also with Monte Carlo Collision technique, that takes care of motion of these electrons. A combined fluid-particle approach is used to study an influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. It is found that fluid-only model predicts substantially faster reignition dynamics compared to coupled fluid-particle model. Furthermore, a hybrid model can be created in which the population of electrons is divided in the energy space into two distinct groups: (1) low energy `bulk' electrons that are treated with fluid model, and (2) high energy `beam' electrons, followed as particles. The hybrid model is then capable not only to deal with streamer discharges in laboratory conditions, but also allows us to study electron acceleration in streamer zone of lighting leaders. There, the production of fast electrons from streamers is investigated, since these (runaway) electrons act as seeds for the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) mechanism, important for high-energy atmospheric physics phenomena. Results suggest that high energy electrons effect the streamer propagation, namely the velocity, the peak electric field, and thus also the production rate of runaway electrons. This work has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation research project 15-04023S.

  12. A hyperosmolar-colloidal additive to the CPB-priming solution reduces fluid load and fluid extravasation during tepid CPB.

    Kvalheim, V; Farstad, M; Haugen, O; Brekke, H; Mongstad, A; Nygreen, E; Husby, P


    Cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) is associated with fluid overload. We hypothesized that fluid gain during CPB could be reduced by substituting parts of a crystalloid prime with 7.2% hypertonic saline and 6% poly (O-2-hydroxyethyl) starch solution (HyperHaes). 14 animals were randomized to a control group (Group C) or to Group H. CPB-prime in Group C was Ringer's solution. In group H, 4 ml/kg of Ringer's solution was replaced by the hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch solution. After 60 min stabilization, CPB was initiated and continued for 120 min. All animals were allowed drifting of normal temperature (39.0 degrees C) to about 35.0 degrees C. Fluid was added to the CPB circuit as needed to maintain a 300-ml level in the venous reservoir. Blood chemistry, hemodynamic parameters, fluid balance, plasma volume, fluid extravasation rate (FER), tissue water content and acid-base parameters were measured/calculated. Total fluid need during 120 min CPB was reduced by 60% when hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch solution was added to the CPB prime (p CPB, with 0.6 (0.43) (Group H) compared with 1.5 (0.40) ml/kg/min (Group C) (p CPB prime reduces fluid needs and FER during tepid CPB.

  13. Investigating models for associating fluids using spectroscopy

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Passos, Claudia Pereira;


    Two equations of state (PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of pure associating fluids. The models each require five pure-component parameters usually obtained by fitting to experimental liquid density and vapor pressure data. Here we also incorporate monomer fractions...

  14. Molecular Modeling of Solid Fluid Phase Behavior

    Peter A. Monson


    This report gives a summary of the achievements under DOE contract No. DOE/ER/14150 during the period September 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007. This project was concerned with the molecular modeling of solid-fluid equilibrium. The focus was on understanding how solid-fluid and solid-solid phase behavior are related to molecular structure, and the research program made a seminal contribution in this area. The project led to 34 journal articles, including a comprehensive review article published in Advances in Chemical Physics. The DOE funding supported the work of 5 Ph.D. students, 2 M.S. students and 5 postdoctoral researchers.

  15. Fluid replacement following dehydration reduces oxidative stress during recovery.

    Paik, Il-Young; Jeong, Myung-Hyun; Jin, Hwa-Eun; Kim, Young-Il; Suh, Ah-Ram; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae; Jin, Chan-Ho; Suh, Sang-Hoon


    To investigate the effects of hydration status on oxidative DNA damage and exercise performance, 10 subjects ran on a treadmill until exhaustion at 80% VO(2max) during four different trials [control (C), 3% dehydration (D), 3% dehydration+water (W) or 3% dehydration+sports drink (S)]. Dehydration significantly decreased exercise time to exhaustion (DDehydration significantly increased oxidative DNA damage during exercise, but fluid replacement with water or sports drink alleviated it equally. These results suggest that (1) dehydration impairs exercise performance and increases DNA damage during exercise to exhaustion; and (2) fluid replacement prolongs exercise endurance and attenuates DNA damage.

  16. Thick brane world model from perfect fluid

    Ivashchuk, V D


    A (1 + d)-dimensional thick "brane world" model with varying Lambda-term is considered. The model is generalized to the case of a chain of Ricci-flat internal spaces when the matter source is an anisotropic perfect fluid. The "horizontal" part of potential is obtained in the Newtonian approximation. In the multitemporal case (with a Lambda-term) a set of equations for potentials is presented.

  17. Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity

    Chen, C. F.


    The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.

  18. A Dynamical System Analysis of Three Fluid cosmological Model

    Mahata, Nilanjana


    In Friedman-Robertson-Walker flat spacetime, we consider a three fluid cosmological model which contains dark matter, dark energy and baryonic matter in the form of perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state. Dark matter is taken in form of dust and dark energy is described by a scalar field with a potential $V(\\phi)$. Einstein's field equations are reduced to an autonomous dynamical system by suitable redefinition of basic variables. Considering exponential potential for the scalar field, critical points are obtained for the autonomous system. Finally stability of the critical points and cosmological implications are analyzed.

  19. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    Levenspiel, Octave


    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  20. Smart Property of Homogeneous Electrorheological Fluid and Its Application in Reducing Seismic Responses of Engineering Structures


    The smart properties of homogeneous electrorheological fluid (HERF) containing side-chain type liquid crystalline polymer were studied and an actual HERF damper with an adjustable viscosity was produced.A mechanical model of the HERF smart damper was established on the basis of experiment and theoretical analysis.Then a controlled equation of SDOF structure by HERF damper was derived and a semi-active control strategy based on optimal sliding displacement of damper was presented.The simulation results for a single story frame structure indicate that HERF,which may avoid some defects of common particles-suspended ER fluids,is an excellent smart material with better stability.Using the semi-active control strategy presented,HERF smart damper controlled could effectively reduce seismic responses of structures and keeps the control stable at all times.

  1. Ketamine Inhibits Lung Fluid Clearance through Reducing Alveolar Sodium Transport

    Yong Cui


    Full Text Available Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker, fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.

  2. Erosion of a model geophysical fluid

    Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Chambon, Guillaume


    A specificity of natural flows such as debris flows, landslides or snow avalanches is that, mostly, the material forming the static bed has mechanical properties similar to those of the flowing material (mud/mud, snow/snow). To explore the bed erosion phenomenon induced by such geophysical flows, we consider the geomaterial as a continuum by performing experiments in laboratory on a model fluid that can behaves as a solid or as a liquid, depending on the conditions. Indeed, we propose an experimental study where a yield-stress fluid is implemented to model both the eroding flow and the eroded bed. Our approach is to capture the process of erosion in terms of solid-liquid transition. The studied hydrodynamics consists of a pipe-flow disturbed by the presence of an obstacle. We use a polymer micro-gel Carbopol that exhibits a Hershel-Bulkley (HB) rheology. By taking advantage of the fluid transparency, the flow is monitoring by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) internal visualization technique. Upstream of the obstacle, a solid-liquid-like interface between a flow zone and a dead zone appears in the fluid. In this study, we aim to investigate the dominant physical mechanism underlying the formation of the static domain, by combining the rheological characterization of the yield-stress fluid (using a rheometer), with the observation of the morphological evolution of the system substratum / flow and the local measurement of related hydrodynamic parameters. Our first result shows that the flow above the dead zone behaves as a classical plug flow, whose velocity profile can successfully be described by a Hagen-Poiseuille equation including a HB rheology, but except in a thin zone (compared to the whole flow zone) at the close vicinity of the solid-liquid interface. Thanks to a high PIV measurement resolution, we then properly examine the typical feature lying at the tail of the velocity profile. The numerical derivation of the profile shows that the shear rate in this

  3. Reduced order modeling of steady flows subject to aerodynamic constraints

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Vendl, Alexander; Goertz, Stefan


    A novel reduced-order modeling method based on proper orthogonal decomposition for predicting steady, turbulent flows subject to aerodynamic constraints is introduced. Model-order reduction is achieved by replacing the governing equations of computational fluid dynamics with a nonlinear weighted ...

  4. Modeling and comparative study of fluid velocities in heterogeneous rocks

    Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally


    Detailed knowledge of the distribution of effective porosity and fluid velocities in heterogeneous rock samples is crucial for understanding and predicting spatially resolved fluid residence times and kinetic reaction rates of fluid-rock interactions. The applicability of conventional MRI techniques to sedimentary rocks is limited by internal magnetic field gradients and short spin relaxation times. The approach developed at the UNB MRI Centre combines the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme and three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE). These methods were designed to reduce the errors due to effects of background gradients and fast transverse relaxation. SPRITE is largely immune to time-evolution effects resulting from background gradients, paramagnetic impurities and chemical shift. Using these techniques quantitative 3D porosity maps as well as single-phase fluid velocity fields in sandstone core samples were measured. Using a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique developed at the MRI Centre at UNB, we created 3D maps of porosity distributions as well as single-phase fluid velocity distributions of sandstone rock samples. Then, we evaluated the applicability of the Kozeny-Carman relationship for modeling measured fluid velocity distributions in sandstones samples showing meso-scale heterogeneities using two different modeling approaches. The MRI maps were used as reference points for the modeling approaches. For the first modeling approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to the porosity distributions and computed respective permeability maps, which in turn provided input for a CFD simulation - using the Stanford CFD code GPRS - to compute averaged velocity maps. The latter were then compared to the measured velocity maps. For the second approach, the measured velocity distributions were used as input for inversely computing permeabilities using the GPRS CFD code. The computed

  5. Viscoelastic Modelling of Solid Rocket Propellants using Maxwell Fluid Model

    Himanshu Shekhar


    Full Text Available Maxwell fluid model consisting of a spring and a dashpot in series is applied for viscoelastic characterisation of solid rocket propellants. Suitable values of spring constant and damping coefficient wereemployed by least square variation of errors for generation of complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial tensile mode for case-bonded solid propellant formulations. Propellants from the same lot were tested at different strain rates. It was observed that change in spring constant, representing elastic part was very small with strain rate but damping constant varies significantly with variation in strain rate. For a typical propellant formulation, when strain rate was raised from 0.00037/s to 0.185/s, spring constant K changed from 5.5 MPato 7.9 MPa, but damping coefficient D was reduced from 1400 MPa-s to 4 MPa-s. For all strain rates, stress-strain curve was generated using Maxwell model and close matching with actual test curve was observed.This indicates validity of Maxwell fluid model for uniaxial tensile testing curves of case-bonded solid propellant formulations. It was established that at higher strain rate, damping coefficient becomes negligible as compared to spring constant. It was also observed that variation of spring constant is logarithmic with strain rate and that of damping coefficient follows power law. The correlation coefficients were introduced to ascertain spring constants and damping coefficients at any strain rate from that at a reference strain rate. Correlationfor spring constant needs a coefficient H, which is function of propellant formulation alone and not of test conditions and the equation developeds K2 = K1 + H ´ ln{(de2/dt/(de1/dt}. Similarly for damping coefficient D also another constant S is introduced and prediction formula is given by D2 = D1 ´ {(de2/dt/(de1/dt}S.Evaluating constants H and S at different strain rates validate this mathematical formulation for differentpropellant formulations

  6. Modeling and Algorithmic Approaches to Constitutively-Complex, Microstructured Fluids

    Miller, Gregory H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Forest, Gregory [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    We present a new multiscale model for complex fluids based on three scales: microscopic, kinetic, and continuum. We choose the microscopic level as Kramers' bead-rod model for polymers, which we describe as a system of stochastic differential equations with an implicit constraint formulation. The associated Fokker-Planck equation is then derived, and adiabatic elimination removes the fast momentum coordinates. Approached in this way, the kinetic level reduces to a dispersive drift equation. The continuum level is modeled with a finite volume Godunov-projection algorithm. We demonstrate computation of viscoelastic stress divergence using this multiscale approach.

  7. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.


    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar Corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and Momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from Corona] holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature above the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer instrument (UVCS), and with the Ulysses/Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun instrument (SWOOPS) proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 and 5 solar radii (2 and 5 R(sub S)) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201.-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta [19941. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al. [1998], and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub S), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models [e.g., Steinolfson et al., 1982; also G. A. Gary and D. Alexander, Constructing the coronal magnetic field, submitted to Solar Physics, 1998].

  8. Null fluid collapse in brane world models

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.


    The brane world description of our Universe entails a large extra dimension and a fundamental scale of gravity that may be lower than the Planck scale by several orders of magnitude. An interesting consequence of this scenario occurs in the nature of spherically symmetric vacuum solutions to the brane gravitational field equations, which often have properties quite distinct from the standard black hole solutions of general relativity. In this paper, the spherically symmetric collapse on the brane world of four types of null fluid, governed by the barotropic, polytropic, strange quark "bag" model and Hagedorn equations of state, is investigated. In each case, we solve the approximate gravitational field equations, obtained in the high-density limit, determine the equation which governs the formation of apparent horizons and investigate the conditions for the formation of naked singularities. Though, naively, one would expect the increased effective energy density on the brane to favor the formation of black holes over naked singularities, we find that, for the types of fluid considered, this is not the case. However, the black hole solutions differ substantially from their general-relativistic counterparts and brane world corrections often play a role analogous to charge in general relativity. As an astrophysical application of this work, the possibility that energy emission from a Hagedorn fluid collapsing to form a naked singularity may be a source of GRBs in the brane world is also considered.

  9. Feasibility Study – Using a Solar Evaporator to Reduce the Metalworking Fluid (MWF) Waste Stream

    Lazarus, Lloyd


    A solar evaporator was designed, built, and operated to reduce the water-based metalworking fluid waste stream. The evaporator was setup in Waste Management’s barrel lot inside one of the confinement areas. The unit processed three batches of waste fluid during the prototype testing. Initial tests removed 13% of the fluid waste stream. Subsequent modifications to the collector improved the rate to almost 20% per week. Evaluation of the risk during operation showed that even a small spill when associated with precipitation, and the unit placement within a confinement area, gave it the potential to contaminate more fluid that what it could save.

  10. Approximate Deconvolution Reduced Order Modeling

    Xie, Xuping; Wang, Zhu; Iliescu, Traian


    This paper proposes a large eddy simulation reduced order model(LES-ROM) framework for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. In this LES-ROM framework, the proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) is used to define the ROM basis and a POD differential filter is used to define the large ROM structures. An approximate deconvolution(AD) approach is used to solve the ROM closure problem and develop a new AD-ROM. This AD-ROM is tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient(10^{-3})

  11. Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics

    Xu, Kun


    All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct

  12. A reduced order model for nonlinear vibroacoustic problems

    Ouisse Morvan


    Full Text Available This work is related to geometrical nonlinearities applied to thin plates coupled with fluid-filled domain. Model reduction is performed to reduce the computation time. Reduced order model (ROM is issued from the uncoupled linear problem and enriched with residues to describe the nonlinear behavior and coupling effects. To show the efficiency of the proposed method, numerical simulations in the case of an elastic plate closing an acoustic cavity are presented.

  13. Electrorheological fluids modeling and mathematical theory

    Růžička, Michael


    This is the first book to present a model, based on rational mechanics of electrorheological fluids, that takes into account the complex interactions between the electromagnetic fields and the moving liquid. Several constitutive relations for the Cauchy stress tensor are discussed. The main part of the book is devoted to a mathematical investigation of a model possessing shear-dependent viscosities, proving the existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions for the steady and the unsteady case. The PDS systems investigated possess so-called non-standard growth conditions. Existence results for elliptic systems with non-standard growth conditions and with a nontrivial nonlinear r.h.s. and the first ever results for parabolic systems with a non-standard growth conditions are given for the first time. Written for advanced graduate students, as well as for researchers in the field, the discussion of both the modeling and the mathematics is self-contained.

  14. Modeling dark energy through an Ising fluid with network interactions

    Luongo, Orlando


    We show that the dark energy effects can be modeled by using an \\emph{Ising perfect fluid} with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state, i.e. $\\omega_0$, becomes $\\omega_0=-1$ as in the $\\Lambda$CDM model. In our picture, dark energy is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding equation of state mimics the effects of a variable dark energy term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as dark energy source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia, baryonic acoustic oscillation and cosmic microwave background measurements. Finally, we perform the AIC and BIC selection criteria, showing t...

  15. Imperfect fluid cosmological model in modified gravity

    Samanta, G C


    In this article, we considered the bulk viscous fluid in the formalism of modified gravity in which the general form of a gravitational action is $f(R, T)$ function, where $R$ is the curvature scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy momentum tensor within the frame of flat FRW space time. The cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with total bulk viscous coefficient expressed as a linear combination of the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that $\\xi=\\xi_0+\\xi_1\\frac{\\dot{a}}{a}+\\xi_2\\frac{\\ddot{a}}{\\dot{a}}$, where $\\xi_0$, $\\xi_1$ and $\\xi_2$ are constants. We take $p=(\\gamma-1)\\rho$, where $0\\le\\gamma\\le2$ as an equation of state for perfect fluid. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained by assuming a particular model of the form of $f(R, T)=R+2f(T)$, where $f(T)=\\lambda T$, $\\lambda$ is constant. We studied the four possible scenarios for different values of $\\gamma$, such as $\\gamma=0$, $\\gamma=\\frac{2}{3}$, $\\gamma=1$ and...

  16. Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures

    Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.


    The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures.

  17. Modeling Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution Autoregulatory and Hydrostatic Enhancements

    Myers, J. G.; Werner, C.; Nelson, E. S.; Feola, A.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.


    Space flight induces a marked cephalad (headward) redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid potentially resulting in a loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency upon introduction into the microgravity environment. Using various types of computational models, we are investigating how this fluid redistribution may induce intracranial pressure changes, relevant to reported reductions in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Methods: We utilize a lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) model, augmented by compartments comprising the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) space, as the primary tool to describe how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. Models of ocular fluid pressures and biomechanics then accept the output of the above model as boundary condition input to allow more detailed, local analysis (see IWS Abstract by Ethier et al.). Recently, we enhanced the capabilities our previously reported CVS model through the implementation of robust autoregulatory mechanisms and a more fundamental approach to the implementation of hydrostatic mechanisms. Modifying the approach of Blanco et al., we implemented auto-regulation in a quasi-static manner, as an averaged effect across the span of one heartbeat. This approach reduced the higher frequency perturbations from the regulatory mechanism and was intended to allow longer simulation times (days) than models that implement within-beat regulatory mechanisms (minutes). A more fundamental approach to hydrostatics was implemented by a quasi-1D approach, in which compartment descriptions include compartment length, orientation and relative position, allowed for modeling of body orientation, relative body positioning and, in the future, alternative gravity environments. At this time the inclusion of hydrostatic mechanisms supplies additional capabilities to train and validate the CVS model

  18. Baroclinic Channel Model in Fluid Dynamics

    Kharatti Lal


    Full Text Available A complex flow structure is studied using a 2-dimentional baroclinic channel model Unsteady Navier - stokes equation coupled with equation of thermal energy ,salinity and the equation of state are implemented .System closure is achieved through a modified Prandtl, s mixing length formulation of turbulence dissipation The model is applied in a region where the fluid flow is effected by various forcing equation .In this case ,flow is estuarine region affected by diurnal tide and the fresh water inflow in to the estuary and a submerged structure is considered giving possible insight in to stress effects on submerged structure .the result show that in the time evolution of the vertical velocity along downstream edge changes sign from negative to positive .as the dike length increases the primary cell splits and flow becomes turbulent du e to the non-linear effect caused by the dike .these are found to agree favourably with result published in the open literature.

  19. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Faille I.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  20. Hybrid finite-volume-ROM approach to non-linear aerospace fluid-structure interaction modelling

    Mowat, AGB


    Full Text Available frame, describe the fluid domain while the structure is represented by a quadratic modal reduced order model (ROM). A Runge-Kutta dual-timestepping method is employed for the fluid solver, and three upwind schemes are considered viz. AUSM+ -up, HLLC...

  1. Viscoelastic Model Analogy of the Dark Cosmic Fluid

    Brevik, Iver


    A one-component dark energy fluid model of the late universe is considered ($w \\zeta$. This is just as one would expect physically. The corresponding entropy production is also considered. A special point emphasized in the paper is the analogy that exists between the cosmic fluid and a so-called Maxwell fluid in viscoelasticity.

  2. Spherically symmetric Einstein-aether perfect fluid models

    Coley, Alan A; Sandin, Patrik; Latta, Joey


    We investigate spherically symmetric cosmological models in Einstein-aether theory with a tilted (non-comoving) perfect fluid source. We use a 1+3 frame formalism and adopt the comoving aether gauge to derive the evolution equations, which form a well-posed system of first order partial differential equations in two variables. We then introduce normalized variables. The formalism is particularly well-suited for numerical computations and the study of the qualitative properties of the models, which are also solutions of Horava gravity. We study the local stability of the equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system corresponding to physically realistic inhomogeneous cosmological models and astrophysical objects with values for the parameters which are consistent with current constraints. In particular, we consider dust models in ($\\beta-$) normalized variables and derive a reduced (closed) evolution system and we obtain the general evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs model...

  3. Null fluid collapse in brane world models

    Harko, Tiberiu


    The brane world description of our universe entails a large extra dimension and a fundamental scale of gravity that may be lower than the Planck scale by several orders of magnitude. An interesting consequence of this scenario occurs in the nature of spherically-symmetric vacuum solutions to the brane gravitational field equations, which often have properties quite distinct from the standard black hole solutions of general relativity. In this paper, the spherically-symmetric collapse on the brane world of four types of null fluid, governed by the barotropic, polytropic, strange quark "bag" model and Hagedorn equations of state, is investigated. In each case, we solve the approximate gravitational field equations, obtained in the high density limit, determine the equation which governs the formation of apparent horizons and investigate the conditions for the formation of naked singularities. Though, naively, one would expect the increased effective energy density on the brane to favor the formation of black ho...

  4. Active Lubrication for Reducing Wear and Vibration: A combination of Fluid Power Control and Tribology

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through ori...

  5. Active Lubrication for Reducing Wear and Vibration: A combination of Fluid Power Control and Tribology

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... with experiment, and simulations show the feasibility of controlling shaft vibration through this active device....

  6. Reducing formation damage with microbubble based drilling fluid : understanding the blocking ability

    Bjorndalen, N.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering; Jossy, E.; Alvarez, J.M. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)


    Micro-bubble based drilling fluids use gas bubbles to bridge pores in porous media. The microbubbles can be removed during the initial stages of production to reduce costs associated with stimulation processes. This paper provided details of experiments conducted to investigate pore blocking mechanisms. Micromodel cells were used with different pressure rates and fluid compositions. A xanthan gum-water mixture was used as a base drilling fluid. An anionic surfactant was added to the base fluid for aphronization. The resulting stable foam was injected into the micromodel, where it blocked porous media. The analysis demonstrated that an aphron of 60 {mu}m bubble will invade porous media with a pore diameter of 50 {mu} at approximately 10 kPa. The foam was effectively removed by water injection, which indicated that the effects of the foam were irreversible. Less fluid and surfactant was needed to achieve desired flow rates when the foam was used. It was concluded that drilling with aphronized fluid will reduce formation damage. Further research is required to determine maximum flow pressure of the aphronized fluid in porous media. 24 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  7. Tribodynamic Modeling of Digital Fluid Power Motors

    Johansen, Per

    In fluid power engineering, efficiency and reliability optimization have become a major objective. The interest in using fluid power transmission in wind and wave energy applications are producing requirements concerning efficiency and reliability in order to compete with other transmission systems...... of digital fluid power displacement units has been able to address this problem. The main idea of the digital fluid power displacement technology is to disable individual chambers, by use of electrical actuated valves. A displacement chamber is disabled by keeping the valve, between the chamber and the low...... design methods and tools are important to the development of digital fluid power machines. The work presented in this dissertation is part of a research program focusing on the development of digital fluid power MW-motors for use in hydraulic drive train in wind turbines. As part of this development...

  8. Multiscale modelling of fluid-immersed granular media

    Clément, Christian Paul André René


    In this thesis we present numerical simulation studies of fluid-immersed granular systems using models of varying scales and complexities. These techniques are used to examine the effects of an interstitial fluid on the dynamics of dense granular beds within a number of vibrated systems. After an introduction to the field of granular materials, we present the techniques used to model both the granular dynamics and the fluid flow. We introduce various multiscale techniques to couple the mo...

  9. Irbesartan reduces inflammatory response of central nervous system in a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury%厄贝沙坦减轻液压脑损伤大鼠神经系统的炎症反应

    邢国祥; 魏敏; 修彬华; 马迎辉; 刘涛


    Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effect of the angiotensin Ⅱ receptor 1 (AT1) antagonist irbesartan on rat models with lateral fluid percussion brain injury (FPBI).Methods FPBI models were prepared using a modified fluid percussion injury method.Before and after modeling,irbesartan was given to the rats.The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry.Neurologic status was evaluated before and 1,3,5,7 days after FPBI surgery.Brains were removed for immunohistochemical evaluation of active microglias and macrophages.Results Compared to sham group,the rCBF and neurologic score of FPBI rats decreased significantly,while microglia and macrophage activation were confirmed.Treatment with iroesartan before FPBI surgery increased rCBF and improved neurological functions.In the peri-infarct cortex,irbesartan treatment attenuated the invasion of activated microglias and macrophages on day 7 after FPBI surgery.Conclusion Irbesartan can play a neuroprotective role through inhibiting microglia and macrophage activation in FPBI rats.%目的 研究血管紧张素Ⅱ受体1(AT1)抑制剂厄贝沙坦对侧位液压脑损伤模型大鼠神经系统炎症反应的影响.方法 利用改良的侧位液压损伤装置建立大鼠颅脑损伤(FPBI)模型,术前及术后给予厄贝沙坦治疗.用激光多普勒测定局部脑区血流(rCBF)的变化,术前及术后1、3、5、7d,利用神经功能评分评估大鼠神经功能损伤,免疫组织化学染色检测大鼠皮质小胶质细胞和巨噬细胞活化.结果 FPBI手术后损伤局部脑区rCBF明显下降,神经功能评分降低,损伤区周围脑组织小胶质细胞和巨噬细胞明显增多,厄贝沙坦治疗组大鼠rCBF显著高于单纯FPBI组,神经功能得到明显改善,损伤区周围脑组织小胶质细胞和巨噬细胞活化程度较轻.结论 厄贝沙坦预处理能够缓解大鼠脑损伤造成的神经功能障碍,减轻炎症反应,发挥神经保护作用.

  10. Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen;


    Switching valves experience opposing fluid forces due to movement of the moving member itself, as the surrounding fluid volume must move to accommodate the movement. This movement-induced fluid force may be divided into three main components; the added mass term, the viscous term and the socalled...... history term. For general valve geometries there are no simple solution to either of these terms. During development and design of such switching valves, it is therefore, common practice to use simple models to describe the opposing fluid forces, neglecting all but the viscous term which is determined...... based on shearing areas and venting channels. For fast acting valves the opposing fluid force may retard the valve performance significantly, if appropriate measures are not taken during the valve design. Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are available to simulate the total fluid...

  11. Lattice Boltzmann Models for Multicomponent Fluids


    between multiphase fluids. Two specific physical problems investigated: the shape of a sessile drop on a horizontal surface subjected to a gravitational field, and the effect of surface tension on contact angle .

  12. Fluid Model of Waveguide Transverse Coupling


    In this paper, optical fluid is firstly defined. By using the movement law of hydrodynamics, the transverse coupling of waveguides is discussed. The result fully coincides with the electromagnetic solution.

  13. Reducing Fluid-Related Complications During Operative Hysteroscopy: Use of a New Mandatory Fluid-Balance Form.

    Alexandroni, Heli; Bahar, Raz; Chill, Henry H; Karavani, Gilad; Ben-Yossef, Orna; Shushan, Asher

    To examine whether our new reporting system and mandatory fluid-balance form could improve the communication and awareness within the surgical team and therefore the safety of hysteroscopic operations. A case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). An endoscopic gynecology unit at a tertiary-care university hospital. Women aged 17 to 88 years (median, 43.9) who underwent operative hysteroscopy to treat uterine pathology. Operative hysteroscopy was performed using bipolar technology and normal saline as an irrigation media with the new fluid-balance form and a mandatory reporting system. The control group was composed of women who underwent the procedure using the same technology, with a previous protocol. Data regarding intraoperative and postoperative short-term complications were prospectively collected during surgery and at the 2-week follow-up visit. About 2000 procedures were investigated (601 in the study group and 1396 in the control group). In the control group there were 20 incidents of fluid deficit over 2 L. In 4 of these cases the procedure was terminated, but in the other 16 cases the procedure was continued, with or without awareness of the surgeons to the deficit. Of these cases, 2 suffered from media-related complications, and in 3 others complications were avoided by diuretics. In contrast, in the study group there were 10 incidents of fluid deficit over 2 L, of which 5 cases were terminated on time and the other 5 continued under the informed decision of the surgeon. In this group, none of the women experienced a media-related complication. The difference between the number of procedures that were terminated on time between the control and study groups was not statistically significant (p = .115). There was a statistically significant reduction in the total complication rate between the study group (1.8%) and the control group (3.9%; p = .019). The fluid-balance form and mandatory reporting system have been shown to reduce

  14. On numerical modelling of contact lines in fluid flows

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry E


    We study numerically a reduced model proposed by Benilov and Vynnycky (J. Fluid Mech. 718 (2013), 481), who examined the behavior of a contact line with a 180-degree contact angle between liquid and a moving plate, in the context of a two-dimensional Couette flow. The model is given by a linear fourth-order advection-diffusion equation with an unknown velocity, which is to be determined dynamically from an additional boundary condition at the contact line. The main claim of Benilov and Vynnycky is that for any physically relevant initial condition, there is a finite positive time at which the velocity of the contact line tends to negative infinity, whereas the profile of the fluid flow remains regular. Additionally, it is claimed that the velocity behaves as the logarithmic function of time near the blow-up time. We simulate dynamics of this model under different initial conditions and confirm the first claim. However, we also show that the blow-up behavior is better approximated by a power function, compared...

  15. Modeling Dark Energy Through AN Ising Fluid with Network Interactions

    Luongo, Orlando; Tommasini, Damiano


    We show that the dark energy (DE) effects can be modeled by using an Ising perfect fluid with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state (EoS), i.e. ω0, becomes ω0 = -1 as in the ΛCDM model. In our picture, DE is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding EoS mimics the effects of a variable DE term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant Λ. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as DE source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia (SNeIa), baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. Finally, we perform the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) selection criteria, showing that our model is statistically favored with respect to the Chevallier-Polarsky-Linder (CPL) parametrization.

  16. Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas

    Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)

  17. Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas

    Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokio, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 87, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is placed on understanding of effects on turbulence characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)

  18. Modeling fluid interactions with the rigid mush in alloy solidification

    Plotkowski, Alexander J.

    Macrosegregation is a casting defect characterized by long range composition differences on the length scale of the ingot. These variations in local composition can lead to the development of unwanted phases that are detrimental to mechanical properties. Unlike microsegregation, in which compositions vary over the length scale of the dendrite arms, macrosegregation cannot be removed by subsequent heat treatment, and so it is critical to understand its development during solidification processing. Due to the complex nature of the governing physical phenomena, many researchers have turned to numerical simulations for these predictions, but properly modeling alloy solidification presents a variety of challenges. Among these is the appropriate treatment of the interface between the bulk fluid and the rigid mushy zone. In this region, the non-linear and coupled behavior of heat transfer, fluid mechanics, solute transport, and alloy thermodynamics has a dramatic effect on macrosegregation predictions. This work investigates the impact of numerical approximations at this interface in the context of a mixture model for alloy solidification. First, the numerical prediction of freckles in columnar solidification is investigated, and the predictive ability of the model is evaluated. The model is then extended to equiaxed solidification, in which the analogous interface is the transition of free-floating solid particles to a rigid dendritic network. Various models for grain attachment are investigated, and found to produce significant artifacts caused by the discrete nature of their implementation on the numerical grid. To reduce the impact of these artifacts, a new continuum grain attachment model is proposed and evaluated. The differences between these models are compared using uncertainty quantification, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  19. Model Order Reduction for Fluid Dynamics with Moving Solid Boundary

    Gao, Haotian; Wei, Mingjun


    We extended the application of POD-Galerkin projection for model order reduction from usual fixed-domain problems to more general fluid-solid systems when moving boundary/interface is involved. The idea is similar to numerical simulation approaches using embedded forcing terms to represent boundary motion and domain change. However, such a modified approach will not get away with the unsteadiness of boundary terms which appear as time-dependent coefficients in the new Galerkin model. These coefficients need to be pre-computed for prescribed motion, or worse, to be computed at each time step for non-prescribed motion. The extra computational cost gets expensive in some cases and eventually undermines the value of using reduced-order models. One solution is to decompose the moving boundary/domain to orthogonal modes and derive another low-order model with fixed coefficients for boundary motion. Further study shows that the most expensive integrations resulted from the unsteady motion (in both original and domain-decomposition approaches) have almost negligible impact on the overall dynamics. Dropping these expensive terms reduces the computation cost by at least one order while no obvious effect on model accuracy is noticed. Supported by ARL.

  20. Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids

    Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.


    Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.

  1. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  2. Fluid of fused spheres as a model for protein solution

    M. Kastelic


    Full Text Available In this work we examine thermodynamics of fluid with "molecules" represented by two fused hard spheres, decorated by the attractive square-well sites. Interactions between these sites are of short-range and cause association between the fused-sphere particles. The model can be used to study the non-spherical (or dimerized proteins in solution. Thermodynamic quantities of the system are calculated using a modification of Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory and the results compared with new Monte Carlo simulations under isobaric-isothermal conditions. In particular, we are interested in the liquid-liquid phase separation in such systems. The model fluid serves to evaluate the effect of the shape of the molecules, changing from spherical to more elongated (two fused spheres ones. The results indicate that the effect of the non-spherical shape is to reduce the critical density and temperature. This finding is consistent with experimental observations for the antibodies of non-spherical shape.

  3. Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics


    "Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."

  4. Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen;


    force, but these models are computationally expensive and are not suitable for evaluating large numbers of different operation conditions or even design optimization. In the present paper, an effort is done to describe these fluid forces and their origin. An example of the total opposing fluid force...

  5. Versatile and Robust Software for Multi-Fluid Plasma Modeling


    models ,   MHD ,   Hall   MHD ,  two...described  by  two-­‐fluid  or  Hall   MHD  initially  evolves  to   something  where  only  kinetic   model  is  strictly...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0153 "Versatile and Robust Software forMulti‐Fluid Plasma Modeling ” John Loverich and Uri Shumlak

  6. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.


    Nikolaus J. Kuhn (1), Brigitte Kuhn (1), and Andres Gartmann (2) (1) University of Basel, Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland (, (2) Meteorology, Climatology, Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport on Mars developed for Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of such gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates formed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  7. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.


    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  8. A Warm Fluid Model of Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Tarkenton, G. M.; Shadwick, B. A.; Esarey, E. H.; Leemans, W. P.


    Following up on our previous work on modeling intense laser-plasma interactions with cold fluids,(B.A.Shadwick, G. M. Tarkenton, E.H. Esarey, and W.P. Leemans, ``Fluid Modeling of Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions'', in Advanced Accelerator Concepts), P. Colestock and S. Kelley editors, AIP Conf. Proc. 569 (AIP, NY 2001), pg. 154. we are exploring warm fluid models. These models represent the next level in a hierarchy of complexity beyond the cold fluid approximation. With only a modest increase in computation effort, warm fluids incorporate effects that are relevant to a variety of technologically interesting cases. We present a derivation of the warm fluid from a kinetic (i.e. Vlasov) perspective and make a connection with the usual relativistic thermodynamic approach.(S. R. de Groot, W. A. van Leeuwen and Ch. G. van Weert, Relativistic Kinetic Theory: Principles and Applications), North-Holland (1980). We will provide examples where the warm fluids yield physics results not contained in the cold model and discuss experimental parameters where these effects are believed to be important.

  9. Normal forms for reduced stochastic climate models

    Majda, A.J.; Franzke, C.; Crommelin, D.T.

    The systematic development of reduced low-dimensional stochastic climate models from observations or comprehensive highdimensional climate models is an important topic for atmospheric low-frequency variability, climate sensitivity, and improved extended range forecasting. Here techniques from

  10. Multiphase fluid hammer: modeling, experiments and simulations

    Lema Rodríguez, Marcos


    This thesis deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of the water hammer phenomenon generated by the discharge of a pressurized liquid into a pipeline kept under vacuum conditions. This flow configuration induces several multiphase phenomena such as cavitation and gas desorption that cannot be ignored in the water hammer behavior.The motivation of this research work comes from the liquid propulsion systems used in spacecrafts, which can undergo fluid hammer effects threatening the s...

  11. Multiscale Turbulence Models Based on Convected Fluid Microstructure

    Holm, Darryl D


    The Euler-Poincar\\'e approach to complex fluids is used to derive multiscale equations for computationally modelling Euler flows as a basis for modelling turbulence. The model is based on a \\emph{kinematic sweeping ansatz} (KSA) which assumes that the mean fluid flow serves as a Lagrangian frame of motion for the fluctuation dynamics. Thus, we regard the motion of a fluid parcel on the computationally resolvable length scales as a moving Lagrange coordinate for the fluctuating (zero-mean) motion of fluid parcels at the unresolved scales. Even in the simplest 2-scale version on which we concentrate here, the contributions of the fluctuating motion under the KSA to the mean motion yields a system of equations that extends known results and appears to be suitable for modelling nonlinear backscatter (energy transfer from smaller to larger scales) in turbulence using multiscale methods.

  12. Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.


    The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.

  13. Small data global existence for a fluid-structure model

    Ignatova, Mihaela; Kukavica, Igor; Lasiecka, Irena; Tuffaha, Amjad


    We address the system of partial differential equations modeling motion of an elastic body inside an incompressible fluid. The fluid is modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations while the structure is represented by the damped wave equation with interior damping. The additional boundary stabilization γ, considered in our previous paper, is no longer necessary. We prove the global existence and exponential decay of solutions for small initial data in a suitable Sobolev space.

  14. Mathematical Model of Fluid Flow and Solidification in Mold Region of Continuous Slab Casting

    谭利坚; 沈厚发; 柳百成


    To simulate the phenomena in the mold region of continuous casting by coupling fluid flow and solidification, a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developedbased on the K-ε turbulence equations and the SIMPLER algorithm. A pseudo source term was introduced into the energy equation to account for the latent heat and kinetic energy. The fluid flow in the mushy zone was calculated by defining the fluid viscosity as a function of the solid fraction in the mushy zone. Fine meshes in the solid region improve convergence and reduce iteration time. Comparison of the fluid flow and temperature distribution with and without solidification shows that although the solid shell in the mold is thin, it still greatly affects the flow pattern. The numerical results obtained provide details of the fluid flow and solidification phenomena which can be used to optimize the nozzle structure and other process parameters in continuous casting.

  15. Evolution of fluid-fluid interface in porous media as the model of gas-oil fields

    Cerasela-Iliana Calugaru


    Full Text Available This article proposes a generalized model for describing deformations of the mobile interface separating two immiscible weakly compressible fluids in a weakly deformable porous medium. It describes a gravity non-equilibrium processes, including evolution of the gravitational instability and can be reduced in two cases. This paper deals with the first case in which elastic perturbations are propagating much slower than gravity perturbations. The obtained model has analytical solutions and is applied to simulate the behavior of oil-gas or water-oil interface in oil-gas reservoirs.

  16. Validation of an All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model: Heptane Fluid Drops in Nitrogen

    Harstad, K.; Bellan, J.; Bulzan, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)


    Despite the fact that supercritical fluids occur both in nature and in industrial situations, the fundamentals of their behavior is poorly understood because supercritical fluids combine the characteristics of both liquids and gases, and therefore their behavior is not intuitive. There are several specific reasons for the lack of understanding: First, data from (mostly optical) measurements can be very misleading because regions of high density thus observed are frequently identified with liquids. A common misconception is that if in an experiment one can optically identify "drops" and "ligaments", the observed fluid must be in a liquid state. This inference is incorrect because in fact optical measurements detect any large change (i.e. gradients) in density. Thus, the density ratio may be well below Omicron(10(exp 3)) that characterizes its liquid/gas value, but the measurement will still identify a change in the index of refraction providing that the change is sudden (steep gradients). As shown by simulations of supercritical fluids, under certain conditions the density gradients may remain large during the supercritical binary fluids mixing, thus making them optically identifiable. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the optical observation of high density regions and the fluids being in a supercritical state. A second misconception is that because a fluid has a liquid-like density, it is appropriate to model it as a liquid. However, such fluids may have liquid-like densities while their transport properties differ from those of a liquid. Considering that the critical pressure of most fuel hydrocarbons used in Diesel and gas turbine engines is in the range of 1.5 - 3 MPa, and the fact that the maximum pressure attained in these engines is about 6 Mps, it is clear that the fuel in the combustion chamber will experience both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Studies of drop behavior over a wide range of pressures were performed in the past

  17. Numerical modeling of fluid flow with rafts: An application to lava flows

    Tsepelev, Igor; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander


    Although volcanic lava flows do not significantly affect the life of people, its hazard is not negligible as hot lava kills vegetation, destroys infrastructure, and may trigger a flood due to melting of snow/ice. The lava flow hazard can be reduced if the flow patterns are known, and the complexity of the flow with debris is analyzed to assist in disaster risk mitigation. In this paper we develop three-dimensional numerical models of a gravitational flow of multi-phase fluid with rafts (mimicking rigid lava-crust fragments) on a horizontal and topographic surfaces to explore the dynamics and the interaction of lava flows. We have obtained various flow patterns and spatial distribution of rafts depending on conditions at the surface of fluid spreading, obstacles on the way of a fluid flow, raft landing scenarios, and the size of rafts. Furthermore, we analyze two numerical models related to specific lava flows: (i) a model of fluid flow with rafts inside an inclined channel, and (ii) a model of fluid flow from a single vent on an artificial topography, when the fluid density, its viscosity, and the effusion rate vary with time. Although the studied models do not account for lava solidification, crust formation, and its rupture, the results of the modeling may be used for understanding of flows with breccias before a significant lava cooling.

  18. A dynamic neutral fluid model for the PIC scheme

    Wu, Alan; Lieberman, Michael; Verboncoeur, John


    Fluid diffusion is an important aspect of plasma simulation. A new dynamic model is implemented using the continuity and boundary equations in OOPD1, an object oriented one-dimensional particle-in-cell code developed at UC Berkeley. The model is described and compared with analytical methods given in [1]. A boundary absorption parameter can be adjusted from ideal absorption to ideal reflection. Simulations exhibit good agreement with analytic time dependent solutions for the two ideal cases, as well as steady state solutions for mixed cases. For the next step, fluid sources and sinks due to particle-particle or particle-fluid collisions within the simulation volume and to surface reactions resulting in emission or absorption of fluid species will be implemented. The resulting dynamic interaction between particle and fluid species will be an improvement to the static fluid in the existing code. As the final step in the development, diffusion for multiple fluid species will be implemented. [4pt] [1] M.A. Lieberman and A.J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 2005.

  19. Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment

    Lipa, J.


    We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.

  20. Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen


    Switching valves experience opposing fluid forces due to movement of the moving member itself, as the surrounding fluid volume must move to accommodate the movement. This movement-induced fluid force may be divided into three main components; the added mass term, the viscous term and the socalled...... is given using an analytically solvable example, showing the explicit form of the force terms and highlighting the significance of the added mass and history term in certain fast switching valve applications. A general approximate model for arbitrary valve geometries is then proposed with offset...

  1. Validation of full cavitation model in cryogenic fluids

    CAO XiaoLi; ZHANG XiaoBin; QIU LiMin; GAN ZhiHua


    Numerical simulation of cavitation in cryogenic fluids is important in improving the stable operation of he propulsion system in liquid-fuel rocket. It also represents a broader class of problems where the fluid is operating close to its critical point and the thermal effects of cavitation are pronounced. The present article focuses on simulating cryogenic cavitation by implementing the "full cavitation model", coupled with energy equation, in conjunction with iteraUve update of the real fluid properties at local temperatures. Steady state computations are then conducted on hydrofoil and ogive in liquid nitrogen and hydrogen respectively, based on which we explore the mechanism of cavitation with thermal ef-fects. Comprehensive comparisons between the simulation results and experimental data as well as previous computations by other researchers validate the full cavitation model in cryogenic fluids. The sensitivity of cavity length to cavitation number is also examined.

  2. Fluid flow modeling in complex areas*, **

    Poullet Pascal


    Full Text Available We show first results of 3D simulation of sea currents in a realistic context. We use the full Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluid. The problem is solved using a second order incremental projection method associated with the finite volume of the staggered (MAC scheme for the spatial discretization. After validation on classical cases, it is used in a numerical simulation of the Pointe à Pitre harbour area. The use of the fictious domain method permits us to take into account the complexity of bathymetric data and allows us to work with regular meshes and thus preserves the efficiency essential for a 3D code. Dans cette étude, nous présentons les premiers résultats de simulation d’un écoulement d’un fluide incompressible visqueux dans un contexte environnemental réel. L’approche utilisée utilise une méthode de domaines fictifs pour une prise en compte d’un domaine physique tridimensionnel très irrégulier. Le schéma numérique combine un schéma de projection incrémentale et des volumes finis utilisant des volumes de contrôle adaptés à un maillage décalé. Les tests de validation sont menés pour les cas tests de la cavité double entraînée ainsi que l’écoulement dans un canal avec un obstacle placé de manière asymmétrique.

  3. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K


    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  4. A Fluid Mud Transport Model in Multi-Dimensions


    A Fluid Mud Transport Model in Multi-dimensions Tian-Jian Hsu Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608 phone...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Florida, Civil and Coastal Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32608 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...sediment transport processes are carried out in several directions: Extend to 2D and incorporate Bingham rheology : The previous 1DV fluid mud

  5. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Transient in Cryogenic Fluid Network of Rocket Propulsion System

    Majumdar, Alok; Flachbart, Robin


    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicles propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shut down. For ground safety reasons, many spacecrafts are launched with the propellant lines dry. These lines are often evacuated by the time the spacecraft reaches orbit. When the propellant isolation valve opens during propulsion system activation, propellant rushes into lines creating a pressure surge. During propellant system shutdown, a pressure surge is created due to sudden closure of a valve. During both activation and shutdown, pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. The method of characteristics is the most widely used method of calculating fluid transients in pipeline [ 1,2]. The method of characteristics, however, has limited applications in calculating flow distribution in complex flow circuits with phase change, heat transfer and rotational effects. A robust cryogenic propulsion system analyzer must have the capability to handle phase change, heat transfer, chemical reaction, rotational effects and fluid transients in conjunction with subsystem flow model for pumps, valves and various pipe fittings. In recent years, such a task has been undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center with the development of the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which is based on finite volume method in fluid network [3]. GFSSP has been extensively verified and validated by comparing its predictions with test data and other numerical methods for various applications such as internal flow of turbo-pump [4], propellant tank pressurization [5,6], chilldown of cryogenic transfer line [7] and squeeze film damper rotordynamics [8]. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the applicability of the finite volume method to predict fluid transient in cryogenic flow

  6. Numerical modelling of structural controls on fluid flow and mineralization

    Yanhua Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a set of numerical models focussing on structural controls on hydrothermal mineralization. We first give an overview of natural phenomena of structurally-controlled ore formation and the background theory and mechanisms for such controls. We then provide the results of a group of simple 2D numerical models validated through comparison with Cu-vein structure observed near the Shilu Copper deposit (Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China and finally a case study of 3D numerical modelling applied to the Hodgkinson Province in North Queensland (Australia. Two modelling approaches, discrete deformation modelling and continuum coupled deformation and fluid flow modelling, are involved. The 2D model-derived patterns are remarkably consistent with the Cu-vein structure from the Shilu Copper deposit, and show that both modelling approaches can realistically simulate the mechanical behaviours of shear and dilatant fractures. The continuum coupled deformation and fluid flow model indicates that pattern of the Cu-veins near the Shilu deposit is the result of shear strain localization, development of dilation and fluid focussing into the dilatant fracture segments. The 3D case-study models (with deformation and fluid flow coupling on the Hodgkinson Province generated a number of potential gold mineralization targets.

  7. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    glycol + heptane, methylcyclohexane, hexane, propylene glycol + heptane, diethylene glycol + heptane, triethylene glycol + heptane, and tetraethylene glycol + heptane. The data obtained were correlated with the NRTL model and two different versions of the UNIQUAC equation. The NRTL model and one...

  8. Microfluidic flow switching design using volume of fluid model.

    Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, S H


    In this study, a volume of fluid (VOF) model was employed for microfluidic switch design. The VOF model validity in predicting the interface between fluid streams with different viscosities co-flowing in a microchannel was first verified by experimental observation. It was then extended to microfluidic flow switch design. Two specific flow switches, one with a guided fluid to one of five desired outlet ports, and another with a guided fluid flows into one, two, or three outlet ports equally distributed along the outlet channel of a Y-shaped channel. The flow switching was achieved by controlling the flow rate ratios between tested and buffer fluids. The numerical results showed that the VOF model could successfully predict the flow switching phenomena in these flow switches. The numerical results also showed that the flow rate ratio required for flow switching depends on the viscosity ratio between the tested and buffer fluids. The numerical simulation was verified by experimental study and the agreement was good.

  9. Corresponding-states behavior of an ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions.

    Weiss, Volker C


    Guggenheim's corresponding-states approach for simple fluids leads to a remarkably universal representation of their thermophysical properties. For more complex fluids, such as polar or ionic ones, deviations from this type of behavior are to be expected, thereby supplying us with valuable information about the thermodynamic consequences of the interaction details in fluids. Here, the gradual transition of a simple fluid to an ionic one is studied by varying the relative strength of the dispersion interactions compared to the electrostatic interactions among the charged particles. In addition to the effects on the reduced surface tension that were reported earlier [F. Leroy and V. C. Weiss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094703 (2011)], we address the shape of the coexistence curve and focus on properties that are related to and derived from the vapor pressure. These quantities include the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, the boiling point, and the critical compressibility factor Zc. For all of these properties, the crossover from simple to characteristically ionic fluid is seen once the dispersive attraction drops below 20%-40% of the electrostatic attraction (as measured for two particles at contact). Below this threshold, ionic fluids display characteristically low values of Zc as well as large Guggenheim and Guldberg ratios for the reduced enthalpy of vaporization and the reduced boiling point, respectively. The coexistence curves are wider and more skewed than those for simple fluids. The results for the ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions improve our understanding of the behavior of real ionic fluids, such as inorganic molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids, by gauging the importance of different types of interactions for thermodynamic properties.

  10. A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks

    Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd


    This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.

  11. A fully dynamic magneto-rheological fluid damper model

    Jiang, Z.; Christenson, R. E.


    Control devices can be used to dissipate the energy of a civil structure subjected to dynamic loading, thus reducing structural damage and preventing failure. Semiactive control devices have received significant attention in recent years. The magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is a promising type of semiactive device for civil structures due to its mechanical simplicity, inherent stability, high dynamic range, large temperature operating range, robust performance, and low power requirements. The MR damper is intrinsically nonlinear and rate-dependent, both as a function of the displacement across the MR damper and the command current being supplied to the MR damper. As such, to develop control algorithms that take maximum advantage of the unique features of the MR damper, accurate models must be developed to describe its behavior for both displacement and current. In this paper, a new MR damper model that includes a model of the pulse-width modulated (PWM) power amplifier providing current to the damper, a proposed model of the time varying inductance of the large-scale 200 kN MR dampers coils and surrounding MR fluid—a dynamic behavior that is not typically modeled—and a hyperbolic tangent model of the controllable force behavior of the MR damper is presented. Validation experimental tests are conducted with two 200 kN large-scale MR dampers located at the Smart Structures Technology Laboratory (SSTL) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Lehigh University Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. Comparison with experimental test results for both prescribed motion and current and real-time hybrid simulation of semiactive control of the MR damper shows that the proposed MR damper model can accurately predict the fully dynamic behavior of the large-scale 200 kN MR damper.

  12. An inventory model for optimizing purchasing of intravenous fluids for hospitals: a case study.

    Kwak, N K; Durbin, E; Stanley, D


    This paper deals with determining the optimal level of purchase of intravenous fluids for hospitals by utilizing inventory control concepts. Using the conceptual framework of the economic order quantity (EOQ) model, the hospital administrators can elicit the efficient materials management, thus reducing both the space and capital requirements without compromising the quality of services rendered.

  13. Axially Symmetric Cosmological Mesonic Stiff Fluid Models in Lyra's Geometry

    Gad, Ragab M


    In this paper, we obtained a new class of axially symmetric cosmological mesonic stiff fluid models in the context of Lyra's geometry. Expressions for the energy, pressure and the massless scalar field are derived by considering the time dependent displacement field. We found that the mesonic scalar field depends on only $t$ coordinate. Some physical properties of the obtained models are discussed.

  14. A 2-Dimensional Fluid Model for an Argon Rf Discharge

    Passchier, J. D. P.; W. J. Goedheer,


    A fluid model for an argon rf discharge in a cylindrical discharge chamber is presented. The model contains the particle balances for electrons and ions and the electron energy balance. A nonzero autobias voltage is obtained by imposing the condition that the time-averaged current toward the powered

  15. Modelling Emission from Building Materials with Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper presents a numerical model that by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is capable of dealing with both pollutant transport across the boundary layer and internal diffusion in the source without prior knowledge of which is the limiting process. The model provides the concentration...

  16. A review on solar wind modeling: kinetic and fluid aspects

    Echim, Marius; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein


    We review the main advantages and limitations of the kinetic exospheric and fluid models of the solar wind (SW). We discuss the hydrostatic model imagined by Chapman, the first supersonic hydrodynamic models published by Parker and the first generation subsonic kinetic model proposed by Chamberlain. It is shown that a correct estimation of the electric field as in the second generation kinetic exospheric models developed by Lemaire and Scherer, provides a supersonic expansion of the corona, reconciling the hydrodynamic and the kinetic approach. The third generation kinetic exospheric models considers kappa velocity distribution function (VDF) instead of a Maxwellian at the exobase and in addition they treat a non-monotonic variation of the electric potential with the radial distance; the fourth generation exospheric models include Coulomb collisions based on the Fokker--Planck collision term. Multi-fluid models of the solar wind provide a coarse grained description and reproduce with success the spatio-tempor...

  17. Dynamic Modeling of ThermoFluid Systems

    Jensen, Jakob Munch


    formulated. The different models deviate with respect to the detail¿s included and calculation time in connection with simulation. The models have been implemented in a new library named ThermoTwoPhase to the programming language Modelica. A test rig has been built with an evaporator instrumented in a way...

  18. Modelling vaporous cavitation on fluid transients

    Shu, Jian-Jun


    A comprehensive study of the problem of modelling vaporous cavitation in transmission lines is presented. The two-phase homogeneous equilibrium vaporous cavitation model which has been developed is compared with the conventional column separation model. The latter predicts unrealistically high pressure spikes because of a conflict arising from the prediction of negative cavity sizes if the pressure is not permitted to fall below the vapour pressure, or the prediction of negative absolute pressures if the cavity size remains positive. This is verified by a comparison of predictions with previously published experimental results on upstream, midstream and downstream cavitation. The new model has been extended to include frequency-dependent friction. The characteristics predicted by the frequency-dependent friction model show close correspondence with experimental data.

  19. Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport

    Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.


    Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.

  20. Fluid-percussion–induced traumatic brain injury model in rats


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Various attempts have been made to replicate clinical TBI using animal models. The fluid-percussion model (FP) is one of the oldest and most commonly used models of experimentally induced TBI. Both central (CFP) and lateral (LFP) variations of the model have been used. Developed initially for use in larger species, the standard FP device was adapted more than 20 years ago to induce consistent degrees of brain injury in ...

  1. Hydromechanical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Lower Crust

    Connolly, J.


    The lower crust lies within an ambiguous rheological regime between the brittle upper crust and ductile sub-lithospheric mantle. This ambiguity has allowed two schools of thought to develop concerning the nature of fluid flow in the lower crust. The classical school holds that lower crustal rocks are inviscid and that any fluid generated by metamorphic devolatilization is squeezed out of rocks as rapidly as it is produced. According to this school, permeability is a dynamic property and fluid flow is upward. In contrast, the modern school uses concepts from upper crustal hydrology that presume implicitly, if not explicitly, that rocks are rigid or, at most, brittle. For the modern school, the details of crustal permeability determine fluid flow and as these details are poorly known almost anything is possible. Reality, to the extent that it is reflected by inference from field studies, offers some support to both schools. In particular, evidence of significant lateral and channelized fluid flow are consistent with flow in rigid media, while evidence for short (104 - 105 y) grain-scale fluid-rock interaction during much longer metamorphic events, suggests that reaction-generated grain-scale permeability is sealed rapidly by compaction; a phenomenon that is also essential to prevent extensive retrograde metamorphism. These observations provide a compelling argument for recognizing in conceptual models of lower crustal fluid flow that rocks are neither inviscid nor rigid, but compact by viscous mechanisms on a finite time-scale. This presentation will review the principle consequences of, and obstacles to, incorporating compaction in such models. The role of viscous compaction in the lower crust is extraordinarily uncertain, but ignoring this uncertainty in models of lower crustal fluid flow does not make the models any more certain. Models inevitably invoke an initial steady state hydraulic regime. This initial steady state is critical to model outcomes because it

  2. Modeling of Non-Isothermal Cryogenic Fluid Sloshing

    Agui, Juan H.; Moder, Jeffrey P.


    A computational fluid dynamic model was used to simulate the thermal destratification in an upright self-pressurized cryostat approximately half-filled with liquid nitrogen and subjected to forced sinusoidal lateral shaking. A full three-dimensional computational grid was used to model the tank dynamics, fluid flow and thermodynamics using the ANSYS Fluent code. A non-inertial grid was used which required the addition of momentum and energy source terms to account for the inertial forces, energy transfer and wall reaction forces produced by the shaken tank. The kinetics-based Schrage mass transfer model provided the interfacial mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation at the sloshing interface. The dynamic behavior of the sloshing interface, its amplitude and transition to different wave modes, provided insight into the fluid process at the interface. The tank pressure evolution and temperature profiles compared relatively well with the shaken cryostat experimental test data provided by the Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics investigation of turbulence models for non-newtonian fluid flow in anaerobic digesters.

    Wu, Binxin


    In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester.

  4. Growth of sulfate reducers in deep-subseafloor sediments stimulated by crustal fluids

    Katja eFichtel


    Full Text Available On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a substantial part of the deep subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from a sediment column of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301 which is divided into three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone and a second (~140 m thick sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. Sulfate reducers were isolated from near-surface and near-basement sediments. All initial enrichments harboured specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Among those, the number of isolated spore-forming Firmicutes decreased from 60% to 21% with sediment depth. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp. and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were recovered from the upper sediment layers (1.3-9.1 meters below seafloor, mbsf. Several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and one relative of Desulfotignum balticum were isolated from near-basement sediments (240-262 mbsf. The physiological investigation of strains affiliated to D. aespoeensis, D. indonesiensis and D. balticum indicated that they were all able to use sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite as electron acceptors. In the presence of sulfate, they grew strain-specifically on a few short-chain n-alcohols and fatty acids, only. The strains fermented either ethanol, pyruvate or betaine. Interestingly, all strains utilized hydrogen and the isolate affiliated to D. indonesiensis even exhibited an autotrophic life-mode. Thus, in the deep subseafloor where organic substrates are limited or hardly degradable, hydrogen might become an essential electron donor. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from

  5. Computational modeling of glow discharge-induced fluid dynamics

    Jayaraman, Balaji

    Glow discharge at atmospheric pressure using a dielectric barrier discharge can induce fluid flow and operate as an actuator for flow control. The largely isothermal surface plasma generation realized above can modify the near-wall flow structure by means of Lorentzian collisions between the ionized fluid and the neutral fluid. Such an actuator has advantages of no moving parts, performance at atmospheric conditions and devising complex control strategies through the applied voltage. However, the mechanism of the momentum coupling between the plasma and the fluid flow is not yet adequately understood. In the present work, a modeling framework is presented to simulate athermal, non-equilibrium plasma discharges in conjunction with low Mach number fluid dynamics at atmospheric pressure. The plasma and fluid species are treated as a two-fluid system exhibiting a few decades of length and time scales. The effect of the plasma dynamics on the fluid dynamics is devised via a body force treatment in the Navier-Stokes equations. Two different approaches of different degrees of fidelity are presented for modeling the plasma dynamics. The first approach, a phenomenological model, is based on a linearized force distribution approximating the discharge structure, and utilizing experimental guidance to deduce the empirical constants. A high fidelity approach is to model the plasma dynamics in a self-consistent manner using a first principle-based hydrodynamic plasma model. The atmospheric pressure regime of interest here enables us to employ local equilibrium assumptions, signifying efficient collisional energy exchange as against thermal heating from inelastic collision processes. The time scale ratios between convection, diffusion, and reaction/ionization mechanisms are O(107), making the system computationally stiff. To handle the stiffness, a sequential finite-volume operator-splitting algorithm capable of conserving space charge is developed; the approach can handle time

  6. Seismicity and fluid injections: numerical modelling of fault activation

    Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G.; Bean, C.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S.


    Injection of fluid into the subsurface is a common technique and is used to optimise returns from hydrocarbon plays (e.g. enhanced oil recovery, hydrofacturing of shales) and geothermal sites as well as for the sequestering carbon dioxide. While it is well understood that stress perturbations caused by fluid injections can induce/trigger earthquakes; the modelling of such hazard is still in its infancy. By combining fluid flow and seismicity simulations we have created a numerical model for investigating induced seismicity over large time periods so that we might examine the role of operational and geological factors in seismogenesis around a sub-surface fluid injection. In our model, fluid injection is simulated using pore fluid movement throughout a permeable layer from a high-pressure point source using a lattice Boltzmann scheme. We can accommodate complicated geological structures in our simulations. Seismicity is modelled using a quasi-dynamic relationship between stress and slip coupled with a rate-and state friction law. By spatially varying the frictional parameters, the model can reproduce both seismic and aseismic slip. Static stress perturbations (due to either to fault cells slipping or fluid injection) are calculated using analytical solutions for slip dislocations/pressure changes in an elastic half space. An adaptive time step is used in order to increase computational efficiency and thus allow us to model hundreds of years of seismicity. As a case study, we investigate the role that relative fault - injection location plays in seismic activity. To do this we created three synthetic catalogues with only the relative location of the fault from the point of injection varying between the models. In our control model there is no injection meaning it contains only tectonically triggered events. In the other two catalogues, the injection site is placed below and adjacent to the fault respectively. The injection itself is into a permeable thin planar layer

  7. Progress in modeling of fluid flows in crystal growth processes

    Qisheng Chen; Yanni Jiang; Junyi Yan; Ming Qin


    Modeling of fluid flows in crystal growth processes has become an important research area in theoretical and applied mechanics.Most crystal growth processes involve fluid flows,such as flows in the melt,solution or vapor.Theoretical modeling has played an important role in developing technologies used for growing semiconductor crystals for high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.The application of devices requires large diameter crystals with a high degree of crystallographic perfection,low defect density and uniform dopant distribution.In this article,the flow models developed in modeling of the crystal growth processes such as Czochralski,ammono-thermal and physical vapor transport methods are reviewed.In the Czochralski growth modeling,the flow models for thermocapillary flow,turbulent flow and MHD flow have been developed.In the ammonothermal growth modeling,the buoyancy and porous media flow models have been developed based on a single-domain and continuum approach for the composite fluid-porous layer systems.In the physical vapor transport growth modeling,the Stefan flow model has been proposed based on the flow-kinetics theory for the vapor growth.In addition,perspectives for future studies on crystal growth modeling are proposed.

  8. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel


    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  9. Verification strategies for fluid-based plasma simulation models

    Mahadevan, Shankar


    Verification is an essential aspect of computational code development for models based on partial differential equations. However, verification of plasma models is often conducted internally by authors of these programs and not openly discussed. Several professional research bodies including the IEEE, AIAA, ASME and others have formulated standards for verification and validation (V&V) of computational software. This work focuses on verification, defined succinctly as determining whether the mathematical model is solved correctly. As plasma fluid models share several aspects with the Navier-Stokes equations used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the CFD verification process is used as a guide. Steps in the verification process: consistency checks, examination of iterative, spatial and temporal convergence, and comparison with exact solutions, are described with examples from plasma modeling. The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS), which has been used to verify complex systems of PDEs in solid and fluid mechanics, is introduced. An example of the application of MMS to a self-consistent plasma fluid model using the local mean energy approximation is presented. The strengths and weaknesses of the techniques presented in this work are discussed.

  10. Numerical simulation of fluid bed drying based on two-fluid model and experimental validation

    Assari, M.R. [Jundi-shapur University, Dezful (Iran); Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Saffar-Avval, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)


    A mathematical model for batch drying based on the Eulerian 'two-fluid models' was developed. The two-dimensional, axis-symmetrical cylindrical equations for both phases were solved numerically. The governing equations were discretized using a finite volume method with local grid refinement near the wall and inlet port. The effects of parameters such as inlet gas velocity and inlet gas temperature on the moisture content, temperature of solid and gas at the outlet are shown. This data from the model was compared with that obtained from experiments with a fluidized bed and found to be in reasonably good agreement. (author)

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam

    Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.


    Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.

  12. A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori

    Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric


    Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.

  13. Dark radiation from a unified dark fluid model

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Zhang, Xin


    We present a unified dark fluid model to describe the possible evolutionary behavior of $\\Delta N_\\mathrm{eff}$ in dark radiation. This model can be viewed as an interacting model for the dark sectors, in which dark matter interacts with dark radiation. We show that the evolution of $\\Delta N_\\mathrm{eff}$ can be nicely explained without some drawbacks, such as the blowup of $\\Delta N_\\mathrm{eff}$ at the late time and the interaction term at the early time.

  14. Phase-separation models for swimming enhancement in complex fluids

    Man, Yi


    Swimming cells often have to self-propel through fluids displaying non-Newtonian rheology. While past theoretical work seems to indicate that stresses arising from complex fluids should systematically hinder low-Reynolds number locomotion, experimental observations suggest that locomotion enhancement is possible. In this paper we propose a physical mechanism for locomotion enhancement of microscopic swimmers in a complex fluid. It is based on the fact that micro-structured fluids will generically phase-separate near surfaces, leading to the presence of low-viscosity layers which promote slip and decrease viscous friction near the surface of the swimmer. We use two models to address the consequence of this phase separation: a nonzero apparent slip length for the fluid and then an explicit modeling of the change of viscosity in a thin layer near the swimmer. Considering two canonical setups for low-Reynolds number locomotion, namely the waving locomotion of a two-dimensional sheet and that of a three-dimensiona...

  15. Modeling anisotropic elasticity of fluid membranes

    Ramakrishnan, N; Ipsen, John H; 10.1002/mats.201100002


    The biological membrane, which compartmentalizes the cell and its organelles, exhibit wide variety of macroscopic shapes of varying morphology and topology. A systematic understanding of the relation of membrane shapes to composition, external field, environmental conditions etc. have important biological relevance. Here we review the triangulated surface model, used in the macroscopic simulation of membranes and the associated Monte Carlo (DTMC) methods. New techniques to calculate surface quantifiers, that will facilitate the study of additional in-plane orientational degrees of freedom, has been introduced. The mere presence of a polar and nematic fields in the ordered phase drives the ground state conformations of the membrane to a cylinder and tetrahedron respectively.

  16. Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with high relaxation time ratio

    Tao Jiang; Qiwei Gong; Ruofan Qiu; Anlin Wang


    An immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model is developed for fluids with high relaxation time ratios, which is based on the model proposed by Shan and Chen (SC). In the SC model, an interaction potential between particles is incorporated into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation through the equilibrium velocity. Compared to the SC model, external forces in our model are discretized directly into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, as proposed by Guo et al. We develop it into a new multicomponent lattice Boltzmann (LB) model which has the ability to simulate immiscible multicomponent fluids with relaxation time ratio as large as 29.0 and to reduce `spurious velocity’. In this work, the improved model is validated and studied using the central bubble case and the rising bubble case. It finds good applications in both static and dynamic cases for multicomponent simulations with different relaxation time ratios.

  17. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz


    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  18. Multiscale modeling for fluid transport in nanosystems.

    Lee, Jonathan W.; Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.


    Atomistic-scale behavior drives performance in many micro- and nano-fluidic systems, such as mircrofludic mixers and electrical energy storage devices. Bringing this information into the traditionally continuum models used for engineering analysis has proved challenging. This work describes one such approach to address this issue by developing atomistic-to-continuum multi scale and multi physics methods to enable molecular dynamics (MD) representations of atoms to incorporated into continuum simulations. Coupling is achieved by imposing constraints based on fluxes of conserved quantities between the two regions described by one of these models. The impact of electric fields and surface charges are also critical, hence, methodologies to extend finite-element (FE) MD electric field solvers have been derived to account for these effects. Finally, the continuum description can have inconsistencies with the coarse-grained MD dynamics, so FE equations based on MD statistics were derived to facilitate the multi scale coupling. Examples are shown relevant to nanofluidic systems, such as pore flow, Couette flow, and electric double layer.

  19. A revised model of fluid transport optimization in Physarum polycephalum.

    Bonifaci, Vincenzo


    Optimization of fluid transport in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum has been the subject of several modeling efforts in recent literature. Existing models assume that the tube adaptation mechanism in P. polycephalum's tubular network is controlled by the sheer amount of fluid flow through the tubes. We put forward the hypothesis that the controlling variable may instead be the flow's pressure gradient along the tube. We carry out the stability analysis of such a revised mathematical model for a parallel-edge network, proving that the revised model supports the global flow-optimizing behavior of the slime mold for a substantially wider class of response functions compared to previous models. Simulations also suggest that the same conclusion may be valid for arbitrary network topologies.

  20. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

    Tuhovcak Jan


    Full Text Available Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

  1. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

    Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav


    Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

  2. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.


    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  3. Seismoelectric fluid/porous-medium interface response model and measurements

    Schakel, M.D.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Slob, E.C.; Heller, H.K.J.


    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic (EM) wave effects in fluid-saturated porous media are measured since decades. However, direct comparisons between theoretical seismoelectric wavefields and measurements are scarce. A seismoelectric full-waveform numerical model is developed, which predicts both th

  4. High order fluid model for ionization fronts in streamer discharges

    Markosyan, A.; Dujko, S.; Ebert, U.; Almeida, P.G.C.; Alves, L.L.; Guerra, V.


    A high order fluid model for streamer dynamics is developed by closing the system after the 4th mo- ment of the Boltzmann equation in local mean energy approximation. This is done by approximating the high order pressure tensor in the heat flux equation through the previous moments. The electric fi

  5. Historical Review of the Fluid Percussion TBI Model

    Bruce G Lyeth


    Full Text Available Abstract:Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce in animals the concussive clinical syndrome. The fluid percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer controlled systems. Of the many pre-clinical TBI models, the fluid percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers that have led to today’s state of the art fluid percussion animal models of TBI.

  6. Management of fluid mud in estuaries, bays, and lakes. II: Measurement, modeling, and management

    McAnally, W.H.; Teeter, A.; Schoellhamer, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hayter, E.; Shrestha, P.; Rodriguez, H.; Sheremet, A.; Kirby, R.


    Techniques for measurement, modeling, and management of fluid mud are available, but research is needed to improve them. Fluid mud can be difficult to detect, measure, or sample, which has led to new instruments and new ways of using existing instruments. Multifrequency acoustic fathometers sense neither density nor viscosity and are, therefore, unreliable in measuring fluid mud. Nuclear density probes, towed sleds, seismic, and drop probes equipped with density meters offer the potential for accurate measurements. Numerical modeling of fluid mud requires solving governing equations for flow velocity, density, pressure, salinity, water surface, plus sediment submodels. A number of such models exist in one-, two-, and three-dimensional form, but they rely on empirical relationships that require substantial site-specific validation to observations. Management of fluid mud techniques can be classified as those that accomplish: Source control, formation control, and removal. Nautical depth, a fourth category, defines the channel bottom as a specific fluid mud density or alternative parameter as safe for navigation. Source control includes watershed management measures to keep fine sediment out of waterways and in-water measures such as structures and traps. Formation control methods include streamlined channels and structures plus other measures to reduce flocculation and structures that train currents. Removal methods include the traditional dredging and transport of dredged material plus agitation that contributes to formation control and/or nautical depth. Conditioning of fluid mud by dredging and aerating offers the possibility of improved navigability. Two examples-the Atchafalaya Bar Channel and Savannah Harbor-illustrate the use of measurements and management of fluid mud. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  7. A gravitational test of wave reinforcement versus fluid density models

    Johnson, Jacqueline Umstead


    Spermatozoa, protozoa, and algae form macroscopic patterns somewhat analogous to thermally driven convection cells. These bioconvective patterns have attracted interest in the fluid dynamics community, but whether in all cases these waves were gravity driven was unknown. There are two conflicting theories, one gravity dependent (fluid density model), the other gravity independent (wave reinforcement theory). The primary objectives of the summer faculty fellows were to: (1) assist in sample collection (spermatozoa) and preparation for the KC-135 research airplane experiment; and (2) to collaborate on ground testing of bioconvective variables such as motility, concentration, morphology, etc., in relation to their macroscopic patterns. Results are very briefly given.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in Chiari malformation and syringomyelia.

    Clarke, Elizabeth C; Fletcher, David F; Stoodley, Marcus A; Bilston, Lynne E


    The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in association with Chiari malformation (CM) is unclear. Studies of patients with CM have shown alterations in the CSF velocity profile and these could contribute to syrinx development or enlargement. Few studies have considered the fluid mechanics of CM patients with and without syringomyelia separately. Three subject-specific CFD models were developed for a normal participant, a CM patient with syringomyelia and a CM patient without syringomyelia. Model geometries, CSF flow rate data and CSF velocity validation data were collected from MRI scans of the 3 subjects. The predicted peak CSF pressure was compared for the 3 models. An extension of the study performed geometry and flow substitution to investigate the relative effects of anatomy and CSF flow profile on resulting spinal CSF pressure. Based on 50 monitoring locations for each of the models, the CM models had significantly higher magnitude (psyringomyelia mechanisms and relative effects of CSF velocity profile and spinal geometry on CSF pressure.

  9. A Reducing Resistance to Change Model

    Daniela Braduţanu


    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to present an original reducing resistance to change model. After analyzing the existent literature, I have concluded that the resistance to change subject has gained popularity over the years, but there are not too many models that could help managers implement more smoothly an organizational change process and at the same time, reduce effectively employees’ resistance. The proposed model is very helpful for managers and change agents who are confronted with a high degree of resistance when trying to implement a new change, as well as for researches. The key contribution of this paper is that resistance is not necessarily bad and if used appropriately, it can actually represent an asset. Managers must use employees’ resistance.

  10. Two-fluid models of superfluid neutron star cores

    Chamel, N


    Both relativistic and non-relativistic two-fluid models of neutron star cores are constructed, using the constrained variational formalism developed by Brandon Carter and co-workers. We consider a mixture of superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons at zero temperature, taking into account mutual entrainment effects. Leptons, which affect the interior composition of the neutron star and contribute to the pressure, are also included. We provide the analytic expression of the Lagrangian density of the system, the so-called master function, from which the dynamical equations can be obtained. All the microscopic parameters of the models are calculated consistently using the non-relativistic nuclear energy density functional theory. For comparison, we have also considered relativistic mean field models. The correspondence between relativistic and non-relativistic hydrodynamical models is discussed in the framework of the recently developed 4D covariant formalism of Newtonian multi-fluid hydrodynamics. We hav...

  11. Transient thermohydraulic modeling of two-phase fluid systems

    Blet, N.; Delalandre, N.; Ayel, V.; Bertin, Y.; Romestant, C.; Platel, V.


    This paper presents a transient thermohydraulic modeling, initially developed for a capillary pumped loop in gravitational applications, but also possibly suitable for all kinds of two-phase fluid systems. Using finite volumes method, it is based on Navier-Stokes equations for transcribing fluid mechanical aspects. The main feature of this 1D-model is based on a network representation by analogy with electrical. This paper also proposes a parametric study of a counterflow condenser following the sensitivity to inlet mass flow rate and cold source temperature. The comparison between modeling results and experimental data highlights a good numerical evaluation of temperatures. Furthermore, the model is able to represent a pretty good dynamic evolution of hydraulic variables.

  12. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John


    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  13. Fluid coupling in a discrete model of cochlear mechanics.

    Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben; Ni, Guangjian


    A discrete model of cochlear mechanics is introduced that includes a full, three-dimensional, description of fluid coupling. This formulation allows the fluid coupling and basilar membrane dynamics to be analyzed separately and then coupled together with a simple piece of linear algebra. The fluid coupling is initially analyzed using a wavenumber formulation and is separated into one component due to one-dimensional fluid coupling and one comprising all the other contributions. Using the theory of acoustic waves in a duct, however, these two components of the pressure can also be associated with a far field, due to the plane wave, and a near field, due to the evanescent, higher order, modes. The near field components are then seen as one of a number of sources of additional longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the fluid chamber areas can also be taken into account, to predict both the pressure difference between the chambers and the mean pressure. This allows the calculation, for example, of the effect of a short cochlear implant on the coupled response of the cochlea.

  14. Modeling the Fluid Withdraw and Injection Induced Earthquakes

    Meng, C.


    We present an open source numerical code, Defmod, that allows one to model the induced seismicity in an efficient and standalone manner. The fluid withdraw and injection induced earthquake has been a great concern to the industries including oil/gas, wastewater disposal and CO2 sequestration. Being able to numerically model the induced seismicity is long desired. To do that, one has to consider at lease two processes, a steady process that describes the inducing and aseismic stages before and in between the seismic events, and an abrupt process that describes the dynamic fault rupture accompanied by seismic energy radiations during the events. The steady process can be adequately modeled by a quasi-static model, while the abrupt process has to be modeled by a dynamic model. In most of the published modeling works, only one of these processes is considered. The geomechanicists and reservoir engineers are focused more on the quasi-static modeling, whereas the geophysicists and seismologists are focused more on the dynamic modeling. The finite element code Defmod combines these two models into a hybrid model that uses the failure criterion and frictional laws to adaptively switch between the (quasi-)static and dynamic states. The code is capable of modeling episodic fault rupture driven by quasi-static loading, e.g. due to reservoir fluid withdraw and/or injection, and by dynamic loading, e.g. due to the foregoing earthquakes. We demonstrate a case study for the 2013 Azle earthquake.

  15. A probabilistic model for reducing medication errors.

    Phung Anh Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medication errors are common, life threatening, costly but preventable. Information technology and automated systems are highly efficient for preventing medication errors and therefore widely employed in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to construct a probabilistic model that can reduce medication errors by identifying uncommon or rare associations between medications and diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Association rules of mining techniques are utilized for 103.5 million prescriptions from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. The dataset included 204.5 million diagnoses with ICD9-CM codes and 347.7 million medications by using ATC codes. Disease-Medication (DM and Medication-Medication (MM associations were computed by their co-occurrence and associations' strength were measured by the interestingness or lift values which were being referred as Q values. The DMQs and MMQs were used to develop the AOP model to predict the appropriateness of a given prescription. Validation of this model was done by comparing the results of evaluation performed by the AOP model and verified by human experts. The results showed 96% accuracy for appropriate and 45% accuracy for inappropriate prescriptions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.9% and 89.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed the AOP model as an efficient tool for automatic identification of uncommon or rare associations between disease-medication and medication-medication in prescriptions. The AOP model helps to reduce medication errors by alerting physicians, improving the patients' safety and the overall quality of care.

  16. Micro-macro models for viscoelastic fluids:modelling,mathematics and numerics

    LE; BRIS; Claude; LELIVRE; Tony


    This paper is an introduction to the modelling of viscoelastic fluids,with an emphasis on micromacro(or multiscale) models.Some elements of mathematical and numerical analysis are provided.These notes closely follow the lectures delivered by the second author at the Chinese Academy of Science during the Workshop "Stress Tensor E?ects on Fluid Mechanics" in January 2010.

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Flow in Cone and Cavitation Formation

    Milada KOZUBKOVÁ


    Full Text Available Problem of cavitation is the undesirable phenomena occuring in the fluid flow in many hydraulic application (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.. Therefore this is in the focus of interest using experimental and mathematical methods. Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience [1], [2], [4], following problem described as the water flow at the outlet from turbine blade wheel was solved. Primarily the problem is simplified into modelling of water flow in cone. Profiles of axial, radial and tangential velocity are defined on inlet zone. The value of pressure is defined on the outlet. Boundary conditions were defined by main investigator of the grant project – Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The value of air volume was insignificant. Cavitation was solved by Singhal model of cavitation.

  18. A new pressure-parametrization unified dark fluid model

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)


    We propose a new pressure-parametrization model to explain the accelerated expansion of the late-time Universe by considering the baryon matter and dark contents (dark matter and dark energy) as a unified dark fluid. To realize this model more physically, we reconstruct it with the quintessence and phantom scalar fields, respectively. We use the recent cosmological data to constrain this model, distinguish it from the standard cosmological model and find that the value of the Hubble constant H{sub 0} = 68.34{sup +0.53}{sub -0.92} supports the global measurement by the Planck satellite at the 1σ confidence level. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and pirenzepine-ranitidine combination for reducing preoperative gastric fluid acidity and volume in children.

    Maekawa, N; Nishina, K; Mikawa, K; Shiga, M; Obara, H


    We conducted a two-part controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative oral pirenzepine (muscarinic receptor antagonist known to inhibit gastric secretion), ranitidine, and the combination pirenzepine-ranitidine in controlling gastric fluid pH and volume in 210 ASA I children, aged 2-14 yr, undergoing elective surgery. In the first part of the study (n = 90), the proportion of children considered at risk for aspiration pneumonitis was reduced with pirenzepine 25 mg (P pirenzepine 25 mg with placebo; ranitidine 75 mg with placebo; pirenzepine 25 mg with ranitidine 75 mg; and placebo and placebo. These medications were administered 1 h before anaesthesia. After tracheal intubation, volume and pH of the gastric fluid aspiration via a multiorifice orogastric tube were measured. Pirenzepine 25 mg decreased gastric fluid volume (P pirenzepine-ranitidine combination reduced gastric fluid acidity and volume (P < 0.05).

  20. Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in chronic heart failure reduces bi-directional pulmonary fluid flux.

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; Mayne, George C; Griggs, Kim M; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Bersten, Andrew D


    Chronic heart failure leads to pulmonary vascular remodelling and thickening of the alveolar-capillary barrier. We examined whether this protective effect may slow resolution of pulmonary oedema consistent with decreased bi-directional fluid flux. Seven weeks following left coronary artery ligation, we measured both fluid flux during an acute rise in left atrial pressure (n = 29) and intrinsic alveolar fluid clearance (n = 45) in the isolated rat lung. Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure prevented pulmonary oedema and decreased lung compliance when left atrial pressure was raised to 20 cmH2O, and was associated with reduced expression of endothelial aquaporin 1 (P = 0.03). However, no other changes were found in mediators of fluid flux or cellular fluid channels. In isolated rat lungs, chronic LV dysfunction (LV end-diastolic pressure and infarct circumference) was also inversely related to alveolar fluid clearance (P ≤ 0.001). The rate of pulmonary oedema reabsorption was estimated by plasma volume expansion in eight patients with a previous clinical history of chronic heart failure and eight without, who presented with acute pulmonary oedema. Plasma volume expansion was reduced at 24 h in those with chronic heart failure (P = 0.03). Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in CHF leads to decreased intrinsic bi-directional fluid flux at the alveolar-capillary barrier. This adaptive response defends against alveolar flooding, but may delay resolution of alveolar oedema.

  1. Coupling lattice Boltzmann and molecular dynamics models for dense fluids

    Dupuis, A.; Kotsalis, E. M.; Koumoutsakos, P.


    We propose a hybrid model, coupling lattice Boltzmann (LB) and molecular dynamics (MD) models, for the simulation of dense fluids. Time and length scales are decoupled by using an iterative Schwarz domain decomposition algorithm. The MD and LB formulations communicate via the exchange of velocities and velocity gradients at the interface. We validate the present LB-MD model in simulations of two- and three-dimensional flows of liquid argon past and through a carbon nanotube. Comparisons with existing hybrid algorithms and with reference MD solutions demonstrate the validity of the present approach.

  2. A Probabilistic Model for Reducing Medication Errors

    Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Min-Huei; Huang, Chen-Ling; Li, Hsien-Chang; Clinciu, Daniel Livius; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack


    Background Medication errors are common, life threatening, costly but preventable. Information technology and automated systems are highly efficient for preventing medication errors and therefore widely employed in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to construct a probabilistic model that can reduce medication errors by identifying uncommon or rare associations between medications and diseases. Methods and Finding(s) Association rules of mining techniques are utilized for 103.5 million prescriptions from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. The dataset included 204.5 million diagnoses with ICD9-CM codes and 347.7 million medications by using ATC codes. Disease-Medication (DM) and Medication-Medication (MM) associations were computed by their co-occurrence and associations’ strength were measured by the interestingness or lift values which were being referred as Q values. The DMQs and MMQs were used to develop the AOP model to predict the appropriateness of a given prescription. Validation of this model was done by comparing the results of evaluation performed by the AOP model and verified by human experts. The results showed 96% accuracy for appropriate and 45% accuracy for inappropriate prescriptions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.9% and 89.5%, respectively. Conclusions We successfully developed the AOP model as an efficient tool for automatic identification of uncommon or rare associations between disease-medication and medication-medication in prescriptions. The AOP model helps to reduce medication errors by alerting physicians, improving the patients’ safety and the overall quality of care. PMID:24312659

  3. Perfect fluid Bianchi Type-I cosmological models with time varying and

    J P Singh; R K Tiwari


    Bianchi Type-I cosmological models containing perfect fluid with time varying and have been presented. The solutions obtained represent an expansion scalar bearing a constant ratio to the anisotropy in the direction of space-like unit vector . Of the two models obtained, one has negative vacuum energy density, which decays numerically. In this model, we obtain ∼ 2, ∼ 44/ and ∼ -2 ( is the cosmic time) which is in accordance with the main dynamical laws for the decay of . The second model reduces to a static solution with repulsive gravity.

  4. Numerical modelling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena of the fluidity test

    A. Bokota


    Full Text Available In the paper, two mathematical models of the solidification of a cylindrical shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal during the vertical fluidity test, has been proposed. In the general model, velocity and pressure fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, whereas the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. In the simplified model, making assumptions relating to both the material and the geometry of the region, the general equations for continuity and momentum have been reduced to single equation for pressure. This approach leads as to accelerate significantly of the fluid flow calculations. In this model, coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.

  5. Plasma interfacial mixing layers: Comparisons of fluid and kinetic models

    Vold, Erik; Yin, Lin; Taitano, William; Albright, B. J.; Chacon, Luis; Simakov, Andrei; Molvig, Kim


    We examine plasma transport across an initial discontinuity between two species by comparing fluid and kinetic models. The fluid model employs a kinetic theory approximation for plasma transport in the limit of small Knudsen number. The kinetic simulations include explicit particle-in-cell simulations (VPIC) and a new implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP. The two kinetic methods are shown to be in close agreement for many aspects of the mixing dynamics at early times (to several hundred collision times). The fluid model captures some of the earliest time dynamic behavior seen in the kinetic results, and also generally agrees with iFP at late times when the total pressure gradient relaxes and the species transport is dominated by slow diffusive processes. The results show three distinct phases of the mixing: a pressure discontinuity forms across the initial interface (on times of a few collisions), the pressure perturbations propagate away from the interfacial mixing region (on time scales of an acoustic transit) and at late times the pressure relaxes in the mix region leaving a non-zero center of mass flow velocity. The center of mass velocity associated with the outward propagating pressure waves is required to conserve momentum in the rest frame. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program.

  6. Combining multiblock and detailed fluid flow models (LOVI) - MASIT17

    Alopaeus, V.; Moilanen, P.; Visuri, O.; Laakkonen, M.; Aittamaa, J. (Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Heiskanen, K.; Wierink, G. (Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Espoo (Finland)); Manninen, M.; Seppaelae, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))


    The goal of this research project is to develop models for scale-up, design and operation of heterogeneous reactors. By computing a detailed fluid flow field and using it in a multiblock-model the computing times can be kept reasonable. Our modelling is based on phenomenological models verified on experimental results. Several experimental apparatuses have been used to study gas-liquid flow (tapered channel, 14/200dm3 stirred vessels and the 'giraffe') and bubble-particle interactions. A particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) apparatus is being purchased during 2008 to study fluid flow fields. There has been extensive experimental activity. During this project phenomenological models have been verified, numerical methods for the calculation of population balances have been improved, a novel local mixing time analysis method has been developed and automated multiblock generation algorithms have been developed. A method of evaluating CFD results with a single glance with a two-block model has been introduced. Fermentation process of Galilaeus and the flotation cell of Outotec have been modelled. (orig.)

  7. Two-Fluid Mathematical Models for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: A Comparative Study

    Sankar DS


    Full Text Available The pulsatile flow of blood through stenosed arteries is analyzed by assuming the blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as a non-Newtonian fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as a Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluid in the core region of the artery is assumed as a (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid and (ii Casson fluid. Perturbation method is used to solve the resulting system of non-linear partial differential equations. Expressions for various flow quantities are obtained for the two-fluid Casson model. Expressions of the flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Lee (2006 for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model are used to get the data for comparison. It is found that the plug flow velocity and velocity distribution of the two-fluid Casson model are considerably higher than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. It is also observed that the pressure drop, plug core radius, wall shear stress and the resistance to flow are significantly very low for the two-fluid Casson model than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, the two-fluid Casson model would be more useful than the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model to analyze the blood flow through stenosed arteries.

  8. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors

    Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

  9. Active noise control - Piezoceramic actuators in fluid/structure interaction models

    Banks, H. T.; Fang, W.; Smith, R. C.


    A model for a 2-D acoustic cavity with a flexible boundary (a beam) controlled via piezoceramic patches producing bending moments in the beam is considered. The associated control problem for this fluid/structure interaction system to reduce the acoustic pressure in the cavity involves unbounded control inputs. Approximation methods in the context of an LQR state space formulation are discussed, and numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in computing feedback controls for noise reduction.

  10. Peristaltic pneumatic compression of the legs reduces fluid demand and improves hemodynamic stability during surgery: a randomized, prospective study.

    Kiefer, Nicholas; Theis, Judith; Putensen-Himmer, Gabriele; Hoeft, Andreas; Zenker, Sven


    Perioperative fluid restriction might be beneficial in specific clinical settings. In this prospective, randomized and blinded study, we assessed whether peristaltic pneumatic compression of the legs can support restrictive fluid management strategies by reducing intraoperative fluid demand and improving hemodynamic stability. Seventy patients scheduled for minor surgery were randomly assigned to receive either intraoperative peristaltic pneumatic compression or placebo compression. Both groups received fluid therapy according to a goal-directed protocol with a crystalloid base rate of 2 ml · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹ and bolus infusions of 250 ml crystalloids triggered by hypotension, tachycardia, or high Pleth Variability Index. Patients treated with peristaltic pneumatic compression received less intravenous fluid: median (interquartile range) 286 (499) versus 921 (900) ml (P pneumatic peristaltic compression group (P pneumatic peristaltic compression, the median cumulative time of hypotension was shorter (0 [12.5] vs. 22.6 [22.8] min; P = 0.002), fewer hypotensive events were recorded (39 vs. 137; P = 0.001), and median lowest individual systolic pressure was higher (92 [8] vs. 85 [16] mmHg; P = 0.002). This study demonstrates that peristaltic pneumatic compression of the legs significantly improves hemodynamic stability and reduces fluid demand during minor surgery.

  11. Experimental and modeling hydraulic studies of foam drilling fluid flowing through vertical smooth pipes

    Amit Saxena


    Full Text Available Foam has emerged as an efficient drilling fluid for the drilling of low pressure, fractured and matured reservoirs because of its the ability to reduce formation damage, fluid loss, differential sticking etc. However the compressible nature along with its complicated rheology has made its implementation a multifaceted task. Knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of drilling fluid within the borehole is the key behind successful implementation of drilling job. However, little effort has been made to develop the hydrodynamic models for the foam flowing with cuttings through pipes of variable diameter. In the present study, hydrodynamics of the foam fluid was investigated through the vertical smooth pipes of different pipe diameters, with variable foam properties in a flow loop system. Effect of cutting loading on pressure drop was also studied. Thus, the present investigation estimates the differential pressure loss across the pipe. The flow loop permits foam flow through 25.4 mm, 38.1 mm and 50.8 mm diameter pipes. The smaller diameter pipes are used to replicate the annular spaces between the drill string and wellbore. The developed model determines the pressure loss along the pipe and the results are compared with a number of existing models. The developed model is able to predict the experimental results more accurately.

  12. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.


    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas.

  13. Complex fluid flow modeling with SPH on GPU

    Bilotta, Giuseppe; Hérault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro; Russo, Giovanni; Vicari, Annamaria


    We describe an implementation of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for the simulation of complex fluid flows. The algorithm is entirely executed on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA and fully exploiting their computational power. An increase of one to two orders of magnitude in simulation speed over equivalent CPU code is achieved. A complete modeling of the flow of a complex fluid such as lava is challenging from the modelistic, numerical and computational points of view. The natural topography irregularities, the dynamic free boundaries and phenomena such as solidification, presence of floating solid bodies or other obstacles and their eventual fragmentation make the problem difficult to solve using traditional numerical methods (finite volumes, finite elements): the need to refine the discretization grid in correspondence of high gradients, when possible, is computationally expensive and with an often inadequate control of the error; for real-world applications, moreover, the information needed by the grid refinement may not be available (e.g. because the Digital Elevation Models are too coarse); boundary tracking is also problematic with Eulerian discretizations, more so with complex fluids due to the presence of internal boundaries given by fluid inhomogeneity and presence of solidification fronts. An alternative approach is offered by mesh-free particle methods, that solve most of the problems connected to the dynamics of complex fluids in a natural way. Particle methods discretize the fluid using nodes which are not forced on a given topological structure: boundary treatment is therefore implicit and automatic; the movement freedom of the particles also permits the treatment of deformations without incurring in any significant penalty; finally, the accuracy is easily controlled by the insertion of new particles where needed. Our team has developed a new model based on the

  14. Levels of atherogenic lipoproteins are unexpectedly reduced in interstitial fluid from type 2 diabetes patients.

    Apro, Johanna; Parini, Paolo; Broijersén, Anders; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats


    At a given level of serum cholesterol, patients with T2D have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis compared with nondiabetic subjects. We hypothesized that T2D patients have an increased interstitial fluid (IF)-to-serum gradient ratio for LDL, due to leakage over the vascular wall. Therefore, lipoprotein profiles in serum and IF from 35 T2D patients and 35 healthy controls were assayed using fast performance liquid chromatography. The IF-to-serum gradients for VLDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as for apoB, were clearly reduced in T2D patients compared with healthy controls. No such differences were observed for HDL cholesterol. Contrary to our hypothesis, the atherogenic VLDL and LDL particles were not increased in IF from diabetic patients. Instead, they were relatively sparser than in healthy controls. The most probable explanation to our unexpected finding is that these lipoproteins are more susceptible to retainment in the extravascular space of these patients, reflecting a more active uptake by, or adhesion to, tissue cells, including macrophages in the vascular wall. Further studies are warranted to further characterize the mechanisms underlying these observations, which may be highly relevant for the understanding of why the propensity to develop atherosclerosis is increased in T2D. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Sandwich wound closure reduces the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in posterior fossa surgery

    Verena Heymanns


    Full Text Available Posterior fossa surgery is demanding and hides a significant number of obstacles starting from the approach to the wound closure. The risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage in posterior fossa surgery given in the literature is around 8%. The present study aims to introduce a sandwich closure of the dura in posterior fossa surgery, which reduces significantly the number of CSF leaks (3.8% in the patients treated in our department. Three hundred and ten patients treated in our hospital in the years 2009-2013 for posterior fossa pathologies were retrospectively evaluated. The dura closure method was as following: lyophilized dura put under the dura and sealed with fibrin glue and sutures, dura adapting stitches, TachoSil® (Takeda Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark, Gelfoam® (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA and polymethylmethacrylate (osteoclastic craniotomy. The incidence of postsurgical complications associated with the dural closure like CSF leakage, infections, bleeding is evaluated. Only 3.8% of patients developed CSF leakage and only 0.5% needed a second surgery for CSF leakage closure. Two percent had a cerebellar bleeding with no need for re-operation and 3% had a wound infection treated with antibiotics. The sandwich wound closure we are applying for posterior fossa surgery in our patients correlates with a significant reduction of CSF leaks compared to the literature.

  16. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W.


    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determine if the concentration of NO metabolites (NOx−) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is correlated with the development of EPM. CSF NOx− levels were measured before and after transport-stressed, acclimated, or dexamethasone-treated horses (n = 3 per group) were experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. CSF NOx− levels were also compared between horses that were diagnosed with EPM after natural infection with S. neurona and horses that did not have clinical signs of disease or that showed no evidence of infection with the parasite (n = 105). Among the experimentally infected animals, the mean CSF NOx− levels of the transport-stressed group, which had the most severe clinical signs, was reduced after infection, while these values were found to increase after infection in the remaining groups that had less severe signs of EPM. Under natural conditions, horses with EPM (n = 65) had a lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than clinically normal horses with antibodies (Abs) against S. neurona (n = 15) in CSF, and horses that developed ataxia (n = 81) had a significantly lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than horses that did not have neurologic signs (n = 24). In conclusion, lower CSF NOx− levels were associated with clinical EPM, suggesting that measurement of CSF NOx− levels could improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests that are based upon detection of S. neurona-specific Abs in CSF alone and that reduced NO levels could be causatively related to the development

  17. The effect of pore fluid on seismicity: a computer model


    The influence of fluid on seismicity of a computerized system is analyzed in this paper. The diffusion equation of fluid in a crustal fault area is developed and used in the calculation of a spring-slide-damper model. With mirror imagin boundary condition and three initial conditions, the equation is solved for a dynamic model that consists of six seismic belts and eight seismogenous sources in each belt with both explicit algorithm and implicit algorithm. The analysis of the model with water sources shows that the implicit algorithm is better to be used to calculate the model. Taking a constant proportion of the pore pressure of a broken element to that of its neighboring elements, the seismicity of the model is calculated with mirror boundary condition and no-water-source initial condition. The results shows that the frequency and magnitude of shocks are both higher than those in the model with no water pore pressure, which provides more complexity to earthquake prediction.

  18. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection. [BWR

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.


    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena.

  19. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.

    Goldstein, Raymond E


    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  20. A mathematical model of post-instability in fluid mechanics

    Zak, M. A.


    Postinstability of fluids is eliminated in numerical models by introducing multivalued velocity fields after discarding the principle of impenetrability. Smooth functions are shown to be incapable of keeping the derivatives from going towards infinity when iterating solutions for the governing equations such as those defined by Navier-Stokes. Enlarging the class of functions is shown to be necessary to eliminate the appearance of imaginary characteristic roots in the systems of arbitrary partial differential equations, a condition which leads to physically impossible motions. The enlarging is demonstrated to be achievable by allowing several individual particles with different velocities to appear at the same point of space, and the subsequent multivaluedness of the solutions is purely a mathematical concern, rather than one of actual physical existence. Applications are provided for an inviscid fluid and for turbulence.

  1. Viscoelastic models with consistent hypoelasticity for fluids undergoing finite deformations

    Altmeyer, Guillaume; Rouhaud, Emmanuelle; Panicaud, Benoit; Roos, Arjen; Kerner, Richard; Wang, Mingchuan


    Constitutive models of viscoelastic fluids are written with rate-form equations when considering finite deformations. Trying to extend the approach used to model these effects from an infinitesimal deformation to a finite transformation framework, one has to ensure that the tensors and their rates are indifferent with respect to the change of observer and to the superposition with rigid body motions. Frame-indifference problems can be solved with the use of an objective stress transport, but the choice of such an operator is not obvious and the use of certain transports usually leads to physically inconsistent formulation of hypoelasticity. The aim of this paper is to present a consistent formulation of hypoelasticity and to combine it with a viscosity model to construct a consistent viscoelastic model. In particular, the hypoelastic model is reversible.

  2. Aquaporin deletion in mice reduces intraocular pressure and aqueous fluid production.

    Zhang, Duo; Vetrivel, L; Verkman, A S


    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed in the eye at sites of aqueous fluid production and outflow: AQP1 and AQP4 in nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, and AQP1 in trabecular meshwork endothelium. Novel methods were developed to compare aqueous fluid dynamics in wild-type mice versus mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4. Aqueous fluid production was measured by in vivo confocal microscopy after transcorneal iontophoretic introduction of fluorescein. Intraocular pressure (IOP), outflow, and anterior chamber compliance were determined from pressure measurements in response to fluid infusions using micropipettes. Aqueous fluid volume and [Cl(-)] were assayed in samples withdrawn by micropipettes. In wild-type mice (CD1 genetic background, age 4-6 wk), IOP was 16.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg (SE), aqueous fluid volume 7.2 +/- 0.3 microl, fluid production 3.6 +/- 0.2 microl/h, fluid outflow 0.36 +/- 0.06 microl/h/mmHg, and compliance 0.036 +/- 0.006 microl/mmHg. IOP was significantly decreased by up to 1.8 mmHg (P fluid production by up to 0.9 microl/h in age/litter-matched mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4 (outbred CD1 and inbred C57/bl6 genetic backgrounds). However, AQP deletion did not significantly affect outflow, [Cl(-)], volume, or compliance. These results provide evidence for the involvement of AQPs in intraocular pressure regulation by facilitating aqueous fluid secretion across the ciliary epithelium. AQP inhibition may thus provide a novel approach for the treatment of elevated IOP.

  3. Unified fluid model analysis and benchmark study for electron transport in gas and liquid analogs

    Garland, N. A.; Cocks, D. G.; Boyle, G. J.; Dujko, S.; White, R. D.


    The interaction of plasmas with liquids requires an understanding of charged particle transport in both the gaseous and liquid phases. In this study we present a generalized fluid-equation framework to describe bulk electron transport in both gaseous and non-polar liquid environments under non-hydrodynamic non-equilibrium conditions. The framework includes liquid structural effects through appropriate inclusion of coherent scattering effects and adaption of swarm data to account for the modification to the scattering environment present in such systems. In the limit of low-densities it reduces to the traditional gas-phase fluid-equation model. Using a higher-order fluid model (four moments), it is shown that by applying steady state electron swarm data in both the gaseous and liquid phases, to close the system of equations and evaluate collisional rates, an improvement in macroscopic electron transport results over popular existing assumptions used. The failure of the local mean energy approximation in fluid models to accurately describe complex spatial oscillatory structures in both the gaseous and liquid phases is discussed in terms of the spatial variation of the electron distribution function itself.

  4. Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow

    Laux, Harald


    A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a

  5. Improvement of Basic Fluid Dynamics Models for the COMPASS Code

    Zhang, Shuai; Morita, Koji; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    The COMPASS code is a new next generation safety analysis code to provide local information for various key phenomena in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, which is based on the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. In this study, improvement of basic fluid dynamics models for the COMPASS code was carried out and verified with fundamental verification calculations. A fully implicit pressure solution algorithm was introduced to improve the numerical stability of MPS simulations. With a newly developed free surface model, numerical difficulty caused by poor pressure solutions is overcome by involving free surface particles in the pressure Poisson equation. In addition, applicability of the MPS method to interactions between fluid and multi-solid bodies was investigated in comparison with dam-break experiments with solid balls. It was found that the PISO algorithm and free surface model makes simulation with the passively moving solid model stable numerically. The characteristic behavior of solid balls was successfully reproduced by the present numerical simulations.

  6. Lattice-fluid model for gas-liquid chromatography.

    Tao, Y; Wells, P S; Yi, X; Yun, K S; Parcher, J F


    Lattice-fluid models describe molecular ensembles in terms of the number of lattice sites occupied by molecular species (r-mers) and the interactions between neighboring molecules. The lattice-fluid model proposed by Sanchez and Lacombe (Macromolecules, 1978;11:1145-1156) was used to model specific retention volume data for a series of n-alkane solutes with n-alkane, polystyrene, and poly(dimethylsiloxane) stationary liquid phases. Theoretical equations were derived for the specific retention volume and also for the temperature dependence and limiting (high temperature) values for the specific retention volume. The model was used to predict retention volumes within 10% for the n-alkanes phases; 22% for polystyrene; and from 20 to 70% for PDMS using no adjustable parameters. The temperature derivative (enthalpy) could be calculated within 5% for all of the solutes in nine stationary liquid phases. The limiting value for the specific retention volume at high temperature (entropy controlled state) could be calculated within 10% for all of the systems. The limiting data also provided a new chromatographic method to measure the size parameter, r, for any chromatographic solute using characteristic and size parameters for the stationary phase only. The calculated size parameters of the solutes were consistent, i.e. independent of the stationary phase and agreed within experimental error with the size parameters previously reported from saturated vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization or density data.

  7. A thermodynamic model to predict wax formation in petroleum fluids

    Coutinho, J.A.P. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica. Centro de Investigacao em Quimica]. E-mail:; Pauly, J.; Daridon, J.L. [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Pau (France). Lab. des Fluides Complexes


    Some years ago the authors proposed a model for the non-ideality of the solid phase, based on the Predictive Local Composition concept. This was first applied to the Wilson equation and latter extended to NRTL and UNIQUAC models. Predictive UNIQUAC proved to be extraordinarily successful in predicting the behaviour of both model and real hydrocarbon fluids at low temperatures. This work illustrates the ability of Predictive UNIQUAC in the description of the low temperature behaviour of petroleum fluids. It will be shown that using Predictive UNIQUAC in the description of the solid phase non-ideality a complete prediction of the low temperature behaviour of synthetic paraffin solutions, fuels and crude oils is achieved. The composition of both liquid and solid phases, the amount of crystals formed and the cloud points are predicted within the accuracy of the experimental data. The extension of Predictive UNIQUAC to high pressures, by coupling it with an EOS/G{sup E} model based on the SRK EOS used with the LCVM mixing rule, is proposed and predictions of phase envelopes for live oils are compared with experimental data. (author)

  8. A Fluid Model for Performance Analysis in Cellular Networks

    Coupechoux Marceau


    Full Text Available We propose a new framework to study the performance of cellular networks using a fluid model and we derive from this model analytical formulas for interference, outage probability, and spatial outage probability. The key idea of the fluid model is to consider the discrete base station (BS entities as a continuum of transmitters that are spatially distributed in the network. This model allows us to obtain simple analytical expressions to reveal main characteristics of the network. In this paper, we focus on the downlink other-cell interference factor (OCIF, which is defined for a given user as the ratio of its outer cell received power to its inner cell received power. A closed-form formula of the OCIF is provided in this paper. From this formula, we are able to obtain the global outage probability as well as the spatial outage probability, which depends on the location of a mobile station (MS initiating a new call. Our analytical results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed in a traditional hexagonal network. Furthermore, we demonstrate an application of the outage probability related to cell breathing and densification of cellular networks.

  9. A new interacting two-fluid model and its consequences

    Sharov, G. S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pan, S.; Nunes, R. C.; Chakraborty, S.


    In the background of a homogeneous and isotropic space-time with zero spatial curvature, we consider interacting scenarios between two barotropic fluids, one is the pressureless dark matter and the other one is dark energy (DE), in which the equation of state (EoS) in DE is either constant or time-dependent. In particular, for constant EoS in DE, we show that the evolution equations for both fluids can be analytically solved. For all these scenarios, the model parameters have been constrained using the current astronomical observations from Type Ia supernovae, Hubble parameter measurements and baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements. Our analysis shows that both for constant and variable EoS in DE, a very small but non-zero interaction in the dark sector is favoured while the EoS in DE can predict a slight phantom nature, i.e. the EoS in DE can cross the phantom divide line '-1'. On the other hand, although the models with variable EoS describe the observations better, the Akaike Information Criterion supports models with minimal number of parameters. However, it is found that all the models are very close to the Λ cold dark matter cosmology.


    J.A.P. Coutinho


    Full Text Available Some years ago the authors proposed a model for the non-ideality of the solid phase, based on the Predictive Local Composition concept. This was first applied to the Wilson equation and latter extended to NRTL and UNIQUAC models. Predictive UNIQUAC proved to be extraordinarily successful in predicting the behaviour of both model and real hydrocarbon fluids at low temperatures. This work illustrates the ability of Predictive UNIQUAC in the description of the low temperature behaviour of petroleum fluids. It will be shown that using Predictive UNIQUAC in the description of the solid phase non-ideality a complete prediction of the low temperature behaviour of synthetic paraffin solutions, fuels and crude oils is achieved. The composition of both liquid and solid phases, the amount of crystals formed and the cloud points are predicted within the accuracy of the experimental data. The extension of Predictive UNIQUAC to high pressures, by coupling it with an EOS/G E model based on the SRK EOS used with the LCVM mixing rule, is proposed and predictions of phase envelopes for live oils are compared with experimental data.

  11. Computational modeling of fluid structural interaction in arterial stenosis

    Bali, Leila; Boukedjane, Mouloud; Bahi, Lakhdar


    Atherosclerosis affects the arterial blood vessels causing stenosis because of which the artery hardens resulting in loss of elasticity in the affected region. In this paper, we present: an approach to model the fluid-structure interaction through such an atherosclerosis affected region of the artery, The blood is assumed as an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid, and the vessel wall was treated as a thick-walled, incompressible and isotropic material with uniform mechanical properties. The numerical simulation has been studied in the context of The Navier-Stokes equations for an interaction with an elastic solid. The study of fluid flow and wall motion was initially carried out separately, Discretized forms of the transformed wall and flow equations, which are coupled through the boundary conditions at their interface, are obtained by control volume method and simultaneously to study the effects of wall deformability, solutions are obtained for both rigid and elastic walls. The results indicate that deformability of the wall causes an increase in the time average of pressure drop, but a decrease in the maximum wall shear stress. Displacement and stress distributions in the wall are presented.

  12. Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model

    Saurabh Singh


    Full Text Available Poiseuille’s equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD of 13 (12%. Marshall’s hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD flow rate increase of only 19 (13%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD of 43 (17% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille’s equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions.

  13. Flow of a blood analogue fluid in a compliant abdominal aortic aneurysm model: experimental modelling.

    Deplano, Valérie; Knapp, Yannick; Bailly, Lucie; Bertrand, Eric


    The aim of this work is to develop a unique in vitro set-up in order to analyse the influence of the shear thinning fluid-properties on the flow dynamics within the bulge of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). From an experimental point of view, the goals are to elaborate an analogue shear thinning fluid mimicking the macroscopic blood behaviour, to characterise its rheology at low shear rates and to propose an experimental device able to manage such an analogue fluid without altering its feature while reproducing physiological flow rate and pressure, through compliant AAA. Once these experimental prerequisites achieved, the results obtained in the present work show that the flow dynamics is highly dependent on the fluid rheology. The main results point out that the propagation of the vortex ring, generated in the AAA bulge, is slower for shear thinning fluids inducing a smaller travelled distance by the vortex ring so that it never impacts the anterior wall in the distal region, in opposition to Newtonian fluids. Moreover, scalar shear rate values are globally lower for shear thinning fluids inducing higher maximum stress values than those for the Newtonian fluids. Consequently, this work highlights that a Newtonian fluid model is finally inadequate to obtain a reliable prediction of the flow dynamics within AAA.

  14. Modeling supercritical fluid extraction process involving solute-solid interaction

    Goto, M.; Roy, B. Kodama, A.; Hirose, T. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)


    Extraction or leaching of solute from natural solid material is a mass transfer process involving dissolution or release of solutes from a solid matrix. Interaction between the solute and solid matrix often influences the supercritical fluid extraction process. A model accounting for the solute-solid interaction as well as mass transfer is developed. The BET equation is used to incorporate the interaction and the solubility of solutes into the local equilibrium in the model. Experimental data for the supercritical extraction of essential oil and cuticular wax from peppermint leaves are successfully analyzed by the model. The effects of parameters on the extraction behavior are demonstrated to illustrate the concept of the model. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Modulation of the interstitial fluid pressure by high intensity focused ultrasound as a way to alter local fluid and solute movement: insights from a mathematical model.

    Sassaroli, E; O'Neill, B E


    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operated in thermal mode has been reported to reduce interstitial fluid pressure and improve the penetration of large macromolecules and nanoparticles in tumor and normal tissue. Little is understood about how the interstitial fluid pressure and velocity as well as the interstitial macromolecule transport are affected by HIFU exposure. A mathematical model is presented here which sheds light on the initial biophysical changes brought about HIFU. Our continuum model treats tissue as an effective poro-elastic material that reacts to elevated temperatures with a rapid drop in interstitial elastic modulus. Using parameters from the literature, the model is extrapolated to derive information on the effect in tumors, and to predict its impact on the convective and diffusive transport of macromolecular drugs. The model is first solved using an analytical approximation with step-wise changes at each boundary, and then solved numerically starting from a Gaussian beam approximation of the ultrasound treatment. Our results indicate that HIFU causes a rapid drop in interstitial fluid pressure that may be exploited to facilitate convection of macromolecules from vasculature to the exposed region. However, following a short recovery period in which the interstitial fluid pressure is normalized, transport returns to normal and the advantages disappear over time. The results indicate that this effect is strongest for the delivery of large molecules and nanoparticles that are in the circulation at the time of treatment. The model may be easily applied to more complex situations involving effects on vascular permeability and diffusion.

  16. Antiretroviral treatment effect on immune activation reduces cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection.

    Sinclair, Elizabeth; Ronquillo, Rollie; Lollo, Nicole; Deeks, Steven G; Hunt, Peter; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W


    To define the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on activation of T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, and interactions of this activation with CSF HIV-1 RNA concentrations. Cross-sectional analysis of 14 HIV-negative subjects and 123 neuroasymptomatic HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 3 groups: not on ART (termed "offs"), on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA >500 copies/mL ("failures"), and on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA reduced in failures compared to offs across the range of plasma HIV-1, it maintained a coincident relation to CSF HIV-1 in both viremic groups. In addition to correlation with CSF HIV-1 concentrations, CD8 activation in blood and CSF correlated with CSF WBCs and CSF neopterin. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of blood CD8 T-cell activation, along with plasma HIV-1 RNA and CSF neopterin, with CSF HIV-1 RNA levels. The similarity of CD8 T-cell activation in blood and CSF suggests these cells move from blood to CSF with only minor changes in CD38/HLA-DR expression. Differences in the relation of CD8 activation to HIV-1 concentrations in the blood and CSF in the 2 viremic groups suggest that changes in immune activation not only modulate CSF HIV-1 replication but also contribute to CSF treatment effects. The magnitude of systemic HIV-1 infection and intrathecal macrophage activation are also important determinants of CSF HIV-1 RNA levels.

  17. Computational modelling on 2D magnetohydrodynamic flow of Sisko fluid over a time dependent stretching surface

    Mahmood, T.; Shahzad, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Ahmed, J.; Khan, M.

    A study is presented for the flow and heat transfer of Sisko fluid model over an unsteady stretching sheet in the presence of uniform magnetic field. While taking newly developed similarity transformations, the governing time dependent partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of the reduced nonlinear differential equations are found by employing Shooting method. The influence of physical parameters of interest on the velocity and temperature profiles are highlighted graphically and examined in detail. Moreover, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are tabulated against influential parameters. Skin friction coefficient increases with unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field and suction parameter.

  18. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates

    Siggers, Jayda; Østergaard, Mette V.; Siggers, Richard H.


    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we...

  19. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    Liu, Jian-Guo


    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. River Network Evolution Based on Fluid-Erosion Model


    A new landscape evolution model is proposed which is composed of the shallow water equations for the fluid above the sediment and the mass conservation equation of the sediment. Numerical simulations of the formation of landscape and river network are carried out based on these equations. It is shown that steady patterns of river network are formed for the initial inclinations of slopes within 0.00005 and 0.005. The fractal dimensions of the river network and the exponent of Hack's law are ob...

  1. Reduced-Rank Hidden Markov Models

    Siddiqi, Sajid M; Gordon, Geoffrey J


    We introduce the Reduced-Rank Hidden Markov Model (RR-HMM), a generalization of HMMs that can model smooth state evolution as in Linear Dynamical Systems (LDSs) as well as non-log-concave predictive distributions as in continuous-observation HMMs. RR-HMMs assume an m-dimensional latent state and n discrete observations, with a transition matrix of rank k <= m. This implies the dynamics evolve in a k-dimensional subspace, while the shape of the set of predictive distributions is determined by m. Latent state belief is represented with a k-dimensional state vector and inference is carried out entirely in R^k, making RR-HMMs as computationally efficient as k-state HMMs yet more expressive. To learn RR-HMMs, we relax the assumptions of a recently proposed spectral learning algorithm for HMMs (Hsu, Kakade and Zhang 2009) and apply it to learn k-dimensional observable representations of rank-k RR-HMMs. The algorithm is consistent and free of local optima, and we extend its performance guarantees to cover the RR-...

  2. A Comprehensive Numerical Model for Simulating Fluid Transport in Nanopores

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Wei; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; di, Yuan


    Since a large amount of nanopores exist in tight oil reservoirs, fluid transport in nanopores is complex due to large capillary pressure. Recent studies only focus on the effect of nanopore confinement on single-well performance with simple planar fractures in tight oil reservoirs. Its impacts on multi-well performance with complex fracture geometries have not been reported. In this study, a numerical model was developed to investigate the effect of confined phase behavior on cumulative oil and gas production of four horizontal wells with different fracture geometries. Its pore sizes were divided into five regions based on nanopore size distribution. Then, fluid properties were evaluated under different levels of capillary pressure using Peng-Robinson equation of state. Afterwards, an efficient approach of Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) was applied to explicitly model hydraulic and natural fractures in the reservoirs. Finally, three fracture geometries, i.e. non-planar hydraulic fractures, non-planar hydraulic fractures with one set natural fractures, and non-planar hydraulic fractures with two sets natural fractures, are evaluated. The multi-well performance with confined phase behavior is analyzed with permeabilities of 0.01 md and 0.1 md. This work improves the analysis of capillarity effect on multi-well performance with complex fracture geometries in tight oil reservoirs.

  3. Global Regularity for Several Incompressible Fluid Models with Partial Dissipation

    Wu, Jiahong; Xu, Xiaojing; Ye, Zhuan


    This paper examines the global regularity problem on several 2D incompressible fluid models with partial dissipation. They are the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation, the 2D Euler equation and the 2D Boussinesq equations. These are well-known models in fluid mechanics and geophysics. The fundamental issue of whether or not they are globally well-posed has attracted enormous attention. The corresponding models with partial dissipation may arise in physical circumstances when the dissipation varies in different directions. We show that the SQG equation with either horizontal or vertical dissipation always has global solutions. This is in sharp contrast with the inviscid SQG equation for which the global regularity problem remains outstandingly open. Although the 2D Euler is globally well-posed for sufficiently smooth data, the associated equations with partial dissipation no longer conserve the vorticity and the global regularity is not trivial. We are able to prove the global regularity for two partially dissipated Euler equations. Several global bounds are also obtained for a partially dissipated Boussinesq system.

  4. Global Regularity for Several Incompressible Fluid Models with Partial Dissipation

    Wu, Jiahong; Xu, Xiaojing; Ye, Zhuan


    This paper examines the global regularity problem on several 2D incompressible fluid models with partial dissipation. They are the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation, the 2D Euler equation and the 2D Boussinesq equations. These are well-known models in fluid mechanics and geophysics. The fundamental issue of whether or not they are globally well-posed has attracted enormous attention. The corresponding models with partial dissipation may arise in physical circumstances when the dissipation varies in different directions. We show that the SQG equation with either horizontal or vertical dissipation always has global solutions. This is in sharp contrast with the inviscid SQG equation for which the global regularity problem remains outstandingly open. Although the 2D Euler is globally well-posed for sufficiently smooth data, the associated equations with partial dissipation no longer conserve the vorticity and the global regularity is not trivial. We are able to prove the global regularity for two partially dissipated Euler equations. Several global bounds are also obtained for a partially dissipated Boussinesq system.

  5. A two-fluid model for violent aerated flows

    Dias, Frédéric; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel


    In the study of ocean wave impact on structures, one often uses Froude scaling since the dominant force is gravity. However the presence of trapped or entrained air in the water can significantly modify wave impacts. When air is entrained in water in the form of small bubbles, the acoustic properties in the water change dramatically. While some work has been done to study small-amplitude disturbances in such mixtures, little work has been done on large disturbances in air-water mixtures. We propose a basic two-fluid model in which both fluids share the same velocities and analyze some of its properties. It is shown that this model can successfully mimic water wave impacts on coastal structures. The governing equations are discretized by a second-order finite volume method. Numerical results are presented for two examples: the dam break problem and the drop test problem. It is shown that this basic model can be used to study violent aerated flows, especially by providing fast qualitative estimates.

  6. Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.

    Ying Yan

    Full Text Available Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.

  7. Two-fluid model stability, simulation and chaos

    Bertodano, Martín López de; Clausse, Alejandro; Ransom, Victor H


    This book addresses the linear and nonlinear two-phase stability of the one-dimensional Two-Fluid Model (TFM) material waves and the numerical methods used to solve it. The TFM fluid dynamic stability is a problem that remains open since its inception more than forty years ago. The difficulty is formidable because it involves the combined challenges of two-phase topological structure and turbulence, both nonlinear phenomena. The one dimensional approach permits the separation of the former from the latter. The authors first analyze the kinematic and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with the simplified one-dimensional Fixed-Flux Model (FFM). They then analyze the density wave instability with the well-known Drift-Flux Model. They demonstrate that the Fixed-Flux and Drift-Flux assumptions are two complementary TFM simplifications that address two-phase local and global linear instabilities separately. Furthermore, they demonstrate with a well-posed FFM and a DFM two cases of nonlinear two-phase behavior that are ...

  8. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of water-like fluids

    Sauro eSucci


    Full Text Available We review recent advances on the mesoscopic modeling of water-like fluids,based on the lattice Boltzmann (LB methodology.The main idea is to enrich the basic LB (hydro-dynamics with angular degrees of freedom responding to suitable directional potentials between water-like molecules.The model is shown to reproduce some microscopic features of liquid water, such as an average number of hydrogen bonds per molecules (HBs between $3$ and $4$, as well as a qualitatively correctstatistics of the hydrogen bond angle as a function of the temperature.Future developments, based on the coupling the present water-like LB model with the dynamics of suspended bodies,such as biopolymers, may open new angles of attack to the simulation of complex biofluidic problems, such as protein folding and aggregation, and the motion of large biomolecules in complex cellular environments.

  9. The regular conducting fluid model for relativistic thermodynamics

    Carter, Brandon


    The "regular" model presented here can be considered to be the most natural solution to the problem of constructing the simplest possible relativistic analogue of the category of classical Fourier--Euler thermally conducting fluid models as characterised by a pair of equations of state for just two dependent variables (an equilibrium density and a conducting scalar). The historically established but causally unsatisfactory solution to this problem due to Eckart is shown to be based on an ansatz that is interpretable as postulating a most unnatural relation between the (particle and entropy) velocities and their associated momenta, which accounts for the well known bad behaviour of that model which has recently been shown to have very pathological mixed-elliptic-hyperbolic comportments. The newer (and more elegant) solution of Landau and Lifshitz has a more mathematically respectable parabolic-hyperbolic comportment, but is still compatible with a well posed initial value problem only in such a restricted limi...

  10. On Modeling the Response of Synovial Fluid: Unsteady Flow of a Shear-Thinning, Chemically-Reacting Fluid Mixture

    Bridges, Craig; Rajagopal, K R


    We study the flow of a shear-thinning, chemically-reacting fluid that could be used to model the flow of the synovial fluid. The actual geometry where the flow of the synovial fluid takes place is very complicated, and therefore the governing equations are not amenable to simple mathematical analysis. In order to understand the response of the model, we choose to study the flow in a simple geometry. While the flow domain is not a geometry relevant to the flow of the synovial fluid in the human body it yet provides a flow which can be used to assess the efficacy of different models that have been proposed to describe synovial fluids. We study the flow in the annular region between two cylinders, one of which is undergoing unsteady oscillations about their common axis, in order to understand the quintessential behavioral characteristics of the synovial fluid. We use the three models suggested by Hron et al. [ J. Hron, J. M\\'{a}lek, P. Pust\\v{e}jovsk\\'{a}, K. R. Rajagopal, On concentration dependent shear-thinni...

  11. Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow

    Laux, Harald


    A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.

  13. Magnetic field effect on blood flow of Casson fluid in axisymmetric cylindrical tube: A fractional model

    Ali, Farhad; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad; Khan, Ilyas; Saqib, Muhammad


    The effects of magnetohydrodynamics on the blood flow when blood is represented as a Casson fluid, along with magnetic particles in a horizontal cylinder is studied. The flow is due to an oscillating pressure gradient. The Laplace and finite Hankel transforms are used to obtain the closed form solutions of the fractional partial differential equations. Effects of various parameters on the flow of both blood and magnetic particles are shown graphically. The analysis shows that, the model with fractional order derivatives bring a remarkable changes as compared to the ordinary model. The study highlights that applied magnetic field reduces the velocities of both the blood and magnetic particles.

  14. [Postoperative metabolic acidosis: use of three different fluid therapy models].

    Tellan, Guglielmo; Antonucci, Adriana; Marandola, Maurizio; Naclerio, Michele; Fiengo, Leslie; Molinari, Stefania; Delogu, Giovanna


    Intraoperative fluid administration is considered an important factor in the management of metabolic acidosis following surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to compare three types of intraoperative infusional models in order to evaluate their effect on acid-base changes in the immediate postoperative period as calculated by both the Henderson-Hasselbach equation and the Stewart approach. Forty-seven patients undergoing left hemicolectomy were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to receiving 0.9% saline alone (Group A, n=16), lactated Ringer's solution alone (Group B, n=16) or 0.9% saline and Ringer's solution, 1:1 ratio (Group C, n=15). Arterial blood samples were taken before operation (t0) and 30 min after extubation (t1) in order to measure the acid-base balance. The results showed a metabolic acidosis status in Group A patients, whereas Group B exhibited metabolic alkalosis only by means of the Stewart method. No difference was found in Group C between the time points t0 and t1 when using either the Henderson-Hasselbach equation or using the Stewart model. We conclude that saline solution in association with Ringer's solution (1:1 ratio) appears to be the most suitable form of intraoperative fluid management in order to guarantee a stable acid-base balance in selected surgical patients during the immediate postoperative period.

  15. Experiments and Modeling of G-Jitter Fluid Mechanics

    Leslie, F. W.; Ramachandran, N.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)


    While there is a general understanding of the acceleration environment onboard an orbiting spacecraft, past research efforts in the modeling and analysis area have still not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter can use to assess how an experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling for better understanding the effect of residual gravity and gentler on experiments. The approach is to use magnetic fluids that respond to an imposed magnetic field gradient in much the same way as fluid density responds to a gravitational field. By utilizing a programmable power source in conjunction with an electromagnet, both static and dynamic body forces can be simulated in lab experiments. The paper provides an overview of the technique and includes recent results from the experiments.

  16. Function of Hexagenia (Mayfly) Burrows: Fluid Model Suggests Bacterial Gardening

    Traynham, B.; Furbish, D.; Miller, M.; White, D.


    Lake and stream bottoms experience an array of physical, chemical, and biological processes that create spatial variations both in the fluid column and in the sediment that provide a physical template for distinct niches. Burrowing insects are major ecological engineers of communities where they structure large areas of the benthic habitat through bioturbation and other activities including respiration, feeding, and defecation. The burrowing mayfly Hexagenia, when present in high densities, has a large impact on food-web dynamics and provides essential ecosystem services within the fluid column and benthic substrate, including sediment mixing, nutrient cycling, and ultimately, energy flow through the freshwater food web. It has long been recognized that particular benthic species are important in linking detrital energy resources to higher trophic levels and for determining how organic matter is processed in freshwater ecosystems; however, the unique contributions made by individual benthic species is largely absent from the literature. Here we present a model that describes the structure and function of a Hexagenia burrow. If testing supports this hypothesis, the model suggests that when high food concentration is available to Hexagenia, there exists a favorable tube length for harvesting bacteria that grow on the burrow walls. The burrow microhabitat created by Hexagenia serves as a case-study in understanding the influence of benthic burrowers on both energy flow through freshwater food webs and nutrient cycling.

  17. Exact EGB models for spherical static perfect fluids

    Hansraj, Sudan; Maharaj, Sunil D


    We obtain a new exact solution to the field equations in the EGB modified theory of gravity for a 5-dimensional spherically symmetric static distribution. By using a transformation, the study is reduced to the analysis of a single second order nonlinear differential equation. In general the condition of pressure isotropy produces a first order differential equation which is an Abel equation of the second kind. An exact solution is found. The solution is examined for physical admissability. In particular a set of constants is found which ensures that a pressure-free hypersurface exists which defines the boundary of the distribution. Additionally the isotropic pressure and the energy density are shown to be positive within the radius of the sphere. The adiabatic sound speed criterion is also satisfied within the fluid ensuring a subluminal sound speed. Furthermore, the weak, strong and dominant conditions hold throughout the distribution. On setting the Gauss-Bonnet coupling to zero, an exact solution for 5-dim...

  18. Fluid-solid coupling model for studying wellbore instability in drilling of gas hydrate bearing sediments

    程远方; 李令东; 崔青


    As the oil or gas exploration and development activities in deep and ultra-deep waters become more and more, encountering gas hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) is almost inevitable. The variation in temperature and pressure can destabilize gas hydrate in nearby formation around the borehole, which may reduce the strength of the formation and result in wellbore instability. A non-isothermal, transient, two-phase, and fluid-solid coupling mathematical model is proposed to simulate the complex stability performance of a wellbore drilled in HBS. In the model, the phase transition of hydrate dissociation, the heat exchange between drilling fluid and formation, the change of mechanical and petrophysical properties, the gas-water two-phase seepage, and its interaction with rock deformation are considered. A finite element simulator is developed, and the impact of drilling mud on wellbore instability in HBS is simulated. Results indicate that the re-duction in pressure and the increase in temperature of the drilling fluid can accelerate hydrate decomposition and lead to mechanical properties getting worse tremendously. The cohesion decreases by 25% when the hydrate totally dissociates in HBS. This easily causes the wellbore instability accordingly. In the first two hours after the formation is drilled, the regions of hydrate dissociation and wellbore instability extend quickly. Then, with the soaking time of drilling fluid increasing, the regions enlarge little. Choosing the low temperature drilling fluid and increasing the drilling mud pressure appropriately can benefit the wellbore stability of HBS. The established model turns out to be an efficient tool in numerical studies of the hydrate dissociation behavior and wellbore stability of HBS.

  19. Interaction processes of ciprofloxacin with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in the presence of montmorillonite in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.

    Ma, Shuai; Si, Yang; Wang, Fei; Su, Lei; Xia, CongCong; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Liu, Xingyu


    This study investigated the interaction processes of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) in presence of montmorillonite (Mont) in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The order of CIP adsorption affinity was rGO+Mont > GO+Mont > rGO+Mont+pepsin > rGO > GO+Mont+pepsin > Mont > Mont+pepsin > GO > rGO+pepsin > GO+pepsin in simulated gastric fluid. Mont enhanced the adsorption of CIP on GO and rGO due to hydrated Si species coating on GO and rGO in the simulated gastric fluid. Meanwhile, π-π interaction between CIP and graphene caused the great shift of two cyclopropyl CH2 and one cyclopropyl in CIP molecules. And GO, rGO, and Mont interacted mainly with CIP by COOH groups. CIP and pepsin molecules could intercalate and increase the basal spacing of Mont as well. After the various interaction systems of adsorbent-adsorbate transferring to the simulated intestinal fluid, CIP was continuously adsorbed by GO and rGO. In addition, adsorbed CIP was released from Mont into the solution through electrostatic repulsion. The decrease ratio of CIP was the lowest in the GO/rGO+Mont+pepsin systems. Therefore, the mixture of Mont and GO/rGO decreased the CIP concentration in gastrointestinal fluid to weaken further antibiotic activity of CIP.

  20. Computational methods of the Advanced Fluid Dynamics Model

    Bohl, W.R.; Wilhelm, D.; Parker, F.R.; Berthier, J.; Maudlin, P.J.; Schmuck, P.; Goutagny, L.; Ichikawa, S.; Ninokata, H.; Luck, L.B.


    To more accurately treat severe accidents in fast reactors, a program has been set up to investigate new computational models and approaches. The product of this effort is a computer code, the Advanced Fluid Dynamics Model (AFDM). This paper describes some of the basic features of the numerical algorithm used in AFDM. Aspects receiving particular emphasis are the fractional-step method of time integration, the semi-implicit pressure iteration, the virtual mass inertial terms, the use of three velocity fields, higher order differencing, convection of interfacial area with source and sink terms, multicomponent diffusion processes in heat and mass transfer, the SESAME equation of state, and vectorized programming. A calculated comparison with an isothermal tetralin/ammonia experiment is performed. We conclude that significant improvements are possible in reliably calculating the progression of severe accidents with further development.

  1. On black hole solutions in model with anisotropic fluid

    Dehnen, H; Melnikov, V N


    A family of spherically symmetric solutions in the model with 1-component anisotropic fluid is considered. The metric of the solution depends on a parameter q > 0 relating radial pressure and the density and contains n -1 parameters corresponding to Ricci-flat ``internal space'' metrics. For q = 1 and certain equations of state the metric coincides with the metric of black brane solutions in the model with antisymmetric form. A family of black hole solutions corresponding to natural numbers q = 1,2, ... is singled out. Certain examples of solutions (e.g. containing for q =1 Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m, M2 and M5 black brane metrics) are considered. The post-Newtonian parameters beta and gamma corresponding to the 4-dimensional section of the metric are calculated.

  2. Reduced physics models in SOLPS for reactor scoping studies

    Coster, D.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)


    Heat exhaust is a challenge for ITER and becomes even more of an issue for devices beyond ITER. The main reason for this is that the power produced in the core scales as R{sup 3} while relying on standard exhaust physics results in the heat exhaust scaling as R{sup 1} (R is the major radius). ITER has used SOLPS (B2-EIRENE) to design the ITER divertor, as well as to provide a database that supports the calculations of the ITER operational parameter space. The typical run time for such SOLPS runs is of the order 3 months (for D+C+He using EIRENE to treat the neutrals kinetically with an extensive choice of atomic and molecular physics). Future devices will be expected to radiate much of the power before it crosses the separatrix, and this requires treating extrinsic impurities such as Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe - the large number of charge states puts additional pressure on SOLPS, further slowing down the code. For design work of future machines, fast models have been implemented in system codes but these are usually unavoidably restricted in the included physics. As a bridge between system studies and detailed SOLPS runs, SOLPS offers a number of possibilities to speed up the code considerably at the cost of reducing the fidelity of the physics. By employing a fluid neutral model, aggressive bundling of the charge state of impurities, and reducing the size of the grids used, the run time for one second of physics time (which is often enough for the divertor to come to a steady state) can be reduced to approximately one day. This work looks at the impact of these trade-offs in the physics by comparing key parameters for different simulation assumptions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria

    Weber, K. A.; Bender, K. S.; Gandhi, K.; Coates, J. D.


    filtered through a 0.22 μ m sterile nylon filter, stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM revealed the presence of viral like particles in the culture exposed to mytomycin C. Together these results suggest an active infection with a lysogenic bacteriophage in the model metal reducing bacteria, Geobacter spp., which could affect metabolic physiology and subsequently metal reduction in environmental systems.

  4. Can Fluid Intelligence Be Reduced to "Simple" Short-Term Storage?

    Martinez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Escorial, Sergio; Shih, Pei Chun; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Colom, Roberto


    Much is written regarding the associations between human intelligence and cognition. However, it is unusual to find comprehensive studies. Here twenty four measures tapping eight cognitive abilities and skills are considered for assessing a sample of one hundred and eighty five young adults. The simultaneous relationships among fluid,…

  5. Transient mathematical model for the axial annular fluid flow caused by drillpipe motion

    Kimura, Hudson F.; Ramalho, Vanessa A.O.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica. Lab. de Ciencias Termicas]. E-mails:;;;; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Pocos (TEP)]. E-mail:


    The axial movement of drill pipes is a common operation in oil well drilling. This motion displaces the drilling fluid and causes pressure changes in the borehole. The descending pipe movement increases the pressure at the bottomhole (surge) and its extraction reduces it (swab). If the bottomhole pressure overcomes the formation fracture pressure, circulation loss may take place. On the other hand, if the pressure within the well is smaller than the pore pressure, kicks can occur. In order to maintain the bottomhole pressure within the formation fracture and pore pressures, the drill pipe must be moved slowly and therefore, the task becomes quite time consuming. The current work presents a mathematical model to predict surge and swab pressures in annular spaces. The approach is based on conservation equations of mass and momentum. The fluid flow is considered laminar, one-dimensional, compressible, isothermal and transient. The fluid is regarded as Newtonian with constant compressibility. The viscous effect is lumped and the concept of friction factor is applied. The governing differential equations are non-linear and therefore, they are solved numerically by the finite volume method. A sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters is carried out. For instance, the pressure wave propagation is observed for low compressibility fluids. Pressure oscillation is observed for low aspect ratio ratios. (author)

  6. Dynamic modeling of fluid power transmissions for wind turbines

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.


    Fluid power transmission for wind turbines is quietly gaining more ground/interest. The principle of the various concepts presented so far is to convert aerodynamic torque of the rotor blades into a pressurized fluid flow by means of a positive displacement pump. At the other end of the fluid power

  7. Dynamic modeling of fluid power transmissions for wind turbines

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.


    Fluid power transmission for wind turbines is quietly gaining more ground/interest. The principle of the various concepts presented so far is to convert aerodynamic torque of the rotor blades into a pressurized fluid flow by means of a positive displacement pump. At the other end of the fluid power

  8. Preliminary results of modeling fluid flow in the Hellenic accretionary complex, Eastern Mediterranean

    Kufner, S. K.; Huepers, A.; Kopf, A.; Wenzel, F.


    , wedge geometry and subduction rate. The porosity values in the subductione zone are calculated by converting interval velocities from seismic sections using an empirical relationship. The dehydration source is calculated using a kinematic reaction model. Laboratory consolidation tests were run to determine the relationship between porosity and permeability. Preliminary results show that the accreted sediment's porosity reduces rapidly near the deformation front and fluids from compaction are predominantly expelled near the trench. At higher temperature and pressure mineral dehydration becomes the major source of fluid production. Different simulation inputs show that the magnitude of total fluid production is a function of estimated taper angle, permeability of the sediment and internal water sources bound in hydrous minerals. Compared to the overriding wedge the underthrust section is significantly overpressured. This observation is supported by higher porosities inferred from seismic velocities. The future study will compare model outputs with measurements from long-term deployed flow meters and in situ pore pressure probes, gravity core data and critical taper theory to obtain best fits in-situ conditions.

  9. Numerical Modeling of an Integrated Vehicle Fluids System Loop for Pressurizing a Cryogenic Tank

    LeClair, A. C.; Hedayat, A.; Majumdar, A. K.


    This paper presents a numerical model of the pressurization loop of the Integrated Vehicle Fluids (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance to reduce system weight and enhance reliability, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight-like tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to support the test program. This paper presents the simulation of three different test series, comparison of numerical prediction and test data and a novel method of presenting data in a dimensionless form. The paper also presents a methodology of implementing a compressor map in a system level code.

  10. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow, heat transfer and inclusion transport in a four strand tundish

    Yufeng Wang; Guanghua Wen; Ping Tang; Mingmei Zhu; Yuanqing Chen; Weizhao Song


    Mathematical simulation was used for trouble-shooting and optimization.By the mathematical simulation,fluid flow and heat transfer of molten-steel in a four-strand tundish of a billet caster under different conditions (bare tundish and tundish with flow control device) were analyzed.The results showed that (1) the tundish with flow control device (FCD) has an important effect on the fluid pattern and temperature distribution; (2) the unsteady solving method was used to model the inclusion motions at different time periods,and it showed that the FCD is advantageous to separate the nonmetallic inclusions.According to the simulation results,the main problem existing in the industry production was found,and some helpful measurements were executed.Consequently,the large nonmetallic inclusions were separated,and the content of total oxygen was reduced.The quality of steel was greatly improved.

  11. Modeling of movement-induced and flow-induced fluid forces in fast switching valves

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Schmidt, Lasse


    Fast switching fluid power valves set strict requirements on performance, size and energy efficiency and simulation models are therefore needed to obtain good designs of such components. The valve moving member is subject to fluid forces depending on the valve flow rate and movement of the valve...... valve design. Simulated results of the total fluid force are presented showing the movement-induced fluid force to be significant for a reference application. The model form established is useful for valve designers during development and for accurate operation simulation....... member itself. These fluid forces may be accurately simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, but such models suffer from being computationally expensive and is not suited for optimization routines. In this paper, a computationally inexpensive method for modeling the fluid forces...

  12. Mathematical modeling for laminar flow of power law fluid in porous media

    Silva, Renato A.; Mesquita, Maximilian S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Engenharias e Computacao


    In this paper, the macroscopic equations for laminar power-law fluid flow is obtained for a porous medium starting from traditional equations (Navier-Stokes). Then, the volume averaging is applied in traditional transport equations with the power-law fluid model. This procedure leads to macroscopic transport equations set for non-Newtonian fluid. (author)

  13. A Bingham-Plastic Model for Fluid Mud Transport Under Waves and Currents

    刘春嵘; 吴博; 呼和敖德


    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  14. Modeling Chemical Mechanical Polishing with Couple Stress Fluids

    张朝辉; 雒建斌; 温诗铸


    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a manufacturing process used to achieve high levels of global and local planarity.Currently, the slurries used in CMP usually contain nanoscale particles to accelerate the removal ratio and to optimize the planarity, whose rheological properties can no longer be accurately modeled with Newtonian fluids.The Reynolds equation, including the couple stress effects, was derived in this paper.The equation describes the mechanism to solve the CMP lubrication equation with the couple stress effects.The effects on load and moments resulting from the various parameters, such as pivot height, roll angle, and pitch angle, were subsequently simulated.The results show that the couple stress can provide higher load and angular moments.This study sheds some lights into the mechanism of the CMP process.

  15. Modelling the response of a tactile array using electrorheological fluids

    Klein, D.; Rensink, D.; Freimuth, H.; Monkman, G. J.; Egersdörfer, S.; Böse, H.; Baumann, M.


    This paper reports the first step in the development of a tactile array suitable for the presentation of haptic information in virtual reality. The system is based on the electric field dependence of the viscosity of electrorheological fluids. The simulation, as well as the experimental realization of single tactels is described. The mathematical approach is based on the Eckart model (Eckart W 2000 Continuum Mech. Thermodyn. 12 341-62) and its validity is demonstrated by comparing the resulting yield stress with the experimental results from Wunderlich (2000 Dissertation Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg). Two different tactel designs are realized and the experimental results are compared with numerical simulation. The design of modification B is shown to be applicable for the realization of an actuator array with high spatial resolution.

  16. Modelling the response of a tactile array using electrorheological fluids

    Klein, D [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Rensink, D [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Freimuth, H [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Monkman, G J [Fachhochschule Regensburg, D-93049 Regensburg (Germany); Egersdoerfer, S [Fachhochschule Regensburg, D-93049 Regensburg (Germany); Boese, H [Fraunhofer Institute fuer Silicate Forschung, Wuerzburg (Germany); Baumann, M [Fraunhofer Institute fuer Silicate Forschung, Wuerzburg (Germany)


    This paper reports the first step in the development of a tactile array suitable for the presentation of haptic information in virtual reality. The system is based on the electric field dependence of the viscosity of electrorheological fluids. The simulation, as well as the experimental realization of single tactels is described. The mathematical approach is based on the Eckart model (Eckart W 2000 Continuum Mech. Thermodyn. 12 341-62) and its validity is demonstrated by comparing the resulting yield stress with the experimental results from Wunderlich (2000 Dissertation Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg). Two different tactel designs are realized and the experimental results are compared with numerical simulation. The design of modification B is shown to be applicable for the realization of an actuator array with high spatial resolution.

  17. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii


    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  18. Traumatic brain injury in the rat: characterization of a lateral fluid-percussion model.

    McIntosh, T K; Vink, R; Noble, L; Yamakami, I; Fernyak, S; Soares, H; Faden, A L


    Experimental fluid-percussion models produce brain injury by rapidly injecting saline into the closed cranium. In the present study we characterize the physiological, histopathological and neurological responses to mechanical brain injury in the rat produced by lateral fluid-percussion injury of graded severity. Physiological experiments (n = 105) demonstrated that all levels of injury produced an acute and transient systemic hypertension and bradycardia. Acute hypertension followed by significant hypotension occurred at higher magnitudes of injury. Post-injury suppression of electroencephalographic amplitude was related to the severity of injury. An increase in slow wave (delta/theta) electroencephalographic activity with a concomitant decrease in alpha/beta electroencephalographic activity were observed only at moderate and high magnitude of injury and were correlated with a worsened neurological outcome (r = 0.84; P less than 0.05) and increased mortality (r = 0.66; P less than 0.05). Alterations in brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were also observed only at the higher levels of injury. Histopathological analysis revealed that the extent of post-injury hemorrhage, cavitation and vascular disruption (as measured by extravasation of Evans Blue dye) was greater at the higher magnitudes of injury. Neurological scoring performed over a 4-week post-injury period demonstrated that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury produces a chronic neurological deficit that is directly related to the severity of injury. Survival was also significantly reduced at the higher magnitudes of injury. These data demonstrate that the lateral model of fluid-percussion injury in the rat reproduces many of the features of head injury observed in other models and species and may therefore be a useful experimental model for the study of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury.

  19. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part II: Kinetic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Alina Żogała


    Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.

  20. Reduced form models of bond portfolios

    Matti Koivu; Teemu Pennanen


    We derive simple return models for several classes of bond portfolios. With only one or two risk factors our models are able to explain most of the return variations in portfolios of fixed rate government bonds, inflation linked government bonds and investment grade corporate bonds. The underlying risk factors have natural interpretations which make the models well suited for risk management and portfolio design.

  1. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature subsurface fluids within the upper oceanic crust

    Alberto eRobador


    Full Text Available The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100 °C fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial sulfate reduction rates were measured in laboratory incubations with 35S-sulfate over a range of temperatures, with microbial activity limited by the availability of organic electron donors. Thermodynamic calculations indicate energetic constraints for metabolism in the higher temperature, more altered and isolated fluids, which together with relatively higher cell-specific sulfate reduction rates reveal increased maintenance requirements, consistent with novel species-level dsrAB phylotypes of thermophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms. Our estimates suggest that microbially-mediated sulfate reduction may account for the removal of organic matter in fluids within the upper oceanic crust and underscore the potential quantitative impact of microbial processes in deep subsurface marine crustal fluids on marine and global biogeochemical carbon cycling.

  2. Stokes' first problem for a viscoelastic fluid with the generalized Oldroyd-B model

    Haitao Qi; Mingyu Xu


    The flow near a wall suddenly set in motion for a viscoelastic fluid with the generalized Oldroyd-B model is studied. The fractional calculus approach is used in the constitutive relationship of fluid model. Exact analytical solutions of velocity and stress are obtained by using the discrete Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivative and the Fox H-function. The obtained results indicate that some well known solutions for the Newtonian fluid, the generalized second grade fluid as well as the ordinary Oldroyd-B fluid, as limiting cases, are included in our solutions.

  3. Geochemistry of reduced fluids from shallow cold vents hosting chemosynthetic communities (Comau Fjord, Chilean Patagonia, ∼42°S)

    Muñoz, Práxedes; Sellanes, Javier; Villalobos, Katherine; Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Mayr, Christoph; Araya, Karen


    Reduced fluids from shallow-marine vents sustain chemosynthetic bacterial mats located at the base of the volcano Barranco Colorado in Comau Fjord (X-Huinay; 42°23.279‧S, 72°27.635‧W). We characterized the chemical environment in which these bacteria thrive. To this end, we analyzed CH4, ∑H2S, O2, DIC, and stable isotopes (δ13C, δ2H and δ18O) and compared them with readings taken at a control station (which lacks evidence of fluid venting and mat-forming bacteria). In addition, CTD measurements, chlorophyll-a, and nutrient analyses were performed. At depths of approximately 5-7 m, the water column exhibited a pycnocline that formed under the influence of fresh water discharges, especially during the summer season, which also affected the surface temperature. Bacterial mats and elemental sulfur flocs were observed in the vicinity of the vents (X-Huinay station), and higher concentrations of reduced compounds (CH4 and ∑H2S) were found in the vent fluids, in particular at a depth of 36 m. No significant differences in the temperatures of vent and ambient waters were detected. The bottom water close to the vents possessed notably low concentrations of reduced compounds, indicating a rapid and large-quantity dilution of the chemicals from vents. The surface water featured light isotopic values of δ2H and 18O due to the freshwater input from melting ice and precipitation. A linear mixing trend was observed between the freshwater (negative isotopic values) and the fjord bottom water (positive values) that was not influenced by vent fluid. This trend suggests that the venting water corresponds to the mixing among local meteoric water, spring water, and seawater. This result is relevant to understanding how freshwater and meteoric water influence the chemical composition of seawater and how this mixing could impact the marine biota in the vicinities of the vents.

  4. Fluid versus global model approach for the modeling of active species production by streamer discharge

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.


    In this paper, we seek to validate the zero-dimensional (global) model approach for the modeling of the plasma composition in high pressure reactive streamer discharges. We focus on streamers typical of dielectric barrier discharge that are widely used, for instance, for plasma-assisted reforming of greenhouse gases. However, our conclusions can be extended to the streamers used in plasma-assisted ignition/combustion and other related systems. First, we perform two-dimensional fluid simulations for streamers with positive and negative trigger voltages and analyze the difference between the breakdown mechanisms of these two modes. Second, we use the time evolution of the electron heating term obtained from the fluid simulations as the input parameter of the global model and compare the plasma component content predicted by this model with the results of the fluid model. We obtain a very good agreement between fluid and global models for all species generated in plasma. However, we conclude that streamers initiated by the positive and negative trigger voltage cannot be considered as symmetrical which is usually done in global models of barrier discharge reactors.

  5. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    He, Ping [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States)


    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using {sup 131}I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of {sup 131}I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[C{sub IAR}]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[C{sub IA}], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]). Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R = 0.95 {+-} 0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R = 0.92 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.77 {+-} 0.21, p = 0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of {sup 131}I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[C{sub IAR}]) and therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]) by 7.4 fold, (2) When extrapolated to the clinical setting, the model predicted that if {sup 131}I-3F8 could be split into 4 doses of 1.4 mg each and given at {>=}24 hours apart, an antibody affinity of K{sub D} of 4 x 10{sup -9} at 50% immunoreactivity were adequate in order to deliver {>=}100 Gy to tumor cells while keeping normal CSF exposure to <10 Gy. This model predicted that immunoreactivity, affinity and optimal scheduling of antibody injections were crucial in improving therapeutic index. (orig.)

  6. Numerical Modeling of Porous Structure of Biomaterial and Fluid Flowing Through Biomaterial


    A Cellular Automata model of simulating body fluid flowing into porous bioceramic implants generated with stochastic methods is described, of which main parameters and evolvement rule are determined in terms of flow behavior of body fluid in porous biomaterials. The model is implemented by GUI( Graphical User Interface) program in MATLAB, and the results of numerical modeling show that the body fluid percolation is related to the size of pores and porosity.

  7. The Blended Finite Element Method for Multi-fluid Plasma Modeling


    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07 June 2016 - 01 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Blended Finite Element Method for Multi-fluid Plasma ...BLENDED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR MULTI-FLUID PLASMA MODELING Éder M. Sousa1, Uri Shumlak2 1ERC INC., IN-SPACE PROPULSION BRANCH (RQRS) AIR FORCE RESEARCH...MULTI-FLUID PLASMA MODEL 2 BLENDED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Blended Finite Element Method Nodal Continuous Galerkin Modal Discontinuous Galerkin Model

  8. Slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with isospin dependent entrainment in a two-fluid model

    Kheto, Apurba


    We investigate the slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars including the entrainment effect in a two-fluid model, where one fluid represents the superfluid neutrons and the other is the charge-neutral fluid called the proton fluid, made of protons and electrons. The equation of state and the entrainment effect between the superfluid neutrons and the proton fluid are computed using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by the exchange of $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons and scalar self interactions are also included. The equations governing rotating neutron stars in the slow rotation approximation are second order in rotational velocities of neutron and proton fluids. We explore the effects of the isospin dependent entrainment and the relative rotation between two fluids on the global properties of rotating superfluid neutron stars such as mass, shape, and the mass shedding (Kepler) limit within the RMF model with different parameter sets. ...

  9. A fluid-mechanical model of elastocapillary coalescence

    Singh, Kiran


    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. We present a fluid-mechanical model of the coalescence of a number of elastic objects due to surface tension. We consider an array of spring-block elements separated by thin liquid films, whose dynamics are modelled using lubrication theory. With this simplified model of elastocapillary coalescence, we present the results of numerical simulations for a large number of elements, N = O(104). A linear stability analysis shows that pairwise coalescence is always the most unstable mode of deformation. However, the numerical simulations show that the cluster sizes actually produced by coalescence from a small white-noise perturbation have a distribution that depends on the relative strength of surface tension and elasticity, as measured by an elastocapillary number K. Both the maximum cluster size and the mean cluster size scale like K-1/2 for small K. An analytical solution for the response of the system to a localized perturbation shows that such perturbations generate propagating disturbance fronts, which leave behind \\'frozen-in\\' clusters of a predictable size that also depends on K. A good quantitative comparison between the cluster-size statistics from noisy perturbations and this \\'frozen-in\\' cluster size suggests that propagating fronts may play a crucial role in the dynamics of coalescence.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics framework for aerodynamic model assessment

    Vallespin, D.; Badcock, K. J.; Da Ronch, A.; White, M. D.; Perfect, P.; Ghoreyshi, M.


    This paper reviews the work carried out at the University of Liverpool to assess the use of CFD methods for aircraft flight dynamics applications. Three test cases are discussed in the paper, namely, the Standard Dynamic Model, the Ranger 2000 jet trainer and the Stability and Control Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle. For each of these, a tabular aerodynamic model based on CFD predictions is generated along with validation against wind tunnel experiments and flight test measurements. The main purpose of the paper is to assess the validity of the tables of aerodynamic data for the force and moment prediction of realistic aircraft manoeuvres. This is done by generating a manoeuvre based on the tables of aerodynamic data, and then replaying the motion through a time-accurate computational fluid dynamics calculation. The resulting forces and moments from these simulations were compared with predictions from the tables. As the latter are based on a set of steady-state predictions, the comparisons showed perfect agreement for slow manoeuvres. As manoeuvres became more aggressive some disagreement was seen, particularly during periods of large rates of change in attitudes. Finally, the Ranger 2000 model was used on a flight simulator.

  11. A fluid-mechanical model of elastocapillary coalescence

    Singh, Kiran; Vella, Dominic


    We present a fluid-mechanical model of the coalescence of a number of elastic objects due to surface tension. We consider an array of spring-block elements separated by thin liquid films, whose dynamics are modelled using lubrication theory. With this simplified model of elastocapillary coalescence, we present the results of numerical simulations for a large number of elements, $N=O(10^4)$. A linear stability analysis shows that pairwise coalescence is always the most unstable mode of deformation. However, the numerical simulations show that the cluster sizes actually produced by coalescence from a small white-noise perturbation have a distribution that depends on the relative strength of surface tension and elasticity, as measured by an elastocapillary number $K$. Both the maximum cluster size and the mean cluster size scale like $K^{-1/2}$ for small $K$. An analytical solution for the response of the system to a localized perturbation shows that such perturbations generate propagating disturbance fronts, wh...

  12. Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Rasmussen, Jens Juul


    Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without altering the drift-fluid energy integral. We demonstrate that the inclusion of collisional transport in drift-fluid models gives rise to diffusion of particle density, momentum and pressures in drift-fluid turbulence models and thereby obviate the customary use of artificial diffusion in turbulence simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field located at the outboard midplane of a tokamak. The model domain has two regions modeling open and closed field lines. The model...

  13. Modelling of fluid flows and channeling in fixed charbed; Modellering af stroemningsforhold og kanaldannelse i fixed bed koksbed

    Kvist Jensen, T.; Henriksen, U.; Goebel, B. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dall Bentzen, J.; Matlok, S.; Borch, C. [COWI, Lyngby (Denmark)


    The main aim of this project has been to build a computerized fluid dynamics model (CFD) describing the fluid dynamics of the gases in a fixed char-bed during gasification of biomass. Uneven char conversion and in extreme cases channels through have been observed in the char-bed of a down draft gasifier. This might lead to a reduced efficiency. In order to examine how an inhomogeneous char-bed affects the gas flow through the bed, a dynamic model was developed to describe the flow distribution in a down draft gasifier. The gas flow distribution through the bed was determined using a thin film model approach. The temperatures in the bed were determined from a thermodynamic model of the gasification process. Model calculations showed that a relatively small fraction of the gas was flowing through a part of the bed that was fuelled with smaller particles compared to a part of the bed that was fuelled with larger particles. Furthermore, the calculations showed that if the height of the two different parts of the bed were not evened out the bed would not be stable. However, if transport of particles from one part of the bed to the other occurred the bed would be stable. Finally, the calculations showed that even a very uneven flow distribution through the bed only reduced the efficiency of the char conversion modestly. The results from this project might help in avoiding unwanted phenomena like channelling and through-burning. (BA)

  14. Fluid-structure interactions models, analysis and finite elements

    Richter, Thomas


    This book starts by introducing the fundamental concepts of mathematical continuum mechanics for fluids and solids and their coupling. Special attention is given to the derivation of variational formulations for the subproblems describing fluid- and solid-mechanics as well as the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two monolithic formulations for fluid-structure interactions are described in detail: the well-established ALE formulation and the modern Fully Eulerian formulation, which can effectively deal with problems featuring large deformation and contact. Further, the book provides details on state-of-the-art discretization schemes for fluid- and solid-mechanics and considers the special needs of coupled problems with interface-tracking and interface-capturing techniques. Lastly, advanced topics like goal-oriented error estimation, multigrid solution and gradient-based optimization schemes are discussed in the context of fluid-structure interaction problems.

  15. Special-relativistic model flows of viscous fluid

    Rogava, A D


    Two, the most simple cases of special-relativistic flows of a viscous, incompressible fluid are considered: plane Couette flow and plane Poiseuille flow. Considering only the regular motion of the fluid we found the distribution of velocity in the fluid (velocity profiles) and the friction force, acting on immovable wall. The results are expressed through simple analytical functions for the Couette flow, while for the Poiseiulle flow they are expressed by higher transcendental functions (Jacobi's elliptic functions).

  16. Reduced-dimension model of liquid plug propagation in tubes

    Fujioka, Hideki; Halpern, David; Ryans, Jason; Gaver, Donald P.


    We investigate the flow resistance caused by the propagation of a liquid plug in a liquid-lined tube and propose a simple semiempirical formula for the flow resistance as a function of the plug length, the capillary number, and the precursor film thickness. These formulas are based on computational investigations of three key contributors to the plug resistance: the front meniscus, the plug core, and the rear meniscus. We show that the nondimensional flow resistance in the front meniscus varies as a function of the capillary number and the precursor film thickness. For a fixed capillary number, the flow resistance increases with decreasing precursor film thickness. The flow in the core region is modeled as Poiseuille flow and the flow resistance is a linear function of the plug length. For the rear meniscus, the flow resistance increases monotonically with decreasing capillary number. We investigate the maximum mechanical stress behavior at the wall, such as the wall pressure gradient, the wall shear stress, and the wall shear stress gradient, and propose empirical formulas for the maximum stresses in each region. These wall mechanical stresses vary as a function of the capillary number: For semi-infinite fingers of air propagating through pulmonary airways, the epithelial cell damage correlates with the pressure gradient. However, for shorter plugs the front meniscus may provide substantial mechanical stresses that could modulate this behavior and provide a major cause of cell injury when liquid plugs propagate in pulmonary airways. Finally, we propose that the reduced-dimension models developed herein may be of importance for the creation of large-scale models of interfacial flows in pulmonary networks, where full computational fluid dynamics calculations are untenable.

  17. Theoretical models for fluid thermodynamics based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    Amadei, Andrea


    Summary The theoretical modeling of fluid thermodynamics is one of the most challenging fields in physical chemistry. In fact the fluid behavior, except at very low density conditions, is still extremely difficult to be modeled from a statistical mechanical point of view, as for any realistic model

  18. Disturbances of fluid balance reduce the image quality of bone scintigraphy. Experimental studies in mice

    Cronhjort, M.; Schnell, P.-O.; Jacobsson, H. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The effects of hydration, dehydration and osmotic diuresis on the activity distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been studied in an experimental mouse system. It was found that any change of the water balance impairs the activity distribution of the radiolabelled phosphonate in the potential bone scintigraphic image. The findings suggest that in order to maintain image quality, elderly patients should not be instructed to drink a large volume of fluid after the administration of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. Further investigations, though, have to be performed in humans. (author).

  19. On the modeling of a piezoellectrically actuated micro-sensor for measurement of microscale fluid physical properties

    Ghanbari, Mina; Hossainpour, Siamak; Rezazadeh, Ghader


    This paper deals with the analysis of a novel micro-electromechanical sensor for measurement of microscale fluid physical properties. The proposed sensor is made up of a micro-beam with one end fixed and a micro-plate as a sensing element at its free end, which is immersed in a microscale fluid media. As fluids show different behavior in microscale than in macroscale, the microscale fluid media have been modeled based on micro-polar theory. So non-classical properties of fluid that are absent in macroscale flows need to be measured. In order to actuate the sensor longitudinally, an AC voltage is applied to the piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam. Coupled governing partial differential equations of motion of the fluid field and longitudinal vibration of the micro-beam have been derived based on micro-polar theory. The obtained governing differential equations with time-varying boundary conditions have been simplified and transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Then, they have been discretized over the beam and fluid domain using Galerkin-based reduced-order model. The dynamic response of the sensing element for different piezoelectric actuation voltages and different exciting frequencies has been studied. It has been shown that by investigating damping and inertial effect fluid loading on response of the micro-beam, properties of a microscale fluid can be measured. At the end, effects of geometrical parameters of the sensor on the response of sensing element have been studied.

  20. Refinement of reduced-models for dynamic systems


    A refinement procedure for the reduced models of structural dynamic systems is presented in this article. The refinement procedure is to "tune" the parameters of a reduced model, which could be obtained from any traditional model reduction scheme, into an improved reduced model. Upon the completion of the refinement, the improved reduced model matches the dynamic characteristics - the chosen structural frequencies and their mode shapes - of the full order model. Mathematically, the procedure to implement the model refinement technique is an application of the recently developed cross-model cross-mode (CMCM) method for model updating. A numerical example of reducing a 5-DOF (degree-of-freedom) classical mass-spring (or shear-building) model into a 3-DOF generalized mass-spring model is demonstrated in this article.

  1. Reducing RANS Model Error Using Random Forest

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng; Ling, Julia


    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are still the work-horse tools in the turbulence modeling of industrial flows. However, the model discrepancy due to the inadequacy of modeled Reynolds stresses largely diminishes the reliability of simulation results. In this work we use a physics-informed machine learning approach to improve the RANS modeled Reynolds stresses and propagate them to obtain the mean velocity field. Specifically, the functional forms of Reynolds stress discrepancies with respect to mean flow features are trained based on an offline database of flows with similar characteristics. The random forest model is used to predict Reynolds stress discrepancies in new flows. Then the improved Reynolds stresses are propagated to the velocity field via RANS equations. The effects of expanding the feature space through the use of a complete basis of Galilean tensor invariants are also studied. The flow in a square duct, which is challenging for standard RANS models, is investigated to demonstrate the merit of the proposed approach. The results show that both the Reynolds stresses and the propagated velocity field are improved over the baseline RANS predictions. SAND Number: SAND2016-7437 A

  2. Low order modelling for feedback control of fluid flows around complex geometries

    Dellar, Oliver; Jones, Bryn; Department of Automatic Control; Systems Engineering Collaboration


    The majority of goods transportation vehicles' power is consumed in overcoming aerodynamic drag. Reduction in pressure drag via feedback control could have significant economic and environmental effects on CO2 emissions, and reduce fatigue on the body by suppressing vortex shedding. The difficulty in designing such controllers lies in obtaining models suited to modern control design methods, which are necessarily of much lesser complexity than typical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, or models derived from immediate spatial discretisation of the Navier-Stokes equations. This work develops an approach for modelling fluid flows using frequency response data generated for individual computational node sub-systems that result from a CFD type spatial discretisation of the governing equations. Input-to-sensor frequency response data for the overall system are then computed by forming interconnections between adjacent nodes via a Redheffer Star Product operation, from which one typically observes low-order dynamics. With this data, a low-order model can be identified and used for controller design. This method avoids manipulating large matrices and is therefore computationally efficient and numerically well-conditioned. It can be readily applied to complex geometry flows.

  3. Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane

    I Made Astina


    Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.

  4. A Reducing Resistance to Change Model

    Daniela Braduţanu


    .... After analyzing the existent literature, I have concluded that the resistance to change subject has gained popularity over the years, but there are not too many models that could help managers...

  5. Progesterone reduces sympathetic tone without changing blood pressure or fluid balance in men.

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Eide, I; Maltau, J M


    There is scant information on the effects of progesterone on circulation. Changes in catecholamine levels, blood pressure and transcapillary fluid balance were measured in 12 men before and during administration of natural progesterone (Utrogestan). Before administration, systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with venous adrenaline (r = 0.67, p = 0.01). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.004) in venous noradrenaline during progesterone administration, and systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with the arteriovenous difference for noradrenaline (r = 0.66, p = 0.02). Serum progesterone, which attained levels similar to those found in women during the luteal phase, did not significantly alter blood pressure, body weight or intra- to extravascular fluid shift. It is concluded that progesterone may have a direct action by increasing the uptake of noradrenaline from the synaptic cleft or by decreasing the nerve firing rate. Interestingly, the pretreatment finding of a significant correlation between blood pressure and adrenaline was less evident during progesterone administration.

  6. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Thibault Lemaire


    Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

  7. Stochastic Surrogates for Measurements and Computer Models of Fluids

    De Baar, J.H.S.


    Both measurements and computer simulations of fluids introduce a prediction problem. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement of a flow field results in a discrete grid of velocity vectors, from which we aim to predict the velocity field or related quantities. In Computational Fluid Dynamics (

  8. Unsteady flow of viscoelastic fluid between two cylinders using fractional Maxwell model

    Muhammad Jamil; Constantin Fetecau; Corina Fetecau


    The unsteady flow of an incompressible fractional Maxwell fluid between two infinite coaxial cylinders is studied by means of integral transforms.The motion of the fluid is due to the inner cylinder that applies a time dependent torsional shear to the fluid.The exact solutions for velocity and shear stress are presented in series form in terms of some generalized functions.They can easily be particularized to give similar solutions for Maxwell and Newtonian fluids.Finally,the influence of pertinent parameters on the fluid motion,as well as a comparison between models,is highlighted by graphical illustrations.

  9. Model Checking for a Class of Performance Properties of Fluid Stochastic Models

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Bujorianu, M.C.; Horváth, A.; Telek, M.


    Recently, there is an explosive development of fluid approa- ches to computer and distributed systems. These approaches are inherently stochastic and generate continuous state space models. Usually, the performance measures for these systems are defined using probabilities of reaching certain sets o

  10. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.


    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  11. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.


    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  12. Improved modeling and numerics to solve two-dimensional elliptic fluid flow and heat transfer problems

    Chan, B. C.


    A basic, limited scope, fast-running computer model is presented for the solution of two-dimensional, transient, thermally-coupled fluid flow problems. This model is to be the module in the SSC (an LMFBR thermal-hydraulic systems code) for predicting complex flow behavior, as occurs in the upper plenum of the loop-type design or in the sodium pool of the pool-type design. The nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations and the two-equation (two-variable) transport model of turbulence are reduced to a set of linear algebraic equations in an implicit finite difference scheme, based on the control volume approach. These equations are solved iteratively in a line-by-line procedure using the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. The results of calculational examplers are shown in the computer-generated plots.

  13. Fluid-structure interaction modeling of aortic valve stenosis at different heart rates.

    Bahraseman, Hamidreza Ghasemi; Languri, Ehsan Mohseni; Yahyapourjalaly, Niloofar; Espino, Daniel M


    This paper proposes a model to measure the cardiac output and stroke volume at different aortic stenosis severities using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation at rest and during exercise. The geometry of the aortic valve is generated using echocardiographic imaging. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian mesh was generated in order to perform the FSI simulations. Pressure loads on ventricular and aortic sides were applied as boundary conditions. FSI modeling results for the increment rate of cardiac output and stroke volume to heart rate, were about 58.6% and -14%, respectively, at each different stenosis severity. The mean gradient of curves of cardiac output and stroke volume to stenosis severity were reduced by 57% and 48%, respectively, when stenosis severity varied from healthy to critical stenosis. Results of this paper confirm the promising potential of computational modeling capabilities for clinical diagnosis and measurements to predict stenosed aortic valve parameters including cardiac output and stroke volume at different heart rates.

  14. Divergence-free Approximate Riemann Solver for the Quasi-neutral Two-fluid Plasma Model

    Amano, Takanobu


    A numerical method for the quasi-neutral two-fluid (QNTF) plasma model is described. The basic equations are ion and electron fluid equations and the Maxwell equations without displacement current. The neglect of displacement current is consistent with the assumption of charge neutrality. It thus reduces to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the long wavelength limit, but the two-fluid effect appearing at ion and electron inertial scales is fully taken into account. It is shown that the basic equations may be rewritten in a form that has formally the same structure as the MHD equations. The total mass, momentum, and energy are all written in the conservative form. A new three-dimensional numerical simulation code has been developed for the QNTF equations. The HLL (Harten-Lax-van Leer) approximate Riemann solver combined with the upwind constrained transport (UCT) scheme is applied. The method was originally developed for MHD (Londrillo & Del Zanna, 2004), but works quite well for the present...

  15. Computational modelling of the mechanics of trabecular bone and marrow using fluid structure interaction techniques.

    Birmingham, E; Grogan, J A; Niebur, G L; McNamara, L M; McHugh, P E


    Bone marrow found within the porous structure of trabecular bone provides a specialized environment for numerous cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Studies have sought to characterize the mechanical environment imposed on MSCs, however, a particular challenge is that marrow displays the characteristics of a fluid, while surrounded by bone that is subject to deformation, and previous experimental and computational studies have been unable to fully capture the resulting complex mechanical environment. The objective of this study was to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model of trabecular bone and marrow to predict the mechanical environment of MSCs in vivo and to examine how this environment changes during osteoporosis. An idealized repeating unit was used to compare FSI techniques to a computational fluid dynamics only approach. These techniques were used to determine the effect of lower bone mass and different marrow viscosities, representative of osteoporosis, on the shear stress generated within bone marrow. Results report that shear stresses generated within bone marrow under physiological loading conditions are within the range known to stimulate a mechanobiological response in MSCs in vitro. Additionally, lower bone mass leads to an increase in the shear stress generated within the marrow, while a decrease in bone marrow viscosity reduces this generated shear stress.

  16. Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models

    Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry


    Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...... altering the drift-fluid energy integral. We demonstrate that the inclusion of collisional transport in drift-fluid models gives rise to diffusion of particle density, momentum, and pressures in drift-fluid turbulence models and, thereby, obviates the customary use of artificial diffusion in turbulence...... simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model, which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field...

  17. Kantowski-Sachs Einstein-aether perfect fluid models

    Latta, Joey


    We investigate Kantowski-Sachs models in Einstein-aether theory with a perfect fluid source using dynamical system tools. We find an inflationary source at early times, and an inflationary sink at late times, for a wide region in the parameter space. The results by A. A. Coley, G. Leon, P. Sandin and J. Latta, JCAP {\\bf 12}, 010 (2015) are then re-obtained as particular cases. Additionally, we select other values for non-GR parameters which are consistent with current constraints, getting a very rich phenomenology. Particularly, we find solutions with infinite shearing, zero curvature, and infinity matter energy density in comparison with the Hubble scalar. We also have stiff-like future attractors, anisotropic late-time attractors, or both, in some special cases. Such results are developed analytically, and then verified by numerics. From the cosmological point of view, the more interesting fixed points are those representing accelerated solutions. However, the accelerated solutions do not isotropize, and th...

  18. Modelling and Understanding of Highly Energy Efficient Fluids

    Thamali, R J K A; Liyanage, D D; Ukwatta, Ajith; Hewage, Jinasena; Witharana, Sanjeeva


    Conventional heat carrier liquids have demonstrated remarkable enhancement in heat and mass transfer when nanoparticles were suspended in them. These liquid-nanoparticle suspensions are now known as Nanofluids. However the relationship between nanoparticles and the degree of enhancement is still unclear, thus hindering the large scale manufacturing of them. Understanding of the energy and flow behaviour of nanofluids is therefore of wide interest in both academic and industrial context. In this paper we first model the heat transfer of a nanofluid in convection in a circular tube at macro-scale by using CFD code of OpenFoam. Then we zoon into nano-scale behaviour using the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In the latter we considered a system of water and Gold nanoparticles. A systematic increase of convective heat transfer was observed with increasing nanoparticle concentration. A maximum enhancement of 7.0% was achieved in comparison to base fluid water. This occurred when the gold volume fraction was 0.0...

  19. Kantowski-Sachs Einstein-æther perfect fluid models

    Latta, Joey; Leon, Genly; Paliathanasis, Andronikos


    We investigate Kantowski-Sachs models in Einstein-æ ther theory with a perfect fluid source using the singularity analysis to prove the integrability of the field equations and dynamical system tools to study the evolution. We find an inflationary source at early times, and an inflationary sink at late times, for a wide region in the parameter space. The results by A.A. Coley, G. Leon, P. Sandin and J. Latta (JCAP 12 (2015) 010), are then re-obtained as particular cases. Additionally, we select other values for the non-GR parameters which are consistent with current constraints, getting a very rich phenomenology. In particular, we find solutions with infinite shear, zero curvature, and infinite matter energy density in comparison with the Hubble scalar. We also have stiff-like future attractors, anisotropic late-time attractors, or both, in some special cases. Such results are developed analytically, and then verified by numerics. Finally, the physical interpretation of the new critical points is discussed.


    YIN Gang; ZHANG Hanqin


    A fluid buffer model with Markov modulated input-output rates is considered.When traffic intensity is near its critical value, the system is known as in heavy traffic.It is shown that a suitably scaled sequence of the equilibrium buffer contents has a weakor distributional limit under heavy traffic conditionsThis weak limit is a functional of adiffusion process determined by the Markov chain modulating the input and output rates.The first passage time of the reflected process is examinedIt is shown that the mean firstpassage time can be obtained via a solution of a Dirichlet problemThen the transitiondensity of the reflected process is derived by solving the Kolmogorov forward equation witha Neumann boundary conditionFurthermore, when the fast changing part of the generatorof the Markov chain is a constant matrix, the representation of the probability distributionof the reflected process is derivedUpper and lower bounds of the probability distributionare also obtained by means of asymptotic expansions of standard normal distribution.

  1. A Simple Family of Models for Eccentric Keplerian Fluid Disks

    Statler, T S


    In order to be in a long-lived configuration, the density in a fluid disk should be constant along streamlines to prevent compressional (PdV) work from being done cyclically around every orbit. In a pure Kepler potential, flow along aligned, elliptical streamlines of constant eccentricity will satisfy this condition. For most density profiles, differential precession driven by the pressure gradient will destroy the alignment; however, in the razor-thin approximation there is a family of simple equilibria in which the precession frequency is the same at all radii. These disks may therefore be long-lived at significant eccentricities. The density can be made axisymmetric as r goes to 0, while maintaining the precession rate, by relaxing the requirement of constancy along streamlines in an arbitrarily small transition region near the center. In the limit of small eccentricity, the models can be seen as acoustically perturbed axisymmetric disks, and the precession rate is shown to agree with linear theory. The pe...

  2. Computational fluid dynamics model of WTP clearwell: Evaluation of critical parameters influencing model performance

    Ducoste, J.; Brauer, R.


    Analysis of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a water treatment plant clearwell was done. Model parameters were analyzed to determine their influence on the effluent-residence time distribution (RTD) function. The study revealed that several model parameters could have significant impact on the shape of the RTD function and consequently raise the level of uncertainty on accurate predictions of clearwell hydraulics. The study also revealed that although the modeler could select a distribution of values for some of the model parameters, most of these values can be ruled out by requiring the difference between the calculated and theoretical hydraulic retention time to within 5% of the theoretical value.

  3. A computational fluid dynamics model for wind simulation:model implementation and experimental validation

    Zhuo-dong ZHANG; Ralf WIELAND; Matthias REICHE; Roger FUNK; Carsten HOFFMANN; Yong LI; Michael SOMMER


    To provide physically based wind modelling for wind erosion research at regional scale,a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind model was developed.The model was programmed in C language based on the Navier-Stokes equations,and it is freely available as open source.Integrated with the spatial analysis and modelling tool (SAMT),the wind model has convenient input preparation and powerful output visualization.To validate the wind model,a series of experiments was conducted in a wind tunnel.A blocking inflow experiment was designed to test the performance of the model on simulation of basic fluid processes.A round obstacle experiment was designed to check if the model could simulate the influences of the obstacle on wind field.Results show that measured and simulated wind fields have high correlations,and the wind model can simulate both the basic processes of the wind and the influences of the obstacle on the wind field.These results show the high reliability of the wind model.A digital elevation model (DEM) of an area (3800 m long and 1700 m wide) in the Xilingele grassland in Inner Mongolia (autonomous region,China) was applied to the model,and a 3D wind field has been successfully generated.The clear implementation of the model and the adequate validation by wind tunnel experiments laid a solid foundation for the prediction and assessment of wind erosion at regional scale.

  4. A physical five-equation model for compressible two-fluid flow, and its numerical treatment

    Kreeft, J.J.; Koren, B.


    A novel five-equation model for inviscid, non-heat-conducting, compressible two-fluid flow is derived, together with an appropriate numerical method. The model uses flow equations based on conservation laws and exchange laws only. The two fluids exchange momentum and energy, for which source terms a

  5. The value of mastectomy flap fixation in reducing fluid drainage and seroma formation in breast cancer patients

    Sakkary Mostafa A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged and excessive drainage of serous fluid and seroma formation constitute the most common complications after mastectomy for breast carcinoma. Seroma formation delays wound healing, increases susceptibility to infection, skin flap necrosis, persistent pain and prolongs convalescence. For this, several techniques have been investigated to improve primary healing and minimize seroma formation. Materials and methods Between June 2009 and July 2010 forty patients with breast carcinoma, scheduled for modified radical mastectomy, were randomly divided into 2 groups, the study group (20 and the control group (20. In the study group; the mastectomy flaps were fixed to the underlying muscles in raws, at various parts of the flap and at the wound edge using fine absorbable sutures. In the control group; the wound was closed in the conventional method at the edges. Closed suction drains were used in both groups. Patients, tumor characteristics and operative related factors were recorded. The amount and color of drained fluid were recorded daily. The drains were removed when the amount become less than 50 cc. The total amount and duration of drained fluid and the formation of seroma were recorded and the results were compared between the two groups. Results In the flap fixation group, the drain was removed in significantly shorter time compared to the control group (p Conclusions The mastectomy flap fixation technique is a valuable procedure that significantly decreases the incidence of seroma formation, and reduces the duration and amount of drained fluid. However, it should be tried on a much wider scale to prove its validity.

  6. Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method

    Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.


    An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.

  7. REVEAL: An Extensible Reduced Order Model Builder for Simulation and Modeling

    Agarwal, Khushbu; Sharma, Poorva; Ma, Jinliang; Lo, Chaomei; Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan


    Many science domains need to build computationally efficient and accurate representations of high fidelity, computationally expensive simulations. These computationally efficient versions are known as reduced-order models. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel reduced-order model (ROM) builder, the REVEAL toolset. This toolset generates ROMs based on science- and engineering-domain specific simulations executed on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. The toolset encompasses a range of sampling and regression methods that can be used to generate a ROM, automatically quantifies the ROM accuracy, and provides support for an iterative approach to improve ROM accuracy. REVEAL is designed to be extensible in order to utilize the core functionality with any simulator that has published input and output formats. It also defines programmatic interfaces to include new sampling and regression techniques so that users can ‘mix and match’ mathematical techniques to best suit the characteristics of their model. In this paper, we describe the architecture of REVEAL and demonstrate its usage with a computational fluid dynamics model used in carbon capture.

  8. Advanced fluid modelling and PIC/MCC simulations of low-pressure ccrf discharges

    Becker, Markus M; Sun, Anbang; Bonitz, Michael; Loffhagen, Detlef


    Comparative studies of capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in helium and argon at pressures between 10 and 80 Pa are presented applying two different fluid modelling approaches as well as two independently developed particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) codes. The focus is on the analysis of the range of applicability of a recently proposed fluid model including an improved drift-diffusion approximation for the electron component as well as its comparison with fluid modelling results using the classical drift-diffusion approximation and benchmark results obtained by PIC/MCC simulations. Main features of this time- and space-dependent fluid model are given. It is found that the novel approach shows generally quite good agreement with the macroscopic properties derived by the kinetic simulations and is largely able to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the discharge behaviour even at conditions when the classical fluid modelling approach fails. Furthermore, the excellent agreem...

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the John Day Dam Tailrace

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.


    US Army Corps of Engineers - Portland District required that a two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged and a three-dimensional (3D) free-surface numerical models to be developed and validated for the John Day tailrace. These models were used to assess potential impact of a select group of structural and operational alternatives to tailrace flows aimed at improving fish survival at John Day Dam. The 2D model was used for the initial assessment of the alternatives in conjunction with a reduced-scale physical model of the John Day Project. A finer resolution 3D model was used to more accurately model the details of flow in the stilling basin and near-project tailrace hydraulics. Three-dimensional model results were used as input to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory particle tracking software, and particle paths and times to pass a downstream cross section were used to assess the relative differences in travel times resulting from project operations and structural scenarios for multiple total river flows. Streamlines and neutrally-buoyant particles were seeded in all turbine and spill bays with flows. For a Total River of 250 kcfs running with the Fish Passage Plan spill pattern and a spillwall, the mean residence times for all particles were little changed; however the tails of the distribution were truncated for both spillway and powerhouse release points, and, for the powerhouse releases, reduced the residence time for 75% of the particles to pass a downstream cross section from 45.5 minutes to 41.3 minutes. For a total river of 125 kcfs configured with the operations from the Fish Passage Plan for the temporary spillway weirs and for a proposed spillwall, the neutrally-buoyant particle tracking data showed that the river with a spillwall in place had the overall mean residence time increase; however, the residence time for 75% of the powerhouse-released particles to pass a downstream cross section was reduced from 102.4 min to 89 minutes.

  10. A Lattice Boltzmann Model of Binary Fluid Mixture

    Orlandini, E; Yeomans, J M; Orlandini, Enzo; Swift, Michael R.


    We introduce a lattice Boltzmann for simulating an immiscible binary fluid mixture. Our collision rules are derived from a macroscopic thermodynamic description of the fluid in a way motivated by the Cahn-Hilliard approach to non-equilibrium dynamics. This ensures that a thermodynamically consistent state is reached in equilibrium. The non-equilibrium dynamics is investigated numerically and found to agree with simple analytic predictions in both the one-phase and the two-phase region of the phase diagram.

  11. Convective Heat Transfer Analysis on Prandtl Fluid Model with Peristalsis

    A. Alsaedi


    Full Text Available The effects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD on peristaltic transport of Prandtl fluid in a symmetric channel have been studied under the assumptions of long wave length and low-Reynolds number. Channel walls are considered compliant in nature. Series solutions of axial velocity, stream function and temperature are given by using regular perturbation technique for small values of Prandtl fluid parameter. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, streamlines and temperature are examined by plotting graphs.

  12. The mathematical theory of reduced MHD models for fusion plasmas

    Guillard, Hervé


    The derivation of reduced MHD models for fusion plasma is here formulated as a special instance of the general theory of singular limit of hyperbolic system of PDEs with large operator. This formulation allows to use the general results of this theory and to prove rigorously that reduced MHD models are valid approximations of the full MHD equations. In particular, it is proven that the solutions of the full MHD system converge to the solutions of an appropriate reduced model.

  13. Reducing occupational risk for blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides: an intervention effectiveness study.

    Amuwo, Shakirudeen; Lipscomb, Jane; McPhaul, Kathleen; Sokas, Rosemary K


    The purpose of this quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention designed through a participatory process to reduce blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides. Employer A, the intervention site, was a large agency with approximately 1,200 unionized home care aides. Employer B, the comparison group, was a medium-sized agency with approximately 200 home care aides. The intervention was developed in partnership with labor and management and included a 1-day educational session utilizing peer educators and active learning methods to increase awareness about the risks for occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among home care aides and a follow-up session introducing materials to facilitate communication with clients about safe sharps disposal. Self-administered preintervention and postintervention questionnaires identifying knowledge about and self-reported practices to reduce bloodborne pathogen exposure were completed in person during mandatory training sessions 18 months apart. Home care aides in the intervention group for whom the preintervention and postintervention questionnaires could be directly matched reported an increase in their clients' use of proper sharps containers (31.9% pre to 52.2% post; p = .033). At follow-up, the intervention group as a whole also reported increased use of sharps containers among their clients when compared to controls (p = .041).

  14. Hydraulic fracturing fluid migration in the subsurface: A review and expanded modeling results

    Birdsell, Daniel T.; Rajaram, Harihar; Dempsey, David; Viswanathan, Hari S.


    Understanding the transport of hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid that is injected into the deep subsurface for shale gas extraction is important to ensure that shallow drinking water aquifers are not contaminated. Topographically driven flow, overpressured shale reservoirs, permeable pathways such as faults or leaky wellbores, the increased formation pressure due to HF fluid injection, and the density contrast of the HF fluid to the surrounding brine can encourage upward HF fluid migration. In contrast, the very low shale permeability and capillary imbibition of water into partially saturated shale may sequester much of the HF fluid, and well production will remove HF fluid from the subsurface. We review the literature on important aspects of HF fluid migration. Single-phase flow and transport simulations are performed to quantify how much HF fluid is removed via the wellbore with flowback and produced water, how much reaches overlying aquifers, and how much is permanently sequestered by capillary imbibition, which is treated as a sink term based on a semianalytical, one-dimensional solution for two-phase flow. These simulations include all of the important aspects of HF fluid migration identified in the literature review and are performed in five stages to faithfully represent the typical operation of a hydraulically fractured well. No fracturing fluid reaches the aquifer without a permeable pathway. In the presence of a permeable pathway, 10 times more fracturing fluid reaches the aquifer if well production and capillary imbibition are not included in the model.

  15. Bianchi Type-I cosmological mesonic stiff fluid models in Lyra's geometry

    S D Katore; S V Thakare; K S Adhao


    Bianchi Type-I cosmological models in Lyra's geometry are obtained when the source of gravitational field is a perfect fluid coupled with massless mesonic scalar field. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models are also discussed.

  16. High order fluid model for streamer discharges. II. Numerical solution and investigation of planar fronts

    Markosyan, A H; Ebert, U


    The high order fluid model developed in the preceding paper is employed here to study the propagation of negative planar streamer fronts in pure nitrogen. The model consists of the balance equations for electron density, average electron velocity, average electron energy and average electron energy flux. These balance equations have been obtained as velocity moments of Boltzmann's equation and are here coupled to the Poisson equation for the space charge electric field. Here the results of simulations with the high order model, with a PIC/MC (Particle in cell/Monte Carlo) model and with the first order fluid model based on the hydrodynamic drift-diffusion approximation are presented and compared. The comparison with the MC model clearly validates our high order fluid model, thus supporting its correct theoretical derivation and numerical implementation. The results of the first order fluid model with local field approximation, as usually used for streamer discharges, show considerable deviations. Furthermore,...

  17. Mathematical Models of Fluid Dynamics Modeling, Theory, Basic Numerical Facts An Introduction

    Ansorge, Rainer


    Without sacrificing scientific strictness, this introduction to the field guides readers through mathematical modeling, the theoretical treatment of the underlying physical laws and the construction and effective use of numerical procedures to describe the behavior of the dynamics of physical flow. The book is carefully divided into three main parts:. - The design of mathematical models of physical fluid flow;. - A theoretical treatment of the equations representing the model, as Navier-Stokes, Euler, and boundary layer equations, models of turbulence, in order to gain qualitative as well as q

  18. Numerical Modeling and Investigation of Fluid-Driven Fracture Propagation in Reservoirs Based on a Modified Fluid-Mechanically Coupled Model in Two-Dimensional Particle Flow Code

    Jian Zhou


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.

  19. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Steen A


    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Reduced Gravity Fluid Slosh Dynamics for the Characterization of Cryogenic Launch and Space Vehicle Propellants

    Walls, Laurie K.; Kirk, Daniel; deLuis, Kavier; Haberbusch, Mark S.


    As space programs increasingly investigate various options for long duration space missions the accurate prediction of propellant behavior over long periods of time in microgravity environment has become increasingly imperative. This has driven the development of a detailed, physics-based understanding of slosh behavior of cryogenic propellants over a range of conditions and environments that are relevant for rocket and space storage applications. Recent advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and hardware capabilities have enabled the modeling of complex fluid behavior in microgravity environment. Historically, launch vehicles with moderate duration upper stage coast periods have contained very limited instrumentation to quantify propellant stratification and boil-off in these environments, thus the ability to benchmark these complex computational models is of great consequence. To benchmark enhanced CFD models, recent work focuses on establishing an extensive experimental database of liquid slosh under a wide range of relevant conditions. In addition, a mass gauging system specifically designed to provide high fidelity measurements for both liquid stratification and liquid/ullage position in a micro-gravity environment has been developed. This pUblication will summarize the various experimental programs established to produce this comprehensive database and unique flight measurement techniques.


    Ning Yang; Wei Wang; Wei Ge; Jinghai Li


    reduce the heterogeneity to some extent and may be capable of capturing some meso-scale heterogeneity though there still exists some argument about the physical rationalityof this approach such as the treatment of particle phase as a continuum while fining the meshes. Third, it is generally agreed that a cascade description, viz. extracting the closure correlations for TFM from microscopic simulations such as PPM and LBM (van der Hoef et al., 2004), can suggest a practical way to explore the multi-scale heterogeneity. Although the above three schemes are logical and fundamental, they are generally difficult to implement at present due to the complexity of the models or the enormous computational cost. The fourth scheme we adopted in this study is the so-called energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model which seems to be a simple yet reasonable approach at the moment.In the present approach, a "structure" model is established to describe the meso-scale heterogeneity through the definition of eight "structure parameters" and the resolution of structure involving a particle-rich dense cluster phase and a gas-rich dilute phase. Gas-solid interaction is also resolved into that between gas and particles inside both the dense cluster phase and the dilute phase, and that between the cluster phase and the dilute phase. This means that the drag force for the dense cluster phase includes two parts, namely, bypassing drag (ki) and permeating drag (kc) as depicted in Fig.1. We found that the absolute value of the difference (△k) between kc and ki could be employed to evaluate the extent of the system heterogeneity. On the basis of this structure model, the average acceleration (a) induced by gas-solid interactions can be obtained, and then the average drag coefficient (β) for the two-fluid model can be calculated. Calculation results show that the computed value ofβwith the EMMS model is much less than that with the Wen & Yu/Ergun correlations, which is in reasonable agreement

  2. Development of Efficient Real-Fluid Model in Simulating Liquid Rocket Injector Flows

    Cheng, Gary; Farmer, Richard


    The characteristics of propellant mixing near the injector have a profound effect on the liquid rocket engine performance. However, the flow features near the injector of liquid rocket engines are extremely complicated, for example supercritical-pressure spray, turbulent mixing, and chemical reactions are present. Previously, a homogeneous spray approach with a real-fluid property model was developed to account for the compressibility and evaporation effects such that thermodynamics properties of a mixture at a wide range of pressures and temperatures can be properly calculated, including liquid-phase, gas- phase, two-phase, and dense fluid regions. The developed homogeneous spray model demonstrated a good success in simulating uni- element shear coaxial injector spray combustion flows. However, the real-fluid model suffered a computational deficiency when applied to a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The deficiency is caused by the pressure and enthalpy being the independent variables in the solution procedure of a pressure-based code, whereas the real-fluid model utilizes density and temperature as independent variables. The objective of the present research work is to improve the computational efficiency of the real-fluid property model in computing thermal properties. The proposed approach is called an efficient real-fluid model, and the improvement of computational efficiency is achieved by using a combination of a liquid species and a gaseous species to represent a real-fluid species.



    The model of power law fluid for dense two-phase turbulent flow was developed, which combines the unified second-order moment model for two-phase turbulence with the particle kinetic theory for the inter-particle collision. This model was used to simulate the turbulent flow of power law fluid single-phase in pipe. It is shown that the model has better prediction result than the model. The model was then used to simulate the dense two-phase turbulent up flow of power law fluid with particles. With the increase of the flow exponent, the velocities of power law fluid and particles increase near the pipe centre. Comparison between the two-phase flow of power law fluid-particle and of liquid-particle indicates that the axial fluctuation velocity of fluid phase and particle phase in liquid-particle two-phase flow is smaller than that in the power law fluid two-phase flow, but the two-phase velocities of power law fluid-particle and liquid-particle are close to each other.

  4. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales

    Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind


    A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.

  5. Mosquitoes drink with a burst in reserve: explaining pumping behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark


    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through the proboscis. Experimental observations with synchrotron x-ray imaging indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an occasional, isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is 10 to 30 times larger than in the continuous mode. We have used a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this variation in drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is more energetically efficient, whereas the burst mode creates a large pressure drop across the proboscis, which could potentially be used to clear blockages. Comparisons with pump knock-out configurations demonstrate different functional roles of the pumps in mosquito feeding. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. #0938047.

  6. Viscosity bio reducer Influence in a non-Newtonian fluid horizontal pipeline pressure gradient

    Edgardo Jonathan Suarez-Dominguez


    Full Text Available Due to increased production of heavy and extra heavy crude in Mexico, it has led to the necessity touse chemicals to facilitate the transport in the pipe of our country. Experimental study was conductedto analyze the influence of a viscosity reducer of biological origin (BRV, on the rheological behaviorof heavy oil in the northern region of Mexico, finding that it exhibits a non-Newtonian viscoelasticbehavior, where a concentration increase of BRV leads to a consistency decrease and an increasedflow order, where dilatant behavior was observed in high temperatures. From these results it wasestimated the pressure losses by friction in a horizontal pipe for single phase and two phase flow. Wefound that in all cases the increase in the concentration of BRV reduces these losses.

  7. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid


    petroleum consumption; conserve water; reduce waste; support sustainable communities; and leverage Federal purchasing power to promote environmentally...environmentally-sound operation of DoD airports. Wetlands and aquatic life can be adversely affected by exposure to seemingly low toxicity chemicals...Mountain Home AFB 3,450 Misawa, Japan 81,996 Hill AFB, UT 56,013 Osan, S. Korea 12,000 Elmendorf AFB, AK 105,000 Kunsan, S. Korea 24,000 (a) Obtained

  8. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.


    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  9. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.


    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  10. Fluid modeling and design of gas channels of solar non-stoichiometric redox reactor

    Kedlaya, Aditya

    The present numerical study in FLUENT analyzes the fluid flow field within a solar powered reactor designed for syngas production. The thermochemical reactor is based on continuous cycling of cerium oxide (ceria) in a non-stoichiometric reduction/oxidation cycle. The reactor uses a hollow cylinder of porous ceria which rotates through a high-temperature zone, by exposure to concentrated sunlight and partially reduced in an inert atmosphere due to flow of the sweep gas (N2), and then through a lower temperature zone where the reduced ceria is re-oxidized with a flow of CO2 and/or H2O, to produce CO and/or H2. In terms of fluid flow modeling, the issue of crossover of species (leakage) within the reactor is critical for proper functioning of the reactor. The first part of the work relates to the geometry and placement of the inlet/outlet gas channels for the reactor optimized to minimize crossover of the species. This is done by conducting a parametric study of geometric variables associated with the inlet/outlet geometry. A simplified 2D fluid flow reactor model which incorporates multi-species flow is used for this study. Further, 2D and 3D reactor models which capture the internal structure more accurately are used to refine the inlet/outlet design. The optimized reactor model is found to have an O2 crossover of 2%-6% and oxidizer crossover of 8%-21% at different flow rates of the sweep gas and the oxidizer studied. In the second part of the work, the reactor model is simulated under varying test conditions. Different working conditions include morphologies of the reactive material, rotational speed of the ceria ring and the recuperator, flow rates of sweep gas and the oxidizer, types of oxidizer (CO2, H2O). The 3D reactor model is also tested using one, two and three discrete inlet/outlet ports and compared with slot configuration.

  11. Reduced computational models of serotonin synthesis, release, and reuptake.

    Flower, Gordon; Wong-Lin, KongFatt


    Multiscale computational models can provide systemic evaluation and prediction of neuropharmacological drug effects. To date, little computational modeling work has been done to bridge from intracellular to neuronal circuit level. A complex model that describes the intracellular dynamics of the presynaptic terminal of a serotonergic neuron has been previously proposed. By systematically perturbing the model's components, we identify the slow and fast dynamical components of the model, and the reduced slow or fast mode of the model is computationally significantly more efficient with accuracy not deviating much from the original model. The reduced fast-mode model is particularly suitable for incorporating into neurobiologically realistic spiking neuronal models, and hence for large-scale realistic computational simulations. We also develop user-friendly software based on the reduced models to allow scientists to rapidly test and predict neuropharmacological drug effects at a systems level.

  12. Irregular vocal fold dynamics incited by asymmetric fluid loading in a model of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis

    Sommer, David; Erath, Byron D.; Zanartu, Matias; Peterson, Sean D.


    Voiced speech is produced by dynamic fluid-structure interactions in the larynx. Traditionally, reduced order models of speech have relied upon simplified inviscid flow solvers to prescribe the fluid loadings that drive vocal fold motion, neglecting viscous flow effects that occur naturally in voiced speech. Viscous phenomena, such as skewing of the intraglottal jet, have the most pronounced effect on voiced speech in cases of vocal fold paralysis where one vocal fold loses some, or all, muscular control. The impact of asymmetric intraglottal flow in pathological speech is captured in a reduced order two-mass model of speech by coupling a boundary-layer estimation of the asymmetric pressures with asymmetric tissue parameters that are representative of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Nonlinear analysis identifies the emergence of irregular and chaotic vocal fold dynamics at values representative of pathological speech conditions.

  13. A Reduced Wind Power Grid Model for Research and Education

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Lund, Torsten; Hansen, Anca Daniela;


    A reduced grid model of a transmission system with a number of central power plants, consumption centers, local wind turbines and a large offshore wind farm is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory (DIgSILENT). The reduced grid model is given by, Transmission ...

  14. High order fluid model for streamer discharges: I. Derivation of model and transport data

    Dujko, S; White, R D; Ebert, U


    Streamer discharges pose basic problems in plasma physics, as they are very transient, far from equilibrium and have high ionization density gradients; they appear in diverse areas of science and technology. The present paper focuses on the derivation of a high order fluid model for streamers. Using momentum transfer theory, the fluid equations are obtained as velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation; they are closed in the local mean energy approximation and coupled to the Poisson equation for the space charge generated electric field. The high order tensor in the energy flux equation is approximated by the product of two lower order moments to close the system. The average collision frequencies for momentum and energy transfer in elastic and inelastic collisions for electrons in molecular nitrogen are calculated from a multi term Boltzmann equation solution. We then discuss, in particular, (1) the correct implementation of transport data in streamer models; (2) the accuracy of the two term approximation f...

  15. Wave Propagation in Fluids Models and Numerical Techniques

    Guinot, Vincent


    This book presents the physical principles of wave propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The mathematical techniques that allow the behavior of the waves to be analyzed are presented, along with existing numerical methods for the simulation of wave propagation. Particular attention is paid to discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves, and their mathematical treatment. A number of practical examples are taken from various areas fluid mechanics and hydraulics, such as contaminant transport, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, river flow, pipe transients an

  16. An independent pair-link model of simple fluids

    Bonneville, Richard


    A new approach to thermodynamics of simple fluids is presented. The partition function is first expressed in the reciprocal space, it is argued that the links (p,q) between 2 molecules can reasonably in the thermodynamical limit be considered as a set nearly independent objects characterized by the dynamical variables . It is then possible to derive an expression of the pair correlation function. The results, which are independent of the exact shape of the intermolecular potential, are applied to the simple case of hard sphere fluids.

  17. Static contact angle in lattice Boltzmann models of immiscible fluids.

    Latva-Kokko, M; Rothman, Daniel H


    We study numerically the capillary rise between two horizontal plates and in a rectangular tube, using a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. We derive an equation for the static fluid-solid contact angle as a function of the wetting tendency of the walls and test its validity. We show that the generalized Laplace law with two independent radii of curvature is followed in capillary rise in rectangular tubes. Our method removes the history dependence of the fluid-solid contact angle that had been present in earlier LB schemes.

  18. Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration

    Chang, Siyuan; Luo, Haoxiang; Luo's lab Team


    Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which is often needed in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study the performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin. Supported by the NSF.

  19. Good modelling practice in applying computational fluid dynamics for WWTP modelling.

    Wicklein, Edward; Batstone, Damien J; Ducoste, Joel; Laurent, Julien; Griborio, Alonso; Wicks, Jim; Saunders, Stephen; Samstag, Randal; Potier, Olivier; Nopens, Ingmar


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling in the wastewater treatment (WWT) field is continuing to grow and be used to solve increasingly complex problems. However, the future of CFD models and their value to the wastewater field are a function of their proper application and knowledge of their limits. As has been established for other types of wastewater modelling (i.e. biokinetic models), it is timely to define a good modelling practice (GMP) for wastewater CFD applications. An International Water Association (IWA) working group has been formed to investigate a variety of issues and challenges related to CFD modelling in water and WWT. This paper summarizes the recommendations for GMP of the IWA working group on CFD. The paper provides an overview of GMP and, though it is written for the wastewater application, is based on general CFD procedures. A forthcoming companion paper to provide specific details on modelling of individual wastewater components forms the next step of the working group.

  20. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L


    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  1. Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids

    Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.


    A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...

  2. Bianchi type VI1 cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravitation

    Mishra, B


    In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type VIh, II and III cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravity, where the matter field is in the form of perfect fluid and with a time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). A non-singular model for the universe filled with disorder radiation is constructed and some physical behaviors of the model are studied for the feasible VIh (h = 1) space-time.

  3. A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction

    López-Monsalvo, César S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)


    Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.

  4. Characterization and Low-Dimensional Modeling of Urban Fluid Flow


    dimensional description of this urban flow. On the computational side, a new spectral -element code was developed that was demonstrated to produce accurate...contaminant transport. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Urban fluid flow, Spectral element method, Particle Image Velocitmetry 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...number and part number, if applicable. On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER. Enter all

  5. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Tape Casting Process

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    The flow behavior of the fluid in the tape casting process is analyzed. A simple geometry is assumed for running the numerical calculations in ANSYS Fluent and the main parameters are expressed in non-dimensional form. The effect of different values for substrate velocity and pressure force...

  6. Microchannel Emulsification: From Computational Fluid Dynamics to Predictive Analytical Model

    Dijke, van K.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    Emulsion droplet formation was investigated in terrace-based microchannel systems that generate droplets through spontaneous Laplace pressure driven snap-off. The droplet formation mechanism was investigated through high-speed imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, and we found g

  7. A Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Fluid Responsiveness

    Lansdorp, B.; Putten, van M.J.A.M.; Keijzer, de A.; Pickkers, P.; Oostrom, van J.


    Fluid therapy is commonly used to improve cardiac output in hemodynamically instable patients in the intensive care unit. However, to predict whether patients will benefit from this intervention (i. e. are volume responsive), is difficult. Dynamic indices, that rely on heart-lung interactions, have

  8. A new Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network protocol to reduce cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection.

    Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Douglas Cochrane, D; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jerry Oakes, W; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Rozzelle, Curtis; Simon, Tamara D; Walker, Marion L; Wellons, John C; Browd, Samuel R; Drake, James M; Shannon, Chevis N; Tamber, Mandeep S; Whitehead, William E


    OBJECT In a previous report by the same research group (Kestle et al., 2011), compliance with an 11-step protocol was shown to reduce CSF shunt infection at Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) centers (from 8.7% to 5.7%). Antibiotic-impregnated catheters (AICs) were not part of the protocol but were used off protocol by some surgeons. The authors therefore began using a new protocol that included AICs in an effort to reduce the infection rate further. METHODS The new protocol was implemented at HCRN centers on January 1, 2012, for all shunt procedures (excluding external ventricular drains [EVDs], ventricular reservoirs, and subgaleal shunts). Procedures performed up to September 30, 2013, were included (21 months). Compliance with the protocol and outcome events up to March 30, 2014, were recorded. The definition of infection was unchanged from the authors' previous report. RESULTS A total of 1935 procedures were performed on 1670 patients at 8 HCRN centers. The overall infection rate was 6.0% (95% CI 5.1%-7.2%). Procedure-specific infection rates varied (insertion 5.0%, revision 5.4%, insertion after EVD 8.3%, and insertion after treatment of infection 12.6%). Full compliance with the protocol occurred in 77% of procedures. The infection rate was 5.0% after compliant procedures and 8.7% after noncompliant procedures (p = 0.005). The infection rate when using this new protocol (6.0%, 95% CI 5.1%-7.2%) was similar to the infection rate observed using the authors' old protocol (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6%-7.0%). CONCLUSIONS CSF shunt procedures performed in compliance with a new infection prevention protocol at HCRN centers had a lower infection rate than noncompliant procedures. Implementation of the new protocol (including AICs) was associated with a 6.0% infection rate, similar to the infection rate of 5.7% from the authors' previously reported protocol. Based on the current data, the role of AICs compared with other infection prevention measures is unclear.

  9. Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska

    Kelley, Karen D.


    INTRODUCTION The foothills of the Brooks Range contain an enormous accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the form of zinc sulfide and barium (Ba) in the form of barite in Carboniferous shale, chert, and mudstone. Most of the resources and reserves of Zn occur in the Red Dog deposit and others in the Red Dog district; these resources and reserves surpass those of most deposits worldwide in terms of size and grade. In addition to zinc and lead sulfides (which contain silver, Ag) and barite, correlative strata host phosphate deposits. Furthermore, prolific hydrocarbon source rocks of Carboniferous and Triassic to Early Jurassic age generated considerable amounts of petroleum that may have contributed to the world-class petroleum resources of the North Slope. Deposits of Zn-Pb-Ag or barite as large as those in the Brooks Range are very rare on a global basis and, accordingly, multiple coincident favorable factors must be invoked to explain their origins. To improve our understanding of these factors and to contribute to more effective assessments of resources in sedimentary basins of northern Alaska and throughout the world, the Mineral Resources Program and the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a project that was aimed at understanding the petroleum maturation and mineralization history of parts of the Brooks Range that were previously poorly characterized. The project, titled ?Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska,? was undertaken in collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies. This Circular contains papers that describe the results of the recently completed project. The studies that are highlighted in these papers have led to a better understanding of the following: *The complex sedimentary facies relationships and depositional settings and the geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks that host the deposits (sections 2 and 3). *The factors responsible for formation of the barite and zinc deposits

  10. Fluid prediction using rock modelling and reconnaissance. AVO analysis - A case study from the North Sea

    Osdal, Bard; Granli, John Reidar


    Seismic lithology and fluid phase prediction (LFP) is becoming an important part of seismic interpretation, and can contribute significantly to risk reduction prior to drilling. In this presentation there is focused on quantitative interpretation of the amplitudes in a 2-D dataset, with respect to presence of hydrocarbons. Different aspect of the working producer, like data quality (well data and seismic data), rock modelling and seismic modelling will be illustrated. In the present study only one well has been used for calibration and to investigate the seismic response for different fluid and lithology scenarios. The rock modelling included evaluation of seismic parameter effect for different fluid and porosities. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  11. Prandtl number effects in MRT lattice Boltzmann models for shocked and unshocked compressible fluids


    This paper constructs a new multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model which is not only for the shocked compressible fluids,but also for the unshocked compressible fluids.To make the model work for unshocked compressible fluids,a key step is to modify the collision operators of energy flux so that the viscous coefficient in momentum equation is consistent with that in energy equation even in the unshocked system.The unnecessity of the modification for systems under strong shock is analyzed.The model ...

  12. Fluid-rock interactions related to metamorphic reducing fluid flow in meta-sediments: example of the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust (Pyrenees, Spain)

    Trincal, Vincent; Buatier, Martine; Charpentier, Delphine; Lacroix, Brice; Lanari, Pierre; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Vennemann, Torsten


    In orogens, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrusts, which constitute preferential zones for fluid-rock interactions. Fluid flow, mass transfer, and mineralogical reactions taking place along thrusts have been intensely investigated, especially in sedimentary basins for petroleum and uranium research. This study combines petrological investigations, mineralogical quantifications, and geochemical characterizations with a wide range of analytical tools with the aim of defining the fluid properties (nature, origin, temperature, and redox) and fluid-host rock interactions (mass transfers, recrystallization mechanisms, and newly formed synkinematic mineralization) in the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust fault zone (Pyrenees, Spain). We demonstrate that two geochemically contrasted rocks have been transformed by fluid flow under low-grade metamorphism conditions during thrusting. The hanging-wall Triassic red pelite was locally bleached, while the footwall Cretaceous dolomitic limestone was mylonitized. The results suggest that thrusting was accompanied by a dynamic calcite recrystallization in the dolomitic limestone as well as by leaching of iron via destabilization of iron oxides and phyllosilicate crystallization in the pelite. Geochemical and physical changes highlighted in this study have strong implications on the understanding of the thrust behavior (tectonic and hydraulic), and improve our knowledge of fluid-rock interactions in open fluid systems in the crust.

  13. Reduced Order Internal Models in the Frequency Domain

    Laakkonen, Petteri; Paunonen, Lassi


    The internal model principle states that all robustly regulating controllers must contain a suitably reduplicated internal model of the signal to be regulated. Using frequency domain methods, we show that the number of the copies may be reduced if the class of perturbations in the problem is restricted. We present a two step design procedure for a simple controller containing a reduced order internal model achieving robust regulation. The results are illustrated with an example of a five tank...

  14. On Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for Carreau fluid flow over a slendering sheet

    Hashim; Khan, Masood

    The underlying intentions of this article are to investigate the impact of non-Fourier heat flux model on the stagnation-point flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. In this study, the innovative Cattaneo-Christov constitutive model is introduced to study the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The flow is impelled by a slendering surface which is of the variable thickness. In the model, the physical mechanism responsible for homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are further taken into account. Also, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and auto catalyst are considered to be equal. The governing non-linear partial differential equations consisting of the momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to the coupled ordinary differential equations by means of local similarity transformations. The transformed ODEs are tackled numerically by employing an effective shooting algorithm along with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg scheme. The physical characteristics of the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illuminated with the variation of numerous governing factors and are presented graphically. For instance, our result indicates that the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower in case of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when compared to classical Fourier's heat model. Meanwhile, the rate of heat transfer is significantly improved by a high wall thickness parameter and an opposite influence is found due to the thermal relaxation parameter. We further noticed that a higher value of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameter corresponds to a deceleration in the concentration field and it shows an inverse relation for the Schmidt number. A correlation with accessible results for specific cases is found with fabulous consent.

  15. Modeling of plasma and thermo-fluid transport in hybrid welding

    Ribic, Brandon D.

    Hybrid welding combines a laser beam and electrical arc in order to join metals within a single pass at welding speeds on the order of 1 m min -1. Neither autonomous laser nor arc welding can achieve the weld geometry obtained from hybrid welding for the same process parameters. Depending upon the process parameters, hybrid weld depth and width can each be on the order of 5 mm. The ability to produce a wide weld bead increases gap tolerance for square joints which can reduce machining costs and joint fitting difficulty. The weld geometry and fast welding speed of hybrid welding make it a good choice for application in ship, pipeline, and aerospace welding. Heat transfer and fluid flow influence weld metal mixing, cooling rates, and weld bead geometry. Cooling rate affects weld microstructure and subsequent weld mechanical properties. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the liquid weld pool are affected by laser and arc energy absorption. The laser and arc generate plasmas which can influence arc and laser energy absorption. Metal vapors introduced from the keyhole, a vapor filled cavity formed near the laser focal point, influence arc plasma light emission and energy absorption. However, hybrid welding plasma properties near the opening of the keyhole are not known nor is the influence of arc power and heat source separation understood. A sound understanding of these processes is important to consistently achieving sound weldments. By varying process parameters during welding, it is possible to better understand their influence on temperature profiles, weld metal mixing, cooling rates, and plasma properties. The current literature has shown that important process parameters for hybrid welding include: arc power, laser power, and heat source separation distance. However, their influence on weld temperatures, fluid flow, cooling rates, and plasma properties are not well understood. Modeling has shown to be a successful means of better understanding the influence of

  16. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole


    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  17. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Brenner, Howard


    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  18. Cosmological models described by a mixture of van der Waals fluid and dark energy

    Kremer, G M


    The Universe is modeled as a binary mixture whose constituents are described by a van der Waals fluid and by a dark energy density. The dark energy density is considered either as the quintessence or as the Chaplygin gas. The irreversible processes concerning the energy transfer between the van der Waals fluid and the gravitational field are taken into account. This model can simulate: (a) an inflationary period where the acceleration grows exponentially and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflaton; (b) an inflationary period where the acceleration is positive but it decreases and tends to zero whereas the energy density of the van der Waals fluid decays; (c) a decelerated period which corresponds to a matter dominated period with a non-negative pressure; and (d) a present accelerated period where the dark energy density outweighs the energy density of the van der Waals fluid.

  19. Modeling of geochemical interactions between acidic and neutral fluids in the Onikobe Geothermal Reservoir

    Todaka, Norifumi; Akasaka, Chitoshi; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten


    Two types of fluids are encountered in the Onikobe geothermal reservoir, one is neutral and the other is acidic (pH=3). It is hypothesized that acidic fluid might be upwelling along a fault zone and that an impermeable barrier might be present between the acidic and neutral fluid zones. We carried out reactive geothermal transport simulations using TOUGHREACT (Xu and Pruess, 1998 and 2001) to test such a conceptual model. One-dimensional models were used to study the geochemical behavior due to mixing of the two fluids. Mn-rich smectite precipitated near the mixing front and is likely to form an impermeable barrier between regions with acidic and neutral fluids.

  20. Model of skyscraper evacuation with the use of space symmetry and fluid dynamic approximation

    Sikora, W; Kupczak, A


    The simulation of evacuation of pedestrians from skyscraper is a situation where the symmetry analysis method and equations of fluid dynamics finds to be very useful. When applied, they strongly reduce the number of free parameters used in simulations and in such a way speed up the calculations and make them easier to manage by the programmer and what is even more important, they can give a fresh insight into a problem of evacuation and help with incorporation of "Ambient Intelligent Devices" into future real buildings. We have analyzed various, simplified, cases of evacuation from skyscraper by employing improved "Social Force Model". For each of them we obtained the average force acting on the pedestrian as a function of the evacuation time. The results clearly show that both methods mentioned above, can be successfully implemented in the simulation process and return with satisfactory conclusions.

  1. Modeling of fluid-induced vibrations and identification of hydrodynamic forces on flow control valves

    Samad Mehrzad; Ilgar Javanshir; Ahmad Rahbar Ranji; Seyyed Hadi Taheri


    Dynamics and vibration of control valves under flow-induced vibration are analyzed. Hydrodynamic load characteristics and structural response under flow-induced vibration are mainly influenced by inertia, damping, elastic, geometric characteristics and hydraulic parameters. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dynamic behavior of control valves in the response to self-excited fluid flow. An analytical and numerical method is developed to simulate the dynamic and vibrational behavior of sliding dam valves, in response to flow excitation. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model, the simulation results are validated with experimental ones. Finally, to achieve the optimal valve geometry, numerical results for various shapes of valves are compared. Rounded valve with the least amount of flow turbulence obtains lower fluctuations and vibration amplitude compared with the flat and steep valves. Simulation results demonstrate that with the optimal design requirements of valves, vibration amplitude can be reduced by an average to 30%.

  2. Prediction of fluid forces acting on a hand model in unsteady flow conditions.

    Kudo, Shigetada; Yanai, Toshimasa; Wilson, Barry; Takagi, Hideki; Vennell, Ross


    The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict fluid forces acting on the human hand in unsteady flow swimming conditions. A mechanical system consisting of a pulley and chain mechanism and load cell was constructed to rotate a hand model in fluid flows. To measure the angular displacement of the hand model a potentiometer was attached to the axis of the rotation. The hand model was then fixed at various angles about the longitudinal axis of the hand model and rotated at different flow velocities in a swimming flume for 258 different trials to approximate a swimmer's stroke in unsteady flow conditions. Pressures were taken from 12 transducers embedded in the hand model at a sampling frequency of 200Hz. The resultant fluid force acting on the hand model was then determined on the basis of the kinetic and kinematic data taken from the mechanical system at the frequency of 200Hz. A stepwise regression analysis was applied to acquire higher order polynomial equations that predict the fluid force acting on the accelerating hand model from the 12 pressure values. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the resultant fluid force measured and that predicted from the single best-fit polynomial equation across all trials was 5N. The method developed in the present study accurately predicted the fluid forces acting on the hand model.

  3. Numerical modelling of the stability of loaded shells of revolution containing fluid flows

    Bochkarev, S. A.; Matveenko, V. P.


    A mixed finite-element algorithm is proposed to study the dynamic behavior of loaded shells of revolution containing a stationary or moving compressible fluid. The behavior of the fluid is described by potential theory, whose equations are reduced to integral form using the Galerkin method. The dynamics of the shell is analyzed with the use of the variational principle of possible displacements, which includes the linearized Bernoulli equation for calculating the hydrodynamic pressure exerted on the shell by the fluid. The solution of the problem reduces to the calculation and analysis of the eigenvalues of the coupled system of equations. As an example, the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the dynamic behavior of shells of revolution containing a moving fluid is studied under various boundary conditions.

  4. Modelling general relativistic perfect fluids in field theoretic language

    Mitskievich, N V


    Skew-symmetric massless fields, their potentials being $r$-forms, are close analogues of Maxwell's field (though the non-linear cases also should be considered). We observe that only two of them ($r=$2 and 3) automatically yield stress-energy tensors characteristic to normal perfect fluids. It is shown that they naturally describe both non-rotating ($r=2$) and rotating (then a combination of $r=2$ and $r=3$ fields is indispensable) general relativistic perfect fluids possessing every type of equations of state. Meanwile, a free $r=3$ field is completely equivalent to appearance of the cosmological term in Einstein's equations. Sound waves represent perturbations propagating on the background of the $r=2$ field. Some exotic properties of these two fields are outlined.

  5. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range.

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro


    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); and ibid. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  6. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range

    Trejos, Víctor M.; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro


    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); Singh and Sinha J. Chem. Phys. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  7. Forced ILW-Burgers Equation as a Model for Rossby Solitary Waves Generated by Topography in Finite Depth Fluids

    Hongwei Yang


    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of the generation, evolution of Rossby solitary waves generated by topography in finite depth fluids. The forced ILW- (Intermediate Long Waves- Burgers equation as a model governing the amplitude of solitary waves is first derived and shown to reduce to the KdV- (Korteweg-de Vries- Burgers equation in shallow fluids and BO- (Benjamin-Ono- Burgers equation in deep fluids. By analysis and calculation, the perturbation solution and some conservation relations of the ILW-Burgers equation are obtained. Finally, with the help of pseudospectral method, the numerical solutions of the forced ILW-Burgers equation are given. The results demonstrate that the detuning parameter α holds important implications for the generation of the solitary waves. By comparing with the solitary waves governed by ILW-Burgers equation and BO-Burgers equation, we can conclude that the solitary waves generated by topography in finite depth fluids are different from that in deep fluids.

  8. Wave propagation in fluids models and numerical techniques

    Guinot, Vincent


    This second edition with four additional chapters presents the physical principles and solution techniques for transient propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The application domains vary including contaminant transport with or without sorption, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, pipe transients, open channel and shallow water flow, and compressible gas dynamics. The mathematical formulation is covered from the angle of conservation laws, with an emphasis on multidimensional problems and discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves. Finite

  9. Algorithm Development for the Two-Fluid Plasma Model


    of m=0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z-pinch", Physics of Plasmas 13, 082310 (2006). • A. Hakim and U. Shumlak, "Two-fluid physics and...accurate as the solution variables. The high-order representation of the solution variables satisfies the accuracy requirement to preserve [2] It also illustrates the dispersive nature of the waves which makes capturing the effect difficult in MHD algorithms. The electromagnetic

  10. Algorithm Development for the Multi-Fluid Plasma Model


    ities of a Hall-MHD wave increase without bound with wave number. The large wave speeds increases the stiffness of the equation system making accu- rate...illustrates the dispersive nature of the waves which makes capturing the effect difficult in MHD algorithms. The electromagnetic plasma shock serves to...Nonlinear full two-fluid study of m = 0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z pinch. Physics of Plasmas, 13(8):082310, 2006. [5] A. Hakim and U. Shumlak

  11. Modeling phantom energy wormholes from Shan-Chen fluids

    Wang, Deng


    In recent years, cosmic observational data have reported that our present universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion, which has been termed as mysterious "dark energy" phenomena, that is, the origin of dark energy has not been determined yet. According to our previous work that a new equation of state \\cite{X.Shan and H.Chen1993} can be employed to explain the dark energy, and we are very interested in investigating the astrophysical scale properties of dark energy based on the new cosmological fluids given that the universe is filled with a dark energy fluid everywhere. Hence, in this paper, we study the exact solutions of spherically-symmetrical Einstein field equations describing wormholes supported by phantom energy from Shan-Chen (SC) fluids by considering an obvious relation between the transversal pressure and energy density which is different from our previous work \\cite{111}. We have still investigated the important case $\\psi\\approx1$ which corresponds to the " saturation effect ", and this reg...

  12. Perturbation of geothermal reservoirs to fluids stimulation: numerical modelling and implication on induced seismicity.

    Carlino, Stefano; De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Tramelli, Anna; Somma, Renato


    Fluid withdrawal and injection into the crust produces changes in the local stress field and pore pressure, involving different rock volumes depending on the injection flow rate and duration as well as on the medium permeability. This process is in different cases correlated to induced seismicity. In the case of geothermal power plants (e.g. fluids withdrawal and in several case withdrawal/reinjection) this correlation is vague and sometimes not well constrained by experimental data. We report here a set of simulations of withdrawal, injection and withdrawal-reinjection-cycles from/in the same geothermal reservoirs, by using the numerical code TOUGH2®. The simulations are applied to conceptual models of different geothermal reservoirs already published in previous works, whose main difference is in the permeability features and the depth of wells (Soultz, France; Campi Flegrei caldera and Ischia island, Italy). The numerical simulations are aimed to compare the time growth of perturbed volumes obtained with withdrawal reinjection cycle to those obtained during simple withdrawal or injection, using the same flow rates. Our results clearly point out that reinjection is much less critical than simple injection or withdrawal, because the perturbed volumes are remarkably small and, moreover, remain constant over the simulated time, of whatever duration. This fact reduces significantly the potential of the seismicity induced by pressure variation into the reservoirs.

  13. New mathematical model for fluid-glucose-albumin transport in peritoneal dialysis

    Cherniha, Roman


    A mathematical model for fluid transport in peritoneal dialysis is constructed. The model is based on a three-component nonlinear system of two-dimensional partial differential equations for fluid, glucose and albumin transport with the relevant boundary and initial conditions. Non-constant steady-state solutions of the model are studied. The restrictions on the parameters arising in the model are established with the aim to obtain exact formulae for the non-constant steady-state solutions. As the result, the exact formulae for the fluid fluxes from blood to tissue and across the tissue were constructed together with two linear autonomous ODEs for glucose and albumin concentrations. The analytical results were checked for their applicability for the description of fluid-glucose-albumin transport during peritoneal dialysis.



    A multiple parameter model to describe the Non-Newtonianproperties of fluid filtration in porous media is presented with regard to the pressure gradient expression in terms of the velocity of filtration, where the multiple parameters should be determined by measurements. Based on such a model, an analysis was furnished to deduce the formula for the rate of production of a oil well, and the governing equations for single phase Non-Newtonian fluid fritration. In order to examine the effects of model parameters, the governing equations were numerically solved with the method of cross-diagonal decomposition ZG method. It is found that, for constant rate of production, the power index n of the model influences the pressure distribution considerably, particularly in the vicinity of a single well. The well-bore pressure of Leibenzonian fluid is lower than that of the power-law fluid in the case of the same parameter B and the power index n = 0.5.

  15. Finite Element Modeling of a Fluid Filled Cylindrical Shell with Active Constrained Layer Damping

    ZHANG Yi; ZHANG Zhi-yi; TONG Zong-peng; HUA Hong-xing


    On the basis of the piezoelectric theory, Mindlin plate theory, viscoelastic theory and ideal fluid equa tion, the finite element modeling of a fluid-filled cylindrical shell with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) was discussed. Energy methods and Lagrange's equation were used to obtain dynamic equations of the cylindrical shell with ACLD treatments, which was modeled as well with the finite element method. The GHM (Golla-Hughes-McTavish) method was applied to model the frequency dependent damping of viscoelastic material. Ideal and incompressible fluid was considered to establish the dynamic equations of the fluid-filled cylindrical shell with ACLD treatments, Numerical results obtained from the finite element analysis were compared with those from an experiment. The comparison shows that the proposed modeling method is accurate and reliable.

  16. Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids

    Zhai, Jianliang, E-mail: [University of Science and Technology of China, School of Mathematical Sciences (China); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom)


    In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.

  17. A coaxial tube model of the cerebrospinal fluid pulse propagation in the spinal column.

    Cirovic, Srdjan


    The dynamics of the movement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may play an important role in the genesis of pathological neurological conditions such as syringomyelia, which is characterized by the presence of a cyst (syrinx) in the spinal cord. In order to provide sound theoretical grounds for the hypotheses that attribute the formation and growth of the syrinx to impediments to the normal movement of the CSF, it is necessary to understand various modes through which CSF pulse in the spinal column propagates. Analytical models of small-amplitude wave propagation in fluid-filled coaxial tubes, where the outer tube represents dura, the inner tube represents the spinal cord, and the fluid is the CSF, have been used to that end. However, so far, the tendency was to model one of the two tubes as rigid and to neglect the effect of finite thickness of the tube walls. The aim of this study is to extend the analysis in order to address these two potentially important issues. To that end, classical linear small-amplitude analysis of wave propagation was applied to a system consisting of coaxial tubes of finite thickness filled with inviscid incompressible fluid. General solutions to the governing equations for the case of harmonic waves in the long wave limit were replaced with the boundary conditions to yield the characteristic (dispersion) equation for the system. The four roots of the characteristic equation correspond to four modes of wave propagation, of which the first three are associated with significant motion of the CSF. For the normal range of parameters the speeds of the four modes are c(1)=13 ms, c(2)=14.7 ms, c(3)=30.3 ms, and c(4)=124.5 ms, which are well within the range of values previously reported in experimental and theoretical studies. The modes with the highest and the lowest speeds of propagation can be attributed to the dura and the spinal cord, respectively, whereas the remaining two modes involve some degree of coupling between the two. When the

  18. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection

    Kanika Prasad


    Full Text Available Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation.

  19. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Raj Bali; Mahesh Kumar Yadav


    Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model is investigated. To get a deterministic model, we have assumed the condition = ( is a constant) between metric potentials and where is the coefficient of shear viscosity and the scalar of expansion in the model. The coefficient of bulk viscosity () is taken as constant. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  20. The Reduced RUM as a Logit Model: Parameterization and Constraints.

    Chiu, Chia-Yi; Köhn, Hans-Friedrich


    Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) for educational assessment are constrained latent class models. Examinees are assigned to classes of intellectual proficiency defined in terms of cognitive skills called attributes, which an examinee may or may not have mastered. The Reduced Reparameterized Unified Model (Reduced RUM) has received considerable attention among psychometricians. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or Expectation Maximization (EM) are typically used for estimating the Reduced RUM. Commercial implementations of the EM algorithm are available in the latent class analysis (LCA) routines of Latent GOLD and Mplus, for example. Fitting the Reduced RUM with an LCA routine requires that it be reparameterized as a logit model, with constraints imposed on the parameters. For models involving two attributes, these have been worked out. However, for models involving more than two attributes, the parameterization and the constraints are nontrivial and currently unknown. In this article, the general parameterization of the Reduced RUM as a logit model involving any number of attributes and the associated parameter constraints are derived. As a practical illustration, the LCA routine in Mplus is used for fitting the Reduced RUM to two synthetic data sets and to a real-world data set; for comparison, the results obtained by using the MCMC implementation in OpenBUGS are also provided.

  1. A Lattice Boltzmann Model for Fluid-Solid Coupling Heat Transfer in Fractal Porous Media

    CAI Jun; HUAI Xiu-Lan


    We report a lattice Boltzmann model that can be used to simulate fluid-solid coupling heat transfer in fractal porous media.A numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the temperature evolution under different ratios of thermal conductivity of solid matrix of porous media to that of fluid.The accordance of our simulation results with the solutions from the conventional CFD method indicates the feasibility and the reliability for the developed lattice Boltzmann model to reveal the phenomena and rules of fluid-solid coupling heat transfer in complex porous structures.

  2. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of teduglutide in reducing parenteral nutrition and/or intravenous fluid requirements in patients with short bowel syndrome

    Jeppesen, P B; Gilroy, R; Pertkiewicz, M


    Teduglutide, a GLP-2 analogue, may restore intestinal structural and functional integrity by promoting repair and growth of the mucosa and reducing gastric emptying and secretion, thereby increasing fluid and nutrient absorption in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). This 24-week placebo-co......-controlled study evaluated the ability of teduglutide to reduce parenteral support in patients with SBS with intestinal failure....

  3. Thermodynamically consistent mesoscopic fluid particle models for a van der Waals fluid

    Serrano, Mar; Español, Pep


    The GENERIC structure allows for a unified treatment of different discrete models of hydrodynamics. We first propose a finite volume Lagrangian discretization of the continuum equations of hydrodynamics through the Voronoi tessellation. We then show that a slight modification of these discrete equations has the GENERIC structure. The GENERIC structure ensures thermodynamic consistency and allows for the introduction of correct thermal noise. In this way, we obtain a consistent discrete model ...

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors During Aeration Tank Settling

    Dam Jensen, Mette; Ingildsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Michael R.;


    shown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. The paper discusses the results at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet...... been suggested and tested by means of computational fluid dynamics modelling. The most promissing design change have been found and reported....

  5. Low central venous pressure versus acute normovolemic hemodilution versus conventional fluid management for reducing blood loss in radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Habib, Ashraf S; Moul, Judd W; Polascik, Thomas J; Robertson, Cary N; Roche, Anthony M; White, William D; Hill, Stephen E; Nosnick, Israel; Gan, Tong J


    To compare acute normovolemic hemodilution versus low central venous pressure strategy versus conventional fluid management in reducing intraoperative estimated blood loss, hematocrit drop and need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy under general anesthesia. Patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy under general anesthesia were randomized to conventional fluid management, acute normovolemic hemodilution or low central venous pressure (≤5 mmHg). Treatment effects on estimated blood loss and hematocrit change were tested in multivariable regression models accounting for surgeon, prostate size, and all two-way interactions. Ninety-two patients completed the study. Estimated blood loss (mean ± SD) was significantly lower with low central venous pressure (706 ± 362 ml) compared to acute normovolemic hemodilution (1103 ± 635 ml) and conventional (1051 ± 714 ml) groups (p = 0.0134). There was no difference between the groups in need for blood transfusion, or hematocrit drop from preoperative values. The multivariate model predicting estimated blood loss showed a significant effect of treatment (p = 0.0028) and prostate size (p = 0.0323), accounting for surgeon (p = 0.0013). In the model predicting hematocrit change, accounting for surgeon difference (p = 0.0037), the treatment effect depended on prostate size (p = 0.0007) with the slope of low central venous pressure differing from the other two groups. Hematocrit was predicted to drop more with increased prostate size in acute normovolemic hemodilution and conventional groups but not with low central venous pressure. Limitations include the inability to blind providers to group assignment, possible variability between providers in estimation of blood loss, and the relatively small sample size that was not powered to detect differences between the groups in need for blood transfusion. Maintaining low central venous

  6. Reducing Fear of the Laboratory Rat: A Participant Modeling Approach.

    Barber, Nigel


    Reports on the use of participant modeling in a study of 56 college-level students to reduce fear of laboratory rats. Discovers that even mild exposure reduced fear significantly. Finds that women were more fearful initially but that their fear reduction was equal to that of men. (CFR)

  7. Shock Wave Solutions for Some Nonlinear Flow Models Arising in the Study of a Non-Newtonian Third Grade Fluid

    Taha Aziz


    Full Text Available This study is based upon constructing a new class of closed-form shock wave solutions for some nonlinear problems arising in the study of a third grade fluid model. The Lie symmetry reduction technique has been employed to reduce the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically, and the shock wave solutions are constructed. The conditions on the physical parameters of the flow problems also fall out naturally in the process of the derivation of the solutions.

  8. Sliding Mode Control Design via Reduced Order Model Approach


    This paper presents a design of continuous-time sliding mode control for the higher order systems via reduced order model. It is shown that a continuous-time sliding mode control designed for the reduced order model gives similar performance for the higher order system. The method is illustrated by numerical examples. The paper also introduces a technique for design of a sliding surface such that the system satisfies a cost-optimality condition when on the sliding surface.

  9. Fluid-fluid and fluid-solid transitions in the Kern-Frenkel model from Barker-Henderson thermodynamic perturbation theory

    Gögelein, Christoph; Romano, Flavio; Sciortino, Francesco; Giacometti, Achille


    We study the Kern-Frenkel model for patchy colloids using Barker-Henderson second-order thermodynamic perturbation theory. The model describes a fluid where hard sphere particles are decorated with one patch, so that they interact via a square-well potential if they are sufficiently close one another, and if patches on each particle are properly aligned. Both the gas-liquid and fluid-solid phase coexistences are computed and contrasted against corresponding Monte Carlo simulations results. We find that the perturbation theory describes rather accurately numerical simulations all the way from a fully covered square-well potential down to the Janus limit (half coverage). In the region where numerical data are not available (from Janus to hard-spheres), the method provides estimates of the location of the critical lines that could serve as a guideline for further efficient numerical work at these low coverages. A comparison with other techniques, such as integral equation theory, highlights the important aspect of this methodology in the present context.

  10. Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Steam Generator Tube Bundle

    Sigrist, J.F. [DCNS Prop, Serv Tech et Sci, F-44620 La Montagne, (France); Broc, D. [CEA Saclay, Serv Etud Mecan et Sism, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)


    Seismic analysis of steam generator is of paramount importance in the safety assessment of nuclear installations. These analyses require, in particular, the calculation of frequency, mode shape, and effective modal mass of the system Eigenmodes. As fluid-structure interaction effects can significantly affect the dynamic behavior of immersed structures, the numerical modeling of the steam generator has to take into account FSI. A complete modeling of heat exchangers (including pressure vessel, tubes, and fluid) is not accessible to the engineer for industrial design studies. In the past decades, homogenization methods have been studied and developed in order to model tubes and fluid through an equivalent continuous media, thus avoiding the tedious task to mesh all structure and fluid sub-domains within the tube bundle. Few of these methods have nonetheless been implemented in industrial finite element codes. In a previous paper (Sigrist, 2007, 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Nuclear Pressure Vessel', J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123, p. 1-6), a homogenization method has been applied to an industrial case for the modal analysis of a nuclear rector with internal structures and coupling effects modeling. The present paper aims at investigating the extension of the proposed method for the dynamic analysis of tube bundles with fluid-structure interaction modeling. The homogenization method is compared with the classical coupled method in terms of eigenfrequencies, Eigenmodes, and effective modal masses. (authors)

  11. Modeling of bubble detachment in reduced gravity under the influence of electric fields and experimental verification

    Herman, Cila [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Iacona, Estelle [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ecole Centrale, Laboratoire EM2C, Paris UPR 288 (France)


    A simple model for predicting bubble volume and shape at detachment in reduced gravity under the influence of electric fields is described in the paper. The model is based on relatively simple thermodynamic arguments and relies on and combines several models described in the literature. It accounts for the level of gravity and the magnitude of the electric field. For certain conditions of bubble development the properties of the bubble source are also considered. Computations were carried out for a uniform unperturbed electric field for a range of model parameters, and the significance of model assumptions and simplifications is discussed for the particular method of bubble formation. Experiments were conducted in terrestrial conditions and reduced gravity (during parabolic flights in NASA's KC-135 aircraft) by injecting air bubbles through an orifice into the electrically insulating working fluid, PF5052. Bubble shapes visualized experimentally were compared with model predictions. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement. The results suggest that the model can provide quick engineering estimates concerning bubble formation for a range of conditions (both for formation at an orifice and boiling) and such a model reduces the need for complex and expensive numerical simulations for certain applications. (orig.)

  12. Fluid identification in tight sandstone reservoirs based on a new rock physics model

    Sun, Jianmeng; Wei, Xiaohan; Chen, Xuelian


    To identify pore fluids, we establish a new rock physics model named the tight sandstone dual-porosity model based on the Voigt-Reuss-Hill model, approximation for the Xu-White model and Gassmann’s equation to predict elastic wave velocities. The modeling test shows that predicted sonic velocities derived from this rock physics model match well with measured ones from logging data. In this context, elastic moduli can be derived from the model. By numerical study and characteristic analyzation of different elastic properties, a qualitative fluid identification method based on Poisson’s ratio and the S-L dual-factor method based on synthetic moduli is proposed. Case studies of these two new methods show the applicability in distinguishing among different fluids and different layers in tight sandstone reservoirs.

  13. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid and methane migration through fault zones in shale gas reservoirs

    Taherdangkoo, Reza; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    Hydraulic fracturing operation in shale gas reservoir has gained growing interest over the last few years. Groundwater contamination is one of the most important environmental concerns that have emerged surrounding shale gas development (Reagan et al., 2015). The potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing could be studied through the possible pathways for subsurface migration of contaminants towards overlying aquifers (Kissinger et al., 2013; Myers, 2012). The intent of this study is to investigate, by means of numerical simulation, two failure scenarios which are based on the presence of a fault zone that penetrates the full thickness of overburden and connect shale gas reservoir to aquifer. Scenario 1 addresses the potential transport of fracturing fluid from the shale into the subsurface. This scenario was modeled with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Scenario 2 deals with the leakage of methane from the reservoir into the overburden. The numerical modeling of this scenario was implemented in DuMux (free and open-source software), discrete fracture model (DFM) simulator (Tatomir, 2012). The modeling results are used to evaluate the influence of several important parameters (reservoir pressure, aquifer-reservoir separation thickness, fault zone inclination, porosity, permeability, etc.) that could affect the fluid transport through the fault zone. Furthermore, we determined the main transport mechanisms and circumstances in which would allow frack fluid or methane migrate through the fault zone into geological layers. The results show that presence of a conductive fault could reduce the contaminant travel time and a significant contaminant leakage, under certain hydraulic conditions, is most likely to occur. Bibliography Kissinger, A., Helmig, R., Ebigbo, A., Class, H., Lange, T., Sauter, M., Heitfeld, M., Klünker, J., Jahnke, W., 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional gas reservoirs: risks in the geological system, part 2. Environ Earth Sci 70, 3855

  14. A Thermodynamic Model for Square-well Chain Fluid: Theory and Monte Carlo Simulation


    A thermodynamic model for the freely jointed square-well chain fluids was developed based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory of Barker-Henderson, Zhang and Wertheim. In this derivation Zhang's expressions for square-well monomers improved from Barker-Henderson compressibility approximation were adopted as the reference fluid, and Wertheim's polymerization method was used to obtain the free energy term due to the bond connectivity. An analytic expression for the Helmholtz free energy of the square-well chain fluids was obtained. The expression without adjustable parameters leads to the thermodynamic consistent predictions of the compressibility factors, residual internal energy and constant-volume heat capacity for dimer,4-mer, 8-mer and 16-mer square-well fluids. The results are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. To obtain the MC data of residual internal energy and the constant-volume heat capacity needed, NVT MC simulations were performed for these square-well chain fluids.

  15. A nonlocal model for fluid-structure interaction with applications in hydraulic fracturing

    Turner, Daniel Z


    Modeling important engineering problems related to flow-induced damage (in the context of hydraulic fracturing among others) depends critically on characterizing the interaction of porous media and interstitial fluid flow. This work presents a new formulation for incorporating the effects of pore pressure in a nonlocal representation of solid mechanics. The result is a framework for modeling fluid-structure interaction problems with the discontinuity capturing advantages of an integral based formulation. A number of numerical examples are used to show that the proposed formulation can be applied to measure the effect of leak-off during hydraulic fracturing as well as modeling consolidation of fluid saturated rock and surface subsidence caused by fluid extraction from a geologic reservoir. The formulation incorporates the effect of pore pressure in the constitutive description of the porous material in a way that is appropriate for nonlinear materials, easily implemented in existing codes, straightforward in i...

  16. Fluid stiction modeling for quickly separating plates considering the liquid tensile strength

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.;


    separation speed and low plate distance are present. In the case of small initial plate separation, fluid tension is known to develop and the stiction force may exceed the maximum stiction force calculated by assuming strictly positive pressures in the fluid film. In this paper, a model for simulating......Fluid stiction may significantly influence the dynamic behavior when attempting to quickly separate two plates in close contact. The liquid fluid film, filling the gap between the plates, experiences a pressure drop resulting from an increasing distance, and cavitation may appear if sufficient...... the need for finite element/volume methods. The considered geometry is two long parallel plates submerged in liquid, as present in many valve applications. The model is compared to experimental measurements, and it is found that the model is able to predict the stiction effect with reasonable accuracy...

  17. Chemical potential of a hard sphere fluid adsorbed in model disordered polydisperse matrices.

    de Leon, Aned; Pizio, O; Sokołowski, S


    We consider a model for adsorption of a simple fluid in disordered polydisperse adsorbents. The fluid consists of hard sphere particles. On the other hand, the adsorbents of this study are modeled as a collection of hard spheres with their diameter obeying a certain distribution function. Our focus is in the evaluation of the chemical potential of the fluid immersed in such a polydisperse material. It permits us to obtain porosity and pore size distribution for the adsorbent, as well as a set of adsorption isotherms. The latter have been calculated theoretically and by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We observe that the width of assumed polydispersity distribution affects all the properties of the system. Nevertheless, the effect of matrix packing is dominant in determining adsorption for this class of models. We are convinced that the matrix structures generated via more sophisticated algorithms would exhibit stronger effects of polydispersity on the entire set of properties of adsorbed simple fluids.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics in fire engineering theory, modelling and practice

    Yuen, Kwok Kit


    Fire and combustion presents a significant engineering challenge to mechanical, civil and dedicated fire engineers, as well as specialists in the process and chemical, safety, buildings and structural fields. We are reminded of the tragic outcomes of 'untenable' fire disasters such as at King's Cross underground station or Switzerland's St Gotthard tunnel. In these and many other cases, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is at the forefront of active research into unravelling the probable causes of fires and helping to design structures and systems to ensure that they are less likely in the f

  19. A rapid lateral fluid percussion injury rodent model of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy.

    Hameed, Mustafa Q; Goodrich, Grant S; Dhamne, Sameer C; Amandusson, Asa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Mou, Danlei; Wang, Yingpeng; Rotenberg, Alexander


    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired epilepsy. Initially described in 1989, lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) has since become the most extensively used and well-characterized rodent traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy model. Universal findings, particularly seizures that reliably develop after an initial latent period, are evident across studies from multiple laboratories. However, the LFPI procedure is a two-stage process, requiring initial surgical attachment of a skull fluid cannula and then reanesthesia for delivery of the epidural fluid pressure wave. We now describe a modification of the original technique, termed 'rapid lateral fluid percussion injury' (rLFPI), which allows for a one-stage procedure and thus shorter operating time and reduced anesthesia exposure. Anesthetized male Long-Evans rats were subjected to rLFPI through a length of plastic tubing fitted with a pipette tip cannula with a 4-mm aperture. The cannula opening was positioned over a craniectomy of slightly smaller diameter and exposed dura such that the edges of the cannula fit tightly when pressed to the skull with a micromanipulator. Fluid percussion was then delivered immediately thereafter, in the same surgery session. rLFPI resulted in nonlethal focal cortical injury in all animals. We previously demonstrated that the rLFPI procedure resulted in post-traumatic seizures and regional gliosis, but had not examined other histopathologic elements. Now, we show apoptotic cell death confined to the perilesional cortex and chronic pathologic changes such as ipsilesional ventriculomegaly that are seen in the classic model. We conclude that the rLFPI method is a viable alternative to classic LFPI, and--being a one-stage procedure--has the advantage of shorter experiment turnaround and reduced exposure to anesthetics.

  20. Projection-Based Reduced Order Modeling for Spacecraft Thermal Analysis

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Yi; Song, Hongjun; Pant, Kapil; Peabody, Hume; Ku, Jentung; Butler, Charles D.


    This paper presents a mathematically rigorous, subspace projection-based reduced order modeling (ROM) methodology and an integrated framework to automatically generate reduced order models for spacecraft thermal analysis. Two key steps in the reduced order modeling procedure are described: (1) the acquisition of a full-scale spacecraft model in the ordinary differential equation (ODE) and differential algebraic equation (DAE) form to resolve its dynamic thermal behavior; and (2) the ROM to markedly reduce the dimension of the full-scale model. Specifically, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in conjunction with discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) and trajectory piece-wise linear (TPWL) methods are developed to address the strong nonlinear thermal effects due to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in the spacecraft environment. Case studies using NASA-relevant satellite models are undertaken to verify the capability and to assess the computational performance of the ROM technique in terms of speed-up and error relative to the full-scale model. ROM exhibits excellent agreement in spatiotemporal thermal profiles (<0.5% relative error in pertinent time scales) along with salient computational acceleration (up to two orders of magnitude speed-up) over the full-scale analysis. These findings establish the feasibility of ROM to perform rational and computationally affordable thermal analysis, develop reliable thermal control strategies for spacecraft, and greatly reduce the development cycle times and costs.

  1. Development of a model to assess acoustic treatments to reduce railway noise

    Jeong, H.; Squicciarini, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.


    Porous materials have recently been used in absorptive treatments around railway tracks to reduce noise emissions. To investigate the effect of porous materials, a finite element model has been developed. 2D models for porous materials have been considered either as an equivalent fluid or as a poroelastic material based on the Biot theory. The two models have been validated and compared with each other to check the effect of the skeleton vibration. The poroelastic FE model has been coupled with a 2D acoustic boundary element model for use in railway applications. The results show that it may be necessary to include the frame vibration, especially at low frequencies where a frame resonance occurs. A method for the characterization of porous materials is also discussed. From this it is shown that the elastic properties of the material determine the resonance frequency and the magnitude.

  2. Computational studies of suppression of microwave gas breakdown by crossed dc magnetic field using electron fluid model

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Guo, Lixin; Shu, Panpan


    The gas breakdown induced by a square microwave pulse with a crossed dc magnetic field is investigated using the electron fluid model, in which the accurate electron energy distribution functions are adopted. Simulation results show that at low gas pressures the dc magnetic field of a few tenths of a tesla can prolong the breakdown formation time by reducing the mean electron energy. With the gas pressure increasing, the higher dc magnetic field is required to suppress the microwave breakdown. The electric field along the microwave propagation direction generated due to the motion of electrons obviously increases with the dc magnetic field, but it is much less than the incident electric field. The breakdown predictions of the electron fluid model agree very well with the particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision simulations as well as the scaling law for the microwave gas breakdown.




    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  4. The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system

    Stroev, Nikita


    The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM($\\sim$)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with ``linear mixture'' (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM($\\sim$) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM($\\sim$) there were reproduced two-dimensional r...

  5. Modeling fluid-structure interactions in shallow microchannels

    Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Christov, Ivan C.


    Rectangular microfluidic conduits with deformable walls are some of the simplest and most extensively studied microfluidic devices, primarily due to their practical design applications in a variety of fields like biology, medical diagnostics (e.g., lab-on-a-chip), nanotechnology, etc. Experimentally, these devices are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions occurring at the channel walls. These deformations significantly affect the flow profile, which results in a non-linear relationship between the flow rate and the pressure drop, which cannot be explained by a 'generalised Poiseuille flow solution'. To this end, we perform a numerical study of these fluid-structure interactions and their effect on the flow rate and the pressure drop occurring in microfluidic conduits with a single deformable wall. The behavior of several shallow conduit systems (l >> w >> h) with rigid base and side walls and a soft top wall (e.g., PDMS) is simulated under laminar flow conditions using the commercial software suite ANSYS. Simulation results are compared against experimental pressure drop-flow rate data from the literature and also newly developed analytical expressions for the wall deformation, the pressure and the normalized flow rate.

  6. OpenFLUID: an open-source software environment for modelling fluxes in landscapes

    Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Rabotin, Michaël; Crevoisier, David; Libres, Aline; Dagès, Cécile; Moussa, Roger; Lagacherie, Philippe; Raclot, Damien; Voltz, Marc


    Integrative landscape functioning has become a common concept in environmental management. Landscapes are complex systems where many processes interact in time and space. In agro-ecosystems, these processes are mainly physical processes, including hydrological-processes, biological processes and human activities. Modelling such systems requires an interdisciplinary approach, coupling models coming from different disciplines, developed by different teams. In order to support collaborative works, involving many models coupled in time and space for integrative simulations, an open software modelling platform is a relevant answer. OpenFLUID is an open source software platform for modelling landscape functioning, mainly focused on spatial fluxes. It provides an advanced object-oriented architecture allowing to i) couple models developed de novo or from existing source code, and which are dynamically plugged to the platform, ii) represent landscapes as hierarchical graphs, taking into account multi-scale, spatial heterogeneities and landscape objects connectivity, iii) run and explore simulations in many ways : using the OpenFLUID software interfaces for users (command line interface, graphical user interface), or using external applications such as GNU R through the provided ROpenFLUID package. OpenFLUID is developed in C++ and relies on open source libraries only (Boost, libXML2, GLib/GTK, OGR/GDAL, …). For modelers and developers, OpenFLUID provides a dedicated environment for model development, which is based on an open source toolchain, including the Eclipse editor, the GCC compiler and the CMake build system. OpenFLUID is distributed under the GPLv3 open source license, with a special exception allowing to plug existing models licensed under any license. It is clearly in the spirit of sharing knowledge and favouring collaboration in a community of modelers. OpenFLUID has been involved in many research applications, such as modelling of hydrological network

  7. Molecular modelling and simulation of the surface tension of real quadrupolar fluids

    Werth, Stephan; Klein, Peter; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans


    Molecular modelling and simulation of the surface tension of fluids with force fields is discussed. 29 real fluids are studied, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propyne, propylene, propadiene, carbon disulfide, sulfur hexafluoride, and many refrigerants. The fluids are represented by two-centre Lennard-Jones plus point quadrupole models from the literature. These models were adjusted only to experimental data of the vapour pressure and saturated liquid density so that the results for the surface tension are predictions. The deviations between the predictions and experimental data for the surface tension are of the order of 20 percent. The surface tension is usually overestimated by the models. For further improvements, data on the surface tension can be included in the model development. A suitable strategy for this is multi-criteria optimization based on Pareto sets. This is demonstrated using the model for carbon d...

  8. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.


    Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for


    Ning; Yang; Wei; Wang; Wei; Ge; Jinghai; Li


    reduce the heterogeneity to some extent and may be capable of capturing some meso-scale heterogeneity though there still exists some argument about the physical rationalityof this approach such as the treatment of particle phase as a continuum while fining the meshes. Third, it is generally agreed that a cascade description, viz. extracting the closure correlations for TFM from microscopic simulations such as PPM and LBM (van der Hoef et al., 2004), can suggest a practical way to explore the multi-scale heterogeneity. Although the above three schemes are logical and fundamental, they are generally difficult to implement at present due to the complexity of the models or the enormous computational cost. The fourth scheme we adopted in this study is the so-called energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model which seems to be a simple yet reasonable approach at the moment.In the present approach, a "structure" model is established to describe the meso-scale heterogeneity through the definition of eight "structure parameters" and the resolution of structure involving a particle-rich dense cluster phase and a gas-rich dilute phase. Gas-solid interaction is also resolved into that between gas and particles inside both the dense cluster phase and the dilute phase, and that between the cluster phase and the dilute phase. This means that the drag force for the dense cluster phase includes two parts, namely, bypassing drag (ki) and permeating drag (kc) as depicted in Fig.1. We found that the absolute value of the difference (△k) between kc and ki could be employed to evaluate the extent of the system heterogeneity. On the basis of this structure model, the average acceleration (a) induced by gas-solid interactions can be obtained, and then the average drag coefficient (β) for the two-fluid model can be calculated. Calculation results show that the computed value ofβwith the EMMS model is much less than that with the Wen & Yu/Ergun correlations, which is in reasonable agreement

  10. Reducing Redundancies in Reconfigurable Antenna Structures Using Graph Models

    Costantine, Joseph; al-Saffar, Sinan; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Abdallah, Chaouki T.


    Many reconfigurable antennas have redundant components in their structures. In this paper we present an approach for reducing redundancies in reconfigurable antenna structures using graph models. We study reconfigurable antennas, which are grouped, categorized and modeled according to a set of proposed graph rules. Several examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the validity of this new technique.

  11. A hybrid grid method in an auxiliary coordinate system for irregular fluid-solid interface modelling

    Qu, Yingming; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Li, Jinli


    Seismic wave propagation in a fluid-solid environment cannot be simulated with a single wave equation, but can be described by use of the acoustic and viscoelastic wave equations for their respective fluid and solid parts. Proper boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface based on the relationship between pressure and stress are crucial when combining the two different wave equations. Traditional finite difference methods have had difficulties in dealing with the irregular fluid-solid interface topography. The Cartesian grids discretization leads to artificial reflections and diffractions during the conversion between acoustic wave and elastic waves. We propose a variable coordinate transformation methodology to simulate seismic waves in a fluid-solid environment. An irregular fluid-solid interface can be transformed into a horizontal interface, so that pressure and stress can be well converted. We also introduce a multiblock coordinate transformation (MCT) method which meshes each layer with curvilinear grids to transform the interface topography into a horizontal one, thereby allocating vertical sampling points adaptively. The grid size is determined adaptively based on the shape and the parameters of the target area, which reduces in size in when the layers are thin or exhibit low velocities. A Lebedev-standard staggered grid scheme is applied to the MCT method to reduce both the computational cost associated with the Lebedev grid scheme and the instability in the auxiliary coordinate system when using a standard staggered grid scheme.

  12. Reducing outpatient waiting time: a simulation modeling approach.

    Aeenparast, Afsoon; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Shahanaghi, Kamran; Aryanejhad, Mir Bahador


    The objective of this study was to provide a model for reducing outpatient waiting time by using simulation. A simulation model was constructed by using the data of arrival time, service time and flow of 357 patients referred to orthopedic clinic of a general teaching hospital in Tehran. The simulation model was validated before constructing different scenarios. In this study 10 scenarios were presented for reducing outpatient waiting time. Patients waiting time was divided into three levels regarding their physicians. These waiting times for all scenarios were computed by simulation model. According to the final scores the 9th scenario was selected as the best way for reducing outpatient's waiting time. Using the simulation as a decision making tool helps us to decide how we can reduce outpatient's waiting time. Comparison of outputs of this scenario and the based- case scenario in simulation model shows that combining physician's work time changing with patient's admission time changing (scenario 9) would reduce patient waiting time about 73.09%. Due to dynamic and complex nature of healthcare systems, the application of simulation for the planning, modeling and analysis of these systems has lagged behind traditional manufacturing practices. Rapid growth in health care system expenditures, technology and competition has increased the complexity of health care systems. Simulation is a useful tool for decision making in complex and probable systems.

  13. Bianchi VI cosmological models representing perfect fluid and radiation with electric-type free gravitational fields

    Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.


    A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  14. A computational fluid dynamics model for designing heat exchangers based on natural convection

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Walle, van der T.; Speetjens, S.L.; Bot, G.P.A.


    A computational fluid dynamics model was created for the design of a natural convection shell-and-tube heat exchanger with baffles. The flow regime proved to be turbulent and this was modelled using the k¿¿ turbulence model. The features of the complex geometry were simplified considerably resulting

  15. Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling

    Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig;


    Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...

  16. Reduced order modeling of grid-connected photovoltaic inverter systems

    Wasynczuk, O.; Krause, P. C.; Anwah, N. A.


    This report summarizes the development of reduced order models of three-phase, line- and self-commutated inverter systems. This work was performed as part of the National Photovoltaics Program within the United States Department of Energy and was supervised by Sandia National Laboratories. The overall objective of the national program is to promote the development of low cost, reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems for widespread use in residential, commercial and utility applications. The purpose of the effort reported herein is to provide reduced order models of three-phase, line- and self-commutated PV systems suitable for implementation into transient stability programs, which are commonly used to predict the stability characteristics of large-scale power systems. The accuracy of the reduced models is verified by comparing the response characteristics predicted therefrom with the response established using highly detailed PV system models in which the inverter switching is represented in detail.

  17. Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed


    This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low dimensional bilinear state representation, enables the reproduction of the heat transfer dynamics along the collector tube for system analysis. Moreover, presented as a reduced order bilinear state space model, the well established control theory for this class of systems can be applied. The approximation efficiency has been proven by several simulation tests, which have been performed considering parameters of the Acurex field with real external working conditions. Model accuracy has been evaluated by comparison to the analytical solution of the hyperbolic distributed model and its semi discretized approximation highlighting the benefits of using the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, model sensitivity to the different parameters of the gaussian interpolation has been studied.

  18. Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Yield Viscoplastic Fluid Flow in Concentric and Eccentric Annuli

    毛在砂; 杨超; Vassilios C. Kelessidis


    Numerical solution of yield viscoplastic fluid flow is hindered by the singularity inherent to the Herschel-Bulkley model. A finite difference method over the boundary-fitted orthogonal coordinate system is util- ized to investigate numerically the fully developed steady flow of non-Newtonian yield viscoplastic fluid through concentric and eccentric annuli. The fluid rheology is described with the Herschel-Bulkley model. The numerical simulation based on a continuous viscoplastic approach to the Herschel-Bulkley model is found in poor accordance with the experimental data on volumetric flow rate of a bentonite suspension. A strict mathematical model for Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow is established and the corresponding numerical procedures are proposed. However, only the case of flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid in a concentric annulus is resolved based on the presumed flow stnicture by using the common optimization technique. Possible flow structures in an eccentric afinulus are presumed, and further challenges in numerical simulation of the Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow are suggested.

  19. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U


    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  20. Modeling study on fluid flow and inclusion motion in 6-strand bloom caster tundishes

    Guanghua Wen; Lifeng Zhang; Ping Tang; Zhenjiang Su; Mingmei Zhu; Wuan Gu; Kewen Zhao


    The behavior of fluid flow and particle motion in a 6-strand bloom caster tundish was investigated by a water model and numerical simulation. Compared with a device without flow control, the tundish with flow control has an important effect on the fluid flow pattern and inclusion removal. It is revealed that by non-isothermal process, which is real production condition, the fluid flow in tundish shows a strong buoyancy pattem, which drives particles to move upwards. The particle removal was quantitatively studied by mathematical and physical simulations.

  1. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics modelling in continuum mechanics: fluid-structure interaction

    Groenenboom P. H. L.


    Full Text Available Within this study, the implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method solving the complex problem of interaction between a quasi-incompressible fluid involving a free surface and an elastic structure is outlined. A brief description of the SPH model for both the quasi-incompressible fluid and the isotropic elastic solid is presented. The interaction between the fluid and the elastic structure is realised through the contact algorithm. The results of numerical computations are confronted with the experimental as well as computational data published in the literature.

  2. A solid-fluid mixture model allowing for solid dilatation under external pressure

    Sciarra, Giulio; Hutter, Kolumban


    A sponge subjected to an increase of the outside fluid pressure expands its volume but nearly mantains its true density and thus gives way to an increase of the interstitial volume. This behaviour, not yet properly described by solid-fluid mixture theories, is studied here by using the Principle of Virtual Power with the most simple dependence of the free energy as a function of the partial apparent densities of the solid and the fluid. The model is capable of accounting for the above mentioned dilatational behaviour, but in order to isolate its essential features more clearly we compromise on the other aspects of deformation.

  3. On the verification of PGD reduced-order models

    Pled, Florent; Chamoin, Ludovic; Ladevèze, Pierre


    International audience; In current computational mechanics practice, multidimensional as well as multiscale or parametric models encountered in a wide variety of scientific and engineering fields often require either the resolution of significantly large complexity problems or the direct calculation of very numerous solutions of such complex models. In this framework, the use of model order reduction allows to dramatically reduce the computational requirements engendered by the increasing mod...

  4. Modeling of a continuous pretreatment reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    Berson, R Eric; Dasari, Rajesh K; Hanley, Thomas R


    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are employed to predict flow characteristics in a continuous auger driven reactor designed for the dilute acid pretreatment of biomass. Slurry containing a high concentration of biomass solids exhibits a high viscosity, which poses unique mixing issues within the reactor. The viscosity increases significantly with a small increase in solids concentration and also varies with temperature. A well-mixed slurry is desirable to evenly distribute acid on biomass, prevent buildup on the walls of the reactor, and provides an uniform final product. Simulations provide flow patterns obtained over a wide range of viscosities and pressure distributions, which may affect reaction rates. Results provide a tool for analyzing sources of inconsistencies in product quality and insight into future design and operating parameters.

  5. An improved model for noise barriers in a moving fluid

    Ahmad, Bashir


    We study a problem of diffraction of a cylindrical acoustic wave from an absorbing half plane in a moving fluid introducing Myers' condition [M.K. Myers, On the acoustic boundary condition in the presence of flow, J. Sound Vibration 71 (1980) 429] and present an improved form of the analytic solution for the diffracted field. The importance of the work lies in the fact that Myers' condition (a generalization of Ingard's impedance condition) is now the accepted form of the boundary condition for impedance barriers with flow and hence yields a correct form of the field. The method of solution consists of Fourier transform, Wiener-Hopf technique and the modified method of stationary phase.

  6. Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.


    This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.

  7. Analytical structure, dynamics, and coarse graining of a kinetic model of an active fluid

    Gao, Tong; Betterton, Meredith D.; Jhang, An-Sheng; Shelley, Michael J.


    We analyze one of the simplest active suspensions with complex dynamics: a suspension of immotile "extensor" particles that exert active extensile dipolar stresses on the fluid in which they are immersed. This is relevant to several experimental systems, such as recently studied tripartite rods that create extensile flows by consuming a chemical fuel. We first describe the system through a Doi-Onsager kinetic theory based on microscopic modeling. This theory captures the active stresses produced by the particles that can drive hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as the steric interactions of rodlike particles that lead to nematic alignment. This active nematic system yields complex flows and disclination defect dynamics very similar to phenomenological Landau-deGennes Q -tensor theories for active nematic fluids, as well as by more complex Doi-Onsager theories for polar microtubule-motor-protein systems. We apply the quasiequilibrium Bingham closure, used to study suspensions of passive microscopic rods, to develop a nonstandard Q -tensor theory. We demonstrate through simulation that this B Q -tensor theory gives an excellent analytical and statistical accounting of the suspension's complex dynamics, at a far reduced computational cost. Finally, we apply the B Q -tensor model to study the dynamics of extensor suspensions in circular and biconcave domains. In circular domains, we reproduce previous results for systems with weak nematic alignment, but for strong alignment we find unusual dynamics with activity-controlled defect production and absorption at the boundaries of the domain. In biconcave domains, a Fredericks-like transition occurs as the width of the neck connecting the two disks is varied.

  8. Five decades of tackling models for stiff fluid dynamics problems a scientific autobiography

    Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh


    Rationality - as opposed to 'ad-hoc' - and asymptotics - to emphasize the fact that perturbative methods are at the core of the theory - are the two main concepts associated with the Rational Asymptotic Modeling (RAM) approach in fluid dynamics when the goal is to specifically provide useful models accessible to numerical simulation via high-speed computing. This approach has contributed to a fresh understanding of Newtonian fluid flow problems and has opened up new avenues for tackling real fluid flow phenomena, which are known to lead to very difficult mathematical and numerical problems irrespective of turbulence. With the present scientific autobiography the author guides the reader through his somewhat non-traditional career; first discovering fluid mechanics, and then devoting more than fifty years to intense work in the field. Using both personal and general historical contexts, this account will be of benefit to anyone interested in the early and contemporary developments of an important branch of the...

  9. Coupled discrete element modeling of fluid injection into dense granular media

    Zhang, Fengshou; Damjanac, Branko; Huang, Haiying


    The coupled displacement process of fluid injection into a dense granular medium is investigated numerically using a discrete element method (DEM) code PFC2D® coupled with a pore network fluid flow scheme. How a dense granular medium behaves in response to fluid injection is a subject of fundamental and applied research interests to better understand subsurface processes such as fluid or gas migration and formation of intrusive features as well as engineering applications such as hydraulic fracturing and geological storage in unconsolidated formations. The numerical analysis is performed with DEM executing the mechanical calculation and the network model solving the Hagen-Poiseuille equation between the pore spaces enclosed by chains of particles and contacts. Hydromechanical coupling is realized by data exchanging at predetermined time steps. The numerical results show that increase in the injection rate and the invading fluid viscosity and decrease in the modulus and permeability of the medium result in fluid flow behaviors displaying a transition from infiltration-governed to infiltration-limited and the granular medium responses evolving from that of a rigid porous medium to localized failure leading to the development of preferential paths. The transition in the fluid flow and granular medium behaviors is governed by the ratio between the characteristic times associated with fluid injection and hydromechanical coupling. The peak pressures at large injection rates when fluid leakoff is limited compare well with those from the injection experiments in triaxial cells in the literature. The numerical analysis also reveals intriguing tip kinematics field for the growth of a fluid channel, which may shed light on the occurrence of the apical inverted-conical features in sandstone and magma intrusion in unconsolidated formations.

  10. Hybrid (Vlasov-Fluid) simulation of ion-acoustic soliton chain formation and validity of Korteweg de-Vries model

    Aminmansoor, F.; Abbasi, H.


    The present paper is devoted to simulation of nonlinear disintegration of a localized perturbation into ion-acoustic solitons train in a plasma with hot electrons and cold ions. A Gaussian initial perturbation is used to model the localized perturbation. For this purpose, first, we reduce fluid system of equations to a Korteweg de-Vries equation by the following well-known assumptions. (i) On the ion-acoustic evolution time-scale, the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is assumed to be stationary. (ii) The calculation is restricted to small amplitude cases. Next, in order to generalize the model to finite amplitudes cases, the evolution of EVDF is included. To this end, a hybrid code is designed to simulate the case, in which electrons dynamics is governed by Vlasov equation, while cold ions dynamics is, like before, studied by the fluid equations. A comparison between the two models shows that although the fluid model is capable of demonstrating the general features of the process, to have a better insight into the relevant physics resulting from the evolution of EVDF, the use of kinetic treatment is of great importance.

  11. Classical XY model with conserved angular momentum is an archetypal non-Newtonian fluid.

    Evans, R M L; Hall, Craig A; Simha, R Aditi; Welsh, Tom S


    We find that the classical one-dimensional XY model, with angular-momentum-conserving Langevin dynamics, mimics the non-Newtonian flow regimes characteristic of soft matter when subjected to counterrotating boundaries. An elaborate steady-state phase diagram has continuous and first-order transitions between states of uniform flow, shear-banding, solid-fluid coexistence and slip planes. Results of numerical studies and a concise mean-field constitutive relation offer a paradigm for diverse nonequilibrium complex fluids.

  12. A Tightly Coupled Particle-Fluid Model for DNA-Laden Flows in Complex Microscale Geometries

    Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Colella, P; Graves, D T; Martin, D F; Schwartz, P O


    We present a stable and convergent method for the computation of flows of DNA-laden fluids in microchannels with complex geometry. The numerical strategy combines a ball-rod model representation for polymers tightly coupled with a projection method for incompressible viscous flow. We use Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods to discretize the fluid equations in the presence of complex domain boundaries. A sample calculation is presented showing flow through a packed array microchannel in 2D.

  13. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    N'Doye, Ibrahima


    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow in Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Systems

    Weis, P.; Driesner, T.; Coumou, D.; Heinrich, C. A.


    Two coexisting fluid phases - a variably saline liquid and a vapor phase - are ubiquitous in ore-forming and other hydrothermal systems. Understanding the dynamics of phase separation and the distinct physical and chemical evolution of the two fluids probably plays a key role in generating different ore deposit types, e.g. porphyry type, high and low sulfidation Cu-Mo-Au deposits. To this end, processes within hydrothermal systems have been studied with a refined numerical model describing fluid flow in transient porous media (CSP~5.0). The model is formulated on a mass, energy and momentum conserving finite-element-finite-volume (FEFV) scheme and is capable of simulating multiphase flow of NaCl-H20 fluids. Fluid properties are computed from an improved equation of state (SOWAT~2.0). It covers conditions with temperatures of up to 1000 degrees~C, pressures of up to 500 MPa, and fluid salinities of 0~to 100%~NaCl. In particular, the new set-up allows for a more accurate description of fluid phase separation during boiling of hydrothermal fluids into a vapor and a brine phase. The geometric flexibility of the FEFV-meshes allows for investigations of a large variety of geological settings, ranging from ore-forming processes in magmatic hydrothermal system to the dynamics of black smokers at mid-ocean ridges. Simulations demonstrated that hydrothermal convection patterns above cooling plutons are primarily controlled by the system-scale permeability structure. In porphyry systems, high fluid pressures develop in a stock rising from the magma chamber which can lead to rock failure and, eventually, an increase in permeability due to hydrofracturing. Comparisons of the thermal evolution as inferred from modeling studies with data from fluid inclusion studies of the Pb-Zn deposits of Madan, Bulgaria are in a strikingly good agreement. This indicates that cross-comparisons of field observations, analytical data and numerical simulations will become a powerful tool towards a

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and CSF acetylcholinesterase activity are reduced in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Per Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known of vitamin D concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in Alzheimer's disease (AD and its relation with CSF acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, a marker of cholinergic function. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 52 consecutive patients under primary evaluation of cognitive impairment and 17 healthy controls. The patients had AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI diagnosed with AD dementia upon follow-up (n = 28, other dementias (n = 12, and stable MCI (SMCI, n = 12. We determined serum and CSF concentrations of calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD, and CSF activities of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE. FINDINGS: CSF 25OHD level was reduced in AD patients (P < 0.05, and CSF AChE activity was decreased both in patients with AD (P < 0.05 and other dementias (P < 0.01 compared to healthy controls. None of the measured variables differed between BuChE K-variant genotypes whereas the participants that were homozygous in terms of the apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 allele had decreased CSF AChE activity compared to subjects lacking the APOE ε4 allele (P = 0.01. In AD patients (n=28, CSF AChE activity correlated positively with CSF levels of total tau (T-tau (r = 0.44, P < 0.05 and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau (r = 0.50, P < 0.01, but CSF activities of AChE or BuChE did not correlate with serum or CSF levels of 25OHD. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, both CSF 25OHD level and CSF AChE activity were reduced in AD patients. However, the lack of correlations between 25OHD levels and CSF activities of AChE or BuChE might suggest different mechanisms of action, which could have implications for treatment trials.

  16. Implementation and validation of a 1D fluid model for collapsible channels.

    Anderson, Peter; Fels, Sidney; Green, Sheldon


    A 1D fluid model is implemented for the purpose of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations in complex and completely collapsible geometries, particularly targeting the case of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The fluid mechanics are solved separately from any solid mechanics, making possible the use of a highly complex and/or black-box solver for the solid mechanics. The fluid model is temporally discretized with a second-order scheme and spatially discretized with an asymmetrical fourth-order scheme that is robust in highly uneven geometries. A completely collapsing and reopening geometry is handled smoothly using a modified area function. The numerical implementation is tested with two driven-geometry cases: (1) an inviscid analytical solution and (2) a completely closing geometry with viscous flow. Three-dimensional fluid simulations in static geometries are performed to examine the assumptions of the 1D model, and with a well-defined pressure-recovery constant the 1D model agrees well with 3D models. The model is very fast computationally, is robust, and is recommended for OSA simulations where the bulk flow pressure is primarily of interest.

  17. Modeling and Algorithmic Approaches to Constitutively-Complex, Micro-structured Fluids

    Forest, Mark Gregory [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


    The team for this Project made significant progress on modeling and algorithmic approaches to hydrodynamics of fluids with complex microstructure. Our advances are broken down into modeling and algorithmic approaches. In experiments a driven magnetic bead in a complex fluid accelerates out of the Stokes regime and settles into another apparent linear response regime. The modeling explains the take-off as a deformation of entanglements, and the longtime behavior is a nonlinear, far-from-equilibrium property. Furthermore, the model has predictive value, as we can tune microstructural properties relative to the magnetic force applied to the bead to exhibit all possible behaviors. Wave-theoretic probes of complex fluids have been extended in two significant directions, to small volumes and the nonlinear regime. Heterogeneous stress and strain features that lie beyond experimental capability were studied. It was shown that nonlinear penetration of boundary stress in confined viscoelastic fluids is not monotone, indicating the possibility of interlacing layers of linear and nonlinear behavior, and thus layers of variable viscosity. Models, algorithms, and codes were developed and simulations performed leading to phase diagrams of nanorod dispersion hydrodynamics in parallel shear cells and confined cavities representative of film and membrane processing conditions. Hydrodynamic codes for polymeric fluids are extended to include coupling between microscopic and macroscopic models, and to the strongly nonlinear regime.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bubbling in a Viscous Fluid for Validation of Waste Glass Melter Modeling

    Abboud, Alexander William [Idaho National Laboratory; Guillen, Donna Post [Idaho National Laboratory


    At the Hanford site, radioactive waste stored in underground tanks is slated for vitrification for final disposal. A comprehensive knowledge of the glass batch melting process will be useful in optimizing the process, which could potentially reduce the cost and duration of this multi-billion dollar cleanup effort. We are developing a high-fidelity heat transfer model of a Joule-heated ceramic lined melter to improve the understanding of the complex, inter-related processes occurring with the melter. The glass conversion rates in the cold cap layer are dependent on promoting efficient heat transfer. In practice, heat transfer is augmented by inserting air bubblers into the molten glass. However, the computational simulations must be validated to provide confidence in the solutions. As part of a larger validation procedure, it is beneficial to split the physics of the melter into smaller systems to validate individually. The substitution of molten glass for a simulant liquid with similar density and viscosity at room temperature provides a way to study mixing through bubbling as an isolated effect without considering the heat transfer dynamics. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by the Vitreous State Laboratory at the Catholic University of America using bubblers placed within a large acrylic tank that is similar in scale to a pilot glass waste melter. Comparisons are made for surface area of the rising air bubbles between experiments and CFD simulations for a variety of air flow rates and bubble injection depths. Also, computed bubble rise velocity is compared to a well-accepted expression for bubble terminal velocity.

  19. Modeling the Fracturing of Rock by Fluid Injection - Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results

    Heinze, Thomas; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen


    Fluid-rock interactions are mechanically fundamental to many earth processes, including fault zones and hydrothermal/volcanic systems, and to future green energy solutions such as enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Modeling these processes is challenging because of the strong coupling between rock fracture evolution and the consequent large changes in the hydraulic properties of the system. In this talk, we present results of a numerical model that includes poro-elastic plastic rheology (with hardening, softening, and damage), and coupled to a non-linear diffusion model for fluid pressure propagation and two-phase fluid flow. Our plane strain model is based on the poro- elastic plastic behavior of porous rock and is advanced with hardening, softening and damage using the Mohr- Coulomb failure criteria. The effective stress model of Biot (1944) is used for coupling the pore pressure and the rock behavior. Frictional hardening and cohesion softening are introduced following Vermeer and de Borst (1984) with the angle of internal friction and the cohesion as functions of the principal strain rates. The scalar damage coefficient is assumed to be a linear function of the hardening parameter. Fluid injection is modeled as a two phase mixture of water and air using the Richards equation. The theoretical model is solved using finite differences on a staggered grid. The model is benchmarked with experiments on the laboratory scale in which fluid is injected from below in a critically-stressed, dry sandstone (Stanchits et al. 2011). We simulate three experiments, a) the failure a dry specimen due to biaxial compressive loading, b) the propagation a of low pressure fluid front induced from the bottom in a critically stressed specimen, and c) the failure of a critically stressed specimen due to a high pressure fluid intrusion. Comparison of model results with the fluid injection experiments shows that the model captures most of the experimental

  20. Reduced Order Models for Dynamic Behavior of Elastomer Damping Devices

    Morin, B.; Legay, A.; Deü, J.-F.


    In the context of passive damping, various mechanical systems from the space industry use elastomer components (shock absorbers, silent blocks, flexible joints...). The material of these devices has frequency, temperature and amplitude dependent characteristics. The associated numerical models, using viscoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, may become computationally too expensive during a design process. The aim of this work is to propose efficient reduced viscoelastic models of rubber devices. The first step is to choose an accurate material model that represent the viscoelasticity. The second step is to reduce the rubber device finite element model to a super-element that keeps the frequency dependence. This reduced model is first built by taking into account the fact that the device's interfaces are much more rigid than the rubber core. To make use of this difference, kinematical constraints enforce the rigid body motion of these interfaces reducing the rubber device model to twelve dofs only on the interfaces (three rotations and three translations per face). Then, the superelement is built by using a component mode synthesis method. As an application, the dynamic behavior of a structure supported by four hourglass shaped rubber devices under harmonic loads is analysed to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  1. Fully Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Model Based on Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain Method


    This paper, with a finite element method, studies the interaction of a coupled incompressible fluid-rigid structure system with a free surface subjected to external wave excitations. With this fully coupled model, the rigid structure is taken as "fictitious" fluid with zero strain rate. Both fluid and structure are described by velocity and pressure. The whole domain, including fluid region and structure region, is modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are discretized with fixed Eulerian mesh. However, to keep the structure's rigid body shape and behavior, a rigid body constraint is enforced on the "fictitious" fluid domain by use of the Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) method which is originally introduced to solve particulate flow problems by Glowinski et al. For the verification of the model presented herein, a 2D numerical wave tank is established to simulate small amplitude wave propagations, and then numerical results are compared with analytical solutions. Finally, a 2D example of fluid-structure interaction under wave dynamic forces provides convincing evidences for the method excellent solution quality and fidelity.

  2. Development of a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    In the present work, we developed a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage. The numerical model is based on the coupling between the porous media model and the lumped mass structural model. A novel interface was implemented...... was approximated by a set of dynamic porous zones, where the grid cells were updated at every iteration based on the transferred nodal positions from the structural model. A time stepping procedure was introduced, so the solver is applicable in both steady and unsteady conditions. In order to reduce...... the computational effort, sub-cycling was applied for the structural solver within each time step, based on the quasi-steady state assumption. The numerical model was validated against experiments in both steady and unsteady conditions. In general, the agreement is satisfactory....

  3. Fluid-solid interaction model for hydraulic reciprocating O-ring seals

    Liao, Chuanjun; Huang, Weifeng; Wang, Yuming; Suo, Shuangfu; Liu, Ying


    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of hydraulic reciprocating seals have significant effects on sealing and tribology performances of hydraulic actuators, especially in high parameter hydraulic systems. Only elastic deformations of hydraulic reciprocating seals were discussed, and hydrodynamic effects were neglected in many studies. The physical process of the fluid-solid interaction effect did not be clearly presented in the existing fluid-solid interaction models for hydraulic reciprocating O-ring seals, and few of these models had been simultaneously validated through experiments. By exploring the physical process of the fluid-solid interaction effect of the hydraulic reciprocating O-ring seal, a numerical fluid-solid interaction model consisting of fluid lubrication, contact mechanics, asperity contact and elastic deformation analyses is constructed with an iterative procedure. With the SRV friction and wear tester, the experiments are performed to investigate the elastohydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of the O-ring seal. The regularity of the friction coefficient varying with the speed of reciprocating motion is obtained in the mixed lubrication condition. The experimental result is used to validate the fluid-solid interaction model. Based on the model, The elastohydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of the hydraulic reciprocating O-ring seal are presented respectively in the dry friction, mixed lubrication and full film lubrication conditions, including of the contact pressure, film thickness, friction coefficient, liquid film pressure and viscous shear stress in the sealing zone. The proposed numerical fluid-solid interaction model can be effectively used to analyze the operation characteristics of the hydraulic reciprocating O-ring seal, and can also be widely used to study other hydraulic reciprocating seals.

  4. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized cosmological model in general relativity

    Raj Bali; Anjali


    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  5. Modeling fluid- and trace element-fluxes in subducted slabs utilising two-dimensional thermodynamic and trace element models

    Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Jahn, S.


    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere induces one of the major element cycles on Earth. Devolatilisation reactions in the subducted plate, the associated major and trace element transport as well as fluid-rock interaction within the slab and the mantle wedge control the flux of matter from the down-going plate into the upper plate and the atmosphere. Prediction and quantification of these fluxes is therefore a fundamental task in geosciences. The amount and composition of liberated fluids in a subducted slab is controlled by thermodynamic constraints, the fluid-rock element distribution as well as reaction kinetics in the affected rocks. Consequently, prediction of the element transfer within the slab and into the overlying rocks must consider these processes and their complex interactions. In this contribution we focus on the thermodynamic constraints on devolatilisation reactions in slab-crust and -mantle, the associated fluid migration and the chemical aspect of fluid-rock interaction within a hydrated subducted plate. Based on numerically modeled isotherm patterns of contrasting subduction settings we calculate phase relations in different layers of the subducted slabs. We use incremental Gibbs energy minimisation models and consider upward migration of liberated fluids during subduction. Moreover, modeled phase relations, fluid amounts and trace element partition coefficients, are used to calculate mass balanced distribution of fluid-mobile trace elements among the stable phases within the slab. Trace element transport occurs within the migrating fluid phase that equilibrates with the wall rock during ascent. This process controls element depletion and/or enrichment of fluid and wall rock and enables detailed prediction of the trace element transfer along the slab mantle interface. Our results show that fluid fluxes at the slab surface are clearly bimodal: at fore-arc depths water is continuously released predominantly from the MORB layer whereas at sub- and

  6. Reduced-order models for vertical human-structure interaction

    Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter


    For slender and lightweight structures, the vibration serviceability under crowd- induced loading is often critical in design. Currently, designers rely on equivalent load models, upscaled from single-person force measurements. Furthermore, it is important to consider the mechanical interaction with the human body as this can significantly reduce the structural response. To account for these interaction effects, the contact force between the pedestrian and the structure can be modelled as the superposition of the force induced by the pedestrian on a rigid floor and the force resulting from the mechanical interaction between the structure and the human body. For the case of large crowds, however, this approach leads to models with a very high system order. In the present contribution, two equivalent reduced-order models are proposed to approximate the dynamic behaviour of the full-order coupled crowd-structure system. A numerical study is performed to evaluate the impact of the modelling assumptions on the structural response to pedestrian excitation. The results show that the full-order moving crowd model can be well approximated by a reduced-order model whereby the interaction with the pedestrians in the crowd is modelled using a single (equivalent) SDOF system.

  7. Fluid Survival Tool: A Model Checker for Hybrid Petri Nets

    Postema, Björn; Remke, Anne; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Ghasemieh, Hamed


    Recently, algorithms for model checking Stochastic Time Logic (STL) on Hybrid Petri nets with a single general one-shot transition (HPNG) have been introduced. This paper presents a tool for model checking HPNG models against STL formulas. A graphical user interface (GUI) not only helps to demonstra

  8. A model for fluid-injection-induced seismicity at the KTB, Germany

    Baisch, S.; Harjes, H.-P.


    The 9.1 km deep KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung, Germany) drilling hole is one of the best investigated deep-drilling sites in the world. Among other parameters, in situ measurements revealed continuous profiles of principal stresses, pore fluid pressure and fracture geometry in the vicinity of the borehole. The present study combines these parameters with hydraulic and seismicity data obtained during fluid-injection experiments conducted at the KTB to derive a conceptual model for fluid-injection-induced seismicity at the KTB. This model rests on the well constrained assumptions that (1) the crust is highly fractured with a permeable fracture network between 9 km depth and the Earth's surface and (2) the crust is in near-failure equilibrium, whereby a large number of fracture planes are under near-critical condition. During the injection experiment, the elevated pore fluid pressure remained well below the least principal stress and thus was too small to cause hydraulic opening of existing fractures. Consequently, the geometry of the fracture network was assumed to have not changed during fluid injection with induced seismicity occurring solely as a result of lowering of the effective normal stress, consistent with observed source mechanisms. The key parameter in the present model is the fracture permeability, which exhibits large spatial and directional variations. These variations are proposed to primarily control fluid migration paths and associated propagation of elevated fluid pressure during fluid injection. In contrast with common models based on isotropic fluid diffusion or spatially averaged permeability, highly permeable branches of the fracture network strongly affect the propagation of fluid pressure and prohibit the concept of a smooth `pressure front'. We find evidence that major fluid flow exists at comparatively low fluid pressure (below the critical pressure required to cause seismic failure) without being detected seismically. This might also


    HUANG Shu-xin; LU Chuan-jing; JIANG Ti-qian


    The numerical investigation on extrudate swell through capillary die for viscoelastic fluid characteried by integral-type Maxwell constitutive equation was conducted by employing the finite element method with the calculation of viscoelastic extra stress in the conventional finite element. The method of avoiding singularity was also adopted by integrating the strain history of the Gauss points for each element near the wall and the free surface. The convergence solutions at high Weissenberg number can be obtained by using the appropriate methods to reduce errors and improve the speed of convergence of the calculation, which include adding a relaxation factor of velocity in iteration process, or enlarging the reference viscosity, or reducing the elapsed time. The highest Weissenberg number obtained here is up to 3.8, while the solution at the Weissenberg number of 3.75 was given in the previous work with similar extrudate swell ratio and the exit pressure drop by using differential Maxwell model with Elastic-Viscous Stress Split (EVSS) combined with Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. The calculations indicated that the method of dealing with integral consti- tutive equation introduced in this paper is suitable in simulating viscoelastic flow characterized by integral constitutive equation at high elastic level.

  10. On Modeling CPU Utilization of MapReduce Applications

    Rizvandi, Nikzad Babaii; Zomaya, Albert Y


    In this paper, we present an approach to predict the total CPU utilization in terms of CPU clock tick of applications when running on MapReduce framework. Our approach has two key phases: profiling and modeling. In the profiling phase, an application is run several times with different sets of MapReduce configuration parameters to profile total CPU clock tick of the application on a given platform. In the modeling phase, multi linear regression is used to map the sets of MapReduce configuration parameters (number of Mappers, number of Reducers, size of File System (HDFS) and the size of input file) to total CPU clock ticks of the application. This derived model can be used for predicting total CPU requirements of the same application when using MapReduce framework on the same platform. Our approach aims to eliminate error-prone manual processes and presents a fully automated solution. Three standard applications (WordCount, Exim Mainlog parsing and Terasort) are used to evaluate our modeling technique on pseu...

  11. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas


    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  12. Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models

    Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry;


    Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...... simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model, which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field...... located at the outboard midplane of a tokamak. The model domain has two regions modeling open and closed field lines. The model employs a computational expedient model for collisional transport. Numerical simulations show good agreement between the full and the simplified model for collisional transport....

  13. A minimal coupled fluid-discrete element model for bedload transport

    Maurin, Raphael; Chareyre, Bruno; Frey, Philippe


    A minimal Lagragian two-phase model to study turbulent bedload transport focusing on the granular phase is presented, and validated with experiments. The model intends to describe bedload transport of massive particles in fully rough flows at relatively low Shields numbers, for which no suspension occurs. A discrete element method for the granular phase is coupled with a one dimensional volume-averaged two-phase momentum equation for the fluid phase. The coupling between the discrete granular phase and the continuous fluid phase is discussed, and a consistent averaging formulation adapted to bedload transport is introduced. An original simple discrete random walk model is proposed to account for the fluid velocity fluctuations. The model is compared with experiments considering both classical sediment transport rate as a function of the Shields number, and depth profiles of solid velocity, volume fraction, and transport rate density, from existing bedload transport experiments in inclined flume. The results s...

  14. Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program

    Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.


    This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.

  15. Carbon isotope fractionation during diamond growth in depleted peridotite: Counterintuitive insights from modelling water-maximum CHO fluids as multi-component systems

    Stachel, T.; Chacko, T.; Luth, R. W.


    Because of the inability of depleted cratonic peridotites to effectively buffer oxygen fugacities when infiltrated by CHO or carbonatitic fluids, it has been proposed recently (Luth and Stachel, 2014) that diamond formation in peridotites typically does not occur by rock-buffered redox reactions as previously thought but by an oxygen-conserving reaction in which minor coexisting CH4 and CO2 components in a water-rich fluid react to form diamond (CO2 + CH4 = 2C + 2H2O). In such fluid-buffered systems, carbon isotope fractionation during diamond precipitation occurs in the presence of two dominant fluid carbon species. Carbon isotope modelling of diamond precipitation from mixed CH4- and CO2-bearing fluids reveals unexpected fundamental differences relative to diamond crystallization from a single carbon fluid species: (1) irrespective of which carbon fluid species (CH4 or CO2) is dominant in the initial fluid, diamond formation is invariably associated with progressive minor (water-rich fluids responsible for diamond formation. Specifically, precipitation of diamonds with δ13C values in the range -4 to -6‰ from mantle-derived fluids with an average δ13C value of -5‰ (derived from evidence not related to diamonds) requires that diamond-forming fluids were relatively reduced and had methane as the dominant carbon species (XCO2 = 0.1-0.5). Application of our model to a recently published set of in-situ carbon isotope analyses for peridotitic diamonds from Marange, Zimbabwe (Smit et al., 2016), which contain CH4 fluid inclusions, allows us to perfectly match the observed co-variations in δ13 C, δ15 N and N content and at the same time explain the previously counter-intuitive observation of progressive 13C enrichment in diamonds that appear to have grown from a fluid with methane as the dominant carbon species. Similarly, the almost complete absence in the published record of progressive 13C depletion trends within diamonds likely reflects ubiquitous

  16. Numerical aspects of modelling of coupled chemical reactions and fluid flow in sedimentary basins

    Holstad, Astrid


    Simulation of coupled chemical reactions and fluid flow in porous sedimentary basins, through long time periods, is a numerical challenge. In most models available today the equations representing such a physical problem are solved as PDEs (Partial Differential Equation) where efficient time-stepping with controlled error is very difficult. The DAE (Differential Algebraic Equation) system approach is used where robust adaptive time-stepping algorithms are available in solvers. In this report mathematical and numerical models are derived for coupled chemical reactions and fluid flow. The models have several interesting properties which are discussed. The performance of code is tested. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Bianchi Type-Ⅰ Massive String Magnetized Barotropic Perfect Fluid Cosmological Model in General Relativity

    BALI Raj; PAREEK Umesh Kumar; PRADHAN Anirudh


    @@ Bianchi type-Ⅰ massive string cosmological model with magnetic field of barotropic perfect fluid distribution through the techniques used by Latelier and Stachel is investigated. To obtain the deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The magnetic field is due to electric current produced along the x-axis with infinite electrical condúctivity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with other physical aspects is further discussed.

  18. A CFD Model for Fluid Dynamics in a Gas-fluidised Bed

    ZHANG Kai; Stefano Brandani


    A modified particle bed model derived from the two-fluid momentum balance equations was employed to predict the gas-fluidised bed behaviour. Additional terms are included in both the fluid and the particle momentum balance equations to take into account the effect of the dispersed solid phase. This model has been extended to two-dimensional formulations and has been implemented in the commercial code CFX 4.3. The model correctly simulates the homogeneous fluidisation of Geldart Group A and the bubbling fluidisation of Geldart Group B in gas-solid fluidised beds.

  19. Advanced fluid modeling and PIC/MCC simulations of low-pressure ccrf discharges

    Becker, M. M.; Kählert, H.; Sun, A.; Bonitz, M.; Loffhagen, D.


    Comparative studies of capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in helium and argon at pressures between 10 and 80 Pa are presented applying two different fluid modeling approaches as well as two independently developed particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) codes. The focus is on the analysis of the range of applicability of a recently proposed fluid model including an improved drift-diffusion approximation for the electron component as well as its comparison with fluid modeling results using the classical drift-diffusion approximation and benchmark results obtained by PIC/MCC simulations. Main features of this time- and space-dependent fluid model are given. It is found that the novel approach shows generally quite good agreement with the macroscopic properties derived by the kinetic simulations and is largely able to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the discharge behavior even at conditions when the classical fluid modeling approach fails. Furthermore, the excellent agreement between the two PIC/MCC simulation codes using the velocity Verlet method for the integration of the equations of motion verifies their accuracy and applicability.

  20. Micro-poromechanics model of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media.

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette


    We have developed a micromechanics based model for chemically active saturated fibrous media that incorporates fiber network microstructure, chemical potential driven fluid flow, and micro-poromechanics. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's volume averaging. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model accounts for the discrete nature of the individual fibers while retaining a form suitable for porous materials. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of micro-scale phenomena, such as the fiber pre-strain caused by osmotic effects and evolution of fiber network structure with loading, on the overall behavior and in particular, on the poromechanics parameters. Additionally, the model can describe fluid-flow related rate-dependent behavior under confined and unconfined conditions and varying chemical environments. The significance of the approach is demonstrated by simulating unconfined drained monotonic uniaxial compression under different surrounding fluid bath molarity, and fluid-flow related creep and relaxation at different loading-levels and different surrounding fluid bath molarity. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for saturated soft fibrous materials. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams and concrete.

  1. Balanced models in geophysical fluid dynamics: Hamiltonian formulation, constraints and formal stability

    Bokhove, O.; Norbury, J.; Roulstone, I.


    Most fluid systems, such as the three-dimensional compressible Euler equations, are too complicated to yield general analytical solutions, and approximation methods are needed to make progress in understanding aspects of particular flows. This chapter reviews derivations of approximate or reduced ge

  2. Reduced Fracture Finite Element Model Analysis of an Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model

    Amir, Sahar Z.


    A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.

  3. Reduced models of extratropical low-frequency variability

    Strounine, Kirill

    Low-frequency variability (LFV) of the atmosphere refers to its behavior on time scales of 10-100 days, longer than the life cycle of a mid-latitude cyclone but shorter than a season. This behavior is still poorly understood and hard to predict. It has been helpful in gaining understanding that might improve prediction to use various simplified models. The present study compares and contrasts various mode reduction strategies that help derive systematically such simplified models of LFV. Three major strategies have been applied to reduce a fairly realistic, high-dimensional, quasi-geostrophic, 3-level (QG3) atmospheric model to lower dimensions: (i) a purely empirical, multi-level regression procedure, which specifies the functional form of the reduced model and finds the model coefficients by multiple polynomial regression; (ii) an empirical-dynamical method, which retains only a few components in the projection of the full QG3 model equations onto a specified basis (the so-called bare truncation), and finds the linear deterministic and additive stochastic corrections empirically; and (iii) a dynamics-based technique, employing the stochastic mode reduction strategy of Majda et al. (2001; MTV). Subject to the assumption of significant time-scale separation in the physical system under consideration, MTV derives the form of the reduced model and finds its coefficients with minimal statistical fitting. The empirical-dynamical and dynamical reduced models were further improved by sequential parameter estimation and benchmarked against multi-level regression models; the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used for the parameter estimation. In constructing the reduced models, the choice of basis functions is also important. We considered as basis functions a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). These EOFs were computed using (a) an energy norm; and (b) a potential-enstrophy norm. We also devised a method, using singular value decomposition of the full-model

  4. From 3D gravity to coupled fluid and heat transport modelling - a case study from the Upper Rhine Graben

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias


    Numerical models that predict and help to understand subsurface hydrothermal conditions are key to reduce the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. Such simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport need a reliable 3D structural model. Therefore, we use an integrated approach of data-based 3D structural, gravity, conductive thermal and thermo-hydraulic coupled modelling. The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is known for its large potential for deep geothermal energy that is already used in e.g. Soultz-sous-Forêts. In the frame of the EU-funded project "IMAGE" (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration, grant agreement no. 608553), we assess the dominant processes and effective physical properties that control the deep thermal field of the URG. Therefore, we have built a lithospheric-scale 3D structural model of the URG by integrating existing data-based 3D models, deep seismic reflection and refraction profiles, as well as receiver function data. 3D gravity modelling was used to assess the internal configuration of the upper crystalline crust in addition to deep seismic lines. The resulting gravity-constrained 3D structural model was then used as base to calculate the 3D conductive thermal field. An analysis of deviations between measured and calculated temperatures revealed that heat transport connected to fluid circulation is probably relevant at depths above 2500 m. To test this hypotheses smaller-scale and higher resolution models for coupled fluid and heat transport were simulated. We present the results from this combined workflow considering 3D gravity and 3D thermal modelling.

  5. Construction of Hierarchical Models for Fluid Dynamics in Earth and Planetary Sciences : DCMODEL project

    Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Sugiyama, K.; Odaka, M.; Ishiwatari, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Nishizawa, S.; Ishioka, K.; Nakajima, K.; Hayashi, Y.


    Toward the understanding of fluid motions of planetary atmospheres and planetary interiors by performing multiple numerical experiments with multiple models, we are now proceeding ``dcmodel project'', where a series of hierarchical numerical models with various complexity is developed and maintained. In ``dcmodel project'', a series of the numerical models are developed taking care of the following points: 1) a common ``style'' of program codes assuring readability of the software, 2) open source codes of the models to the public, 3) scalability of the models assuring execution on various scales of computational resources, 4) stressing the importance of documentation and presenting a method for writing reference manuals. The lineup of the models and utility programs of the project is as follows: Gtool5, ISPACK/SPML, SPMODEL, Deepconv, Dcpam, and Rdoc-f95. In the followings, features of each component are briefly described. Gtool5 (Ishiwatari et al., 2012) is a Fortran90 library, which provides data input/output interfaces and various utilities commonly used in the models of dcmodel project. A self-descriptive data format netCDF is adopted as a IO format of Gtool5. The interfaces of gtool5 library can reduce the number of operation steps for the data IO in the program code of the models compared with the interfaces of the raw netCDF library. Further, by use of gtool5 library, procedures for data IO and addition of metadata for post-processing can be easily implemented in the program codes in a consolidated form independent of the size and complexity of the models. ``ISPACK'' is the spectral transformation library and ``SPML (SPMODEL library)'' (Takehiro et al., 2006) is its wrapper library. Most prominent feature of SPML is a series of array-handling functions with systematic function naming rules, and this enables us to write codes with a form which is easily deduced from the mathematical expressions of the governing equations. ``SPMODEL'' (Takehiro et al., 2006

  6. Heat transfer analysis on peristaltically induced motion of particle-fluid suspension with variable viscosity: Clot blood model.

    Bhatti, M M; Zeeshan, A; Ellahi, R


    In this article, heat transfer analysis on clot blood model of the particle-fluid suspension through a non-uniform annulus has been investigated. The blood propagating along the whole length of the annulus was induced by peristaltic motion. The effects of variable viscosity and slip condition are also taken into account. The governing flow problem is modeled using lubrication approach by taking the assumption of long wavelength and creeping flow regime. The resulting equation for fluid phase and particle phase is solved analytically and closed form solutions are obtained. The physical impact of all the emerging parameters is discussed mathematically and graphically. Particularly, we considered the effects of particle volume fraction, slip parameter, the maximum height of clot, viscosity parameter, average volume flow rate, Prandtl number, Eckert number and fluid parameter on temperature profile, pressure rise and friction forces for outer and inner tube. Numerical computations have been used to determine the behavior of pressure rise and friction along the whole length of the annulus. The present study is also presented for an endoscope as a special case of our study. It is observed that greater influence of clot tends to rise the pressure rise significantly. It is also found that temperature profile increases due to the enhancement in Prandtl number, Eckert number, and fluid parameter. The present study reveals that friction forces for outer tube have higher magnitude as compared to the friction forces for an inner tube. In fact, the results for present study can also be reduced to the Newtonian fluid by taking ζ → ∞.

  7. A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys


    Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To

  8. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers.

    Fike, Jeffrey A.; Brake, Matthew Robert


    The goal of most computational simulations is to accurately predict the behavior of a real, physical system. Accurate predictions often require very computationally expensive analyses and so reduced order models (ROMs) are commonly used. ROMs aim to reduce the computational cost of the simulations while still providing accurate results by including all of the salient physics of the real system in the ROM. However, real, physical systems often deviate from the idealized models used in simulations due to variations in manufacturing or other factors. One approach to this issue is to create a parameterized model in order to characterize the effect of perturbations from the nominal model on the behavior of the system. This report presents a methodology for developing parameterized ROMs, which is based on Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis and the use of hyper-dual numbers to calculate the derivatives necessary for the parameterization.

  9. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing using a three-dimensional fracture model coupled with an adaptive mesh fluid model

    Xiang, G.L.; Vire, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.


    A three-dimensional fracture model developed in the context of the combined finite-discrete element method is incorporated into a two-way fluid-solid coupling model. The fracture model is capable of simulating the whole fracturing process. It includes pre-peak hardening deformation, post-peak strain

  10. Fluid particle diffusion in a semidilute suspension of model micro-organisms.

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Locsei, J T; Pedley, T J


    We calculate non-Brownian fluid particle diffusion in a semidilute suspension of swimming micro-organisms. Each micro-organism is modeled as a spherical squirmer, and their motions in an infinite suspension otherwise at rest are computed by the Stokesian-dynamics method. In calculating the fluid particle motions, we propose a numerical method based on a combination of the boundary element technique and Stokesian dynamics. We present details of the numerical method and examine its accuracy. The limitation of semidiluteness is required to ensure accuracy of the fluid particle velocity calculation. In the case of a suspension of non-bottom-heavy squirmers the spreading of fluid particles becomes diffusive in a shorter time than that of the squirmers, and the diffusivity of fluid particles is smaller than that of squirmers. It is confirmed that the probability density distribution of fluid particles also shows diffusive properties. The effect of tracer particle size is investigated by inserting some inert spheres of the same radius as the squirmers, instead of fluid particles, into the suspension. The diffusivity for inert spheres is not less than one tenth of that for fluid particles, even though the particle size is totally different. Scaling analysis indicates that the diffusivity of fluid particles and inert spheres becomes proportional to the volume fraction of squirmers in the semidilute regime provided that there is no more than a small recirculation region around a squirmer, which is confirmed numerically. In the case of a suspension of bottom-heavy squirmers, horizontal diffusivity decreases considerably even with small values of the bottom heaviness, which indicates the importance of bottom heaviness in the diffusion phenomena. We believe that these fundamental findings will enhance our understanding of the basic mechanics of a suspension of swimming micro-organisms.

  11. Travelling wave analysis and jump relations for a fluid model of quasineutral plasma

    Cordier, S. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Degond, P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)); Markowich, P. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Schmeiser, C. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria))


    A 1-D fluid model for a plasma is presented. In the quasineutral limit, this model leads to a non conservative hyperbolic system for which the jump relations are a-priority not well defined. The problem can be solved for sufficiently strong shocks via a travelling wave analysis. (authors). 5 refs.

  12. A kinetic type extended model for dense gases and macromolecular fluids

    M. Cristina Carrisi


    Full Text Available Extended thermodynamics is an important theory which is appreciated from mathematicians and physicists. Following its ideas and considering the macroscopic approach with suggestions from the kinetic one, we find in this paper, the solution of an interesting model: the model for dense gases and macromolecular fluids.

  13. Unsteady rotating flows of a viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Maxwell model between coaxial cylinders

    Haitao Qi; Hui Jin


    The fractional calculus is used in the constitutive relationship model of viscoelastic fluid.A generalized Maxwell model with fractional calculus is considered.Based on the flow conditions described,two flow cases are solved and the exact solutions are obtained by using the Weber transform and the Laplace transform for fractional calculus.

  14. Coupling of Coastal Wave Transformation and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models for Seakeeping Analysis


    and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models for Seakeeping Analysis Awardee: University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii Technical Contact: Kwok Fai...the coast to provide important information for seakeeping analysis . However, such endeavors involve appreciable numerical errors and complex near...nonlinear and dispersive theories, present-day computational models based on Boussinesq-type equations are being applied over vast regions from deep to

  15. Modeling of flow of particles in a non-Newtonian fluid using lattice Boltzmann method

    Skocek, Jan; Svec, Oldrich; Spangenberg, Jon


    is necessary. In this contribution, the model at the scale of aggregates is introduced. The conventional lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow is enriched with the immersed boundary method with direct forcing to simulate the flow of rigid particles in a non- Newtonian liquid. Basic ingredients of the model...

  16. Investigations to improve and assess the accuracy of computational fluid dynamic based explosion models

    Popat, N.R.; Catlin, C.A.; Arntzen, B.J.; Lindstedt, R.P.; Hjertager, B.H.; Solberg, T.; Saeter, O.; Berg, A.C. van den


    A summary is given of part of the CEC co-sponsored project MERGE (Modelling and Experimental Research into Gas Explosions). The objective of this part of the project was to provide improved Computational Fluid Dynamic explosion models with the potential for use in hazard assessments. Five organisati

  17. In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation.

    Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M


    This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models.

  18. In vitro bone cell models: Impact of fluid shear stress on bone formation

    Claudia Wittkowske


    Full Text Available This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodelling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g. due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodelling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signalling factors such as nitric oxide and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signalling, collagen deposition and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibres which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models.

  19. Alpha Models for 3D Eulerian mean fluid circulation

    Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division


    The study provides the known analytical properties of the alpha models, including an outline of their derivation and the associated assumptions, their simplification for the case of constant dispersion length (alpha) and their conservation properties. Interpretations of nonlinear dynamics of viscous alpha models are also showed and the differences one might expect from the dynamics of the Navier-Stokes equations are indicated.

  20. Pressure in an exactly solvable model of active fluid

    Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo


    We consider the pressure in the steady-state regime of three stochastic models characterized by self-propulsion and persistent motion and widely employed to describe the behavior of active particles, namely, the Active Brownian particle (ABP) model, the Gaussian colored noise (GCN) model, and the unified colored noise approximation (UCNA) model. Whereas in the limit of short but finite persistence time, the pressure in the UCNA model can be obtained by different methods which have an analog in equilibrium systems, in the remaining two models only the virial route is, in general, possible. According to this method, notwithstanding each model obeys its own specific microscopic law of evolution, the pressure displays a certain universal behavior. For generic interparticle and confining potentials, we derive a formula which establishes a correspondence between the GCN and the UCNA pressures. In order to provide explicit formulas and examples, we specialize the discussion to the case of an assembly of elastic dumbbells confined to a parabolic well. By employing the UCNA we find that, for this model, the pressure determined by the thermodynamic method coincides with the pressures obtained by the virial and mechanical methods. The three methods when applied to the GCN give a pressure identical to that obtained via the UCNA. Finally, we find that the ABP virial pressure exactly agrees with the UCNA and GCN results.



    A new approach to model viscosity in the conservation of momentum equations is presented and discussed. Coefficient of viscosity is modeled in such a way that it reaches asymptotically to infinity at the solid boundary but still yields a finite value for the shear stress at the solid wall. Basic objective of this research is to show that certain combinations of higher order normal velocity gradients become zero at the solid boundary.Modified solutions for the Couette flow and Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates are obtained by modeling the coefficient of viscosity in a novel way. Also,viscous drag computed by our model is expected to yield higher values than the values predicted by the existing models, which matches closely to the experimental data.

  2. Reduced levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer disease patients are not related to apolipoprotein E4

    Mulder, M.; Ravid, R.; Kloet, J.E.R. de; Haasdijk, E.D.; Julk, J.; Boom, J. van der; Havekes, L.M.


    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) has been identified as a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Previously it has been reported that levels of apoE are reduced in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. Because it is known that apoE4 affectss plasma lipid metabolism we examined whether the presen

  3. Reduced Models in Chemical Kinetics via Nonlinear Data-Mining

    Eliodoro Chiavazzo


    Full Text Available The adoption of detailed mechanisms for chemical kinetics often poses two types of severe challenges: First, the number of degrees of freedom is large; and second, the dynamics is characterized by widely disparate time scales. As a result, reactive flow solvers with detailed chemistry often become intractable even for large clusters of CPUs, especially when dealing with direct numerical simulation (DNS of turbulent combustion problems. This has motivated the development of several techniques for reducing the complexity of such kinetics models, where, eventually, only a few variables are considered in the development of the simplified model. Unfortunately, no generally applicable a priori recipe for selecting suitable parameterizations of the reduced model is available, and the choice of slow variables often relies upon intuition and experience. We present an automated approach to this task, consisting of three main steps. First, the low dimensional manifold of slow motions is (approximately sampled by brief simulations of the detailed model, starting from a rich enough ensemble of admissible initial conditions. Second, a global parametrization of the manifold is obtained through the Diffusion Map (DMAP approach, which has recently emerged as a powerful tool in data analysis/machine learning. Finally, a simplified model is constructed and solved on the fly in terms of the above reduced (slow variables. Clearly, closing this latter model requires nontrivial interpolation calculations, enabling restriction (mapping from the full ambient space to the reduced one and lifting (mapping from the reduced space to the ambient one. This is a key step in our approach, and a variety of interpolation schemes are reported and compared. The scope of the proposed procedure is presented and discussed by means of an illustrative combustion example.

  4. Determination of effective loss factors in reduced SEA models

    Chimeno Manguán, M.; Fernández de las Heras, M. J.; Roibás Millán, E.; Simón Hidalgo, F.


    The definition of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for large complex structures is highly conditioned by the classification of the structure elements into a set of coupled subsystems and the subsequent determination of the loss factors representing both the internal damping and the coupling between subsystems. The accurate definition of the complete system can lead to excessively large models as the size and complexity increases. This fact can also rise practical issues for the experimental determination of the loss factors. This work presents a formulation of reduced SEA models for incomplete systems defined by a set of effective loss factors. This reduced SEA model provides a feasible number of subsystems for the application of the Power Injection Method (PIM). For structures of high complexity, their components accessibility can be restricted, for instance internal equipments or panels. For these cases the use of PIM to carry out an experimental SEA analysis is not possible. New methods are presented for this case in combination with the reduced SEA models. These methods allow defining some of the model loss factors that could not be obtained through PIM. The methods are validated with a numerical analysis case and they are also applied to an actual spacecraft structure with accessibility restrictions: a solar wing in folded configuration.


    Mandelli, D.; Alfonsi, A.; Talbot, P.; Wang, C.; Maljovec, D.; Smith, C.; Rabiti, C.; Cogliati, J.


    The RISMC project is developing new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Computational Risk Analysis (CRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactors primary and secondary systems, but also external event temporal evolution and component/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem being addressed, but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, seconds-hours-years). As part of the RISMC CRA approach, a large amount of computationally-expensive simulation runs may be required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis using brute-force methods may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated to assist the computational issue is the use of reduced order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RISMC analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulation runs; for this analysis improvement we used surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This article focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to RISMC analyses in order to generate, analyze, and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (microseconds instead of hours/days).

  6. Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling

    Wiebe, R.; Perez, R. A.; Spottswood, S. M.


    Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties.

  7. Network modelling of fluid retention behaviour in unsaturated soils

    Athanasiadis Ignatios


    Full Text Available The paper describes discrete modelling of the retention behaviour of unsaturated porous materials. A network approach is used within a statistical volume element (SVE, suitable for subsequent use in hydro-mechanical analysis and incorporation within multi-scale numerical modelling. The soil pore structure is modelled by a network of cylindrical pipes connecting spheres, with the spheres representing soil voids and the pipes representing inter-connecting throats. The locations of pipes and spheres are determined by a Voronoi tessellation of the domain. Original aspects of the modelling include a form of periodic boundary condition implementation applied for the first time to this type of network, a new pore volume scaling technique to provide more realistic modelling and a new procedure for initiating drying or wetting paths in a network model employing periodic boundary conditions. Model simulations, employing two linear cumulative probability distributions to represent the distributions of sphere and pipe radii, are presented for the retention behaviour reported from a mercury porosimetry test on a sandstone.

  8. Mobile phone model with metamaterials to reduce the exposure

    Pinto, Yenny; Begaud, Xavier


    This work presents a terminal mobile model where an Inverted-F Antenna (IFA) is associated with three different kinds of metamaterials: artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), electromagnetic band gap (EBG) and resistive high-impedance surface (RHIS). The objective was to evaluate whether some metamaterials may be used to reduce exposure while preserving the antenna performances. The exposure has been evaluated using a simplified phantom model. Two configurations, antenna in front of the phantom and antenna hidden by the ground plane, have been evaluated. Results show that using an optimized RHIS, the SAR 10 g is reduced and the antenna performances are preserved. With RHIS solution, the SAR 10 g peak is reduced by 8 % when the antenna is located in front of the phantom and by 6 % when the antenna is hidden by ground plane.

  9. Reduced Lorenz models for anomalous transport and profile resilience

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, Odd Erik


    to resilience of the profile. Particular emphasis is put on the diffusionless limit, where these equations reduce to a simple dynamical system depending only on one single forcing parameter. This model is studied numerically, stressing experimentally observable signatures, and some of the perils of dimension...

  10. Simulation of Free Surface Compressible Flows Via a Two Fluid Model

    Dias, Frederic; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel


    The purpose of this communication is to discuss the simulation of a free surface compressible flow between two fluids, typically air and water. We use a two fluid model with the same velocity, pressure and temperature for both phases. In such a numerical model, the free surface becomes a thin three dimensional zone. The present method has at least three advantages: (i) the free-surface treatment is completely implicit; (ii) it can naturally handle wave breaking and other topological changes in the flow; (iii) one can easily vary the Equation of States (EOS) of each fluid (in principle, one can even consider tabulated EOS). Moreover, our model is unconditionally hyperbolic for reasonable EOS.

  11. Phase-Field and Korteweg-Type Models for the Time-Dependent Flow of Compressible Two-Phase Fluids

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Kotschote, Matthias


    Various versions of the Navier-Stokes-Allen-Cahn (NSAC), the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH), and the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations have been used in the literature to model the dynamics of two-phase fluids. One main purpose of this paper consists in (re-)deriving NSAC, NSCH and NSK from first principles, in the spirit of rational mechanics, for fluids of very general constitutive laws. For NSAC, this deduction confirms and extends a proposal of Blesgen. Regarding NSCH, it continues work of Lowengrub and Truskinovsky and provides the apparently first justified formulation in the non-isothermal case. For NSK, it yields a most natural correction to the formulation by Dunn and Serrin. The paper uniformly recovers as examples various classes of fluids, distinguished according to whether none, one, or both of the phases are compressible, and according to the nature of their co-existence. The latter is captured not only by the mixing energy, but also by a `mixing rule'—a constitutive law that characterizes the type of the mixing. A second main purpose of the paper is to communicate the apparently new observation that in the case of two immiscible incompressible phases of different temperature-independent specific volumes, NSAC reduces literally to NSK. This finding may be considered as an independent justification of NSK. An analogous fact is shown for NSCH, which under the same assumption reduces to a new non-local version of NSK.

  12. Experimental Characterization and Modelling of Energy Efficient Fluid Supply Systems

    Bjorklund, Karina M; Vacca, Andrea; Opperwall, Timothy J


    In applications such as in agriculture, construction, and aerospace applications, high pressure hydraulics is the preferred technology to transmit mechanical power. As a consequence, the energy efficiency of the hydraulic system used to perform the mechanical actuations is of primary concern to reduce the energy consumptions in the abovementioned applications. In an hydraulic system, the primary component determining the energy efficiency is the hydraulic pump. This work focuses on the study ...

  13. On reducibility and ergodicity of population projection matrix models

    Stott, Iain; Townley, Stuart; Carslake, David


    1. Population projection matrices (PPMs) are probably the most commonly used empirical population models. To be useful for predictive or prospective analyses, PPM models should generally be irreducible (the associated life cycle graph contains the necessary transition rates to facilitate pathways...... structure used in the population projection). In our sample of published PPMs, 15·6% are non-ergodic. 3. This presents a problem: reducible–ergodic models often defy biological rationale in their description of the life cycle but may or may not prove problematic for analysis as they often behave similarly...... to irreducible models. Reducible–non-ergodic models will usually defy biological rationale in their description of the both the life cycle and population dynamics, hence contravening most analytical methods. 4. We provide simple methods to evaluate reducibility and ergodicity of PPM models, present illustrative...

  14. Impact of modeling fluid-structure interaction in the computational analysis of aortic root biomechanics.

    Sturla, Francesco; Votta, Emiliano; Stevanella, Marco; Conti, Carlo A; Redaelli, Alberto


    Numerical modeling can provide detailed and quantitative information on aortic root (AR) biomechanics, improving the understanding of AR complex pathophysiology and supporting the development of more effective clinical treatments. From this standpoint, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models are currently the most exhaustive and potentially realistic computational tools. However, AR FSI modeling is extremely challenging and computationally expensive, due to the explicit simulation of coupled AR fluid dynamics and structural response, while accounting for complex morphological and mechanical features. We developed a novel FSI model of the physiological AR simulating its function throughout the entire cardiac cycle. The model includes an asymmetric MRI-based geometry, the description of aortic valve (AV) non-linear and anisotropic mechanical properties, and time-dependent blood pressures. By comparison to an equivalent finite element structural model, we quantified the balance between the extra information and the extra computational cost associated with the FSI approach. Tissue strains and stresses computed through the two approaches did not differ significantly. The FSI approach better captured the fast AV opening and closure, and its interplay with blood fluid dynamics within the Valsalva sinuses. It also reproduced the main features of in vivo AR fluid dynamics. However, the FSI simulation was ten times more computationally demanding than its structural counterpart. Hence, the FSI approach may be worth the extra computational cost when the tackled scenarios are strongly dependent on AV transient dynamics, Valsalva sinuses fluid dynamics in relation to coronary perfusion (e.g. sparing techniques), or AR fluid dynamic alterations (e.g. bicuspid AV).

  15. A discontinuous finite element approach to cracking in coupled poro-elastic fluid flow models

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Evans, O.; Ulven, O. I.; Sun, W.


    Reaction-driven cracking is a coupled process whereby fluid-induced reactions drive large volume changes in the host rock which produce stresses leading to crack propagation and failure. This in turn generates new surface area and fluid-flow pathways for subsequent reaction in a potentially self-sustaining system. This mechanism has has been proposed for the pervasive serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite, as well as applications to mineral carbon sequestration and hydrocarbon extraction. The key computational issue in this problem is implementing algorithms that adequately model the formation of discrete fractures. Here we present models using a discontinuous finite element method for modeling fracture formation (Radovitsky et al., 2011). Cracks are introduced along facets of the mesh by the relaxation of penalty parameters once a failure criterion is met. It is fully described in the weak form of the equations, requiring no modification of the underlying mesh structure and allowing fluid properties to be easily adjusted along cracked facets. To develop and test the method, we start by implementing the algorithm for the simplified Biot equations for poro-elasticity using the finite element model assembler TerraFERMA. We consider hydro-fracking around a borehole (Grassl et al., 2015), where elevated fluid pressure in the poro-elastic solid causes it to fail radially in tension. We investigate the effects of varying the Biot coefficient and adjusting the fluid transport properties in the vicinity of the crack and compare our results to related dual-graph models (Ulven & Sun, submitted). We discuss issues arising from this method, including the formation of null spaces and appropriate preconditioning and solution strategies. Initial results suggest that this method provides a promising way to incorporate cracking into our reactive fluid flow models and future work aims to integrate the mechanical and chemical aspects of this process.

  16. Phylogenetic mixture models can reduce node-density artifacts.

    Venditti, Chris; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark


    We investigate the performance of phylogenetic mixture models in reducing a well-known and pervasive artifact of phylogenetic inference known as the node-density effect, comparing them to partitioned analyses of the same data. The node-density effect refers to the tendency for the amount of evolutionary change in longer branches of phylogenies to be underestimated compared to that in regions of the tree where there are more nodes and thus branches are typically shorter. Mixture models allow more than one model of sequence evolution to describe the sites in an alignment without prior knowledge of the evolutionary processes that characterize the data or how they correspond to different sites. If multiple evolutionary patterns are common in sequence evolution, mixture models may be capable of reducing node-density effects by characterizing the evolutionary processes more accurately. In gene-sequence alignments simulated to have heterogeneous patterns of evolution, we find that mixture models can reduce node-density effects to negligible levels or remove them altogether, performing as well as partitioned analyses based on the known simulated patterns. The mixture models achieve this without knowledge of the patterns that generated the data and even in some cases without specifying the full or true model of sequence evolution known to underlie the data. The latter result is especially important in real applications, as the true model of evolution is seldom known. We find the same patterns of results for two real data sets with evidence of complex patterns of sequence evolution: mixture models substantially reduced node-density effects and returned better likelihoods compared to partitioning models specifically fitted to these data. We suggest that the presence of more than one pattern of evolution in the data is a common source of error in phylogenetic inference and that mixture models can often detect these patterns even without prior knowledge of their presence in the

  17. Application of Stochastic Fracture Network with Numerical Fluid Flow Simulations to Groundwater Flow Modeling in Fractured Rocks


    The continuum approach in fluid flow modeling is generally applied to porous geological media,but has limitel applicability to fractured rocks. With the presence of a discrete fracture network relatively sparsely distributed in the matrix, it may be difficult or erroneous to use a porous medium fluid flow model with continuum assumptions to describe the fluid flow in fractured rocks at small or even large field scales. A discrete fracture fluid flow approach incorporating a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations could have the capability of capturing fluid flow behaviors such as inhomogeneity and anisotropy while reflecting the changes of hydraulic features at different scales.Moreover, this approach can be implemented to estimate the size of the representative elementary volume (REV) in order to find out the scales at which a porous medium flow model could be applied, and then to determine the hydraulic conductivity tensor for fractured rocks. The following topics are focused on in this study: (a) conceptual discrete fracture fluid flow modeling incorporating a stochastic fracture network with numerical flow simulations; (b) estimation of REVand hydraulic conductivity tensor for fractured rocks utilizing a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations; (c) investigation of the effect of fracture orientation and density on the hydraulic conductivity and REV by implementing a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations, and (d) fluid flow conceptual models accounting for major and minor fractures in the 2-D or 3-D flow fields incorporating a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations.``

  18. Reduced Complexity Channel Models for IMT-Advanced Evaluation

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available Accuracy and complexity are two crucial aspects of the applicability of a channel model for wideband multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems. For small number of antenna element pairs, correlation-based models have lower computational complexity while the geometry-based stochastic models (GBSMs can provide more accurate modeling of real radio propagation. This paper investigates several potential simplifications of the GBSM to reduce the complexity with minimal impact on accuracy. In addition, we develop a set of broadband metrics which enable a thorough investigation of the differences between the GBSMs and the simplified models. The impact of various random variables which are employed by the original GBSM on the system level simulation are also studied. Both simulation results and a measurement campaign show that complexity can be reduced significantly with a negligible loss of accuracy in the proposed metrics. As an example, in the presented scenarios, the computational time can be reduced by up to 57% while keeping the relative deviation of 5% outage capacity within 5%.

  19. Reduced Complexity Volterra Models for Nonlinear System Identification

    Hacıoğlu Rıfat


    Full Text Available A broad class of nonlinear systems and filters can be modeled by the Volterra series representation. However, its practical use in nonlinear system identification is sometimes limited due to the large number of parameters associated with the Volterra filter′s structure. The parametric complexity also complicates design procedures based upon such a model. This limitation for system identification is addressed in this paper using a Fixed Pole Expansion Technique (FPET within the Volterra model structure. The FPET approach employs orthonormal basis functions derived from fixed (real or complex pole locations to expand the Volterra kernels and reduce the number of estimated parameters. That the performance of FPET can considerably reduce the number of estimated parameters is demonstrated by a digital satellite channel example in which we use the proposed method to identify the channel dynamics. Furthermore, a gradient-descent procedure that adaptively selects the pole locations in the FPET structure is developed in the paper.

  20. Accelerating transient simulation of linear reduced order models.

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Keiter, Eric Richard; Bond, Brad


    Model order reduction (MOR) techniques have been used to facilitate the analysis of dynamical systems for many years. Although existing model reduction techniques are capable of providing huge speedups in the frequency domain analysis (i.e. AC response) of linear systems, such speedups are often not obtained when performing transient analysis on the systems, particularly when coupled with other circuit components. Reduced system size, which is the ostensible goal of MOR methods, is often insufficient to improve transient simulation speed on realistic circuit problems. It can be shown that making the correct reduced order model (ROM) implementation choices is crucial to the practical application of MOR methods. In this report we investigate methods for accelerating the simulation of circuits containing ROM blocks using the circuit simulator Xyce.