WorldWideScience

Sample records for reduced emission levels

  1. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Jonah [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Strassburg, Bernardo [Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cattaneo, Andrea [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644 (United States); Lubowski, Ruben [Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC (United States); Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick [Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph, E-mail: jbusch@conservation.or [Terrestrial Carbon Group, 900 17th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  2. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonah; Strassburg, Bernardo; Cattaneo, Andrea; Lubowski, Ruben; Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick; Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  3. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  4. Potential to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide through reducing sulphur levels in heavy and light fuel oils - a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.; Bellamy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background information on the sulphur levels in light fuel oil (used in residential heating) and heavy fuel oil (used as industrial fuel oil) is provided. In addition to the description of sulphur levels in light and heavy fuel oils, the report also provides a summary of regulatory limits in Canada and elsewhere, and a description of the emission benefits of decreasing sulphur in fuels. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 12 figs

  5. Resuspension of trace metals in Belgrade under conditions of drastically reduced emission levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Z; Marendic-Miljkovic, J; Rajsic, S; Tasic, M; Novakovic, V [Institute of Physics, Belgrade-Zemun (Yugoslavia)

    1997-01-01

    Deposition rates of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined at the Meteorological Station in New Belgrade (H{sub s} = 74 m; {psi} = 44{degree}49{prime}N and {lambda} = 20{degree}24{prime}E) in the hydrological year 1992/93 (1 November-31 October). The dominant characteristics of the observation period were strong drought and drastically reduced pollutant emissions. Traffic and local sources operated at 0-10% of their capacities. Samples of dry and wet precipitation were taken by an automatic collector at a height of 2 m at weekly intervals. Two petri polycarbonate dishes of 93.5 mm diameter, facing upward, and one facing downward, were used for dry precipitation sampling. Determination in a `clean room` by differential pulse stripping voltammetry provided the low detection thresholds of 0.1, 1.0, 0.5 and 2.0 ng mL{sup -1}, i.e. the measurement of minimal dry deposition rates of 0.02, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 {mu}gm{sup -2}d{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn, respectively. The mean annual deposition rates, expressed in {mu}g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}, were found to be as follows: 4.5 (down), 26 (up) and 37 (wet) for Pb, 2.1 (down), 13 (up) and 36(wet) for Cu, and 3.1 (down), 26 (up) and 95 (wet) for Zn. No values above 0.2 {mu}g m{sup -2}d{sup -1} were found for the Cd dry deposition rate and no Cd concentration higher than 1 ng mL{sup -1} for precipitation with an amount {gt} 0.5 mm at the weekly interval was detected. Using the XREDS method with a scanning electron microscope, Si, Al, Fe matrix elements and Mg, Ca, S, K, P, Cu, Zn, W, were identified as minor constituents of the single spherical particles and of the agglomerates present. Pb could not be categorized as a minor constituent of the coarse particles suspended in the air of New Belgrade on the basis of the previous analysis. Results of the analysis are given. 44 refs., 14 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  7. Using Market Forces to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Product-Level Life Cycle Analysis and Eco-Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J. F.; Davis, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Established protocols allow entity-level accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The information contained within GHG inventories is used by entities to manage their carbon footprint and to anticipate future exposure to compulsory GHG markets or taxes. The efficacy of such inventories, as experienced by the consumer, can be improved upon by product-level GHG inventories applying the methods of traditional life cycle analysis (LCA). A voluntary product-level assessment of this type, coupled with an eco-label, would 1) empower consumers with information about the total embodied GHG content of a product, 2) allow companies to understand and manage GHG emissions outside the narrow scope of their entities, and 3) drive reduction of GHG emissions throughout product value chains. The Climate Conservancy (TCC) is a non-profit organization founded to help companies calculate their GHG emissions at the level of individual product units, and to inform consumers about the GHG intensity of the products they choose to purchase. With the assistance of economists, policy experts and scientists, TCC has developed a useful metric for reporting product-level GHG emissions that allows for a normalized comparison of a product's GHG intensity irrespective of industry sector or competitors, where GHG data are often unavailable or incomplete. Using this metric, we envision our Climate Conscious label becoming an important arbiter of choice for consumers seeking ways to mitigate their climate impacts without the need for governmental regulation.

  8. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  9. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  10. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  11. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  12. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO x emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO x fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO x emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO 2 which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered

  13. New Jersey proposes rule reducing NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy has proposed a rule requiring utility and industrial sources to significantly reduce their emission levels of nitrogen oxide (NO x ). If approved, it will be the first major rule mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 to affect New Jersey's stationary sources of these air pollutants - primarily electric generating utilities and other large fossil fuel burning facilities. The proposed rule requires all facilities with the potential to emit 25 tons or more of NO x each year to install reasonably available control technology by May 30, 1995. According to Richard Sinding, the environment and energy agency's assistant commissioner for policy and planning, the rule will likely require installation of low-NO x burners or other modifications to the combustion process. Sinding says the proposed rule will reduce the State's NO x emissions by approximately 30,000 tons a year, roughly 30 percent from current levels from these stationary sources. The pollution prevention measures are estimated to cost approximately $1,000 for each ton of NO x removed. The state energy agency estimates the average residential utility customer will see an increase in the monthly electric bill of about 50 cents. The agency said the proposed regulation includes provisions to make implementation more flexible and less costly for achieving the NO x reductions. It has approved the use of natural gas during the ozone season if low-NO x burners are not available. Additionally, emissions may be averaged from all units at the same utility or company location, effectively allowing a company to select the most cost-effective method of achieving the required emissions reductions

  14. Changes in air quality caused by reduced emission levels in Saxony-Anhalt. Results derived from a modern East German immission measuring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, U. [Saxony-Anhalt State Environmental Protection Agency, Magdeburg (Germany); Roemermann, D.; Begert, V. [Saxony-Anhalt Ministry of Environment, Magdeburg (Germany). Nature Conservation and Regional Planning

    1995-12-31

    Specific features and main fields of construction of a telemetric immission measuring system in the East German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt are shown as a result of a very rapid development in the last three years. Immission levels and resultant enormous changes in the recent years in conjunction with the drastically changed emission situation are analysed. (author)

  15. Changes in air quality caused by reduced emission levels in Saxony-Anhalt. Results derived from a modern East German immission measuring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, U [Saxony-Anhalt State Environmental Protection Agency, Magdeburg (Germany); Roemermann, D; Begert, V [Saxony-Anhalt Ministry of Environment, Magdeburg (Germany). Nature Conservation and Regional Planning

    1996-12-31

    Specific features and main fields of construction of a telemetric immission measuring system in the East German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt are shown as a result of a very rapid development in the last three years. Immission levels and resultant enormous changes in the recent years in conjunction with the drastically changed emission situation are analysed. (author)

  16. Engaging to reduce emissions and solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, M.; Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    1997-01-01

    The different negotiations about the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is studied in this article. The problem of developing countries or fast developing countries such asian countries is evoked. The rate of carbon dioxide emission could be calculated in function of GDP (gross domestic product) to allow to reduce the gaps between the different countries. (N.C.)

  17. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  18. Gasoline tax best path to reduced emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering gasoline consumption is the quickest way to increase energy security and reduce emissions. Three policy initiatives designed to meet such goals are current contenders in Washington, DC: higher gasoline taxes; higher CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards; and an auto registration fee scheme with gas-guzzler taxes and gas-sipper subsidies. Any of these options will give us a more fuel-efficient auto fleet. The author feels, however, the gasoline tax holds several advantages: it is fair, flexible, smart, and honest. But he notes that he is proposing a substantial increase in the federal gasoline tax. Real commitment would translate into an additional 50 cents a gallon at the pump. While the concept of increasing taxes at the federal level is unpopular with voters and, thus, with elected officials, there are attractive ways to recycle the $50 billion in annual revenues that higher gas taxes would produce

  19. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  20. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  1. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  2. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  3. Economic feasibility of hydrogen enrichment for reducing NOx emissions from landfill gas power generation alternatives: A comparison of the levelized cost of electricity with present strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornbluth, Kurt; Greenwood, Jason; Jordan, Eddie; McCaffrey, Zach; Erickson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent research showing that hydrogen enrichment can lower NO x emissions from landfill gas combustion below future NO x emission control standards imposed by both federal and California state regulations, an investigation was performed to compare the levelized cost of electricity of this technology with other options. In this cost study, a lean-burn reciprocating engine with no after-treatment was the baseline case to compare six other landfill gas-to-energy projects. These cases include a lean burn engine with selective catalytic reduction after treatment, a lean-burn microturbine, and four variations on an ultra-lean-burn engine utilizing hydrogen enrichment with each case using a different method of hydrogen production. Only hydrogen enrichment with an in-stream autothermal fuel reformer was shown to be potentially cost-competitive with current strategies for reaching the NO x reduction target in IC engines. - Highlights: ► Levelized cost of electricity for hydrogen enriched combustion was compared. ► Various ultra-lean-burn engines and microturbines with hydrogen were analyzed. ► Combustion with an autothermal fuel reformer was potentially cost-competitive.

  4. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  5. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  6. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  7. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  8. Quantifying and reporting greenhouse gas emissions at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities as global centers of consumption and production often are a significant and growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. At the same time, local authorities are increasingly taking action on climate change by focusing on reducing GHG emissions and efficiency improvement opportunities. To assess and reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission level from an urban area, it is necessary to identify all the activities and processes which generate these emissions. GHG inventory gives an opportunity to get wider knowledge for city’s community about spatial emission processes and emissions contribution of key sources categories at the local scale. Inventory is being used for decision-making purposes and strategic planning in emission reduction policy. The goal of this paper was to clarify the major methodological challenges of GHG monitoring at the urban level. The paper is based on the discussion of different methods and approaches to assessing GHG emissions at the local level. It is presented sectoral GHGs emission trends in selected urban areas and compared CO2 emission level in different countries and metropolises and variable European cities guidance. The study determines the inventory tools of GHGs emission taking into account the characteristics of main sources at local levels.

  9. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  10. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  11. Comparing climate policies to reduce carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter mainly due to growing consumption of fossil fuels. In 2009, the Chinese government committed itself to reducing domestic carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020 compared to 2005 levels. Therefore, it is a top priority for the Chinese government to adopt efficient policy instruments to reduce its carbon intensity. Against this background, this paper develops a general equilibrium model and seeks to provide empirical contributions by comparing the potential impacts of several different policy options to reduce China's carbon emissions. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, these climate policies would affect the structure of economy and contribute to carbon emissions reduction and carbon intensity reduction. Secondly, there would be significant differences in the economic and environmental effects among different climate policies and hence, the government would trade-off among different economic objectives to overcome any potential resistances. Thirdly, there would be considerable differences in the emissions effects of absolute and intensity-based carbon emissions controls, implying that the government might adopt different climate policies for absolute or intensity-based carbon emissions controls. Looking ahead, the government should trade-off among different objectives when designing climate reforms. - Highlights: • We develop a static general equilibrium model to simulate the impacts of climate policies. • We compare the potential impacts of various climate policies in China. • We discuss how to design these policies to make them more effective

  12. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  13. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  14. A carbon tax to reduce CO2 emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Paola; Botteon, Michele; Carraro, Carlo

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions produced by combustion processes in OECD-European countries. A sectoral model of energy consumption is constructed to examine energy-saving and inter-fuel substitution effects induced by the introduction of various carbon taxes. The simulation period is 1989-94. Our results provide a mild support to the environmental role of a carbon tax. Energy-saving or inter-fuel substitution processes, that result from the introduction of environmental taxation, stabilize emissions at the 1988 level only in the electricity generation sector, and only if high tax rates are assumed ($100/ton.C). By contrast, total emissions (all sectors and all fuels) keep growing, and the implementation of a tax of $100/ton.C can only reduce the emission growth rate. (Author)

  15. Technical opportunities to reduce global anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiwarter, Wilfried; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Klimont, Zbigniew; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We describe a consistent framework developed to quantify current and future anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and the available technical abatement options by source sector for 172 regions globally. About 65% of the current emissions derive from agricultural soils, 8% from waste, and 4% from the chemical industry. Low-cost abatement options are available in industry, wastewater, and agriculture, where they are limited to large industrial farms. We estimate that by 2030, emissions can be reduced by about 6% ±2% applying abatement options at a cost lower than 10 €/t CO2-eq. The largest abatement potential at higher marginal costs is available from agricultural soils, employing precision fertilizer application technology as well as chemical treatment of fertilizers to suppress conversion processes in soil (nitrification inhibitors). At marginal costs of up to 100 €/t CO2-eq, about 18% ±6% of baseline emissions can be removed and when considering all available options, the global abatement potential increases to about 26% ±9%. Due to expected future increase in activities driving nitrous oxide emissions, the limited technical abatement potential available means that even at full implementation of reduction measures by 2030, global emissions can be at most stabilized at the pre-2010 level. In order to achieve deeper reductions in emissions, considerable technological development will be required as well as non-technical options like adjusting human diets towards moderate animal protein consumption.

  16. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  18. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  19. Reducing Methane Emissions: The Other Climate Change Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    Climate change studies show that it is vital to massively reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in the coming decades in order to limit the global average temperature rise ultimately to 2 or 3 deg. C and to prevent the occurrence of irreversible phenomena such as the melting of permafrost. To achieve these targets, climate experts construct scenarios estimating the changes in atmospheric concentrations of the different greenhouse gases, and determine the maximum levels that these concentrations should reach. Climate change policy targets are then set in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. In order to simplify the global assessment of the impact of emissions of these different greenhouse gases on global warming, the international community has adopted rules of equivalence to make it possible to take into account the emissions of non-CO_2 greenhouse gases within one single unit: the ton of CO_2 equivalent (t CO_2 eq). This is achieved by using the 'Global Warming Potential' (GWP) indicator which indicates the ratio of the respective climate impacts of a pulse emission of the greenhouse gas considered over a given period of time to a pulse emission of CO_2 of the same volume in the same year. A reference period of 100 years was defined and this means therefore that in terms of climate impacts, the emission of 1 ton of CH_4 is 'worth' the emission of 21 tons of CO_2. The study presented in this document shows that the widespread use of this equivalence to calculate not only past emissions, but also future emissions anticipated or emissions avoided over a period in the past or in the future, has led to the climate impact of CH_4 emissions being underestimated. This is because the GWP of CH_4 varies considerably depending on the period under consideration. This underestimation is accentuated even more if the respective impacts of avoided emissions of CO_2 and CH_4 are compared, either on a permanent basis or over a limited period of time. Thus

  20. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  2. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Rivers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth. That’s because many of those same analyses show that in order to reach emissions targets, the price on carbon would have to be so punitive as to be politically unbearable, raising the price of gasoline, for example, by about a dollar a litre. That leads politicians to mix in other policies that are less visible to the consumer but also less efficient, less effective and more expensive in abating carbon dioxide. The recently negotiated Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change intends to follow that model, relying on a blend of different policies to help reach Canada’s Paris climate targets. But while the government seems therefore determined to rule out the possibility of a nothing-but-a-carbon-tax plan, it is possible, through the careful application of just the right sort of emission-reduction approaches, to reduce the costs of abatement in a key policy target — namely, road transportation — to a level that at least approaches the lower cost of a carbon tax. The government will likely consider several options in trying to reduce emissions from road transportation. Typical tools include requiring manufacturers to meet standards for new vehicles that mandate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions; gasoline taxes; taxes on emissions-intensive vehicles; subsidies for low-emission or zero-emission vehicles; and subsidies for public transit. Indications are that a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS will play a significant role in the Pan

  3. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  4. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Economics of reducing CO2 emissions from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongxin

    1991-01-01

    Relative to the nations of the industrialized world, developing countries emit far lower levels of CO 2 per capita. In coming years, however, as the developing world experiences more rapid rates of economic and population growth, their carbon emissions per capita inevitably will rise. Therefore, developing countries should be encouraged both to adopt more advanced energy technologies in order to improve the efficiency of energy exploration, transportation, generation and end-use and to replace carbon-intensive fuels sources with less carbon-intensive sources (non-fossil fuels and renewable energy). By incorporating methods aimed at curtailing carbon emissions into their energy development strategies, developing nations can reduce the risks posed by higher CO 2 emissions. However, adopting more advanced energy technologies generally entails high costs. These higher prices serve as a particularly large obstacle for developing nations. In order to serve the common interest of protecting the global environment, international funds should be devoted to cover the high costs of reducing developing world CO 2 emissions

  6. World commitment to reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, R.

    1991-01-01

    A meeting of energy experts in Toronto, sponsored by the Canadian World Energy Council (CANWEC), to examine the implications of sustainable development for the energy industry, is reported. Canada, according to the World Resources Institute, ranks second only to the Arab oil producers as the world's worst energy hog. Although it contributes only 2% of total world greenhouse gases, its per capita emissions rank higher than even the United States, and this despite the fact that over 75% of its electrical energy is produced by hydro and nuclear power. Its intentions to stabilize CO 2 emissions by 2000 have already been signalled. Although arguments on the supply side strategies of clean coal and nuclear power were presented at the CANWEC meeting, the accent was firmly on demand side management, through energy conservation and efficiency, to meet the challenge of global warming. (author)

  7. Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butze, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

  8. Retrofitting compressor engines to reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Cenovus Energy Inc. is upgrading its natural gas compression facilities at 37 sites it operates in Alberta. The project itself consists of a retrofit of the natural-fas fired engines that power the compressors that fill its natural gas sales pipe-line. Piping to capture fugitive natural gas will also be installed. These emissions will be used as fuel. The efficiency rating of such engine will be the same as a new fuel-injected engine. One of the challenge in the design of the parts of these engines ss to to ensure the least possible downtime to minimize production losses.

  9. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  11. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  12. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine

  14. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  15. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  16. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  17. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  18. Policies to reduce carbon emissions from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The two long-term scenarios carried out for Mexico attempt to paint a picture of carbon emissions and energy use in the year 2025. The scenarios reveal that Mexico's current energy path is not optimal; the energy-intensity indicators show an increasing reliance on petroleum products and electricity over the next 40 years. Thus, Mexico must embark on a program of energy conservation in the near future. Mexico recently has undertaken several energy conservation efforts. The Mexican government implemented a National Program for Energy Modernization. This program identifies the promotion of energy conservation in Mexico as one of its top priorities between 1990 and 1994. It incorporates a number of actions geared at improving energy conservation, including: establishing pricing policies which pay special attention to electricity tariffs; setting aside budget appropriations for energy-savings programs; carrying out an energy diagnosis in the transportation and industrial sectors; promoting cogeneration and new legislation in this field; setting efficiency standards for equipment; initiating a public education campaign to inform people about energy conservation; promoting the participation of research institutes and consulting firms in the research of the technological aspects of energy-saving measures; and creating agreement with industrial and commerce associations

  19. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  20. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options

  1. Reducing local traffic emissions at urban intersection using ITS countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.; Arem, B. van; Pueboobpaphan, R.; Lange, R. de

    2013-01-01

    In many countries traffic emissions have significantly increased during the last two decades because of the increased number of vehicles. As such, traffic emissions have become the main source of air pollution in urban areas, where breaches of the EU limit values frequently occur. To reduce these

  2. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  3. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  4. Reducing Supply Chain GHG Emissions from LCD Panel Manufacturing Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-GHGs) are among the most potent and persistent greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Learn about the manufacturing processes which release F-GHGs, and how LCD suppliers are working to reduce emissions.

  5. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  6. Gasoline reformulation to reduce exhaust emissions in Finnish conditions. Influence of sulphur and benzene contents of gasoline on exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoe, M.; Aakko, P.; Lappi, M.

    1994-01-01

    At earlier stages of the study it was found that the exhaust emissions from cars are reduced when using fuels with no more than 4 wt% of oxygen. At this stage of the study the work focused on impacts of the sulphur and benzene content of gasoline on exhaust emissions in Finland. Sulphur in gasoline retards the operation of the catalyst, and consequently the exhaust emissions of catalyst cars increase if the sulphur content of the fuel increases. In the present study, evaporation during refuelling were measured for fuels with varying vapour pressures and benzene contents of gasoline. The total hydrocarbon evaporation was reduced by 22 % (10 g) when the vapour pressure of gasoline was reduced from 85 kPa to 65 kPa. Correspondingly, benzene evaporation during refuelling was reduced to a third when the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from the level of 3 wt% to 1 wt%. The reduction of the sulphur content of gasoline from 500 ppm to 100 ppm affected regulated exhaust emissions from the catalyst car at +22 deg C as follows: CO emission was reduced on average by 14 % (0.175 g/km), CH emission by 7 % (0.010 g/km) and NO x emission by 9 % (0.011 g/km). At-7 deg C the percentual changes were smaller. When the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from 3 wt% to 1 wt%, the benzene emission from the catalyst cars was reduced by 20-30 % and from the non-catalyst cars on average by 30 % both at +22 deg C and -7 deg C. The benzene emission ranged 3-22 mg/km for the catalyst cars and 40-90 mg/km for the non-catalyst cars at +22 deg C in the FTP test

  7. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  8. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  9. Heat pipes to reduce engine exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel combustor is presented that consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end, and having an opposite exit end. An elongated heat pipe is mounted longitudinally in the casing and is offset from and extends alongside the combustion space. The heat pipe is in heat transmitting relationship with the air intake conduit for heating incoming air. A guide conduit structure is provided for conveying the heated air from the intake conduit into the combustion space. A fuel discharge nozzle is provided to inject fuel into the combustion space. A fuel conduit from a fuel supply source has a portion engaged in heat transfer relationship of the heat pipe for preheating the fuel. The downstream end of the heat pipe is in heat transfer relationship with the casing and is located adjacent to the downstream end of the combustion space. The offset position of the heat pipe relative to the combustion space minimizes the quenching effect of the heat pipe on the gaseous products of combustion, as well as reducing coking of the fuel on the heat pipe, thereby improving the efficiency of the combustor.

  10. Reducing US carbon emissions: an econometric general equilibrium assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, D.W.; Wilcoxen, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research conducted as part of Energy Modeling Forum 12, a recent study of the costs of limiting carbon dioxide emissions organized by the Energy Modeling Forum at Stanford University. It discusses how this approach differed from that of other participants in EMF-12 and presents several important findings. In particular, it is shown that in the United States the effects of a carbon tax will be very similar to the effects of a tax placed solely on coal. Outside the coal sector, the principal effect of carbon tax will be to raise the cost of electricity and to shift base load electric generating capacity toward fuels other than coal. At the aggregate level, higher energy prices will cause gross national product to fall unless the revenue from tax is used to reduce high marginal tax rates elsewhere in the economy. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  12. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  13. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  15. Totally impermeable film (TIF reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suduan Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many perennial nursery fields and replanted orchards and vineyards in California are treated with preplant soil fumigants to control soilborne pests. In annual crops, such as strawberry, covering fumigated fields with totally impermeable film (TIF has shown promise in controlling emissions and improving fumigant distribution in soil. The objective of this research was to optimize the use of TIF for perennial crops via three field trials. TIF reduced peak emission flux and cumulative emissions by > 90% relative to polyethylene tarp during a 2-week covering period. After the TIF was cut, emissions were greatly reduced compared to when tarps were cut after 6 days. TIF maintained higher fumigant concentrations under tarp and in the soil than polyethylene film. The results indicate that TIF can increase fumigation efficiency for perennial crop growers.

  16. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-01-01

    In reducing CO 2 emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO 2 released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs

  17. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skutsch, M.; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; Jong, B.H.J. de; Laake, P. van; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised

  18. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  19. Strategies for enhanced deammonification performance and reduced nitrous oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leix, Carmen; Drewes, Jörg E; Ye, Liu; Koch, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Deammonification's performance and associated nitrous oxide emissions (N 2 O) depend on operational conditions. While studies have investigated factors for high performances and low emissions separately, this study investigated optimizing deammonification performance while simultaneously reducing N 2 O emissions. Using a design of experiment (DoE) method, two models were developed for the prediction of the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions during single-stage deammonification considering three operational factors (i.e., pH value, feeding and aeration strategy). The emission factor varied between 0.7±0.5% and 4.1±1.2% at different DoE-conditions. The nitrogen removal rate was predicted to be maximized at settings of pH 7.46, intermittent feeding and aeration. Conversely, emissions were predicted to be minimized at the design edges at pH 7.80, single feeding, and continuous aeration. Results suggested a weak positive correlation between the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions, thus, a single optimizing operational set-point for maximized performance and minimized emissions did not exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of landfill gas will save money and reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The City of Glendale, California has commenced on a project to transport landfill gas (LFG) from the Scholl Canyon Landfill to the Grayson Power Plant. At the plant the LFG will be used to produce electricity in existing steam electric generating units and combustion turbines. The LFG will reduce the natural gas consumed at the plant resulting in a substantial cost savings for the City. This project also offers significant environmental improvements. First, the elimination of flaring at the landfill will reduce emissions. Second, the LFG will reduce NO x emissions from the power plant. This paper will describe the existing collection system at the landfill as well as the design of the compression and piping system to transport the LFG to the power plant. It will also outline the in-plant modifications to the fuel delivery system and examine some of the emission implications of how the fuel is utilized

  1. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  2. Investigating the Potential of Ridesharing to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Jalali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As urban populations grow, cities need new strategies to maintain a good standard of living while enhancing services and infrastructure development. A key area for improving city operations and spatial layout is the transportation of people and goods. While conventional transportation systems (i.e., fossil fuel based are struggling to serve mobility needs for growing populations, they also represent serious environmental threats. Alternative-fuel vehicles can reduce emissions that contribute to local air pollution and greenhouse gases as mobility needs grow. However, even if alternative-powered vehicles were widely employed, road congestion would still increase. This paper investigates ridesharing as a mobility option to reduce emissions (carbon, particulates and ozone while accommodating growing transportation needs and reducing overall congestion. The potential of ridesharing to reduce carbon emissions from personal vehicles in Changsha, China, is examined by reviewing mobility patterns of approximately 8,900 privately-owned vehicles over two months. Big data analytics identify ridesharing potential among these drivers by grouping vehicles by their trajectory similarity. The approach includes five steps: data preprocessing, trip recognition, feature vector creation, similarity measurement and clustering. Potential reductions in vehicle emissions through ridesharing among a specific group of drivers are calculated and discussed. While the quantitative results of this analysis are specific to the population of Changsha, they provide useful insights for the potential of ridesharing to reduce vehicle emissions and the congestion expected to grow with mobility needs. Within the study area, ridesharing has the potential to reduce total kilometers driven by about 24% assuming a maximum distance between trips less than 10 kilometers, and schedule time less than 60 minutes. For a more conservative maximum trip distance of 2 kilometers and passenger

  3. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  4. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  5. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  6. Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design for Reduced-Emission Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher; Johnson, Wayne; Solis, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Python-based wrappers for OpenMDAO are used to integrate disparate software for practical conceptual design of rotorcraft. The suite of tools which are connected thus far include aircraft sizing, comprehensive analysis, and parametric geometry. The tools are exercised to design aircraft with aggressive goals for emission reductions relative to fielded state-of-the-art rotorcraft. Several advanced reduced-emission rotorcraft are designed and analyzed, demonstrating the flexibility of the tools to consider a wide variety of potentially transformative vertical flight vehicles. To explore scale effects, aircraft have been sized for 5, 24, or 76 passengers in their design missions. Aircraft types evaluated include tiltrotor, single-main-rotor, coaxial, and side-by-side helicopters. Energy and drive systems modeled include Lithium-ion battery, hydrogen fuel cell, turboelectric hybrid, and turboshaft drive systems. Observations include the complex nature of the trade space for this simple problem, with many potential aircraft design and operational solutions for achieving significant emission reductions. Also interesting is that achieving greatly reduced emissions may not require exotic component technologies, but may be achieved with a dedicated design objective of reducing emissions.

  7. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO 2 . In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO 2 , NO x , and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO 2 (2--5 ppm), and NO x (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  8. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  9. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R. [Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  10. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  11. Online Hemodiafiltration Reduces Bisphenol A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Borja; Bosch, Ricardo J; Fiallos, Ruth A; Sánchez-Heras, Marta; Olea-Herrero, Nuria; López-Aparicio, Pilar; Muñóz-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Alvarsan, Miguel Angel; De Arriba, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    Several uremic toxins have been identified and related to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Bisphenol A (BPA) accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) in reducing BPA levels. Thirty stable hemodialysis patients were selected to participate in this paired study. During three periods of 3 weeks each, patients were switched from high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD) to OL-HDF, and back to HF-HD. BPA levels were measured in the last session of each period (pre- and post-dialysis) using ELISA and HPLC. Twenty-two patients (mean age 73 ± 14 years; 86.4% males) were included. Measurements of BPA levels by HPLC and ELISA assays showed a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.218, P = 0.012). BPA levels decreased in the OL-HDF period of hemodialysis, in contrast to the HF-HD period when they remained stable (P = 0.002). In conclusion, OL-HDF reduced BPA levels in dialysis patients. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  12. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  13. Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cassandra L; Woods, Noe C; Bilec, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    To determine the carbon footprint of various sustainability interventions used for laparoscopic hysterectomy. We designed interventions for laparoscopic hysterectomy from approaches that sustainable health care organizations advocate. We used a hybrid environmental life cycle assessment framework to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the proposed interventions. We conducted the study from September 2015 to December 2016 at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The largest carbon footprint savings came from selecting specific anesthetic gases and minimizing the materials used in surgery. Energy-related interventions resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon footprint per case but would result in larger savings for the whole facility. Commonly implemented approaches, such as recycling surgical waste, resulted in less than a 5% reduction in greenhouse gases. To reduce the environmental emissions of surgeries, health care providers need to implement a combination of approaches, including minimizing materials, moving away from certain heat-trapping anesthetic gases, maximizing instrument reuse or single-use device reprocessing, and reducing off-hour energy use in the operating room. These strategies can reduce the carbon footprint of an average laparoscopic hysterectomy by up to 80%. Recycling alone does very little to reduce environmental footprint. Public Health Implications. Health care services are a major source of environmental emissions and reducing their carbon footprint would improve environmental and human health. Facilities seeking to reduce environmental footprint should take a comprehensive systems approach to find safe and effective interventions and should identify and address policy barriers to implementing more sustainable practices.

  14. Indian oil company joins efforts to reduce methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    The Oil and Natural Gas Corp, Ltd. (ONGC), headquartered in Dehradun, India, has joined seven U.S. and Canadian oil and natural gas companies as a partner in a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. EPA's Natural Gas STAR International Program aims to reduce methane emissions from the oil and natural gas sector while delivering more gas to markets around the world. With this partnership, ONGC agrees to implement emissions reduction practices and to submit annual reports on progress achieved; EPA agrees to assist ONGC with training technicians in new cost-effective technologies that will help achieve target emissions. The Natural Gas STAR International Program is administered under the Methane to Markets Partnership, a group of 20 countries and 600 companies across the globe that since 2004 has volunteered to cut methane emissions. More information on EPA's agreement with ONGC can be found at http://www.epa.gov/gasstar/index.htm; information about the Methane to Markets Partnership can be found at http://www.methanetomarkets.org.

  15. New NOx cleansing technology can reduce industry emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian, Bergen-based company ECO Energy has recently launched a new cleaning technology halving NO x emissions from industry plants without requiring large investments. Thus, governmental promises to finance NO x cleaning equipment for Norwegian industry have become less expensive to reach. ECO Energy has ensured world patent on the 'stopNOx' technology. Its method consists of adding water and urea to oil before the combustion process. The technology has been applied in Italy, reducing NO x emissions from industry in average with above 50 percent (ml)

  16. Evaluation of complementary technologies to reduce bio engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, J.H.

    2003-09-01

    This report summaries the results of a study examining the technical and economic feasibility of exhaust gas treatment technologies for reducing emissions from diesel engines burning pyrolysis oil to within internationally recognised limits. Details are given of the burning of pyrolysis oils in reciprocating engines, the reviewing of information on pyrolysis oils and engines, and the aim to produce detailed information for securing investment for a British funded diesel project. The burning of the pyrolysis oils in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to allow efficient combustion with acceptable exhaust emission limits is discussed along with the problems caused by the deterioration of the injection system.

  17. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  19. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, and VOC, of which CO 2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO 2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO 2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program

  20. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  1. UK company strategies in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Bentley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a number of large UK companies’ strategies in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 in their supply chain operations. In-depth interviews were conducted with logistics/supply chain (SC managers across different sectors. The research identified the main CO2 reduction strategies, and examined these in the light of existing literature in the research domain. One of the key findings was that there was a strong tension between cost reduction (identified as the major driver for reducing CO2 and lack of resources (the main barrier. It was also found that most CO2 reduction strategies had started only fairly recently, and so far, were mainly operational and tactical in nature. This study makes an empirical contribution to a better understanding of how companies form their CO2 reduction strategies in response to environmental pressures. It has implications for policy makers in terms of how to motivate logistics/SC managers to implement strategies to reduce the environmental impact of CO2 emissions in their business operations. Therefore, it is recommended that logistics/SC managers develop and implement practical initiatives and strategies to reduce CO2 emissions, and to embed these into corporate strategy.

  2. Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

  3. Fiscal Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from New Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Cowi A/S

    2002-01-01

    Model based calculations constitute the core output of this study. The calculations assess the extent to which vehicle related taxes (mainly acquisition taxes and ownership taxes) can be effective means to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars. More specifically, the model calculations have assessed the ability of vehicle taxes to support the target to reduce average CO2 emissions from new cars down to a level of 120 g/km. This is the agreed target of the Community Strategy to reduce CO2 emissio...

  4. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO 2 levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO 2 emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation

  5. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  7. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO_2 emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO_2e. A CO_2 tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO_2) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO_2 emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO_2. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO_2 emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO_2-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO_2 emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO_2 tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  8. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan, E-mail: taoyuan.wei@cicero.uio.no; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-10-15

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO{sub 2} emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO{sub 2}e. A CO{sub 2} tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO{sub 2}. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO{sub 2} emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO{sub 2}-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO{sub 2} tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  9. Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Natalie; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff

    2003-06-01

    Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM(2.5) mass in eastern United States is ammonium sulfate, according to the US EPA. Results from recent studies of PM(2.5) show that these fine particles are typically deposited deep in the lungs and may lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality. Also, these particles are in the size range that will degrade visibility. Ammonia emission inventories are usually constructed by multiplying an activity level by an experimentally determined emission factor for each source category. Typical sources of ammonia include livestock, fertilizer, soils, forest fires and slash burning, industry, vehicles, the oceans, humans, pets, wild animals, and waste disposal and recycling activities. Livestock is the largest source category in the United States, with waste from livestock responsible for about 3x10(9) kg of ammonia in 1995. Volatilization of ammonia from livestock waste is dependent on many parameters, and thus emission factors are difficult to predict. Despite a seasonal variation in these values, the emission factors for general livestock categories are usually annually averaged in current inventories. Activity levels for livestock are from the USDA Census of Agriculture, which does not give information about animal raising practices such as housing types and grazing times, waste handling systems, and approximate animal slurry spreading times or methods. Ammonia emissions in the United States in 1995 from sources other than livestock are much lower; for example, annual emissions are roughly 8x10(8) kg from fertilizer, 7x10(7) kg from industry, 5x10(7) kg from vehicles and 1x10(8) kg from humans. There is considerable uncertainty in the emissions from soil and vegetation, although this category may also be significant

  10. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces; determination of emissions and emission reducing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 382.000 t of wood waste from production processes are fired in Baden-Wuerttemberg per year in 4345 furnaces with capacities of less than 1 MW (field of application of the ''1 BImSchV''). This corresponds to an energy consumption of 5600 TJ. The firings with a totally installed capacity of 594 MW are operated mainly by joiners, carpenters, in sawmills and furniture factories. Certainly there are typical differences between the diverse branches concerning the characteristics of the firings such as capacity, kind of firing, of fuel supply and heat generation. Because of lacking established emission factors, at present time the emissions of these furnaces cannot be calculated. Therefore field measurements are carried out at a representative selection of the registered installations. The emissions are measured in consideration of the usual ways of operation and the commonly used fuels. Supplementarily the compound of the emitted hydrocarbons and their dependence on completeness of the combustion as well as the compound and the grain size distribution of the particle emissions are investigated. (orig.) [de

  11. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  12. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  13. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Miscanthus harvested in April resulted in an emission reduction of 447 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 , growing Miscanthus for harvest in November gave a reduction of 355 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 , and growing triticale gave a reduction of 265 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 . Hence, taking nitrous oxide emissions, C sequestration and energy use into account slightly reduced the value of triticale, but significantly increased the value of Miscanthus as a CO 2 mitigation option. (au)

  14. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  15. Research concepts to reduce CO2 emissions at technical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geigle, K.P.; Lammel, O.; Kutne, P.; Schutz, H.; Luckerath, R.; Aigner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are thought to contribute to climate change and therefore, there is a significant motivation for current gas turbine burner development to reduce those emissions. In order to support burner development, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) utilizes high pressure testing in combination with optical diagnostics enabled by good optical access and numerical simulation. This paper discussed 3 primary activities on CO 2 reduction that have been accomplished recently, notably the simulation of burner development based on the flameless oxidation concept, characterization of syngas combustion behaviour and studying parameters influencing oxyfuel combustion. Enhanced FLOX burner development and flameless oxidation were illustrated and an experimental realization of DLR FLOX burner V1 for operation up to 30 bars was discussed. Several experiments were illustrated and outlined. Computational fluid dynamics and other simulation models were presented. It was concluded that optical diagnostics applicable to high pressure combustion and numerical simulation proved to be extremely helpful for design optimization. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  16. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO 2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO 2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO 2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: → We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. → We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. → Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

  18. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  19. Can a unilateral carbon tax reduce emissions elsewhere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Joshua [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Fullerton, Don [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    One country that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries get a competitive advantage and increase emissions (''leakage''). Estimates from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al (2010a,b) indicate that 15% to 25% of abatement might be offset by leakage. Yet the Fullerton et al (2012) analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. To derive analytical expressions, their model is quite simple, with only one good from each country or sector, a fixed stock of capital, competitive markets, and many identical consumers that purchase both goods. Their model is not intended to be realistic, but only to demonstrate the potential for negative leakage. Most CGE models do not allow for negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for negative leakage. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that negative leakage depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good and the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.

  20. Strategies and costs for reducing CO2 emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtilae, A.; Pirilae, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this study cost-efficient measures for the abatement of energy-related CO 2 emissions in Finland are analyzed, and the direct costs of such measures are estimated. The time frame considered is the period up to the year 2010. Furthermore, the probable impacts of an energy/CO 2 -tax on the Finnish energy system are worked out, and an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of a tax scheme as an economic instrument for achieving CO 2 emission targets. The primary methodological tool in the analyses has been the model of the Finnish energy system developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) within the project. The model facilitates the search for cost-efficient emission control strategies over a period of several decades. Structural and technological changes in the energy system, e.g. fuel and technology substitution, new technologies, efficiency improvements, and energy-saving measures have been allowed for in the model. The results of the analyses show that achieving the target of returning the CO 2 emissions to the 1990 level by the year 2000 would be very difficult and costly in Finland. In the case of a nuclear moratorium it would be reasonable to delay the target by ten years. Even in the delayed cases achieving the target would require extensive structural changes and substantial energy-saving measures in the absence of additional nuclear energy. Coal use would have to be severely restricted, whereas the use of biomass and natural gas should be more than doubled compared to the 1990 levels. According to the results, a CO 2 tax would clearly be a more efficient instrument than a tax based on the energy content of a fuel

  1. Estimating the opportunity costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions via avoided deforestation, using integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, E.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Beltran, A.M.; Kram, T.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates show that, in recent years, deforestation and forest degradation accounted for about 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) is suggested to provide substantial emission

  2. Possibility of reducing CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dawid; Mamala, Jarosław; Śmieja, Michał; Prażnowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Article defines on the possibility of reduction CO2 of the internal combustion engine and presents the analysis based on originally conducted studies. The increase in overall engine efficiency is sought after by all engineers dealing with engine construction, one of the major ways to reduce CO2 emissions is to increase the compression ratio. The application of the compression ratio that has been increased constructional in the engine will, on one hand, bring about the increase in the theoretical efficiency, but, on the other hand, require a system for pressure control at a higher engine load in order to prevent engine knocking. For the purposes of the article there was carried out a number of studies and compiled results, and on their basis determined what have a major impact on the reducing CO2.

  3. Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20% reduction from 1988 levels, and 50% reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of $32, $113, $161, and $517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively $40, $178, $253, and $848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were $32, $55, $59, and $135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50% or 20% relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth

  4. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e yr−1 by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21–40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates...... that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from......More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We...

  5. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  6. Electron microscopy at reduced levels of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, I.A.M.

    1975-05-01

    Specimen damage by electron radiation is one of the factors that limits high resolution electron microscopy of biological specimens. A method was developed to record images of periodic objects at a reduced electron exposure in order to preserve high resolution structural detail. The resulting image would tend to be a statistically noisy one, as the electron exposure is reduced to lower and lower values. Reconstruction of a statistically defined image from such data is possible by spatial averaging of the electron signals from a large number of identical unit cells. (U.S.)

  7. Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigley, T M.L. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK). Climatic Research Unit

    1991-02-07

    When fossil fuel is burned, both carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are added to the atmosphere. The former should cause warming of the lower atmosphere by enhancing the greenhouse effect, whereas the latter, by producing sulphate aerosols, may cause a cooling effect. The possibility that these two processes could offset each other was suggested many years ago but during most of the intervening period, attention has focused on the greenhouse effect. Interest in tropospheric aerosols has, however, recently been rekindled by the realization that they may influence climate, not only through clear-sky radiative effects, but also by modifying cloud albedo. The author examines the sensitivity of the climate system to simultaneous changes in SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as might occur if controls were imposed on fossil-fuel use. Over the next 10-30 years, it is conceivable that the increased radiative forcing due to SO{sub 2} concentration changes could more than offset reductions in radiative forcing due to reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Use of natural gas as a contribution to reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrovski, Dame [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Dimeski, Goran [Toplifikacija Inzhenering AD, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Air quality is one of the conditions that affect both humans health also extend to natural ecosystems, stratospheric ozone, biosphere, changing weather conditions and climate. Imbalance in the atmosphere, the appearance of the greenhouse effect, as well as damage the ozone layer is due to the release of large amounts of polluting substances, which give the effect of acidification and ruin the biosphere, soil and affect others. Pollutants emitted into the air from various sources, mix it, and transported on greater distances and affect on air quality. The polluting substances emitted and remain part of the troposphere that is one part of the air that people breathe, with negative effect on human health, especially respiratory. Given the rapid growth of the industry and the growing need for energy, it is necessary to consider the possibilities for the application of alternative fuels as a proposal to reduce emissions. This paper is considered part of the urban area and thus created a comparative analysis of the work of one plant (which is mainly supplying the area with heat energy), in terms of the type of fuel and related emissions. Also consider the possibility and benefits of the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel to meet the needs of households. Prepared analysis is presented also with the benefits of replacing the electrical and thermal energy (taken from the district heating system) with the use of natural gas as energy terms, and the financial and environmental. (Author)

  9. Reducing CO2 Emissions through Lightweight Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Mark A.; Allwood, Julian M.; Milford, Rachel L.

    2011-05-01

    To meet targeted 50% reductions in industrial CO2 emissions by 2050, demand for steel and aluminium must be cut. Many steel and aluminium products include redundant material, and the manufacturing routes to produce them use more material than is necessary. Lightweight design and optimized manufacturing processes offer a means of demand reduction, whilst creating products to perform the same service as existing ones. This paper examines two strategies for demand reduction: lightweight product design; and minimizing yield losses through the product supply chain. Possible mass savings are estimated for specific case-studies on metal-intensive products, such as I-beams and food cans. These estimates are then extrapolated to other sectors to produce a global estimate for possible demand reductions. Results show that lightweight product design may offer potential mass savings of up to 30% for some products, whilst yield in the production of others could be improved by over 20%. If these two strategies could be combined for all products, global demand for steel and aluminium would be reduced by nearly 50%. The impact of demand reduction on CO2 emissions is presented, and barriers to the adoption of new, lightweight technologies are discussed.

  10. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  11. Reburning technology - a means to reduce NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, H.; Lorra, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide emission control technologies can be classified as either combustion modifications to minimize the NO production or post-combustion flue gas treatment to reduce the NO concentration afterwards. The techniques for minimizing NOx Production includes the use of low-NOx burners, overfire air (staged combustion) and boiler combustion optimization. Procedures for flue gas treatment can be subdivided into selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). The re burning process is a selective non-catalytic technology which is applicable to a wide variety of boilers and can be implemented within a relatively short period of time. The NOx reduction potential of this technique is in the range of 50 % up to 70 %. (author)

  12. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D, McGinnis; Laura S, WIlliams; Amy E, Monte; Jagdish Rughani; Brett A, Niemi; Thomas M, Flicker

    2001-01-01

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board

  13. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  14. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  15. A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

  16. Method of reducing radon levels in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentration can be reduced by using polymeric compositions which fill pores inside building materials and decrease the coefficient of permeation of radon atoms and water molecules in building materials (concrete, gypsum, etc.). Polymeric silico-organic compounds were investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, 222 Rn, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment with chemicals was examined. The effect of the cement and sand types, preliminary treatment with various chemicals, type of the polymeric silico-organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between the preparation of chemicals and the treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between the treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) were examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spraying. The experiments gave evidence that the chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability in 200 - 400 times. Treatment of the floor, walls and ceiling of the basement of 5 buildings reduced the radon concentration in the premises of the first floor from 400-600 Bq/m 3 to the background value of 17-20 Bq/m 3

  17. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  18. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  19. Local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the context of national action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Municipalities can play a number of important roles to complement national actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions: (i) by facilitating comprehensive, city-wide building retrofit activities; (ii) by facilitating the development and/or expansion of community integrated energy systems involving district heating, district cooling, and cogeneration of electricity; and (iii) by promoting urban intensification to reduce the need to use the private automobile. Innovative institutional and financial mechanism are needed to overcome some of the persistent barriers to more efficient energy use in buildings and a number of concepts, which are currently being considered by the City of Toronto as part of its programme to reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% from the 1988 level by 2005, are discussed here. These concepts involve using public securitization funds to leverage private sector funds for energy efficiency retrofits and a number of measures to reduce financing and retrofit transaction costs. Even where surplus electricity generating capacity exists at the regional scale, reduced electricity demand can still result in avoided utility system costs if transmission bottlenecks and future transmission and transformer upgrade costs are reduced. Finally, given the need to replace or modify many of the existing commercial chillers due to the phase out of CFC's, a window of opportunity exists during the next few years to provide alternative, chlorocarbon-free district cooling systems based on absorption chillers using waste heat from electricity generation, with significant (30-65%) CO 2 emission savings. (au)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  1. The Potential of Road Pricing Schemes for Reducing Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocera, S.; Giaretta, F.; Cavallaro, F.

    2016-07-01

    Road pricing is a transport measure mainly conceived to fund road management, to regulate the demand for traffic and to reduce the number of private vehicles circulating in urban areas. It can also grant benefits in terms of environmental externalities including the reduction of CO2 emissions, which has recently become one of the most important elements defining the sustainability of a transport system. However, the carbon potential granted by road charging is rarely assessed, thus confirming a sort of secondary role attributed to CO2 in urban premises. This paper provides an accurate analysis of the relationship between the different forms of road pricing (including distance-based, congestion-based and pay-as-you-drive) and their effective role in terms of carbon reduction, which in some contexts is higher than 10%. Furthermore, practical suggestions to policy makers in terms of implementation of the measure are discussed, highlighting the precautions necessary to include a fair carbon evaluation into an overall effective analysis. (Author)

  2. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  3. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Rivers; Randall Wigle

    2018-01-01

    Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth....

  4. Animal board invited review: genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to

  5. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  6. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Tournadre, J.

    2015-01-01

    Weaddress the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived shipNOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based onOMI observed troposphericNO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European shipNOx

  7. Clearing the Way for Reducing Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; de Jong, B.H.J.; van Laake, P.E.; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for

  8. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A bench marking analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    2011-05-15

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO{sub 2} intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production through simple bench marking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedes, Eleftherios K.; Hudson, Dominic A.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NO x , 0.07 million tonnes in SO x and 4.1 million tonnes in CO 2 . These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ► Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO 2 , SO x and NO x emissions. ► We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ► A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ► Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ► Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

  10. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  11. The benefits and costs of reducing emissions from the electricity sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen; Burtraw, Dallas; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2007-04-01

    Recent federal policy proposals to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury from the US electricity sector promise important improvements in air quality and reductions in acid deposition. The cost of achieving these reductions depends on the form and stringency of the regulation. In this research, we analyze the economic benefits and costs of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as characterized in the supplemental rule proposed in June 2004, and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed in February 2004. The assessment integrates a model of the electricity sector, two models of atmospheric transport of air pollutants, and a model of environmental and public health endpoints affected by pollution. We model explicitly the emissions of SO(2), NO(x), mercury and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and the effects of changes in emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) on environmental and public health. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications not only for the cost of the regulation, but also for emission levels for SO(2) and NO(x) and where those emissions are located. We find the economic benefits of CAIR and CAMR are far greater than the costs. Recent estimates of benefits of reductions in mercury and acidification indicate that our model captures the lion's share of quantifiable benefits. We also find that the EPA would have been justified on economic grounds in pursuing additional SO(2) emissions reductions beyond the requirements of CAIR.

  12. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  13. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  14. Realistic level densities in fragment emission at high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Blann, M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy fragment emission from a 44 100 Ru compound nucleus at 400 and 800 MeV of excitation is analyzed to study the influence of level density models on final yields. An approach is used in which only quasibound shell-model levels are included in calculating level densities. We also test the traditional Fermi gas model for which there is no upper energy limit to the single particle levels. We compare the influence of these two level density models in evaporation calculations of primary fragment excitations, kinetic energies and yields, and on final product yields

  15. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  16. Emission pathway modeling to analyze national ambition levels of decarbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, Mikiko; Waisman, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations which develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. It analyzes the technical decarbonization potential, exploring options for deep decarbonization, but also better taking into account existing infrastructure stocks. It shows the possibility to reduce total CO 2 -energy emissions by 45% by 2050, with bottom-up analyses by 15 Country Research Teams

  17. Nigerian forest communities act to reduce carbon emissions | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 juin 2016 ... The collaborative project between One Sky Canadian Institute for Sustainable Living and the African Integral Development Network assessed the perceptions of local communities about carbon emissions offset ... La majorité des habitants de l'Inde vivent dans des régions soumises à un stress hydrique.

  18. Reducing CO2-Emission by using Eco-Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, K.; Bergmeister, K.; Janotka, I.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 concentration in the air is rising constantly. Globally, cement companies are emitting nearly two billion tonnes/year of CO2 (or around 6 to 7 % of the planet's total CO2 emissions) by producing portland cement clinker. At this pace, by 2025 the cement industry will be emitting CO2 at a rate of 3.5 billion tones/year causing enormous environmental damage (Shi et al., 2011; Janotka et al., 2012). At the dawn of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century the concentration of CO2 was at a level of ca. 280 ppm. 200 years later at the time of World War II the CO2 level had risen to 310 ppm what results in a rate of increase of 0,15 ppm per year for that period (Shi et al., 2011). In November 2011 the CO2 concentration reached a value of 391 ppm (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 2011), a rise of ca. 81 ppm in 66 years and an increased rate of around 1,2 ppm/year respectively. In the same period cement production in tons of cement has multiplied by a factor of ca. 62 (Kelly & Oss, US Geological Survey, 2010). Thus new CO2-saving eco-cement types are gaining in importance. In these cement types the energy-consuming portland cement clinker is partially replaced by latent hydraulic additives such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or zeolite. These hydraulic additives do not need to be fired in the rotary furnace. They ony need to be pulverized to the required grain size and added to the ground portland cement clinker. Hence energy is saved by skipping the engery-consuming firing process, in addition there is no CO2-degassing as there is in the case of lime burning. Therefore a research project between Austria and Slovakia, funded by the EU (Project ENVIZEO), was initiated in 2010. The main goal of this project is to develop new CEM V eco-types of cements and certificate them for common usage. CEM V is a portland clinker saving cement kind that allows the reduction of clinker to a proportion of 40-64% for CEM V/A and 20-39% for CEM V/B respectively by the

  19. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  20. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Gitz, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  1. The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, S.J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO 2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO 2 . Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO 2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO 2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Analysis of alternative pathways for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies for reducing tropospheric ozone typically include modifying combustion processes to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and applying control devices that remove NOx from the exhaust gases of power plants, industrial sources and vehicles. For portions of the ...

  3. Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of India’s Power Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2006-01-01

    If India were to participate in any international effort towards mitigating CO2 emissions, the power sector which is one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the country would be required to play a major role. In this context the study estimates the marginal abatement costs, which correspond to the costs incurred by the power plants to reduce one unit of CO2 from the current level. The study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to derive these costs...

  4. Reducing NOx emissions from a biodiesel-fueled engine by use of low-temperature combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Foong, Tien Mun; Lee, Chia-Fon

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel is popularly discussed in many countries due to increased environmental awareness and the limited supply of petroleum. One of the main factors impacting general replacement of diesel by biodiesel is NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions. Previous studies have shown higher NOx emissions relative to petroleum diesel in traditional direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. In this study, effects of injection timing and different biodiesel blends are studied for low load [2 bar IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure)] conditions. The results show that maximum heat release rate can be reduced by retarding fuel injection. Ignition and peak heat release rate are both delayed for fuels containing more biodiesel. Retarding the injection to post-TDC (top dead center) lowers the peak heat release and flattens the heat release curve. It is observed that low-temperature combustion effectively reduces NOx emissions because less thermal NOx is formed. Although biodiesel combustion produces more NOx for both conventional and late-injection strategies, with the latter leading to a low-temperature combustion mode, the levels of NOx of B20 (20 vol % soy biodiesel and 80 vol % European low-sulfur diesel), B50, and B100 all with post-TDC injection are 68.1%, 66.7%, and 64.4%, respectively, lower than pure European low-sulfur diesel in the conventional injection scenario.

  5. Optimal learning on climate change: why climate skeptics should reduce emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; Willems, T.

    2015-01-01

    Climate skeptics typically argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous, implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing emissions until we know what drives warming. This paper however shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a

  6. Optimal learning on climate change: why climate skeptics should reduce emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; Willems, T.

    2012-01-01

    Climate skeptics argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions until we know more. However this paper shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a change of

  7. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  8. Regulatory and economic instruments in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050: financial impacts on industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Industrial groups will be exposed to increasingly stringent regulation measures against GHG emissions. Uncertainties over the form and extent of international cooperation on climate change should not begin to weaken the European voluntarism otherwise than concerning the targets level of ambition. Therefore, the degree of restraint will remain strong. Halving global emissions between 1990 and 2050 will involve a reduction by a factor of 4 of those in developed countries. However, given the difficulty of achieving such a goal in the diffuse sectors (households, agriculture, transport...), the European industry will most likely reduce its GHG emissions by a factor of 5 to 6. (author)

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  10. Carbon emissions mapping at Unilever Europe : implementing a structural method to map and reduce carbon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the CEO of Unilever committed to a 25% reduction of CO2 emissions from global manufacturing operations in 2012. Unilever Europe Logistics has aligned to this target. To achieve this objective, the management of European logistics department decided to build a carbon emission estimation

  11. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  12. Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Finden, Per; Hageman, Rolf; Stenersen, Dag

    2006-09-01

    The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions

  13. Examining the Efforts of a Small, Open Economy to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    emissions by relatively small, open economies. Although, these economies are small players in international markets, international trade has an important influence on their economies. Investigating the outcome of efforts to curb emissions by these small, open economies provides insights into the situation...... faced by a large set of the world's economies. This paper has three objectives: (1) investigate the outcome of Denmark's efforts to reduce its carbon emissions by characterizing the relationship between Denmark's macroeconomic activity and carbon emissions; (2) determine the carbon content of Danish...... trade and document the important effects that growing trade with China has had on Danish consumption emissions; and (3), investigate the robustness of measures of consumption emissions under varying information requirements. Our analysis of the outcomes of Danish efforts to reduce carbon emissions...

  14. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  15. Reducing of CO2 emissions and its depositing into underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Koudelková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing CO2 emissions caused especially by the combustion of fossil fuels rises a question of how this can be problem solved in the long term. There is several solutions which differ technically and financially. This paper deals with the CO2 capture from combustion processes or power plant processes, (CO2 can be captured from the flue gas, after combustion in oxygen and recirculated flue gas or from a synthesis gas before combustion. This paper presents possibilities of CO2 storagex captured in this way into underground (deep ocean, oil and gas fields, coal bed, aquifers.

  16. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  17. Are car manufacturers on the way to reduce CO2 emissions?: A DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltes-Dorta, Augusto; Perdiguero, Jordi; Jiménez, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    One of the pillars of the fight against climate change is reducing the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere. In that regard, curtailing CO 2 emissions from transport activities is a major objective. In its attempts of “decarbonising” transport, the European Commission set in 2009 different emission limits on the vehicles sold in Europe. With this background, this paper aims to test the ability of the major car manufacturers to meet these present and future targets with the existing technological trends. To that end, we provide an in-depth analysis on the temporal evolution of emission efficiencies in the Spanish car market. The well-known DEA-Malmquist method is applied over a large sample of car models sold in Spain between 2004 and 2010. A second-stage regression allows us to identify the main drivers of efficiency, catch-up and technical change over the period. Finally, the estimated trends are extrapolated to predict future emission levels for the car manufacturers. Using post-regulation rates of technical change, results show that the vast majority of companies would meet the 2015 target, 27% of the current market would meet the 2020 target, and around 3% would be able to comply with the 2025 target. Thus, since all targets are technologically feasible, stricter regulation is the recommended approach to encourage manufacturers to meet the goals set by the European Commission. - Highlights: • We test the ability of car manufacturers to meet emission targets. • A DEA-Malmquist model is estimated using panel data between 2004 and 2010. • With post-2007 technical change, the vast majority of companies beat the 2015 target. • 27% of the market meets the 2020 target, and 3% meets the 2025 target. • More stringent regulation is needed to meet the goals set by the European Authorities

  18. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  19. Economic benefits of reducing emissions from the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Metni, M.; Nuwayhid, M.I.; Kobrossi, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Air pollution has recently been a growing concern in Lebanon particularly around industrial facilities and in urban areas. The cement industry constitutes a major polluting source and its impacts have historically raised considerable local public concern, as was previously the case in many developed countries. In this context, the town of Chekka, which is the site of four cement factories, has been the subject of long-lived controversy with respect to emissions and potential adverse environmental impacts. While field observations and public health complains support the presence of such impacts., scientific data are almost non-existent to adequately evaluate the actual situation. This paper describes recent efforts conducted towards a proper air quality characterization in order to shed light on the extent and nature of the impact of the cement industry in the Chekka region on its immediate vicinity. For this purpose, continuous monitoring of selected air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) was conducted during a limited period. In addition, pollutant dispersion modeling was performed to better define exposure areas. Field measurements coupled with simulation results were linked to a survey questionnaire to assess potential health and material damage on a sample area. The economic benefits of emissions reduction of selected pollutants are presented in the context of the results obtained during this study

  20. Methane, a greenhouse gas: measures to reduce and valorize anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This report first presents the greenhouse effect properties of methane (one of the six gases the emissions of which must be reduced according to the Kyoto protocol), comments the available data on methane emission assessment in the World, in Europe and in France, and outlines the possibilities of improvement of data and indicators on a short and middle term. It describes how methane can be captured and valorized, indicates the concerned quantities. Notably, it discussed the management of methane generating and spreading practices (from waste water treatment, from domestic wastes), how to reduce methane emissions in agriculture. It finally proposes elements aimed at elaborating a national and international policy regarding methane emission reductions

  1. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  2. Control of GHG emission at the microbial community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, H; Wett, B

    2008-01-01

    All organic material eventually is decomposed by microorganisms, and considerable amounts of C and N end up as gaseous metabolites. The emissions of greenhouse relevant gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides largely depend on physico-chemical conditions like substrate quality or the redox potential of the habitat. Manipulating these conditions has a great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such options are known from farm and waste management, as well as from wastewater treatment. In this paper examples are given how greenhouse gas production might be reduced by regulating microbial processes. Biogas production from manure, organic wastes, and landfills are given as examples how methanisation may be used to save fossil fuel. Methane oxidation, on the other hand, might alleviate the problem of methane already produced, or the conversion of aerobic wastewater treatment to anaerobic nitrogen elimination through the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process might reduce N2O release to the atmosphere. Changing the diet of ruminants, altering soil water potentials or a change of waste collection systems are other measures that affect microbial activities and that might contribute to a reduction of carbon dioxide equivalents being emitted to the atmosphere.

  3. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, R.B.; Noordwijk, van M.; Lambin, E.; Meyfroidt, P.; Gupta, J.; Verschot, L.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Veldkamp, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that

  4. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, R.B.; van Noordwijk, M.; Lambin, E.; Meyfroidt, P.; Gupta, J.; Verchot, L.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Veldkamp, E.

    2014-01-01

    The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help

  5. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: a duopoly market pricing competition and cooperation under the carbon emissions cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Ming; He, Hua; Ma, Changsong; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-17

    This article studies the price competition and cooperation in a duopoly that is subjected to carbon emissions cap. The study assumes that in a departure from the classical Bertrand game, there is still a market for both firms' goods regardless of the product price, even though production capacity is limited by carbon emissions regulation. Through the decentralized decision making of both firms under perfect information, the results are unstable. The firm with the lower maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation and the firm with the higher maximum production capacity both seek market price cooperation. By designing an internal carbon credits trading mechanism, we can ensure that the production capacity of the firm with the higher maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation reaches price equilibrium. Also, the negotiation power of the duopoly would affect the price equilibrium.

  7. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  8. How much can wind reduce the French CO2 emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    2010-03-01

    This report analyses the information recently made available by the French electricity transport network RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite). It consists in a detailed data set which gives the time evolution of the power either consumed by the country or generated with the diverse production modes exploited by utilities within France. For the first time the French public is also provided some analytical information on a major renewable energy: wind. Our analysis shows that the French wind-turbine-fleet efficiency over last fall-winter semester is 24.3%. The wind production displays the strong fluctuations expected for this intermittent non-controllable energy. It is observed that the time and energy distributions of the power delivered by the French wind turbines are not related to the increased electricity needs which occurred during a semester where a few cold waves hit the country. As a consequence, the controllable productions which already ensure the balance of consumption versus production had also to carry the extra load associated with the handling of wind fluctuations. In a second part of this report, based on the actual data provided by RTE, the report determines the maximal reduction of the CO 2 emissions which can be expected from the completion of the national wind energy program endorsed by the government. We conclude that in the absence of a significant strengthening of the electric network and an increase of the national energy storage capacity, the wind energy policy decided by the French government will only yield limited results on the reduction of both the GHG emissions and the country reliance on fossil fuel burning plants. (author)

  9. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  10. New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

    2007-12-01

    The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions could reduce the blue carbon value of marshes on eutrophic estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughan, Brittney L.; Kellman, Lisa; Smith, Erin; Chmura, Gail L.

    2018-04-01

    The supply of nitrogen to ecosystems has surpassed the Earth’s Planetary Boundary and its input to the marine environment has caused estuarine waters to become eutrophic. Excessive supply of nitrogen to salt marshes has been associated with shifts in species’ distribution and production, as well as marsh degradation and loss. Our study of salt marshes in agriculturally intensive watersheds shows that coastal eutrophication can have an additional impact. We measured gas fluxes from marsh soils and verified emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) in nitrogen-loaded marshes while the reference marsh was a sink for this gas. Salt marsh soils are extremely efficient carbon sinks, but emissions of N2O, a greenhouse gas 298 times more potent than CO2, reduces the value of the carbon sink, and in some marshes, may counterbalance any value of stored carbon towards mitigation of climate change. Although more research is merited on the nitrogen transformations and carbon storage in eutrophic marshes, the possibility of significant N2O emissions should be considered when evaluating the market value of carbon in salt marshes subject to high levels of nitrogen loading.

  12. An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.

  13. Unity in the problem of reducing carbon dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byurzhe, R.

    1992-01-01

    Political and economical aspects of the problem of reducing discharges into the atmosphere of gases creating hotbed effect are discussed. Canadian government policy on the power production problem is considered as well as the methods of minimization gaseous wastes due to energy consumption regulation and use of safe and more pure energy sources

  14. EFFECT OF RICE STRAW AND NITRATE LEVELS IN SOIL SOLUTION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Cruz Copetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O is considered important, in view of a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 and its dynamics strongly depend on the availability of C and mineral N in the soil. The understanding of the factors that define emissions is essential to develop mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the dynamics of N2O emissions after the application of different rice straw amounts and nitrate levels in soil solution. Pots containing soil treated with sodium nitrate rates (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of NO−3-N and rice straw levels (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1, i.e., nine treatments, were subjected to anaerobic conditions. The results showed that N2O emissions were increased by the addition of greater NO−3 amounts and reduced by large straw quantities applied to the soil. On the 1st day after flooding (DAF, significantly different N2O emissions were observed between the treatments with and without NO−3 addition, when straw had no significant influence on N2O levels. Emissions peaked on the 4th DAF in the treatments with highest NO−3-N addition. At this moment, straw application negatively affected N2O emissions, probably due to NO−3 immobilization. There were also alterations in other soil electrochemical characteristics, e.g., higher straw levels raised the Fe, Mn and dissolved C contents. These results indicate that a lowering of NO−3 concentration in the soil and the increase of straw incorporation can decrease N2O emissions.

  15. The role of photovoltaics in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakers, A.; Green, M.; Leo, T.; Outhred, H.; Robins, B.

    1991-01-01

    This report examines the opportunities that will arise for the Australian photovoltaic industry if external costs of energy conversion are internalized. Such external costs include local pollution, resource depletion and the emission of greenhouse gases. Generation of electricity from photovoltaic (PV) modules is now a widely accepted environmentally friendly energy conversion technology. At present, high capital costs restricts its use to the provision of small amounts of power in remote areas, where it successfully competes against small diesel generators. However, as costs continue to decline, photovoltaic systems will compete successfully with progressively larger diesel-electric systems in Australia, in a market worth more than a billion dollars. Direct competition with electricity generated by conventional means for state grids is possible after the turn of the century. The present Australian photovoltaic industry is export oriented. The market for PV systems in poor rural areas in Asia is potentially very large. The cost of supplying small quantities of electricity to millions of rural households is high, making photovoltaics a competitive option. It is concluded that the Australian photovoltaic industry is in a good position to participate in the growth in this market sector. 48 refs., 28 tabs., 18 figs., ills

  16. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  17. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  18. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co 2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO 2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co 2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  19. Panorama 2018 - Reducing sulfur emissions in shipping: an economic and technological challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Cecile; Marion, Pierre; Saint Antonin, Valerie; Weiss, Wilfried

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur oxides emissions from maritime traffic are constantly rising, unlike those generated by all land-based sources, which are subject to numerous regulations on both fuels and emission caps on equipment that uses them. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a resolution to reduce the sulfur content of marine fuels, but its implementation, set for 2020, could prove complicated. (authors)

  20. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrat...

  1. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  2. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  3. Development of the Croatian Energy Sector by 2050 in Terms of Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Pesut, D.; Tot, M.; Juric, Z.; Horvath, L.; Bacan, A.; Kulisic, B.; Majstorovic, G.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the question: is it possible to achieve and what would be the consequences of energy development while reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by year 2050. Thereby, the growth of costs is not the only expected consequence, but there are also desirable and possible impacts of the energy sector on technological development, science, the economy and increasing the added value. In paper, the development of the energy sector by 2050 is modeled and simulated using two models for the evaluation of the energy systems: model for the analysis of energy consumption (MAED - Model for Energy System Analysis ) and model for optimization of energy supply systems (MESSAGE - Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts ). MESSAGE use the results of MAED model as input assumptions and data. Development opportunities in the sectors of industry, households, services and transport were modeled in the simulation, i.e. possible trajectories of development were considered, in order to achieve the objectives of the sectoral reducing of CO 2 emissions in line with the stated objectives which are discussed at the EU level. The average cost of electricity production in year 2050 will increase by nearly 140% compared to the year 2015. The answer is: the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Croatia by 80% in total and by 95% in the power sector is possible from a technical and technological point of view, but with the high financial impact and significant changes in the energy sector, to which should precede changes in scientific and industrial development.(author)

  4. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hutchinson Marron

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance.

  5. Do Renewable Energy Policies Reduce Carbon Emissions? On Caps and Intra-Jurisdictional Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Perino, Grischa; Jarke, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Climate policies overlapping a cap-and-trade scheme are generally considered not to change domestic emissions. In a two-sector general equilibrium model where only one sector is covered by a cap, we find that such policies do have a net impact on carbon emissions through inter-sectoral leakage. Promotion of renewable energy reduces emissions if tax-funded, but can increase emissions if funded by a levy on electricity. Replacing fossil fuels by electricity in uncapped sectors (e.g. power-to-he...

  6. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation: What contribution from carbon markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellassen , Valentin; Crassous , R.; Dietzsch , L.; Schwartzman , S.

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for 15-20% of total man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. In December 2007, at the international conference of Bali, the United Nations acknowledged that a viable solution to climate change must include a mechanism to limit deforestation and forest degradation. Today, the most widely used economic tool to reduce emissions is carbon markets: caps on emitters, and trade allowed between emitters and reducers, drive a price signal on carbon and provide ince...

  7. Experimental evidence for the reducibility of multifragment emission probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, G.J.; Tso, K.; Phair, L.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation has been studied for 36 Ar-induced reactions on a 197 Au target at E/A = 80 and 110 MeV and for 129 Xe-induced reactions on several targets ( nat Cu, 89 y, 165 ho, 197 Au) and E/A = 40, 50 and 60 MeV. The probability of emitting n intermediate-mass-fragments is shown to be binomial at each transversal energy and reducible to an elementary binary probability p. For each target and at each bombarding energy, this probability p shows a thermal nature by giving linear Arrhenius plots. For the 129 Xe-induced reactions, a nearly universal linear Arrhenius plot is observed at each bombarding energy, indicating a large degree of target independence

  8. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  9. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  10. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld, and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr(6+). GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer, Regulated Metal Deposition, Cold Metal Transfer, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 50-7800 µg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1-270 µg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13-330 µg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50-300 µg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4-140 µg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as five times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes in this

  11. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  12. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality: Two global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E

    2017-07-01

    There are many good reasons to promote sustainable development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other combustion emissions. The air quality in many urban environments is causing many premature deaths because of asthma, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and dementia associated with combustion emissions. The global social cost of air pollution is at least $3 trillion/year; particulates, nitrogen oxides and ozone associated with combustion emissions are very costly pollutants. Better air quality in urban environments is one of the reasons for countries to work together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. There are many potential benefits associated with limiting climate change. In the recent past, the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and the number of weather and climate disasters with costs over $1 billion has been increasing. The average global temperature set new record highs in 2014, 2015, and 2016. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the transition to electric vehicles and electricity generation using renewable energy must take place in accord with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. This work reviews progress and identifies some of the health benefits associated with reducing combustion emissions. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 982-988, 2017.

  13. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-06-02

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  14. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani; Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  15. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  16. Big and Little Feet: A Comparison of Provincial Level Consumption- and Production-Based Emissions Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    trade flows in emissions, or risk damaging that trade. Higher costs for Canadian producers can have a detrimental effect on competition in these sectors, resulting in less demand for Canadian products domestically and internationally. It can also lead to international carbon leakage. The resultant increase in global greenhouse gas emissions defeats the purpose of enacting stringent regulations in Canada. Striking a balance requires that the federal government create complementary policies that reduce the burden of a national carbon price on trade-exposed Canadian producers while still providing incentives for them to invest in reducing their emissions. In Canadian sectors with minimal trade exposure – i.e., those with emissions that are largely produced and consumed within Canada – it is best to focus complementary policies to a national carbon price on achieving additional emissions reductions. The utilities, personal transportation and residential sectors are all good targets for these types of complementary policies. Another important policy question is how to equitably divide the burden of meeting Canada’s national emissions reduction target across the provinces. This does not lend itself to simple solutions. Some provinces have significant hydroelectric resources, providing them with a non-fossil fuel electricity source that leads to lower emissions. An approach that mandates similar emissions intensities per capita across Canada will be to those provinces’ advantage. However, there is also a historical approach to burden sharing that puts the provinces with lower emissions at a disadvantage. This allows a province like Alberta to have higher emissions levels because it has always had them. The best model for distributing Canada’s emissions reduction target is a hybrid one that all provinces can support without any of them feeling they are at a disadvantage. There is a strong case for granting all provinces an equal right to consumption emissions as a

  17. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  18. A STRATEGIC PROGRAM TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS PRODUCED FROM FOOD INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kilic [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Nigde, Nigde (Turkey); A. Midilli [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde (Turkey); I. Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-09-30

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are at every stage of conventional food production (planting, harvesting, irrigation, food production, transportation, and application of pesticides and fertilizers, etc.). In this study, a strategic program is proposed to reduce GHGs emissions resulting during conventional food production. The factors which form the basis of this strategic program are energy, environment and sustainability. The results show that the application of sustainable food processing technologies can significantly reduce GHGs emissions resulting from food industry. Moreover, minimizing the utilization of fossil-fuel energy sources and maximizing the utilization of renewable energy sources results in the reduction of GHGs emissions during food production, which in turn reduces the effect of global warming.

  19. REDUCED HEATING LEVEL DURING THE END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE

    CERN Document Server

    ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

    2002-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 19 December 2002 at the latest (tel. 74195 or 72201). ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

  20. REDUCED HEATING LEVEL DURING THE END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST/CV - ST/TFM Groupes

    2001-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 20 December 2001 at the latest (tel.74195 or 72201).

  1. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 18 December 2003 at the latest (tel. 74195 or 72201). ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

  2. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and neutrophil cells in Wistar rats suffering from aggressive periodontitis. Methods: Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans before being divided into a control group and a treatment ...

  3. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled. (author)

  4. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  5. The role of advanced nuclear plants in reducing the environmental and economic impact of greenhouse emissions on electrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.; Veitch, C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential impact of imposing economic penalties (externalities) in an effort to reduce emission levels and environmental effect of existing and newly constructed electric facilities, on the selection of generation technology and fuel type, and how the nuclear industry's efforts to develop the next generation of nuclear power facilities will provide an economic, low emission generating option to meet the expanding global electrical needs. The efforts of the US nuclear industry to improve the performance and economics of the existing and next generation facilities are presented, focusing on General Electric's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  7. Wind farms on undegraded peatlands are unlikely to reduce future carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jo; Nayak, Dali Rani; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Onshore wind energy is a key component of the renewable energies used by governments to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production, but will carbon emissions be reduced when wind farms are located on carbon-rich peatands? Wind farms are often located in uplands because most are of low agricultural value, are distant from residential areas, and are windy. Many UK uplands are peatlands, with layers of accumulated peat that represent a large stock of soil carbon. When peatlands are drained for construction there is a higher risk of net carbon loss than for mineral soils. Previous work suggests that wind farms sited on peatlands can reduce net carbon emissions if strictly managed for maximum retention of carbon. Here we show that, whereas in 2010, most sites had potential to provide net carbon savings, by 2040 most sites will not reduce carbon emissions even with careful management. This is due to projected changes in the proportion of fossil fuels used to generate electricity. The results suggest future policy should avoid constructing wind farms on undegraded peatlands unless drainage of peat is minimal and the volume excavated in foundations can be significantly reduced compared to energy output. - Highlights: • Future wind farms located on undegraded peats will not reduce carbon emissions. • This is due to projected changes in fossil fuels used to generate electricity. • Future policy should avoid constructing wind farms on undegraded peats

  8. The cost-effectiveness of methanol for reducing motor vehicle emissions and urban ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article analyzes the costs and emissions characteristics of methanol vehicles. The cost-effectiveness of methanol - the cost per ton of reactive hydrocarbon emissions reduced - is calculated and compared to the cost-effectiveness of other hydrocarbon reduction strategies. Methanol is found to cost from $33,000 to nearly $60,000 per ton, while several other options are available for under $10,000 per ton. The cost per part-per-million reduction in peak ambient ozone levels is also computed for two cities, Houston and Philadelphia. Despite the greater improvement in ozone in Philadelphia than Houston, methanol is found to be more cost-effective in Houston. This result occurs because Houston's distribution and marketing costs are lower than Philadelphia's. The costs in both cities, however, are far higher than estimates of the benefits from acute health improvements. Finally, the reduction in ozone exposure in Los Angeles is estimated and the costs of the reduction compared with an estimate of acute health benefits. Again, the benefits fall far short of the costs. 51 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, William C; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Barsanti, Kelley; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O 3 increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM 2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m −3 . We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value. (letter)

  10. Hennessy reduces its greenhouse gas emissions; Hennessy reduit ses emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, S.

    2004-09-01

    Hennessy, the French cognac manufacturer and dealer is one of the first company that has tested the 'Bilan Carbone{sup TM}' method developed by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) for the estimation of the direct or indirect emissions of greenhouse gases (explained in tons of carbon equivalent, TeqC). Thanks to a quantitative and qualitative measurement of its effluents, the company can act on the direct and induced effects of its production: abatement of fertilizers and pesticides additions for wine production, combustion optimization in the distillation process, lightening of bottles weight (glass saving), choice of the transportation system for the delivery of final products to spirits dealers. (J.S.)

  11. CO2 emissions: a peak level in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    After a reduction of CO 2 emissions in 2009 due to the financial crisis, these emissions have again reached a peak in 2010: 30.6 Gt, it means an increase by 5% compared to the previous peak. According to IEA (International Energy Agency): 44% of the emissions come from coal, 36% from oil and 20% from natural gas, and OECD countries are responsible of 40% of the CO 2 global emissions but only of 25% of their increase since 2009. For China and India the emissions of CO 2 have increased sharply due to their strong economic growth. (A.C.)

  12. Modification of otoacoustic emissions following ear-level exposure to MP3 player music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Shaum P; Davis, Anne M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if a pre-determined exposure level and duration of MP3 player music would result in significant changes in cochlear function when measured with audiometric and physiological methods. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), synchronized spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SSOAEs), and hearing thresholds were measured in 20 normal-hearing adults before and after a 30-minute MP3 player music exposure. DPOAEs were acquired with 65/45 dB SPL primary tones (f(2)=0.842-7.996 kHz) with a frequency resolution of 8 points/octave. A probe microphone system recorded ear-canal music levels and was used to equalize levels at approximately 85 dBC across individuals during the music presentation. Comparison of pre- and post-exposure measurements revealed no significant differences in hearing thresholds, but DPOAE levels in half-octave bands centered from 1.4-6.0 kHz were significantly reduced following the music exposure. Post-exposure shifts in SSOAE frequency and level were highly variable in individuals identified with SSOAEs. The results for the exposure conditions explored in this study indicate that changes in otoacoustic emissions may precede the development of music-induced hearing threshold shifts.

  13. Greatly reduced emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The strong support for biomass energy in the Norwegian wood-processing industry during the last 10-15 years has contributed greatly to a considerable reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. The potential for further reductions is primarily linked with the use of oil and involves only a few works. Oil can be replaced by other fuels, and process-technical improvements can reduce the emissions. According to prognoses, emissions will go on decreasing until 2007, when the total emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry will be about 13 per cent less than in 1998. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) amounts to 90 per cent of the total emission, the remaining parts being methane (CH 4 ) from landfills and dumps, and small amounts of N 2 O

  14. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  15. Effectiveness of Some Ameliorants in Reducing Co2 and N2o Emission in Corn Planting in Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftuah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amelioration is very important in supporting plant growth in peat land. The use of low emission ameliorant will support the sustainability of agricultural system in peat land. The research is intended to study the effectiveness of some ameliorants in reducing CO2 and N2O emission in corn planting in peat land. The research was conducted in April to October 2013, in Kalampangan Village Palangkaraya Municipality Central Kalimantan. Ameliorant materials used were chicken manure fertilizer, domolite, mineral soil, paddy husk biochar, coconut shell biochar. Ameliorant treatments applied were the type of ameliorant compositions, those were (A1 80% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% dolomite, (A2 20% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% agricultural weeds + 20% spodosol mineral soil + 20% “purun tikus” (eleocharis dulcis compost + 20% dolomite, (A3 19% chicken manure fertilizer + 9% dolomite + 72% mineral soil, (A4 100% coconut shell biochar, (A5 paddy husk biochar, (A6 farmer’s way (20% ash + 40% spodosol mineral soil + 40% chicken manure fertilizer and control. Experiment design used a Randomized Factorial Block Design, with 3 repetitions. Ameliorant dosage used was 7.5 t/ha. The crop used was hybrid corn. Parameters which were observed periodically were emission of CO2 and N2O, ground water level height, soil pH and Eh, once a month for 5 periods. The research result showed that ameliorant was capable of reducing emission of both CO2 and N2O in corn planting in peat land. Coconut shell biochar could reduce emission of CO2 up to 26% as compared with control, whereas paddy husk biochar could reduce emission of N2O up to 52% as compared with control.

  16. Regional-Level Carbon Emissions Modelling and Scenario Analysis: A STIRPAT Case Study in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has brought increased attention to the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development. Research on the driving factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption can provide a scientific basis for regional energy savings, as well as emissions reduction and sustainable development. Henan Province is a major agricultural province in China, and it is one of most populous provinces. Industrial development and population growth are the causes of carbon emissions. The STIRPAT model was conducted for analyzing carbon emissions and the driving factors for future carbon emission in Henan Province. The results show that: carbon emissions and energy consumption in Henan Province presented a rising trend from 1995 to 2014; Energy consumption due to population growth is the main contributor to carbon emissions in Henan Province. As every 1% increase in the population, GDP per-capita, energy intensity, and the level of urbanization development will contribute to the growth of emissions by 1.099, 0.193, 0.043, and 0.542%, respectively. The optimization of the industrial structure can reduce carbon emissions in Henan Province, as suggested by the results, when the tertiary sector increased by more than 1%, the total energy consumption of carbon emissions reduced by 1.297%. The future pattern of carbon emissions in Henan Province is predicted to increase initially and then follows by a decreasing trend, according to scenario analysis; and maintaining a low population growth rate, and a high growth rate of GDP per-capita and technical level is the best mode for social and economic development.

  17. Reducing Indoor Noise Levels Using People's Perception on Greenery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Binarti, Floriberta

    2013-12-01

    Employees working in cubicles of open-plan offices in Indonesia were studied in regard to their perception on the ability of indoor greenery to reduce noise levels. Sansevieria trifasciata and Scindapsus sp were used. Each was placed in the cubicle and noise levels were measured without plants, with Sansevieria, and with Scindapsus in place. The meters showed very insignificant difference. However, responses to surveys indicated a perception of lower noise in the presence of greenery. This seemed to be supported by prior knowledge and preconception and may be useful in creating a "quieter" indoor environment.

  18. Does Financial Development Reduce CO2 Emissions in Malaysian Economy? A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Mahmood, Haider

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the question whether financial development reduces CO2 emissions or not in case of Malaysia. For this purpose, we apply the bounds testing approach to cointegration for long run relations between the variables. The study uses annual time series data over the period 1971-2008. Ng-Perron stationarity test is applied to test the unit root properties of the series. Our results validate the presence of cointegration between CO2 emissions, financial development, energy co...

  19. Opportunities for reducing environmental emissions from forage-based dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Misselbrook

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern dairy production is inevitably associated with impacts to the environment and the challenge for the industry today is to increase production to meet growing global demand while minimising emissions to the environment. Negative environmental impacts include gaseous emissions to the atmosphere, of ammonia from livestock manure and fertiliser use, of methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, and of nitrous oxide from nitrogen applications to soils and from manure management. Emissions to water include nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, sediment, pathogens and organic matter, deriving from nutrient applications to forage crops and/or the management of grazing livestock. This paper reviews the sources and impacts of such emissions in the context of a forage-based dairy farm and considers a number of potential mitigation strategies, giving some examples using the farm-scale model SIMSDAIRY. Most of the mitigation measures discussed are associated with systemic improvements in the efficiency of production in dairy systems. Important examples of mitigations include: improvements to dairy herd fertility, that can reduce methane and ammonia emissions by up to 24 and 17%, respectively; diet modification such as the use of high sugar grasses for grazing, which are associated with reductions in cattle N excretion of up to 20% (and therefore lower N losses to the environment and potentially lower methane emissions, or reducing the crude protein content of the dairy cow diet through use of maize silage to reduce N excretion and methane emissions; the use of nitrification inhibitors with fertiliser and slurry applications to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching by up to 50%. Much can also be achieved through attention to the quantity, timing and method of application of nutrients to forage crops and utilising advances made through genetic improvements.

  20. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, D.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E. D.; Braatz, S.; Grassi, G.; Federici, S.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need—and can be—overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

  1. Reducing CO2 emissions of conventional fuel cars by vehicle photovoltaic roofs

    OpenAIRE

    LODI CHIARA; SEITSONEN ANTTI; PAFFUMI ELENA; DE GENNARO MICHELE; HULD THOMAS; MALFETTANI STEFANO

    2017-01-01

    The European Union has adopted a range of policies aiming at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transport, including setting binding targets for tailpipe CO2 emissions for new light-duty fleets. The legislative framework for implementing such targets allows taking into account the CO2 savings from innovative technologies that cannot be adequately quantified by the standard test cycle CO2 measurement. This paper presents a methodology to define the average productivity of vehicle-moun...

  2. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollicone, D; Freibauer, A; Schulze, E D; Braatz, S; Grassi, G; Federici, S

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need-and can be-overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles

  3. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    ST Department

    2007-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperatures have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2007 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  4. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2004 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch.). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  5. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    TS/CV-TS/FM Group

    2004-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2004 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch.).

  6. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 12 December 2008 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail mailto:fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  7. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2007 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail mailto:fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  8. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature has to be maintained to let us know by 15 December 2006 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  9. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 15 December 2006 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  10. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    TS/CV Group

    2005-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperatures have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2005 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). Groups TS/CV and TS/FM

  11. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  12. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  13. Development of AIM for analysing policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    1999-01-01

    AIM (Asian-Pacific Integrated Model) has been developed for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating policy measures to reduce them. Two socio-economic scenarios were assumed and CO 2 emissions were predicted based on these scenarios and policy intervention assumptions. It is found that mitigating CO 2 emissions without scaling back productive activities or standards of living in Japan is possible. However, if one relies on the market mechanism alone, it cannot be done. The analysis has shown that it is essential to introduce new policies and measures such as carbon tax and subsidies. (author)

  14. Carbon footprint of telemedicine solutions--unexplored opportunity for reducing carbon emissions in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Ebi, Kristie L; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The healthcare sector is a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, in part due to extensive travelling by patients and health workers. To evaluate the potential of telemedicine services based on videoconferencing technology to reduce travelling and thus carbon emissions in the healthcare sector. A life cycle inventory was performed to evaluate the carbon reduction potential of telemedicine activities beyond a reduction in travel related emissions. The study included two rehabilitation units at Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. Carbon emissions generated during telemedicine appointments were compared with care-as-usual scenarios. Upper and lower bound emissions scenarios were created based on different teleconferencing solutions and thresholds for when telemedicine becomes favorable were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to pinpoint the most important contributors to emissions for different set-ups and use cases. Replacing physical visits with telemedicine appointments resulted in a significant 40-70 times decrease in carbon emissions. Factors such as meeting duration, bandwidth and use rates influence emissions to various extents. According to the lower bound scenario, telemedicine becomes a greener choice at a distance of a few kilometers when the alternative is transport by car. Telemedicine is a potent carbon reduction strategy in the health sector. But to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation, a paradigm shift might be required where telemedicine is regarded as an essential component of ordinary health care activities and not only considered to be a service to the few who lack access to care due to geography, isolation or other constraints.

  15. Signalling in international environmental agreements. Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country`s reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  16. Signalling in international environmental agreements: Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country's reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  17. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  18. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  19. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively....... Reduced tillage had no significant effect on N2O fluxes from soils or crop grain yield. Multiple regression analysis revealed that soil moisture and an interaction between soil moisture and soil nitrate are the main significant factors affecting N2O flux. The derived emission factor was 0...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  20. Tropical protected areas reduced deforestation carbon emissions by one third from 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Butt, Nathalie

    2017-10-25

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for around one tenth of total anthropogenic carbon emissions, and tropical protected areas (PAs) that reduce deforestation can therefore play an important role in mitigating climate change and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. While the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation has been estimated, the impact on global carbon emissions remains unquantified. Here we show that tropical PAs overall reduced deforestation carbon emissions by 4.88 Pg, or around 29%, between 2000 and 2012, when compared to expected rates of deforestation controlling for spatial variation in deforestation pressure. The largest contribution was from the tropical Americas (368.8 GgC y -1 ), followed by Asia (25.0 GgC y -1 ) and Africa (12.7 GgC y -1 ). Variation in PA effectiveness is largely driven by local factors affecting individual PAs, rather than designations assigned by governments.

  1. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  2. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  3. Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mulla, Ahmad; Fanous, Nadia; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rees, Vaughan W

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to the emissions of a tobacco waterpipe is associated with increased health risks among its users as well as those exposed to its secondhand smoke. Waterpipe use is an emerging concern to the tobacco control community, particularly among countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In 2002, Qatar adopted legislation that prohibited cigarette smoking inside public venues, but exempted tobacco waterpipe smoking. To inform the development and enforcement of effective policy, the impact of cigarette and waterpipe use on indoor air quality was monitored in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar. Particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were measured inside and outside of a sample of 40 waterpipe cafes and 16 smoke-free venues in Doha, Qatar between July and October 2012. In addition, the number of waterpipes being smoked and the number of cigarette smokers were counted within each venue. Non-paired and paired sample t tests were used to assess differences in mean PM2.5 measurements between venue type (waterpipe vs smoke-free) and environment (indoor vs outdoor). The mean PM2.5 level inside waterpipe venues (476 μg/m(3)) was significantly higher than the mean PM2.5 level inside smoke-free venues (17 μg/m(3); pQatar, potentially endangering the health of employees and patrons. To protect the public from the dangers of secondhand tobacco smoke, and to change social norms around tobacco use, smoke-free policies that apply to all forms of combusted tobacco products, including the waterpipe, are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Application of Bacillus sp. TAT105 to reduce ammonia emissions during pilot-scale composting of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Furuhashi, Kenich; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2017-12-01

    Thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. TAT105 grows and reduces ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions by assimilating ammonium nitrogen during composting of swine feces. To evaluate the efficacy of a biological additive containing TAT105 at reducing NH 3 emissions, composting tests of swine manure on a pilot scale (1.8 m 3 ) were conducted. In the TAT105-added treatment, NH 3 emissions and nitrogen loss were lower than those in the control treatment without TAT105. No significant difference was detected in losses in the weight and volatile solids between the treatments. Concentration of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacteria in the compost increased in both treatments at the initial stage of composting. In the TAT105-added treatment, bacterial concentration reached ~10 9 colony-forming units per gram of dry matter, several-fold higher than that in the control and stayed at the same level until the end. These results suggest that TAT105 grows during composting and reduces NH 3 emissions in TAT105-added treatment.

  5. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N_2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N_2O and CH_4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N_2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH_4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N_2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH_4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al"3"+ toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N_2O and CH_4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH_4 emissions and, under CT, abate N_2O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N_2O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N_2O and CH_4 emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT. • NT and liming provide an opportunity for N_2O and CH_4 mitigation.

  6. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  7. Testing climate-smart irrigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 11% of the global 308 Tg CH4 anthropogenic emissions are currently attributed to rice cultivation. In this study, the impact of water conservation practices on rice field CH4 emissions was evaluated in Arkansas, the leading state in US rice cultivation. While conserving water, the Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation practice can also reduce CH4 emissions through the deliberate, periodic introduction of aerobic conditions. Seasonal CH4emissions from a pair of adjacent, production-sized rice fields were estimated and compared during the 2015 to 2017 growing seasons using the eddy covariance method on each field. The fields were alternately treated with continuous flood (CF) and AWD irrigation. In 2015, the seasonal cumulative carbon losses by CH4 emission were 30.3 ± 6.3 and 141.9 ± 8.6 kg CH4-C ha-1 for the AWD and CF treatments, respectively. Data from 2016 and 2017 will be analyzed and shown within this presentation; an initial view demonstrates consistent findings to 2015. When accounting for differences in field conditions and soils, the AWD practice is attributable to a 36-51% reduction in seasonal emissions. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD supports previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in Arkansas rice production. The AWD practice has enabled the sale of credits for carbon offsets trading and this new market could encourage CH4 emissions reductions on a national scale. These eddy covariance towers are being placed into a regional perspective including crop and forest land in the three states comprising the Mississippi Delta: Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

  8. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  9. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  10. Reducing emission of nitrogen oxides during combustion of black coal from the Kuzbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Lobov, G.V.; Gedike, I.A.

    1983-02-01

    Black coal from the Kuzbass used as fuel by the ZapSibTEhTs fossil-fuel power plant is rich in nitrogen: nitrogen content ranges from 2.8% to 3.5%. Under these conditions conventional methods of combustion cause air pollution exceeding permissible levels. A method for combustion of coal dust in stages has been successfully tested at the plant: some of the burners located in the top zone of the furnace (the BKZ-210-140F boiler) are used for air supply. From 16% to 18% of air supplied to the furnace is directed to the upper burners. Use of this system (called tertiary air supply as opposed to the secondary air system) reduced nitrogen oxide emission by 1.5 times (from 0.87 to 0.57 g/m/sup 3/). Position of nozzles used for tertiary air supply in relation to the burners used for supply of coal dust in the tangential shaped furnace is shown in a scheme. The optimum position of tertiary air supply system in relation to burners taking into account corrosion hazards as well as the hazards of reducing combustion efficiency is discussed. Recommendation on furnace design and burner position which prevent efficiency decrease and corrosion hazards are made.

  11. Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Omid, Mahmoud; Mousazadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In this study, DEA (data envelopment analysis) was applied to analyze the energy efficiency of wheat farms in order to separate efficient and inefficient growers and to calculate the wasteful uses of energy. Additionally, the degrees of TE (technical efficiency), PTE (pure technical efficiency) and SE (scale efficiency) were determined. Furthermore, the effect of energy optimization on GHG (greenhouse gas) emission was investigated and the total amount of GHG emission of efficient farms was compared with inefficient ones. Based on the results it was revealed that 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was calculated as 0.82. Based on the BCC (Banker–Charnes–Cooper) model 154 growers (59%) were identified efficient and the mean PTE of these farmers was found to be 0.99. Also, it was concluded that 2075.8 MJ ha −1 of energy inputs can be saved if the performance of inefficient farms rises to a high level. Additionally, it was observed that the total GHG emission from efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 , respectively. By energy optimization the total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 . - Highlights: • 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was 0.82. • An average 2075.8 MJ ha −1 from energy input could be saved without reducing the yield. • GHG emission of efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq. ha −1 . • Total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq. ha −1

  12. Gelatinous soil barrier for reducing contaminant emissions at waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Martin, W.J.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    The milling of uranium ore produces large quantities of waste (mill tailings) that are being deposited in earthen pits or repositories. These wastes, which remain potentially hazardous for long time periods, may reach the biosphere at levels greater than those allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For example, the leachates associated with these wastes contain numerous radionuclides and toxic trace metals at levels 10 2 to 10 4 greater than allowable for drinking water based on EPA Primary Drinking Water Standards. As a result, technologies must be developed to ensure that such wastes will not reach the biosphere at hazardous levels. Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has investigated the use of engineered barriers for use as liners and covers for waste containment. Results of these investigations have led to the development of a low permeable, multilayer earthen barrier that effectively reduces contaminant loss from waste disposal sites. The multilayer earth barrier was developed as an alternative to clay liner or cover schemes for use in areas where clays were not locally available and must be shipped to the disposal site. The barrier layer is comprised of 90% locally available materials whose liner or cover properties are enhanced by the addition of a gelatinous precipitate which entrains moisture into the cover's air-filled pore spaces, blocking the pathways through which gas would otherwise diffuse into the atmosphere or through which moisture would migrate into the ground. In field verification tests, the earthen seal reduced radon gas emissions by 95 to 99% over prior release rates with measured permeabilities on the order of 10 - 9 cm/s

  13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  14. Potential of Windbreak Trees to Reduce Carbon Emissions by Agricultural Operations in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ballesteros-Possu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with sequestering C in forest, trees on farms are able to contribute to greenhouse mitigation through emission avoidance mechanisms. To evaluate the magnitude of these contributions, emission avoidance contributions for field and farmstead windbreak designs in regions across the United States were estimated, along with greenhouse gas (GHG emission budgets for corn, soybean, winter wheat, and potato operations. We looked at farming scenarios with large (600 ha, mid (300 ha, and small-size (60 ha farms containing farmsteads built before and after 2000, and growing different cropping systems. Windbreak scenarios were assumed to be up to 5% of the crop area for field windbreaks, while emission avoidance for farmstead windbreaks were assumed to provide a 10% and 25% reduction in energy usage for space conditioning and heating, respectively. Total reduction of C equivalent (CE emissions by windbreaks on farm systems ranged from a low of 0.9 Mg CE year−1 for a 60-ha farm with a home built before 2000 to 39.1 Mg CE year−1 for a 600-ha farm with a home built after 2000. By reducing fossil fuel usage from farm operations, windbreaks provide a promising strategy for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture in the USA.

  15. An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misselbrook, T H; Cardenas, L M; Camp, V; Thorman, R E; Williams, J R; Rollett, A J; Chambers, B J

    2014-01-01

    A trial was conducted consisting of 14 experiments across sites in England of contrasting soil type and annual rainfall to assess the effectiveness of nitrification inhibitors (predominantly dicyandiamide (DCD) but limited assessment also of 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a commercial product containing two pyrazole derivatives) in reducing direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from fertilizer nitrogen (N), cattle urine and cattle slurry applications to land. Measurements were also made of the impact on ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization, nitrate (NO 3 − ) leaching, crop yield and crop N offtake. DCD proved to be very effective in reducing direct N 2 O emissions following fertilizer and cattle urine applications, with mean reduction efficiencies of 39, 69 and 70% for ammonium nitrate, urea and cattle urine, respectively. When included with cattle slurry a mean, non-significant reduction of 56% was observed. There were no N 2 O emission reductions observed from the limited assessments of the other nitrification inhibitors. Generally, there were no impacts of the nitrification inhibitors on NH 3 volatilization, NO 3 − leaching, crop yield or crop N offtake. Use of DCD could give up to 20% reduction in N 2 O emissions from UK agriculture, but cost-effective delivery mechanisms are required to encourage adoption by the sector. Direct N 2 O emissions from the studied sources were substantially lower than IPCC default values and development of UK country-specific emission factors for use in inventory compilation is warranted. (paper)

  16. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  17. New technology on Otto engines for reducing the exhaust emission toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikarovska, Vesna; Stojanovski, Vasko

    2003-01-01

    The exhaust emission from the Otto engines with internal combustion contains a lot of toxicant components for human being as well as for the surrounding. There are a lot of possibilities to realize the engine work with minimum emission of toxicant components. However, all solutions could not be racial, especially if the engine should work with minimum fuel consumption. The engineers look for the solutions where the reducing of the exhaust emission toxicity could be done with the total fuel utilization in the engine's cylinder, without additionally combustion in catalytic or thermal reactors. The paper describes the new technologies for detail investigation of the combustion processes and optimization of all influence parameters on exhaust gases emission. (Original)

  18. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  19. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW incinerator emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Though activated carbon is, by no means, a newcomer to the pollution control field, having been used as a water purifier and more recently demonstrated as a flue gas cleaner on power plants, it is now attracting considerable attention in Europe as a means to reduce further the quantity of toxic organic and metal emissions from new and existing municipal waste combustors. Since activated carbon is a potentially important future emissions control technology for MWCs in the US, particularly for removal of mercury and dioxin, this paper discusses the impetus which has motivated the experimentation with various activated carbon technologies which is now taking place, will describe how some of the activated carbon systems (e.g., post-emissions control fixed carbon bed and injection of carbon with scrubber reagent) being tested now function and where they fit in existing pollution control trains, and will present available performance data and emissions reductions actually achieved for each system

  20. Distributed generation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions : a case study for residential sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, P.S. [Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Mallela, V.S. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Sciences Shaikpet, Hyderabad (India); Allan, M.; Zhou, C. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a case study undertaken in Oman involving the use of a proposed hybrid diesel-photovoltaic distributed power system to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. A model of the hybrid power system comprising a photovoltaic module, a diesel generator, and essential auxiliary devices was presented. Solar energy was selected for the Distributed Generation Technology (DGT) because Oman has an abundance of direct solar radiation. A typical house located in a remote area was considered to determine the potential greenhouse gas reduction and the economic feasibility when it is powered by the proposed hybrid system, the diesel system alone, and the main interconnected grid. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electricity Renewables (HOMER) software was used for energy simulation, economic analysis, and the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results of the simulation indicated that the proposed hybrid system would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 38 percent relative to the stand-alone diesel system and by 2.67 percent compared to the main grid. The hybrid system has lower operating costs and a lower per-unit energy cost than the diesel system, but the per-unit energy cost estimated for the main interconnected system is better. The latter system is less favourable for GHG emissions. Extending the hybrid system to the entire residential sector has the potential to substantially reduce GHG emissions. The proposed hybrid system is also a cost effective choice for remote locations. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yaodong; Lin Lin; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Zeng Shengchuo; Huang, Jincheng; He Yunxin; Huang Xiaodong; Huang Huilan; Wei Haiyan; Li Shangping; Yang Jing

    2007-01-01

    An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NO x formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NO x emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NO x emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NO x emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NO x emissions from petrol engine

  2. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  3. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Powers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  4. Swedish biomass strategies to reduce CO2 emission and oil use in an EU context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Jonas; Gustavsson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Swedish energy strategies for transportation, space heating and pulp industries were evaluated with a focus on bioenergy use. The aims were to 1) study trade-offs between reductions in CO 2 emission and oil use and between Swedish reductions and EU reductions, 2) compare the potential contributions of individual reduction measures, 3) quantify the total CO 2 emission and oil use reduction potentials. Swedish energy efficiency measures reduced EU CO 2 emission by 45–59 Mt CO 2 /a, at current biomass use and constant oil use. Doubling Swedish bioenergy use yielded an additional 40 Mt CO 2 /a reduction. Oil use could be reduced, but 36–81 kt of reductions in CO 2 emission would be lost per PJ of oil use reduction. Swedish fossil fuel use within the studied sectors could be nearly eliminated. The expansion of district heating and cogeneration of heat with a high electricity yield were important measures. Plug-in hybrid electric cars reduced CO 2 emission compared with conventional cars, and the difference was larger with increasing oil scarcity. The introduction of black liquor gasification in pulp mills also gave large CO 2 emission reduction. Motor fuel from biomass was found to be a feasible option when coal is the marginal fuel for fossil motor fuel production. -- Highlights: ► Bioenergy is compared to optimized fossil fuel use under different oil availability constraints. ► Swedish strategies are evaluated with respect to CO 2 emission and oil use reduction within Sweden and the EU. ► Efficiency measures give the largest reductions but increased bioenergy use is also important. ► District heating expansion, high electricity yield CHP, increased vehicle efficiency and PHEVs are important options. ► The studied sectors in Sweden could become nearly fossil-fuel free and yield an energy surplus.

  5. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO 2 , while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m 3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO 2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  6. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  7. Use of videoconferencing in Wales to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, travel costs and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Delyth; Tranter, Glynis; Axford, Alan T

    2009-01-01

    In September 2005 a telemedicine service was started to assist multidisciplinary teams in Wales to improve cancer services. In October 2006 and October 2007 users of videoconferencing equipment at one site completed questionnaires. During October 2006 a total of 18,000 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 1696 kg of CO(2) emission. During October 2007 a total of 20,800 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 2590 kg of CO(2) emission. We estimate that 48 trees would take a year to absorb that quantity of CO(2). The results of the surveys show that exploiting telemedicine makes better use of staff time, reduces the time spent travelling and assists in reducing climate change by limiting the emissions of CO(2).

  8. The economics of reducing CO2 emissions by solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity to reduce CO 2 -emissions on a global scale is being recognized by scientists and politicians. If no scientific proof of a climate catastrophe due to CO 2 -emissions can be established, it would nevertheless be prudent to implement a form of global survival insurance policy, the premium of which is the required effort to reduce CO 2 -emissions. The implementation of such a policy without a considerable reduction in the living standard requires the replacement of fossil fuels by capital and/or know-how. It should be performed in the most economical manner. This leads to the replacement of the classical ''least cost power expansion strategy'' by the ''least cost power expansion/pollution limiting strategy''. Thereby projects have to compete no longer exclusively on low cost of energy production but on low cost of pollution reduction as well. (Author)

  9. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  10. Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

    2013-03-01

    Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits.

  11. A policy instruments working paper on reducing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The cost effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing CO 2 emissions from transportation was studied. Cost effectiveness analyzed the impact of the policy instruments in reducing CO 2 emissions against the costs that were incurred while obtaining CO 2 reductions. The approach to defining sustainable transportation was identified which integrates three different visions of the transportation challenge: (1) changing urban form to reduce the need for transportation, (2) advancing technology to reduce the ecological impact of transportation, and (3) changing prices of transportation so that users pay for the full social and environmental costs of their decisions. The general consensus was that while fuel tax on gasoline for automobiles appeared to be the most cost effective option available, all revenue generating options, (e.g.,parking pricing, reference energy factor-related rebates, full cost road pricing and taxation) rated higher on the cost effectiveness indexes than any of the other policy instruments considered. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  13. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  14. The economics of reducing emissions from community managed forests in Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karky, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The climate change agenda is more important in global politics today than ever before. This research set out to examine whether community forest management (CFM) can play a signifi cant role in reducing global emissions, by taking Nepal’s community forestry sector as a case. The thesis selects three

  15. Can Biochar Covers Reduce Emissions from Manure Lagoons While Capturing Nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluat...

  16. In which sectors could new illumination technology strategically reduce CO2 emissions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-01-01

    , is engaged in several actions to reduce its CO2 emissions. The problem severity demands a capacity to react quickly and efficiently to better reach the international goals.   Traditionally, the efforts have concentrated on the residential sector. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to contribute...

  17. Reduced European emissions of S and N - Effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla, E-mail: gunilla.pihl.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Akselsson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.akselsson@nateko.lu.se [Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Hellsten, Sofie, E-mail: sofie.hellsten@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per Erik, E-mail: pererik.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution in Swedish forests have been assessed in relation to European emission reductions, based on measurements in the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network. Measurements were analysed over 20 years with a focus on the 12-year period 1996 to 2008. Air concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, have decreased. The SO{sub 4}-deposition has decreased in parallel with the European emission reductions. Soil water SO{sub 4}-concentrations have decreased at most sites but the pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated acidification recovery only at some of the sites. No changes in the bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen could be demonstrated. Elevated NO{sub 3}-concentrations in the soil water occurred at irregular occasions at some southern sites. Despite considerable air pollution emission reductions in Europe, acidification recovery in Swedish forests soils is slow. Nitrogen deposition to Swedish forests continues at elevated levels that may lead to leaching of nitrate to surface waters. - Highlights: > S deposition to Swedish forests has decreased in parallel with European emissions. > Soil water pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated a slow recovery. > The bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen over Sweden has not decreased. > Continued N deposition to Swedish forests may cause leaching of N to surface waters. - Reduced European emissions have led to decreased acidic deposition and a slow recovery of soil water but nitrogen deposition remains the same in Swedish forests.

  18. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  19. The Adaptation Law for emissions trading. Part 2. A level playing field for emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, S.

    2010-01-01

    To supplement, clarify and simplify the regulations for emission trading, the Amendment Act emission trading II was submitted to the Dutch Lower Chamber end of 2009. This article discusses the pending bill and comments on a number of remarkable stipulations that may be important to the market parties. First a brief overview is provided of the basic principles of emission trading and the players in the CO2 market. [nl

  20. Luminiscent emission of molecular levels excited by ionizant radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Ramis, M.

    1977-01-01

    The emission spectra and the time dependence of scintillations produced by alpha particles, gamma rays and ultraviolet light in some organic compounds crystals and liquids solutions normally used as radiation detectors has been studied. (author) [es

  1. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  2. A new coating material for reducing indoor radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.; Tokonami, S.; Ichitsubo, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In order to mitigate indoor radon level, a new fast-setting, solvent-free, polyurethane-based coating material was developed. The permeability of radon gas in the new material was estimated with a simple radon permeation test system set up in this study. It was found that the permeation velocity depended on the thickness of the coating material, and a thickness of 2.0 mm of the coating material seems sufficient for preventing radon permeation. The permeability of radon in the coating material was estimated to be (2.2± 0.8)x10 -10 m 2 ·s -1 for a thickness of about 1.0 mm. The value is much lower than those reported for membrane materials and caulking compounds. For its performance test, the coating material was used in an existing room with high radon level. By spraying a thickness of 1.5 mm of the material, the indoor radon level reduced by about 80%

  3. Phytase in broiler diets with reduced nonphytate phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the inclusion of phytase in diets with reduced nonphytate phosphorus (NPP levels in relation to the performance and carcass yield of broilers and litter characteristics. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement – two phytase levels (0 and 25U/kg and three NPP levels (100, 85 and 70% of the requirement, in a total of six treatments with fi ve replicates. The reduction of the NPP to 70% of the requirement decreased the weight gain and feed intake and increased the feed:gain ratio. Phytase inclusion increased the weight gain and the feed intake at 21 days. The NPP x phytase interaction was signifi cant with regard to the weight gain at 42 days. The reduction of NPP to 70% diminished the feed intake at 42 days and increased the liver and heart relative weight. Nitrogen content was lower in the litter of broilers fed diets with phytase and decreased phosphorus content, due to the NPP reduction in the diets. It was concluded that diets with 85% of NPP, supplemented with 25U/kg of phytase, can be used with no negative effect on performance or carcass and litter characteristics.

  4. Photochemical modelling of photo-oxidant levels over the Swiss plateau and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselet, C.M.; Kerr, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    During summertime high pressure conditions, high photo-oxidant (O 3 , H 2 O 2 , PAN and others) levels are frequently observed in the planetary boundary layer in central Europe. It is well known that close to the earth's surface ozone is formed by complex reactions involving VOC, NO x , and sunlight. Substantial reductions of both precursors are needed to reduce photo-oxidant levels. In this context the reductions of the abundance of the precursors and the variation of their ratios is of great importance. Here we report model calculations from the Harwell Photochemical Trajectory Model of the levels of O 3 , H 2 O 2 and PAN along a trajectory over the Swiss Plateau from Lake Constance to Lake Geneva. These calculations are in satisfactory agreement with measurements made during the intensive observation period of the research program POLLUMET (Pollution and Meteorology in Switzerland). Sensitivity calculations of emission reduction scenarios indicate that on the Swiss Plateau the ozone production may be mainly NO x -limited; under conditions where the CO levels are closer to the upper limit within the range (120-600 ppbv). The calculated peak ozone level reduction caused by an exclusive NO x -emission reduction is about three times larger than that caused by an exclusive VOC reduction. The combined reduction of all precursor compounds is the most efficient strategy, although it is only marginally more efficient than the NO x -reduction scenario alone. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  5. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily

  6. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K; Flury, S; Jayakumar, R; Fiener, P; Steger, K; Arya, V; Wilken, F; van Geldern, R; Premke, K

    2016-02-05

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km(2)) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  8. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K.; Flury, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Fiener, P.; Steger, K.; Arya, V.; Wilken, F.; van Geldern, R.; Premke, K.

    2016-02-01

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km2) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  9. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  10. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  11. High level waste (HLW) steam reducing station evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Existing pressure equipment in High Level Waste does not have a documented technical baseline. Based on preliminary reviews, the existing equipment seems to be based on system required capacity instead of system capability. A planned approach to establish a technical baseline began September 1992 and used the Works Management System preventive maintenance schedule. Several issues with relief valves being undersized on steam reducing stations created a need to determine the risk of maintaining the steam in service. An Action Plan was developed to evaluate relief valves that did not have technical baselines and provided a path forward for continued operation. Based on Action Plan WER-HLE-931042, the steam systems will remain in service while the designs are being developed and implemented

  12. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low-carbon electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Hales, Simon; Chiabai, Aline; Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Tonne, Cathryn; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-12

    In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim to reduce total carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions by 50% by 2050 globally compared with the effect of emissions in 1990. We use three models: the POLES model, which identifies the distribution of production modes that give the desired CO(2) reductions and associated costs; the GAINS model, which estimates fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) concentrations; and a model to estimate the effect of PM(2.5) on mortality on the basis of the WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment methods. Changes in modes of production of electricity to reduce CO(2) emissions would, in all regions, reduce PM(2.5) and deaths caused by it, with the greatest effect in India and the smallest in the EU. Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation, especially in India where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low. Our estimates are approximations but suggest clear health gains (co-benefits) through decarbonising electricity production, and provide additional information about the extent of such gains.

  13. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  14. Reducing refinery CO2 emissions through amine solvent upgrade and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Thiago V.; Valenzuela, Michelle [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Regional initiatives are underway to reduce and limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With CO2 emissions making up over 80% of the greenhouse gases, cap-and-trade programs will focus on those industries that consume the most energy. Refineries are among the top energy consumers and are seeking opportunities to reduce usage. With tightening margins, energy management programs will not only help refineries meet CO{sub 2} emission regulations, but can also provide a competitive advantage. With the trend towards heavier and higher sulfur containing crudes, refineries are increasing processing capabilities, which can include capital-intensive projects and additional energy consumption. Energy conservation plans should include optimization of these processes. One area to consider includes the acid gas removal systems in refineries. Through the selection and use of optimal solvents and implementation of energy efficiency techniques, which require minimal capital investment and expenditures, refineries can reduce energy usage, overall CO{sub 2} emissions, and total cost in acid gas systems. This paper will discuss these approaches and share case studies detailing the implementation and results. (author)

  15. Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Production of Porous Fired Clay Bricksks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš ŠVEDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A plan to reduce CO2 emissions is a priority these days. Brick industry contributes to the increase of these emissions mainly through the use of combustible pore-forming agents such as sawdust, cellulose, and coal sludge. These agents are used to improve the thermal insulation properties of brick products, and the suppliers regularly increase the prices of these agents based on their high consumption. Therefore, in an effort to reduce raw material expenses and CO2 emissions, brick manufacturers are looking for new possibilities while maintaining the quality of their products. This article discusses the possibility of using industrially manufactured product Vuppor as an additive as a replacement for combustible pore-forming agents. The presence of this additive in the fired clay body increases the proportion of pores, especially with a size range between 0.1 and 5 µm, having a positive impact on the reduction of its thermal conductivity. With a 0.5 wt.% dose of Vuppor additive, the brick production costs and thermal conductivity can be reduced by 20 % and 12 %, respectively, while also achieving reductions in CO2 emissions over 60 %. Consequently, the combustible pore-forming agents can be used in a more environmentally friendly manner, for example in the furniture industry, the biogas production, and the like.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15103

  16. Reducing CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emissions from waterlogged paddy soil with biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuxue; Yang, Min; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Environmental Science and Technology; Wu, Yimin [Hangzhou No. 2 High School, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Hailong [Scion, Rotorua (New Zealand)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A potential means to diminish increasing levels of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the use of pyrolysis to convert biomass into biochar, which stabilizes the carbon (C) that is then applied to soil. Before biochar can be used on a large scale, especially in agricultural soils, its effects on the soil system need to be assessed. This is especially important in rice paddy soils that release large amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Materials and methods: In this study, the effects of biochar on CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emissions from paddy soil with and without rice straw added as an additional C source were investigated. The biochars tested were prepared from bamboo chips or rice straw which yielded bamboo char (BC) and straw char (SC), respectively. BC and SC were applied to paddy soil to achieve low, medium, and high rates, based on C contents of the biochars. The biochar-amended soils were incubated under waterlogged conditions in the laboratory. Results and discussion: Adding rice straw significantly increased CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emissions from the paddy soil. However, when soils were amended with biochar, CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced. CH{sub 4} emissions from the paddy soil amended with BC and SC at high rate were reduced by 51.1% and 91.2%, respectively, compared with those without biochar. Methanogenic activity in the paddy soil decreased with increasing rates of biochar, whereas no differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns were observed. CO{sub 2} emission from the waterlogged paddy soil was also reduced in the biochar treatments. Conclusions: Our results showed that SC was more effective than BC in reducing CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emissions from paddy soils. The reduction of CH{sub 4} emissions from paddy soil with biochar amendment may result from the inhibition of methanogenic activity or a stimulation of methylotrophic activity during the incubation period. (orig.)

  17. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  18. Barriers to reducing carbon emissions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe accounted for 27% of global carbon emissions in 1986. Although the recent opening of the former planned economies offers numerous opportunities to improve energy use efficiency in these regions and reduce their energy-related carbon emissions, various barriers hinder changes in Eastern European energy use. These barriers include the following: lack of incentives; insufficient infrastructure; scarce human resources; and heavy reliance on low quality fuels. Energy intensity in these countries far surpasses the estimated energy intensity in the United States and Western Europe. However, substantial potential exists for improving the efficiency of energy use in these regions

  19. Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Macro-economic effects of two policy variants to reduce greenhouse gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vromans, M.W.A.M.

    1998-10-01

    The macro-economic effects of two variants for reducing CO2-emissions by yearly 2% in the period 2000-2020 have been calculated. Regulations as limiting the maximum speed to 90 km/h on motorways and lowering the standards of energy use of houses form an important part of variant 1. In the second variant the competitive market policy plays a more important role. An increase of the existing small-user energy tax to four times the current level and an introduction of tradeable reduction certificates are among the policy measures. In both variants, but in variant 2 more than in variant 1, backstop-options, e.g. import of biomass and carbon dioxide storage, are added to further reduce the emissions. The effects on energy and the environment and the costs of the policy packages have been calculated by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). Those figures served as input for the CPB-calculations with the multi-sectoral model Athena. In variant 1 the volume of private consumption (an indicator for the material welfare loss) is, in 2020, 1.5% lower in comparison with the baseline scenario. GDP diminishes with 1 % and labour demand is 0.5% lower. As a consequence of the gradually increasing government subsidies to finance the extra costs of environmental investments and backstop-options the negative effects are increasing gradually too. This process will continue also after 2020 because the subsidies will be still growing after the scenario period. The negative effects of variant 2 in 2020 are about 50% higher than the results for variant 1. Private consumption decreases with 2.5%, GDP is 1.75% lower and employment diminishes with 0.75%. More subsidies for backstop-options, a higher increase of the small-user energy tax and a less positive effect because of less environmental investments, particularly less investments in dwellings, account for the more negative picture in comparison with the results for variant 1. The study ends with some points of discussion as

  1. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  2. New method of reducing radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the heightened content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14 percent of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14 percent of premises in Tashkent, 41 percent of premises in Almalik town and 44 percent in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silico organic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn 222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silico organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing

  3. Novel technique of reducing radon levels in living premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the higher content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the Earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14% of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14% of premises in Tashkent, 41% of premises in Almalik town and 44% in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and, in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silicoorganic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn-222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silicoorganic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas

  4. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  5. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  6. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  7. Reducing carbon emissions through improved household energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, P.; Hargreaves, C.

    2002-01-01

    A number of schemes to increase household energy efficiency have operated in the UK over the last 5-10 years. This paper evaluates their effectiveness in terms of reducing household energy use, carbon emissions and fuel poverty. It then draws on the quantitative results of these schemes, and published plans for their continuation, to model an extended and expanded Household Energy Efficiency Scenario to 2020, using an integrated economy-energy-environment model of the UK. The results suggest that while such schemes can play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions from households, much more ambitious schemes than those currently implemented will be necessary to offset the underlying growth in these emissions. Finally, the results are compared with the UK government's own estimates, in its Climate Change Programme, of carbon emission reductions from such schemes to 2010. The paper concludes that the government's estimates are somewhat optimistic, and that it will need substantial new policy measures beyond those already announced if its carbon reduction targets in this area are to be met. (author)

  8. H2 production by reforming route in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphaelle Imbault

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the most common way to produce hydrogen is the Steam Methane Reforming route from natural gas. With the pressure of new environmental rules, reducing CO 2 emissions becomes a key issue. The European project Ulcos (Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking) has targeted to reduce of at least 50% the CO 2 emissions in steelmaking. The H 2 route (and in particular the reforming process) is one of the solutions which have been explored. The results of this study have shown that the two main ways (which can be combined) of limiting CO 2 emissions in H 2 production are to improve the energetic efficiency of the plant or to capture CO 2 . With the first way, a reduction of 20% of emissions compared to conventional plant can be reached. The second one enables to achieve a decrease of 90%. However the CO 2 capture is much more expensive and this kind of solution can be economically competitive only if high CO 2 taxes are implemented (≥40 Euros/ton). (author)

  9. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution.

  11. Creating a level playing field? The concentration and centralisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the assumption that carbon markets create a level playing field by exploring the relationship between the organisation of capital and the organisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It constructs a database by matching installations and owners to reveal that a relatively small number of large-scale coal-fired power stations, owned by a very small group of states and corporations, are responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The findings are analysed by considering how technological dependence on coal together with the corporate institutional form combine to support the socio-spatial concentration and centralisation of capital and emissions. Case studies of the consolidation of the seven largest polluting owners from Europe's coal-dependent electricity sector and the carbon trading strategies of the two largest polluters, RWE and E.ON, then assess the impacts of energy liberalisation and emissions trading policies. The article concludes that EU energy and climate policies are pulling in different directions by clustering responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and diffusing responsibility to address climate change. The uneven distribution of emissions within the EU ETS makes an alternative policy approach that directly targets the biggest corporate and state polluters both feasible and necessary. - Highlights: • 20 ultimate owners are responsible for one-half of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • 83 installations are responsible for one-third of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • Focus on technological dependence on coal and the corporate institutional form. • Energy liberalisation policy has consolidated responsibility for emissions. • Carbon markets have diffused responsibility for addressing climate change.

  12. Equity and efficiency in policies to reduce carbon emissions in the domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Johnstone, N.

    1993-01-01

    It is frequently asserted that the distribution effects of a carbon/energy tax - such as that proposed by the Commission of the European Communities - will be largely regressive: that the burden of the tax will fall disproportionately on lower income households. Such an assertion, although valid within the confines of the respective analyses, is based upon an unduly limited treatment of the fiscal implications of such a tax as well as a simplification of the demand for energy services in the domestic sector. It will be argued that such analyses, by implicitly assuming that efficiency objectives (reducing carbon emissions at lowest cost) and equity objectives (ensuring that lower-income households do not suffer welfare losses) are to be separately achieved, overstate the cost of reducing emissions in terms of both objectives. (Author)

  13. The effects of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions on employment; Sysselsettingsvirkninger av redusert CO{sub 2}-utslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, L

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses how reducing the CO{sub 2} emission might affect employment, adaptation and job mobility between trades. It confirms and expands the results of many previous studies. The socio-economic costs involved in regulation of greenhouse gas emissions appear to be low and perhaps negative, and very unevenly distributed on the sectors which must be regulated if the emission goals are to be achieved. The author`s analyses show that in addition to affecting the transport sectors, regulations have an especially strong impact on trades within the processing industries such as refining of crude oil, production of ferro alloys, fertilizers, cement and primary aluminium. For the Norwegian CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 not to exceed the 1989 level, the activities within crude oil refining and ferro alloys production must be halved and the activities within the three other industries must go down by 10-15%. This ranking is very stable under changes in common external conditions provided all the sectors face the same tax per unit emitted. The trades most strongly influenced by regulations are mostly found in places with few alternative job possibilities, which results in frictional unemployment. Some of the unemployed may get lost forever so that the unemployment becomes permanent. However, less than 1% of the total manpower of Norway work in the five sectors and so the loss of work places will be 0.2%, or 4000. 35 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Reduced CSF hypocretin-1 levels are associated with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloese, Mads; Jennum, Poul; Lund, Nunu; Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-09-01

    Cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder characterized by unilateral, severe pain attacks with accompanying autonomic symptoms, often waking the patient from sleep. As it exhibits strong chronobiological traits and genetic studies have suggested a link with the hypocretin (HCRT) system, the objective of this study was to investigate HCRT-1 in CH patients. Cerebrospinal fluid HCRT-1 concentration was measured in 12 chronic and 14 episodic CH patients during an active bout, and in 27 healthy controls. The patients were well characterized and clinical features compared to the HCRT concentration. We found significantly lower HCRT levels both in chronic (p = 0.0221) and episodic CH (p = 0.0005) patients compared with controls. No significant relationship was found with other clinical features. This is the first report of significantly reduced HCRT concentrations in CH patients. We speculate that decreased HCRT may reflect insufficient antinociceptive activity of the hypothalamus. The mechanism of the antinociceptive effect of HCRT is not known and requires further investigation. This study supports the hypothesis of a connection between arousal regulation and CH. © International Headache Society 2014.

  15. Update on NOx measuring methods and emission levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, N.; Desprets, M.

    1997-01-01

    The survey was carried out in 1995 to update the NO x report prepared for presentation at the 19th World Gas Conference held in Milan in 1994 and drawn out on the basis of the information obtained through the survey carried out in 1992. Over the past three years the work on standard developments and/or improvements on NO x emissions has progressed in several IGU member countries. For example, in Europe a report on 'Determination of emissions from appliances burning gaseous fuels during type-testing' was drafted by European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in March 1994 as 'CR 1404 : 1994'. This report is based on the work so far carried out within MARCOGAZ, and it is expected that the NO x measuring methods specified in this report would be finally introduced into relevant gas appliance standards issued by CEN for type-testing of gas appliances covered by this report. (au)

  16. Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewalla, Umesh

    Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to another in trucks, trailers or shipping containers. The TRUs typically use an internal combustion engine to power the compressor of the refrigeration unit. In the United States TRUs are most commonly powered by diesel engines which vary from 9 to 40 horsepower. TRUs are capable of both heating and cooling. The TRU engines are relatively small, inexpensive and do not use emissions reduction techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A significant number of these engines operate in highly populated areas like distribution centers, truck stops, and other facilities which make them one of the potential causes for health risks to the people who live and work nearby. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is known for its adverse effects on both human beings and the environment. Considering these effects, regulatory bodies have imposed limitations on the PM emissions from a TRU engine. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the regulated emissions from a TRU engine under both engine out and particulate filter system out conditions during pre-durability (when the filter system was new) and post-durability test (after the filter system was subjected to 1000 hours in-field trial). The verification program was performed by the Center for Alternative Fuel, Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) at West Virginia University (WVU). In this program, a catalyzed silicon carbide (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) was evaluated and verified as a Level-3 Verified Diesel Emissions Control Strategy (VDECS) (. 85% PM reduction) under California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations 2702 [1]. The emissions result showed that the filter system reduced diesel PM by a percentage of 96 +/- 1 over ISO 8178-C1 [2] cycle and 92 +/- 5 over EPA TRU [3] cycle, qualifying as a Level 3 VDECS. The percentage

  17. Enhanced polymer light-emitting diode property using fluorescent conducting polymer-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as active emissive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyoti Prakash; Saha, Uttam; Jaiswal, Rimpa; Anand, Raghubir Singh; Srivastava, Anurag; Goswami, Thako Hari

    2014-11-01

    The present article reports the polymer light-emitting diode property of the nanocomposite comprising poly 9,9-dioctyl fluorene- alt-bithiophene and reduced graphene oxide used as an emissive layer. Two times repetition of Hummers oxidation and hydrazine hydrate reduction method produce reduced graphene oxide (term as rGO2) with more uniform distribution in size and thickness. In addition, this uniquely synthesized rGO2 induces favorable shift in balance of electron and hole recombination zone toward the center of emissive layer owing to increase in in-plane crystallite size and high localize aromatic confinement. Five times increase in maximum device efficiency (Cd/A) and three times increase in maximum brightness (Cd/m2) are achieved with the LED device using nanocomposite as emissive layer compared to neat polymer. Also, the fabricated device requires relatively low turn-on voltage (4 V) because of low energy barrier between PEDOT work function (-5.0 eV) and HOMO levels of bi-thiophene copolymer -5.67 eV) and nanocomposite (-5.66 eV).

  18. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  19. Recombination region improvement for reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs with dual emissive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhu; Zhou, Shunliang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Hu, Song [Chengdu Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    High-performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) by using dual-emissive-layer (DEL) structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The DEL was comprised of a hole-transport-type host of N, N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and a bipolar host of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), which were both doped with an orange phosphorescent dopant of bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-benzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. After the optimization of doping concentration of the first emissive layer (FEL), the device with DEL exhibited 11% lower roll-off power efficiency than single emissive layer devices (SED) when the luminance increased from 1000 cd/m{sup 2} to 10,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The hole–electron recombination zone in DEL was illuminated by inserting an ultrathin fluorescent probe of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) in different emissive regions. The performance improvement was attributed to the optimization of energy barrier and the expansion of exciton formation zone within the DEL. - Highlights: • PhOLEDs by using a dual-emissive-layer structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. • The DED exhibited 11% lower efficiency roll-off, 57% lower turn-on voltage, and 174% higher brightness than SED. • A DCJTB fluorescent probe was inserted at different positions of DED to investigate the expansion of exciton formation zone.

  20. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  1. A stochastic optimization approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karan, Ebrahim; Asadi, Somayeh; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of building- and transportation-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions makes the adoption of all-EVs (electric vehicles) powered with renewable power as one of the most effective strategies to reduce emission of GHGs. This paper formulates the problem of GHG mitigation strategy under uncertain conditions and optimizes the strategies in which EVs are powered by solar energy. Under a pre-specified budget, the objective is to determine the type of EV and power generation capacity of the solar system in such a way as to maximize GHG emissions reductions. The model supports the three primary solar systems: off-grid, grid-tied, and hybrid. First, a stochastic optimization model using probability distributions of stochastic variables and EV and solar system specifications is developed. The model is then validated by comparing the estimated values of the optimal strategies and actual values. It is found that the mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a hybrid solar system lead to the best cost-expected reduction of CO_2 emissions ratio. The results show an accuracy of about 4% for mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a grid-tied or hybrid solar system and 11% when applied to estimate the CO_2 emissions reductions of an off-grid system. - Highlights: • The problem of GHG mitigation is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem. • The objective is to maximize CO_2 emissions reductions within a specified budget. • The stochastic model is validated using actual data. • The results show an estimation accuracy of 4–11%.

  2. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  3. System and method for making metallic iron with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Richard F; Englund, David J; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for making metallic iron nodules with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions is disclosed. The method includes: assembling a linear hearth furnace having entry and exit portions, at least a conversion zone and a fusion zone, and a moving hearth adapted to move reducible iron bearing material through the furnace on contiguous hearth sections; assembling a shrouded return substantially free of air ingress extending adjacent at least the conversion and fusion zones of the furnace through which hearth sections can move from adjacent the exit portion to adjacent the entry portion of the furnace; transferring the hearth sections from the furnace to the shrouded return adjacent the exit portion; reducing reducible material in the linear hearth furnace to metallic iron nodules; and transporting gases from at least the fusion zone to the shrouded return to heat the hearth sections while in the shrouded return.

  4. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  5. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  6. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei Taoyuan

    2005-01-01

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO 2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO 2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO 2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  7. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  8. Phytoremediation Reduces Dust Emissions from Metal(loid)-Contaminated Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Field, Jason P; White, Scott A; Csavina, Janae; Felix, Omar; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Maier, Raina M

    2018-04-27

    Environmental and health risk concerns relating to airborne particles from mining operations have focused primarily on smelting activities. However, there are only three active copper smelters and less than a dozen smelters for other metals compared to an estimated 500000 abandoned and unreclaimed hard rock mine tailings in the US that have the potential to generate dust. The problem can also extend to modern tailings impoundments, which may take decades to build and remain barren for the duration before subsequent reclamation. We examined the impact of vegetation cover and irrigation on dust emissions and metal(loid) transport from mine tailings during a phytoremediation field trial at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site. Measurements of horizontal dust flux following phytoremediation reveals that vegetated plots with 16% and 32% canopy cover enabled an average dust deposition of 371.7 and 606.1 g m -2 y -1 , respectively, in comparison to the control treatment which emitted dust at an average rate of 2323 g m -2 y -1 . Horizontal dust flux and dust emissions from the vegetated field plots are comparable to emission rates in undisturbed grasslands. Further, phytoremediation was effective at reducing the concentration of fine particulates, including PM 1 , PM 2.5 , and PM 4 , which represent the airborne particulates with the greatest health risks and the greatest potential for long-distance transport. This study demonstrates that phytoremediation can substantially decrease dust emissions as well as the transport of windblown contaminants from mine tailings.

  9. Feasibility Analysis of Sustainability-Based Measures to Reduce VOC Emissions in Office Partition Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, aimed at contributing to efforts to improve the sustainability of the process. A pollution prevention methodology is utilized. The purpose is to provide practical options for VOC emissions reductions during the manufacturing of office furniture partitions, but the concepts can be generally applied to the wood furniture industry. Baseline VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. The feasibility analysis expands on a preliminary screening to identify viable pollution prevention options using realistic criteria and weightings, and is based on technical, environmental and economic considerations. The measures deemed feasible include the implementation of several best management practices, ceasing the painting of non-visible parts, switching to hot melt backwrapping glue, application of solvent recycling and modification of the mechanical clip attachment. Implementation, measurement and control plans are discussed for the measures considered feasible, which can enhance the sustainability of the manufacturing of office furniture partitions. Reducing VOC emissions using the measures identified can, in conjunction with other measures, improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process.

  10. Methane - quick fix or tough target? New methods to reduce emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Brownlow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a cost-effective target for greenhouse gas reduction efforts. The UK's MOYA project is designed to improve understanding of the global methane budget and to point to new methods to reduce future emissions. Since 2007, methane has been increasing rapidly: in 2014 and 2015 growth was at rates last seen in the 1980s. Unlike 20thcentury growth, primarily driven by fossil fuel emissions in northern industrial nations, isotopic evidence implies present growth is driven by tropical biogenic sources such as wetlands and agriculture. Discovering why methane is rising is important. Schaefer et al. (Science, 2016) pointed out the potential clash between methane reduction efforts and food needs of a rising, better-fed (physically larger) human population. Our own work suggests tropical wetlands are major drivers of growth, responding to weather changes since 2007, but there is no acceptable way to reduce wetland emission. Just as sea ice decline indicates Arctic warming, methane may be the most obvious tracker of climate change in the wet tropics. Technical advances in instrumentation can do much in helping cut urban and industrial methane emissions. Mobile systems can be mounted on vehicles, while drone sampling can provide a 3D view to locate sources. Urban land planning often means large but different point sources are typically clustered (e.g. landfill or sewage plant near incinerator; gas wells next to cattle). High-precision grab-sample isotopic characterisation, using Keeling plots, can separate source signals, to identify specific emitters, even where they are closely juxtaposed. Our mobile campaigns in the UK, Kuwait, Hong Kong and E. Australia show the importance of major single sources, such as abandoned old wells, pipe leaks, or unregulated landfills. If such point sources can be individually identified, even when clustered, they will allow effective reduction efforts to occur: these can be profitable and/or improve industrial safety, for example in the

  11. Organic Rankine cycle saves energy and reduces gas emissions for cement production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huarong; Xu, Jinliang; Yang, Xufei; Miao, Zheng; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We investigated ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) integrated with typical China cement production line. The dry air at the kiln cooler outlet with the temperature of 220 °C was the waste heat. The fluids of hexane, isohexane, R601, R123 and R245fa were selected for ORCs based on the critical temperature criterion. The developed ORC verified the thermodynamics analysis. The NPV (net present value) and PBP (payback period) methods were applied to evaluate the economic performance. The LCA (life cycle assessment) was applied to evaluate the environment impacts. ORCs could generate 67,85,540–81,21,650 kWh electricity per year, equivalent to save 2035–2436 tons standard coal and reduce 7743–9268 tons CO 2 emission, for a 4000 t/d cement production line. ORCs reduced gas emissions of CO 2 by 0.62–0.74%, SO 2 by 3.83–4.59% and NO x by 1.36–1.63%. The PBP (payback period) was 2.74–3.42 years. The ORCs had the reduction ratios of EIL (environment impact load) by 1.49–1.83%, GWP (global warming potential) by 0.74–0.92%, AP (acidification potential) by 2.34–2.84%, EP (eutrophication potential) by 0.96–1.22% and HTP (human toxicity potential) by 2.38–2.89%. The ORC with R601 as the fluid had the best economic performance and significant gas emission reductions. ORCs had good economic performance and reduce the gas emissions. - Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycles were integrated with the cement production line. • Five organic fluids were used as the working fluids for ORCs. • Thermal, economic and gas emission performances were analyzed. • R601 was the best fluid for ORC with the heat source temperature of 220 °C. • ORCs had good economic and gas emission reduction performances

  12. Can conservation tillage reduce N2O emissions on cropland transitioning to organic vegetable production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Kolb, Lauren; Cavigelli, Michel A; Weil, Ray R; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2018-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N 2 O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N 2 O emissions. Each year, a winter cover crop mixture (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, crimson clover: Trifolium incarnatum L., and rye: Secale cereale L.) was grown and flail-mowed in the spring. Nearly 80% of annual N 2 O-nitrogen (N) emissions occurred during the vegetable growing season for all treatments. Annual N 2 O-N emissions were greater in CT-BP than in ST and NT, and greater in CT-BG than in NT, but not different between CT-BG and CT-BP, ST and NT, or CT-BG and ST. Conventional tillage promoted N mineralization and plastic mulch increased soil temperature, which contributed to greater N 2 O-N fluxes. Though water filled porosity in NT was higher and correlated well with N 2 O-N fluxes, annual N 2 O-N emissions were lowest in NT suggesting a lack of substrates for nitrification and denitrification processes. Crop yield was lowest in NT in Year 1 and CT-BP in Year 3 but yield-scaled N 2 O-N emissions were consistently greatest in CT-BP and lowest in NT each year. Our results suggest that for coarse-textured soils in the coastal plain with winter cover crops, conservation tillage practices may reduce N 2 O emissions in organic

  13. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    , at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry...

  14. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  15. Improving the Sustainability of Office Partition Manufacturing: Balancing Options for Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Options are examined to improve the sustainability of office partition manufacturing by reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions. Base VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. Pollution prevention and sustainability measures are assessed using realistic criteria and weightings. Sustainability has been considered from an industry perspective, considering factors like economics, environmental impact, quality, health and safety. Through a case study, it is demonstrated that several advantageous options are available for reducing VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, and thereby enhancing the sustainability of that industrial operation. The measures deemed most viable include implementing several best management practices, not painting of non-visible parts, switching gluing processes, recycling solvent and modifying attachments. The results are intended to be balanced so as to improve their acceptability and adoptability by industry. It appears that it would be advantageous for manufacturers of office panels to evaluate the feasibility of these measures and to implement the most appropriate. The results are likely extendable to other operations in the wood furniture industry, and would improve their sustainability.

  16. Environment-friendly adhesives for surface bonding of wood-based flooring using natural tannin to reduce formaldehyde and TVOC emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop environment-friendly adhesives for face fancy veneer bonding of engineered flooring using the natural tannin form bark in the wood. The natural wattle tannin adhesive were used to replace UF resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the adhesives used between plywoods and fancy veneers. PVAc was added to the natural tannin adhesive to increase viscosity of tannin adhesive for surface bonding. For tannin/PVAc hybrid adhesives, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of PVAc to the natural tannin adhesives were added. tannin/PVAc hybrid adhesives showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The initial adhesion strength was sufficient to be maintained within the optimum initial tack range. The standard formaldehyde emission test (desiccator method), field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) and VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions from engineered flooring bonded with commercial the natural tannin adhesive and tannin/PVAc hybrid adhesives. By desiccator method and FLEC, the formaldehyde emission level of each adhesive showed the similar tendency. All adhesives satisfied the E(1) grade (below 1.5 mg/L) and E(0) grade (below 0.5 mg/L) with UV coating. VOC emission results by FLEC and VOC analyzer were different with the formaldehyde emission results. TVOC emission was slightly increased as adding PVAc.

  17. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the EU Power and Industry Sectors. An assessment of key technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootzen, Johan

    2012-11-01

    In February 2011, the European Council reconfirmed the goal of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050, as compared to the levels in 1990. The power and industrial sectors currently account for almost half of the total GHG emissions in the EU. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a technology-based perspective on the feasibility of significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU power and industrial sectors, with the emphasis on expected turnover in the capital stock of the existing infrastructure. Three sectors of industry are included: petroleum refining; iron and steel production; and cement manufacturing. The analysis is based on a thorough description and characterization of the current industry infrastructure and of the key mitigation technologies and measures in each sector. The analysis comprises investigations of how specific factors, such as the age structure of the capital stock, technology and fuel mix, and spatial distribution of the plant stock, contribute to facilitating or hindering the shift towards less-emission-intensive production processes. The results presented here are the synthesis of the results described in the following three papers: Paper I investigates the potential for CCS in industrial applications in the EU by considering branch- and plant-specific conditions; Paper II assesses strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement in the European petroleum refining industry; and Paper III explores in a scenario analysis the limits for CO{sub 2} emission abatement within current production processes in the power and industrial sectors. Together, the three papers provide a comprehensive assessment of the roles of technologies and measures that are commercially available today, as well as those of emerging technologies that are still in their early phases of development. The results presented in Paper III show that the EU goal for emissions reductions in the sectors covered by the EU ETS, i

  18. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  19. Cost-effectiveness of reducing emissions from tropical deforestation, 2016-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Engelmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is potentially a large-scale and low-cost strategy for mitigating climate change. Yet previous efforts to project the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from future deforestation across the tropics were hampered by crude available data on historical forest loss. Here we use recently available satellite-based maps of annual forest loss between 2001-2012, along with information on topography, accessibility, protected status, potential agricultural revenue, and an observed inverted-U-shaped relationship between forest cover loss and forest cover, to project tropical deforestation from 2016-2050 under alternative policy scenarios and to construct new marginal abatement cost curves for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation. We project that without new forest conservation policies 289 million hectares of tropical forest will be cleared from 2016-2050, releasing 169 GtCO2. A carbon price of US20/tCO2 (50/tCO2) across tropical countries would avoid 41 GtCO2 (77 GtCO2) from 2016-2050. By comparison, we estimate that Brazil’s restrictive policies in the Amazon between 2004-2012 successfully decoupled potential agricultural revenue from deforestation and reduced deforestation by 47% below what would have otherwise occurred, preventing the emission of 5.2 GtCO2. All tropical countries enacting restrictive anti-deforestation policies as effective as those in the Brazilian Amazon between 2004-2012 would avoid 58 GtCO2 from 2016-2050.

  20. Reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides when burning Kuznetsk bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    Bituminous coals from the Kuzbass have a high nitrogen content. As a result, emissions of NO/SUB/x from power stations burning these coals frequently exceed the existing Standard. In order to reduce NO/SUB/x emissions tests were carried out using stage-wise combustion, supplying to the burners only part of the air required for complete combustion. The remaining air is supplied via tertiary nozzles situated about 14 m above the burners. As a result of the tests, this method of combustion is recommended for low-sulphur Kuznetsk coals for all sub-critical boilers having dry-bottom furnaces. Extension to boilers with wet-bottom furnaces and to supercritical boilers requires further investigation.

  1. Decentralized production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons with reduced CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Cunping Huang; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most of the industrial hydrogen production is based on steam methane reforming process that releases significant amount of CO 2 into the atmosphere. CO 2 sequestration is one approach to solving the CO 2 emission problem for large centralized hydrogen plants, but it would be impractical for decentralized H 2 production units. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas without (or drastically reduced) CO 2 emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermo-catalytic decomposition (TCD) of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane) to hydrogen gas and elemental carbon. The paper discusses some technological aspects of the TCD process development: (1) thermodynamic analysis of TCD using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (2) heat input options to the endothermic process, (3) catalyst activity issues, etc. Production of hydrogen and carbon via TCD of methane was experimentally verified using carbon-based catalysts. (authors)

  2. Emission spectrum of a harmonically trapped Λ-type three-level atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hong; Tang Pei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the emission spectrum for a Λ-type three-level atom trapped in the node of a standing wave. We show that the atomic center-of-mass motion not only directly affects the peak number, peak position, and peak height in the atomic emission spectrum, but also influences the effects of the cavity field and the atomic initial state on atomic emission spectrum. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on .... dehydrated and cleared with alcohol. ... assay tubes were incubated at a temperature of ... oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent .... Oxidative Medicine and.

  4. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  5. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  6. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  7. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  8. Methods to determine the relative value of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; de Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Current decisions on breeding in dairy farming are mainly based on economic values of heritable traits, as earning an income is a primary objective of farmers. Recent literature, however, shows that breeding also has potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this paper was to compare 2 methods to determine GHG values of genetic traits. Method 1 calculates GHG values using the current strategy (i.e., maximizing labor income), whereas method 2 is based on minimizing GHG per kilogram of milk and shows what can be achieved if the breeding results are fully directed at minimizing GHG emissions. A whole-farm optimization model was used to determine results before and after 1 genetic standard deviation improvement (i.e., unit change) of milk yield and longevity. The objective function of the model differed between method 1 and 2. Method 1 maximizes labor income; method 2 minimizes GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and total milk production at least at the level before the change in trait. Results show that the full potential of the traits to reduce GHG emissions given the boundaries that were set for income and milk production (453 and 441kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively) is about twice as high as the reduction based on maximizing labor income (247 and 210kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively). The GHG value of milk yield is higher than that of longevity, especially when the focus is on maximizing labor income. Based on a sensitivity analysis, it was shown that including emissions from land use change and using different methods for handling the interaction between milk and meat production can change results, generally in favor of milk yield. Results can be used by breeding organizations that want to include GHG values in their breeding goal. To verify GHG values, the effect of prices and emissions

  9. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  10. Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed.

  11. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  12. Neutron emission spectra and level density of hot rotating 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2008-01-01

    The neutron emission spectrum of the highly excited compound nuclear system 132 Sn is investigated at high spin. The doubly magic nucleus 132 Sn undergoes a shape transition at high angular momentum which affects the nuclear level density and neutron emission probability considerably. The interplay of temperature, shape, deformation and rotational degrees of freedom and their influence on neutron emission is emphasized. We predict an enhancement of nucleonic emission at those spins where the nucleus suffers a transition from a spherical to deformed shape. (author)

  13. The previous Common Agricultural Policy (2003-2013) reduced french agricultural emissions. Climate Brief no. 49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudrier, Mathilde; Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, European institutions ratified the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy for 2014-2020 with new targets for combating climate change, making these an official goal for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However the CAP's impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions did not begin in 2014, even if it was previously ancillary to measures focusing on other targets. This Climate Report assesses emissions avoided and induced by the 2003-2013 CAP based on CAP measures modified in France over the period. A list of 20 major measures was drawn up. These met the following three criteria: The measure potentially has an impact on GHG emissions; The annual budget allocated to the measure is more than euro 20 million a year; The measure was created or modified between 2003 and 2013 Their positive or negative impact on GHG emissions was then estimated at a unitary level (per hectare, animal, square metre of greenhouse, etc.), on a national scale (MtCO 2 e per year) and relative to the quantity produced (tCO 2 e per litre of milk, quintal of wheat, etc.). Almost all these measures encourage emissions reduction, whatever the metric considered: tCO 2 e per hectare or per quantity of product. In just under half of cases, however, the incentive is not considered to be effective, with the data (e.g. surface area of grasslands, quantity of animals, etc.) moving in the opposite direction from the expected effects of the measure. The effects from the other half of measures is estimated at more than 2 million tCO 2 e per year, or around 2% of emissions from the agri-supply, agriculture and agri-food (AAA) sectors in 2011. Two-thirds of these reductions can be attributed to three types of measures: incentives for sustainable use of inputs (green environment plan, energy performance plan, training, etc.), agri-environmental grassland premium and coupled support for grain legumes. The main purpose of these calculations is to spark a debate. The assumptions underlying

  14. Secondary emission scintillation counter for microdosimetry at the nanometer level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The secondary emission scintillation (SES) counter is a device designed to count the positive ions of charged-particle tracks in gas volumes simulating sites in tissue with diameters of the order of 1 nanometer. Based on suggestions by H.H. Rossi and A.M. Kellerer, the basic idea of the device was developed by A. Kosiara, M. Biavati, and R.D. Colvett in the late 1970s. The device was substantially modified in 1982, but work on it was suspended before the new version could be tested, in order to devote full-time effort to rebuilding RARAF. Work resumed on the SES counter in 1986. A diagram of the prototype SES counter now being tested is shown. A weak electric field in the cylindrical collection region of the device drifts ions from a track to a small region (less than 1 mm) of high electric field where they are accelerated by several kilovolts onto a dynode, producing secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are then accelerated onto a plastic scintillator, and the resulting light is detected by a photomultiplier. The passage of a charged particle is established by a solid state detector, which triggers electronics detecting coincidences and measuring the timing and amplitude of pulses from the photomultiplier

  15. Two-stage combustion for reducing pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. M.; Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion and emission results are presented for a premix combustor fueled with admixtures of JP5 with neat H2 and of JP5 with simulated partial-oxidation product gas. The combustor was operated with inlet-air state conditions typical of cruise power for high performance aviation engines. Ultralow NOx, CO and HC emissions and extended lean burning limits were achieved simultaneously. Laboratory scale studies of the non-catalyzed rich-burning characteristics of several paraffin-series hydrocarbon fuels and of JP5 showed sooting limits at equivalence ratios of about 2.0 and that in order to achieve very rich sootless burning it is necessary to premix the reactants thoroughly and to use high levels of air preheat. The application of two-stage combustion for the reduction of fuel NOx was reviewed. An experimental combustor designed and constructed for two-stage combustion experiments is described.

  16. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  17. Radon levels reduced through venting of house foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivborg, P.; Johansson, I.; Strindehag, O.

    1981-01-01

    It has been confirmed that the radon emanation from the ground poses a more importent radiation hazard than the radon contained in the building material. In this article a simple system for ventilation of the gases produced under the foundation of a small houses is described. This ventilation system reduced the radondaughters concentration in a house by a factor of ten. (L.E.)

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO 2 -e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using $/metric-ton CO 2 -e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment. (paper)

  19. An Improved Cuckoo Search for a Patient Transportation Problem with Consideration of Reducing Transport Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government agencies and business organizations have realized that it is necessary to consider not only the economic cost but also the road transport emissions when they determine the transport policies and operations. In this study, a patient transportation problem with the aim of reducing transport emissions has been formulated by implementing CVRP model. In order to determine the routes of patient transportation with optimized emissions for targeted hospital, an improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm is proposed. In this study, a ‘split’ procedure has been implemented to simplify the individual’s representation. A new category of cuckoos has been introduced to improve the ICS’s search ability. Two heuristics have been applied to improve the quality of initial population. A local search mechanism has been embedded in the search procedure to improve the quality of solutions obtained at the end of each iteration. The computational results were encouraging and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution method.

  20. A comparative assessment of different options to reduce CO2 emissions. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-03-01

    The IIASA research project on Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies includes the assessment of options and measures for mitigating global CO 2 emissions. The basis of this assessment is the comparative inventory of technological and economic measures including efficiency improvement, conservation, enhanced use of low-carbon fuels, carbon free sources of energy and measures for removing carbon from fuels, flue gases and also from the atmosphere such as afforestation, and finally also measures for enhancement of carbon sinks. To include all potential options, the comparison is based on energy end-use accounting for the fully interlinked energy conversion chain up to energy resources. The analysis is supported by a fully interactive data bank system, CO2DB, that is capable of evaluating full energy chains with respect to their economic, technical and environmental parameters. The paper reports energy requirements, cost and CO 2 emissions for different energy chains providing industrial drives, cooling and air transport services. At additional cost, emissions can be reduced drastically on all these end-use categories. (authors)

  1. Assessing emissions levels and costs associated with climate and air pollution policies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneman, Lucas R.F.; Rafaj, Peter; Annegarn, Harold J.; Klausbruckner, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Affordable energy supply and reductions in emissions of local air pollution and greenhouse gases are each important aspects of South Africa's goals. Many traditional solutions, however, work in contradiction to one another. This work investigates effects on estimated emissions and costs of mitigation strategies using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interaction Synergies (GAINS) model to identify policies that satisfy multiple goals. Eight scenarios that describe air pollution control options and mixes of energy production technologies are implemented in GAINS, which quantifies country-wide air pollution and greenhouse emissions and costs of controls. Emissions and costs trajectories are compared to the business as usual case, which projects CO_2 emissions to increase by 60% by 2050 compared to 2015. Results show that replacing all coal generation with renewables reduces CO_2 emissions in 2050 by 8% compared to 2015, and that aggressive policy targeting the whole energy sector reduces CO_2 emissions in 2050 by 40%. GAINS is used to show co-benefits and tradeoffs of each scenario, such as reductions in emissions control costs that accompany a switch to renewables. The approach provides supporting evidence for policies that exploit co-benefits and avoid contradictions by assessing multiple aspects of the energy sector within the integrated framework provided by the GAINS modeling platform.

  2. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  3. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  4. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India. Financial mechanisms and opportunities for EU-India collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Nilsson Axberg, Goeran; Goel, Nitu; Kumar, Atul; Lazarus, Michael; Ostwald, Madelene; Polycarp, Clifford; Tollefsen, Petter; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Upadhyaya, Prabhat; Zetterberg, Lars

    2009-10-15

    This report illuminates potential areas for collaboration between the EU and India on actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in India. If human-induced climate change is to have any hope of being limited to 2 degrees, it is essential that ways are found to address rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions in India, as elsewhere. This is a challenging proposition: even though India's per capita emissions are very low, her 1.15 billion people are collectively a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. This fact, coupled with the immediate task of tackling widespread poverty, means that the international community must play a major role in providing financial and technological resources to support India's domestic efforts. As India's 2008 National Action Plan on Climate Change recognises, tackling the country's greenhouse gas emissions means not least finding ways to transform a rapidly growing energy sector. International financial mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Global Environment Facility have been unable to deliver the scale of transformative change needed to shift India's emissions trajectory. While the Indian government has already initiated some ambitious policy measures - particularly pertaining to solar energy and energy efficiency- the effectiveness of international finance mechanisms and other forms of international partnership will be crucial in determining the success of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. The EU India Summit is held a month before COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen. While this provides challenges in terms of seeking concrete agreements on questions of finance, it is also an important opportunity to devise complementary efforts outside the UNFCCC process. Genuine, productive collaboration could not only be used to foster the sorts of transformative changes that are needed in India's growing economy but could also create a spirit of cooperation that spills over into UNFCCC

  5. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  6. Preparation of electrodeless discharge lamps for emission studies of uranium isotopes at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, G.K.; Verma, R.; Verma, M.K.; Raman, V.A.; Joshi, A.R.; Deo, M.N.; Gantayet, L.M.; Tiwari, A.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Kumar, Navin

    2010-01-01

    A simplified method for preparation of electrodeless discharge lamp for uranium isotopes with specific concerns for 232 U is described. Micro-gram quantities of solid uranium oxides and aqueous solution of uranium nitrate have been used as a starting material for in situ synthesis of uranium tetraiodide. High temperature iodination reaction is carried out in the presence of inert gas neon. By careful design, the preparation time and surface area of quartz reaction tubes have been reduced considerably. The latter decreases the level of contamination which has a direct bearing on the operational lifetime of the lamps. Incorporation of steps to purify the product from an unwanted material improved the stability of the lamps. The procedure provides a safe and convenient way of handling 232 U in particular but can be extended in general to any actinides having radioactivity similar to that of freshly separated 232 U. Characteristic emission of uranium isotopes have been recorded by Fourier Transform Spectrometer to show the satisfactory operation of the lamps as well as their usage for studying emission spectra of the specific isotope.

  7. Comparative field evaluation of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration level impacts on hot stabilized emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shawarby, Ihab; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are two fold. First, the paper evaluates the impact of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration levels on vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates using field data gathered under real-world driving conditions. Second, it validates the VT-Micro model for the modeling of real-world conditions. Specifically, an on-board emission-measurement device was used to collect emissions of oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using a light-duty test vehicle. The analysis demonstrates that vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates per-unit distance are optimum in the range of 60-90 km/h, with considerable increase outside this optimum range. The study demonstrates that as the level of aggressiveness for acceleration maneuvers increases, the fuel-consumption and emission rates per maneuver decrease because the vehicle spends less time accelerating. However, when emissions are gathered over a sufficiently long fixed distance, fuel-consumption and mobile-source emission rates per-unit distance increase as the level of acceleration increases because of the history effects that accompany rich-mode engine operations. In addition, the paper demonstrates the validity of the VT-Micro framework for modeling steady-state vehicle fuel-consumption and emission behavior. Finally, the research demonstrates that the VT-Micro framework requires further refinement to capture non-steady-state history behavior when the engine operates in rich mode. (Author)

  8. Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyz Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

  9. Global Fire Emissions Indicators, Country-Level Tabular Data: 1997-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Fire Emissions Indicators, Country-Level Tabular Data: 1997-2015 contains country tabulations from 1997 to 2015 for the total area burned (hectares) and...

  10. Instruments to reduce pollutant emissions of the existing inland vessel fleet. Position paper for international workshop 'Emissions from the Legacy Fleet'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.

    2011-11-15

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) has a key performance on the GHG emissions per tonne kilometre shipped. Due to its potential to limit climate change, the recent EU Transport White Paper has set high goals for the non-road modes. The Ports of Rotterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE) and others strive to increase the use of IWT in their hinterland transport. The Port of Rotterdam authority has imposed a modal split on the newly built container terminals, thus increasing the use of rail and IWT. The growth is estimated to result in a quadrupling of inland barge container traffic on the Rhine corridor in the timeframe 2010-2035. Local air quality is another environmental issue, however, that plays a key role. Due to reasons of long ship engine lifetimes and progress made in road transport emissions, IWT needs to improve its air pollution profile. To turn the potential of IWT into real growth, it is important to: improve the air pollutant profile of inland shipping; take responsibility to maintain the air quality levels along inland waterway corridors over Europe, especially in urban areas where road transport, industry and IWT contribute to levels that will need to be in accordance with the EU air quality directive 2008/51. A new set of standards for new engines will shortly be proposed by the European Commission to be introduced in 2016. However, these will probably not be as tight as the Euro-VI standards for road transport. In addition, the long lifetime of inland barge engines (30,000 to over 200,000 hours, depending on the engine type) will result in a slow uptake of the phase-IV engines in the fleet. The German and Dutch authorities have the opinion that not only the air pollutant emissions of new engines need to be curbed, but deliberate over the development of instruments that will reduce the pollutant emissions of the existing fleet (legacy fleet), in addition to the limitedly effective subsidy schemes applied in recent years. This paper demonstrates the need for measures

  11. Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

    2010-06-01

    Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces at six schoolsApply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schoolsEvaluate which routes of exposure are likely to be the most importantProvide information relevant for developing manage...

  13. Climate, duration, and N placement determine N2 O emissions in reduced tillage systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Chris; Venterea, Rodney; Six, Johan; Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Linquist, Bruce; van Groenigen, Kees Jan

    2013-01-01

    No-tillage and reduced tillage (NT/RT) management practices are being promoted in agroecosystems to reduce erosion, sequester additional soil C and reduce production costs. The impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions, however, has been variable with both increases and decreases in emissions reported. Herein, we quantitatively synthesize studies on the short- and long-term impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions in humid and dry climatic zones with emissions expressed on both an area- and crop yield-scaled basis. A meta-analysis was conducted on 239 direct comparisons between conventional tillage (CT) and NT/RT. In contrast to earlier studies, averaged across all comparisons, NT/RT did not alter N2 O emissions compared with CT. However, NT/RT significantly reduced N2 O emissions in experiments >10 years, especially in dry climates. No significant correlation was found between soil texture and the effect of NT/RT on N2 O emissions. When fertilizer-N was placed at ≥5 cm depth, NT/RT significantly reduced area-scaled N2 O emissions, in particular under humid climatic conditions. Compared to CT under dry climatic conditions, yield-scaled N2 O increased significantly (57%) when NT/RT was implemented <10 years, but decreased significantly (27%) after ≥10 years of NT/RT. There was a significant decrease in yield-scaled N2 O emissions in humid climates when fertilizer-N was placed at ≥5 cm depth. Therefore, in humid climates, deep placement of fertilizer-N is recommended when implementing NT/RT. In addition, NT/RT practices need to be sustained for a prolonged time, particularly in dry climates, to become an effective mitigation strategy for reducing N2 O emissions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries (REDD): insights from the UNFCCC COP-13 in Bali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S.

    2007-01-01

    At the 10. anniversary of the Kyoto Protocol, the goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause climate change remains of alarming importance. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, these emissions have grown by 70% since 1970; and in 2005 the concentration of the most important GHG, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), peaked at its highest level for 650,000 years (IPCC 2007). The proposal to compensate reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries (REDD), as an additional element in the international climate regime, was put forward to address the so far ignored up to 20% of global GHG emissions arising from forestry. Although excluded from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the idea was submitted by Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica, on behalf of the Coalition of Rain forest Nations, at the 11. Conference of Parties (COP-11) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Montreal in 2005. The proposal has initiated a two year examination process, facilitated by the UNFCCC, and has attracted extremely high participation levels of the concerned stakeholders. As the examination process on REDD took place between 2005 and 2007, several points of agreement and disagreement were being revealed among the different country proposals. Points of agreement included inter alia: that REDD would need to play a role in future climate regimes; that there was a need to take into account national circumstances to successfully integrate developing countries; and capacity-building and pilot or demonstration activities (prior to 2012) are crucial to enable developing countries to effectively participate and benefit from REDD. Points of contention consisted in inter alia: the potential financing systems (market- or fund/ODA-based), the scope of activity (deforestation only or with forest degradation or with forest conservation), and the scale of implementation (national or project level). Decisive advance on the

  15. Development of a life-cycle fugitive methane emissions model utilizing device level emissions and activity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    There has been numerous studies in quantifying the scale of fugitive emissions from across the natural gas value chain. These studies have typically focused on either specific types of equipment (such as valves) or on a single part of the life-cycle of natural gas production (such as gathering stations).1,2 However it has been demonstrated that average emissions factors are not sufficient for representing leaks in the natural gas system.3 In this work, we develop a robust estimate of fugitive emissions rates by incorporating all publicly available studies done at the component up to the process level. From these known studies, we create a database of leaks with normalized nomenclature from which leak estimates can be drawn from actual leak observations. From this database, and parameterized by meta-data such as location, scale of study, or placement in the life-cycle, we construct stochastic emissions factors specific for each process unit. This will be an integrated tool as part of the Oil production greenhouse gas estimator (OPGEE) as well as the Fugitive Emissions Abatement Simulation Toolkit (FEAST) models to enhances their treatment of venting and fugitive emissions, and will be flexible to include user provided data and input parameters.4,51. Thoma, ED et al. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions. J. Environ. Prot. 2017. 2. Marchese, AJ et al. Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing. ES&T 2015. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b02275 3. Brandt, AR et al. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions. ES&T 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04303 4. El-Houjeiri, HM et al. An open-source LCA tool estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics. ES&T 2013. doi: 10.1021/es304570m 5. Kemp, CE et al. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source `Virtual Gas Field' Simulator. ES&T 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b

  16. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  17. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  18. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T.

    2005-09-15

    Societal dependence on oil leads to increasingly negative social consequences throughout the world, including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability, and habitat degradation. Reliance on the automobile for transportation also contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, an obesity epidemic and poor health. These problems are particularly pronounced in the USA, which currently consumes c. 27% of global oil production and produces c. 25% of global carbon emissions, and where c. 65% of adults are overweight or obese. Other countries throughout the world that replicate or hope to replicate the automobile-based lifestyle of the USA face similar problems now or in the near future. This paper develops and applies calculations relating the distances that could be travelled through recommended daily walking or cycling with weight loss, oil consumption and carbon emissions. These straightforward calculations demonstrate that widespread substitution of driving with distances travelled during recommended daily exercise could reduce the USA's oil consumption by up to 38%. This saving far exceeds the amount of oil recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, suggesting that exercise can reduce foreign oil dependence and provide an alternative to oil extraction from environmentally sensitive habitat. At the same time, an average individual who substitutes this amount of exercise for transportation would burn respectively c. 12.2 and 26.0 kg of fat per year for walking and cycling. This is sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without dangerous or draconian diet plans. Furthermore, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of c. 35% is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. As a result, exercise-based transportation may constitute a favourable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently being implemented in the USA and may

  19. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technological methods of reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    For protecting the atmosphere from emissions of toxic NO /SUB x/ during combustion of fuel in boilers the amount of NO /SUB x/ can be reduced in the process of combustion, or the flue gases (FG) from the boiler can be cleaned. The latter method is bound up with the necessity for treatment of a large quantity of FG with a comparatively low concentration in them of nitrogen oxides, chemically stable and poorly soluble in water. The problem is complicated by the presence in the FG of SO /SUB x/, O/sub 2/, and solid particles. The method of purifying the FG is complicated and requires large capital investment and operating expenses. By laboratory studies in the All-Union Institute of Heat Engineering im. F.E. Dzerzhinskiy (VTI) it was established that thermal NO /SUB x/ is formed at a combustion temperature greater than or equal to 1550 /sup 0/C and that the 0/sub 2/ concentration and considerably less the temperature strongly affect NO /SUB x/ formation. On the basis of laboratory studies and industrial tests in the VTI, methods of reducing NO /SUB x/ emissions by large-scale boilers are recommended.

  1. A dynamic state-level analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Travis

    2013-01-01

    As climate change and the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions play an increasingly important role in the global policy debate, careful consideration of the state-level determinants driving emissions must be considered. The importance of state-level determinants in the transmission of carbon dioxide matters especially for a country that differs from coast to coast in energy use and industry makeup like the United States. To add to the policy debate this paper estimates two models that account for the dynamic nature of emissions of carbon dioxide emissions at the state-level from 1980–2010 while taking account of scale, technique, and composition effects. When stochastic trends are taken account of, an environmental Kuznets curve relationship with a feasible turning point is found for carbon dioxide emissions. - Highlights: • State-level analysis of carbon dioxide emissions. • Dynamic panel estimation to account for time series properties. • Feasible environmental Kuznets curve for carbon dioxide emissions. • Implications for state environmental policy discussed

  2. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  3. Dissociating speech perception and comprehension at reduced levels of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew H.; Coleman, Martin R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Rodd, Jennifer M.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Matta, Basil F.; Owen, Adrian M.; Menon, David K.

    2007-01-01

    We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions, participants were nonsedated (awake), lightly sedated (a slowed response to conversation), and deeply sedated (no conversational response, rousable by loud command). Bilateral temporal-lobe responses for sentences compared with signal-correlated noise were observed at all three levels of sedation, although prefrontal and premotor responses to speech were absent at the deepest level of sedation. Additional inferior frontal and posterior temporal responses to ambiguous sentences provide a neural correlate of semantic processes critical for comprehending sentences containing ambiguous words. However, this additional response was absent during light sedation, suggesting a marked impairment of sentence comprehension. A significant decline in postscan recognition memory for sentences also suggests that sedation impaired encoding of sentences into memory, with left inferior frontal and temporal lobe responses during light sedation predicting subsequent recognition memory. These findings suggest a graded degradation of cognitive function in response to sedation such that “higher-level” semantic and mnemonic processes can be impaired at relatively low levels of sedation, whereas perceptual processing of speech remains resilient even during deep sedation. These results have important implications for understanding the relationship between speech comprehension and awareness in the healthy brain in patients receiving sedation and in patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:17938125

  4. Farming for a Better Climate by Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (FarmClim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Schröck, Andrea; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Schaller, Lena; Moser, Tobias; Baumgarten, Andreas; Dersch, Georg; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Kitzler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The project FarmClim (Farming for a better climate) assesses impacts of agriculture on N and GHG fluxes in Austria and proposes measures for improving N efficiency and mitigating emissions, including their economic assessment. This paper focuses on animal husbandry and crop production measures, and on N2O emissions from soils. FarmClim applies national inventory reporting methods to assess Austrian NH3 and GHG fluxes in order to develop flux estimates with implementation of mitigation measures. Based on scientific literature and on the outcome of the Austrian working group agriculture and climate protection a list of potential mitigation measures has been produced: phase feeding, dairy cattle diet, biogas production. Data cover resulting production levels as well as GHG mitigation. In crop production, an optimisation potential remains with respect to N fertilization and nutrient uptake efficiency. Projected regional yield data and information on the N content of arable crops have been delivered from field experiments. These data complement official statistics and allow assessing the effect of increasing proportions of legume crops in crop rotations and reducing fertilizer input on a regional scale. Economic efficiency of measures is a crucial factor for their future implementation on commercial farms. The economic model evaluates investment costs as well as changes in direct costs, labour costs and economic yield. Biophysical modelling with Landscape DNDC allows establishing a framework to move from the current approach of applying the IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions from soils. We select two Austrian model regions to calculate N fluxes taking into account region and management practices. Hot spots and hot moments as well as mitigation strategies are identified. Two test regions have been identified for soil emission modelling. The Marchfeld is an intensively used agricultural area in North-East Austria with very fertile soils and dry climate. The

  5. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  6. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  7. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore-induced volatiles in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Vaughan, Martha M; Christensen, Shawn A; Alborn, Hans T; Tumlinson, James H

    2017-09-01

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defence mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defence. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defence, we measured herbivore-induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor-treated Z. mays grown at elevated CO 2 had decreased emission of its major sesquiterpene, (E)-β-caryophyllene and two homoterpenes, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene. In contrast, inside the leaves, elicitor-induced (E)-β-caryophyllene hyper-accumulated at elevated CO 2 , while levels of homoterpenes were unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression analysis revealed that the induction of terpene synthase genes following treatment was lower in plants grown at elevated CO 2 . Our data indicate that elevated CO 2 leads both to a repression of volatile synthesis at the transcriptional level and to limitation of volatile release through effects of CO 2 on stomatal conductance. These findings suggest that elevated CO 2 may alter the ability of Z. mays to utilize volatile terpenes to mediate indirect defenses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-09-20

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as "Blue Carbon"), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH 4 ) and CO 2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH 4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.

  9. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as “Blue Carbon”), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH4) and CO2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.

  10. Petroleum product refining: plant level analysis of costs and competitiveness. Implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions. Vol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.J.; Crandall, G.R.; Houlton, G.A.; Kromm, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Implications on the Canadian refining industry of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Canada's Kyoto commitment are assessed, based on a plant-level analysis of costs, benefits and economic and competitive impacts. It was determined on the basis of demand estimates prepared by Natural Resources Canada that refining industry carbon dioxide emissions could be as much a 38 per cent higher than 1990 levels in 2010. Achieving a six per cent reduction below 1990 levels from this business-as-usual case is considered a very difficult target to achieve, unless refinery shutdowns occur. This would require higher imports to meet Canada's petroleum products demand, leaving total carbon dioxide emissions virtually unchanged. A range of options, classified as (1) low capital, operating efficiency projects, (2) medium capital, process/utility optimization projects, (3) high capital, refinery specific projects, and (4) high operating cost GHG projects, were evaluated. Of these four alternatives, the low capital or operating efficiency projects were the only ones judged to have the potential to be economically viable. Energy efficiency projects in these four groups were evaluated under several policy initiatives including accelerated depreciation and a $200 per tonne of carbon tax. Result showed that an accelerated depreciation policy would lower the hurdle rate for refinery investments, and could achieve a four per cent reduction in GHG emissions below 1990 levels, assuming no further shutdown of refinery capacity. The carbon tax was judged to be potentially damaging to the Canadian refinery industry since it would penalize cracking refineries (most Canadian refineries are of this type); it would provide further uncertainty and risk, such that industry might not be able to justify investments to reduce emissions. The overall assessment is that the Canadian refinery industry could not meet the pro-rata Kyoto GHG reduction target through implementation of economically

  11. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO 2 emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the ''Negatep'' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the ''Negawatt'' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the ''cost of carbon avoided'' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by ''Save the Climate'' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  12. The economic evaluation of alternatives to reduce SO2 emissions from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Nadim; Chaaban, Farid

    1997-01-01

    Global environmental problems, such as acid rain, ozone layer depletion, and global warming, have become a main source of public as well as official concerns. These problems are partly caused by the widespread dispersion in the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide and other pollutants which result from combustion of fossil-fuel in thermal power plants and other industrial complexes. Options to reduce sulfur dioxide from power plants emissions include, among others, the use of low sulfur but expensive fuels. Alternatively, fuel gas desulfurization systems are being used in association with cheap fuels at the pre combustion stage. This paper presents an economic evaluation of these two alternatives to determine the more economically feasible one. In comparing the alternatives, an assessment should be made concerning the true of the cost of the damage caused by sulfur emissions. However, given the difficulty in assessing the social and environmental costs, the problem can be limited to finding the alternative with the lower economic cost. Such that sulfur dioxide emissions do not exceed 0.3 % by weight, a limit set by international organizations. The engineering economy models developed for both alternatives are implemented on a 600-MW thermal power plant in Lebanon. Sensitivity analysis is performed on several parameters; such as, the planning horizon of the study, the discount rate to be used, the installation cost of the fuel gas desulfurization system, and fuel costs. While all parameters can influence the decision to be made, fuel cost is the most critical one that needs to be carefully estimated. Under most realistic situations however, it appears that the fuel gas desulfurization system is the preferred alternative

  13. The capacity for integrated community energy solutions policies to reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Goldberg, S.; Sharp, J.; Melton, N.; Peters, J.; Wolinetz, M. [Quality Urban Energy Systems of Tomorrow, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miller, E. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cavens, D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-08-26

    The implementation of policies promoting integrated urban energy solutions (ICES) could allow a reduction in Canada's urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. The concept and its related policies impact all urban sectors of the economy, such as residential, commercial, urban and inter-city personal transportation, freight transportation, waste and water. ICES policies are considered feasible and necessary, and many cities around the world, like Stockholm and Utrecht, have implemented them successfully. Sustainable land use policies should be the first to be developed since all urban form, transportation, and energy use decisions are made within the framework they generate. In the long term, moderate to aggressive ICES policies generate reductions of GHG emission and energy use but also an increase of 0.3-0.9% of the GDP. Aggressive ICES policies also allow a reduction in the structural unemployment and an increase of the number of jobs. While the effects of the implementation of targeted abatement policies such as the carbon tax or technology regulations are observed within a few years, ICES produce effects on a longer term. In the short term, they allow the release of money that could be spent by households to reduce the economic burden generated by abatement policies. In the longer term, they allow reductions to take over the effects of the short term policies, taking into consideration the increasing size of the population and the economy. Therefore, ICES policies seem to be an important part of comprehensive policy efforts intending to satisfy Canada's energy use and GHG emissions objectives. 218 refs., 49 tabs., 41 figs.

  14. The status of development of energy technologies to reduce greenhousegas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salokoski, P.; Aeijaelae, M.

    1997-01-01

    In Finland there is a versatile energy production in which the combined heat and power production (CHP) plays a remarkable role. In the total power supply, the CHP production accounts for about 30 %. Biomass is also widely used. In all fuels, wood and peat accounts for 21 %, the largest share in Western Countries. The utilization of wood based fuels is also remarkable, about 16 %. The high rate of CHP production and the utilization of biomass have contributed to the lower CO 2 -emissions. In future, fossil fuels will probably be utilized in larger volumes because there are limits to the increasing of the capacity of the CHP production, biomass utilization, nuclear power and hydro power. Consequently added use of fossil fuels will increase the CO 2 -emissions. The methods with most potential in reducing CO 2 -emissions in Finland are an increased use of biomass, an expanding production of nuclear power, a larger number of CHP plants and an increase in the utilization of natural gas. Other important methods with a minor effect are technologies which increase the power/heat ratio or the efficiency. These technologies include the IGCC-technologies, the gasification-diesel or the diesel technology in general with small heat loads. These technologies will grow in importance if the substitutive fuel is biomass. Most of the technologies mentioned above are in use in Finland and, in our experience, can be recommended to other countries. Viable commercial technologies are, for example, the CHP techniques in both district heating and industrial processes, various small-scale power plants integrated to CHP or condensate power plants, the fluidized-bed technology in power production or heat production only the diesel technology; the cofiring of biomass and coal as well as the harvesting, handling, drying and utilization technologies of biomass. Technologies still in the developmental stage include the IGCC-technology for biomasses, the gasification-diesel, and the production

  15. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions, including reactive VOC species which are not

  16. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects. The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed

  17. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.81 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level. The owner or operator of the...

  18. Methylotrophic methanogenic Thermoplasmata implicated in reduced methane emissions from bovine rumen - in: GGAA2013 Conference Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    -beating procedure. DNA was removed and double-stranded complementary DNA (ds-cDNA) was synthetized from purified RNA. The ds-cDNA was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 system (≈160bp; paired-end sequenced from 2×100bp read lengths). Concatenated small subunit (SSU) rRNA reads were analyzed according to Urich...... et al. (2008) and putative messenger RNA (mRNA)-related reads were analyzed by Meta-Genome Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology, v. 3.1.2. (MG-RAST) with subsystem-based annotation based on the SEED database and with MEGAN4 analysis of BlastX searches against the Genbank Refseq protein...... database (e-value cut-off 1e-5). Results RSO significantly reduced CH4 emission from the cows, resulting in a 6.2% lower CH4-to-CO2 emission ratio (Preads per sample, of which putative mRNAs comprised between 380,000 and 485,000 reads...

  19. Tidal Power in the UK and Worldwide to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Hammons

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of Tidal Power in the UK in fulfilling the UK's requirements for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Generating electricity from tidal range of the Severn Estuary has the potential to generate some 5% of UK electricity from a renewable indigenous resource. The paper focuses primarily on the proposed Severn Barrage considering potential benefits, conditions for sustainable development, energy policy context and compliance with environment legislation. UK tidal resource is reviewed: stream resource (that is KE contained in fast-flowing tidal currents, and tidal range resource (that refers to gravitation potential energy. The top tidal range and tidal stream sites in the UK with the resource (in TWh/year are indicated. A feasibility study for Tidal Range development in the Mersey Estuary is also summarised and other schemes including the Loughor Estuary (Wales, Duddon Estuary (located on the Cumbrian coast and the Thames Estuary proposals are reported. Also given is a strategic overview of the Severn Estuary resource, electric output and characteristics, carbon emissions (carbon payback and carbon reduction potential and physical implications of a barrage.

  20. [Progress in microalgae culture system for biodiesel combined with reducing carbon dioxide emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuefei; Xia, Xuefen; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yalei

    2011-09-01

    Wastewater resources, CO2 emission reduction and microalgae biodiesel are considered as current frontier fields of energy and environmental researches. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in system of microalgae culture for biodiesel production by wastewater and stack gas. Multiple factors including microalgal species, nutrition, culture methods and photobioreactor, which were crucial to the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, were discussed in detail. A valuable culture system of microalgae for biodiesel production or other high value products combined with the treatment of wastewater by microalgae was put forward through the optimizations of algal species and culture technology. The culture system coupled with the treatment of wastewater, the reduction of CO2 emission with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production will reduce the production cost of microalgal biofuel production and the treatment cost of wastewater simultaneously. Therefore, it would be a promising technology with important environmental value, social value and economic value to combine the treatment of wastewater with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

  1. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  2. Reduced Arctic air pollution due to decreasing European and North American emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Anna R.; Palmer, Paul I.; Barlow, James M.; Finch, Douglas P.; Novelli, Paul; Jaeglé, Lyatt

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric transport of midlatitude pollutant emissions to the Arctic can result in disproportionate impacts on the receptor region. We use carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of incomplete combustion, to study changes in pollutant transport to the Arctic. Using a wavelet transform, we spectrally decompose CO mole fraction measurements from three Arctic sites (Alert, Barrow, and Zeppelin) collected by NOAA over the past 20-25 years. We show that CO concentrations have decreased by -1.0 to -1.2 ppb/yr. We find that the dampened seasonal cycle (-1.2 to -2.3 ppb/yr) is mostly due to a reduction in peak concentrations (-1.5 to -2.4 ppb/yr), which we attribute to reduced source emissions. We find no evidence to support a persistent increase in hydroxyl radical concentration. Using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model, we show that observed decreases are consistent with reductions in fossil fuel usage from Europe and North America.

  3. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Koh, Lian Pin

    2012-02-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) provides financial compensation to land owners who avoid converting standing forests to other land uses. In this paper, we review the main opportunities and challenges for REDD+ implementation, including expectations for REDD+ to deliver on multiple environmental and societal cobenefits. We also highlight a recent case study, the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ agreement and discuss how it might be a harbinger of outcomes in other forest-rich nations seeking REDD+ funds. Looking forward, we critically examine the fundamental assumptions of REDD+ as a solution for the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We conclude that REDD+ is currently the most promising mechanism driving the conservation of tropical forests. Yet, to emerge as a true game changer, REDD+ must still demonstrate that it can access low transaction cost and high-volume carbon markets or funds, while also providing or complimenting a suite of nonmonetary incentives to encourage a developing nation's transition from forest losing to forest gaining, and align with, not undermine, a globally cohesive attempt to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded

  5. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  6. Reduced Ultrafine Particle Concentration in Urban Air: Changes in Nucleation and Anthropogenic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K; Robinson, Ellis S; Shah, Rishabh U; Zimmerman, Naomi; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2018-06-19

    Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-2002 and 2016-2017. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50% over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation. On average, the particle growth rates are 30% slower than 15 years ago. We attribute these changes to dramatic reductions in SO 2 (more than 90%) and other pollutant concentrations. Overall, UFP concentrations in Pittsburgh have been reduced by ∼48% in the past 15 years, with a ∼70% reduction in nucleation, ∼27% in weekday local sources (e.g., weekday traffic), and 49% in the regional background. Our results highlight that a reduction in anthropogenic emissions can considerably reduce nucleation events and UFP concentrations in a polluted urban environment.

  7. National- to port-level inventories of shipping emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Liu, Huan; Jin, Xinxin; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    Shipping in China plays a global role, and has led worldwide maritime transportation for the last decade. However, without taking national or local port boundaries into account, it is impossible to determine the responsibility that each local authority has on emission controls, nor compare them with land-based emissions to determine the priority for controlling these emissions. In this study, we provide national- to port-level inventories for China. The results show that in 2013, the total emissions of CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), SO2 and CO2 were 0.0741 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 0.0691 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 1.91 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1, 0.164 ± 0.001 Tg•yr-1, 1.30 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1 and 86.3 ± 0.3 Tg•yr-1 in China, respectively. By providing high-resolution spatial distribution maps of these emissions, we identify three hotspots, centered on the Bohai Rim Area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. These three hotspots account for 8% of the ocean area evaluated in this study, but contribute around 37% of total shipping emissions. Compared with on-road mobile source emissions, NO x and PM emissions from ships are equivalent to about 34% and 29% of the total mobile vehicle emissions in China. Moreover, this study provides detailed emission inventories for 24 ports in the country, which also greatly contributes to our understanding of global shipping emissions, given that eight of these ports rank within the top twenty of the port league table. Several ports in China suffer emissions 12-147 times higher than those at Los Angeles port. The ports of Ningbo-Zhou Shan, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Dalian dominate the port-level inventories, with individual emissions accounting for 28%-31%, 10%-14%, 10%-12% and 8%-14% of total emissions, respectively.

  8. Economic aspects of reducing SO2 emissions of medium power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of analysis of the economic benefits of five reconstruction variants are presented for a hypothetical industrial heating plant equipped with 3 boilers with a steam output of 120 t/h each, providing a total power of about 355 MW. The reconstruction was aimed at reducing the emission of pollutants to below the regulatory limits. The economic effectiveness was assessed in terms of the specific cost of heat in overheated steam for brown coal, black coal, natural gas, and mazut. The option consisting in reconstruction of the brown coal fired boiler to low-sulfur black coal without desulfurization emerged as the economically optimal alternative. Second to it was the option identical with the first but augmented with a dry additive desulfurization equipment. The brown coal fired boiler equipped with a semidry desulfurization equipment ranked as the third. (J.B.). 3 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Successful pilot of thermosyphon process heater reduces GHG emissions and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.A.; Neulander, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    A joint pilot study was conducted by Hudson Products Corporation and PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. to test the feasibility of using a thermosyphon as a part of a thermal recovery process for cold heavy oil reservoir exploitation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. A thermosyphon process heater can transfer heat from an external combustion chamber to a liquid inside a tank. This paper described the pilot project in which such a heater was successfully tested in a heavy oil field production tank. The field trial was conducted at the Marwayne Field in northeastern Alberta. The results of the pilot study demonstrated that the thermosyphon not only improved process efficiency, but also reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, lowered operating costs and improved safety. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices

  10. Strategic choices: Swedish climate intervention policies and the forest industry's role in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Ingrid; Cornland, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Given adequate incentive, the forest industry could play a significant role in achieving Swedish objectives for reducing CO 2 emissions. Whether or not this potential can be harnessed depends on the types of energy policy interventions that are introduced. An analysis of the potential impacts of four policy-intervention strategies on the forest industry is presented in this article. The focus of the analysis is on the four strategies' impacts on forest industry electricity demand from, and renewable energy supply to, the energy system. The strategies analyzed include a reference strategy and strategies targeting electricity production, transportation and the energy system as a whole. The method applied combines scenario analysis with systems engineering modeling. Separate scenario sets were used to reflect visions of development from the forest industry and the energy sector. Separate models were used to enable a more in-depth analysis of the forest industry's role than is commonly the case in energy systems engineering studies

  11. Simulating the effects of turbocharging on the emission levels of a gasoline engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Mahmoudi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to respond to the global concern for the rise of the emissions and the necessity of preventing them to form rather than dealing with their after-effects. Therefore, the production levels of four main emissions, namely NOx, CO2, CO and UHC in gasoline engine of Nissan Maxima 1994 is assessed via 1-D simulation with the GT-Power code. Then, a proper matching of turbine-compressor is carried out to propose a turbocharger for the engine, and the resultant emissions are compared to the naturally aspirated engine. It is found that the emission levels of NOx, CO, and CO2 are higher in terms of their concentration in the exhaust fume of the turbocharged engine, in comparison with the naturally aspirated engine. However, at the same time, the brake power and the brake specific emissions produced by the turbocharged engine are respectively higher and lower than those of the naturally aspirated engine. Therefore, it is concluded that, for a specific application, turbocharging provides the chance to achieve the performance of a potential naturally aspirated engine while producing lower emissions. Keywords: Emission, Gasoline SI engine, Turbocharging, GT-Power, 1-D simulation, Brake specific

  12. Anaerobic digestion coupled with digestate injection reduced odour emissions from soil during manure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzi, V; Riva, C; Scaglia, B; D'Imporzano, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2018-04-15

    This work aimed to measure the odour impact of untreated cow and pig slurries and treated (digestate and liquid fraction of digestate) manures when they were used on soil at a field scale, while also testing different spreading methods, i.e. surface vs. injection. Five experiments were performed in 2012-2016 on different farms. Odours were quantitatively (specific odour emission rate - SOER) (OU E m -2 h -1 ) measured by using dynamic olfactometry and qualitatively, i.e. to obtain an "odour fingerprint", by using an electronic nose (EN). Anaerobic digestion was effective in allowing the reduction of potential odour emission from digestates, so that when they were dosed on soil, odours emitted were much lower than those from soils on which untreated slurries were used. Slurries/digestate injection reduced much more odour emitted by soils so that SOER tended to become more similar to that of the control (untreated soil) although the odours were slightly greater. Odour fingerprint data indicated that there was a direct correlation between SOER and odour fingerprints. This was due to the ability of EN to detect ammonia, S-compounds and methane that were (the first two mainly), also, responsible for odours. Very good regression was found for Log SOER and EN by using a Partial Least Square (PLS) approach (R 2 =0.73; R 2 cv =0.66; Pfingerprints for control (Blank) and injected organic matrices were virtually identical, due to the creation of cavities in the soil during the injection that decreased the treated surface. Anaerobic digestion and subsequent digestate injection allowed us to reduce odour impact, avoiding annoyance to local inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cigarette Design Features: Effects on Emission Levels, User Perception, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Richter, Patricia A; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Christina V; Watson, Clifford H

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information. Whereas filter ventilation results in lower machine-generated emissions, it also leads to perceptions of lighter taste and relative safety in smokers who can unwittingly employ more intense smoking behavior to obtain the desired amount of nicotine and sensory appeal. Filter additives that modify smoke emissions can also modify sensory cues, resulting in changes in smoking behavior. Flavor capsules increase the cigarette's appeal and novelty, and lead to misperceptions of reduced harm. Slim cigarettes have lower yields of some smoke emissions, but smoking behavior can be more intense than with standard cigarettes. Physical design features significantly impact machine-measured emission yields in cigarette smoke, product appeal, smoking behaviors, and exposures in smokers. The influence of current and emerging design features is important in understanding the effectiveness of regulatory actions to reduce smoking-related harm.

  14. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  15. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  16. Role of energy efficiency standards in reducing CO2 emissions in Germany: An assessment with TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesl, Markus; Das, Anjana; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is widely viewed as an important element of energy and environmental policy. Applying the TIMES model, this paper examines the impacts of additional efficiency improvement measures (as prescribed by the ACROPOLIS project) over the baseline, at the level of individual sectors level as well as in a combined implementation, on the German energy system in terms of energy savings, technological development, emissions and costs. Implementing efficiency measures in all sectors together, CO 2 reduction is possible through substitution of conventional gas or oil boilers by condensing gas boilers especially in single family houses, shifting from petrol to diesel vehicles in private transport, increased use of electric vehicles, gas combined cycle power plants and CHP (combined heat and power production) etc. At a sectoral level, the residential sector offers double benefits of CO 2 reduction and cost savings. In the transport sector, on the other hand, CO 2 reduction is the most expensive, using bio-fuels and methanol to achieve the efficiency targets. An additional case is examined which assumes the CO 2 emissions in the combined efficiency measures case as the target. This case concludes that, with different options, the same amount of CO 2 reduction is possible together with cost reductions over the baseline, confirming that the specific sectoral efficiency targets prescribed by ACROPOLIS may not be the optimal one to mitigate CO 2 . It applies the same efficiency improvement targets in the residential and industrial sectors but scales down the target in the service sector and avoids any further efficiency improvement in the transport sector. It replaces electricity with heating fuel in final energy consumption, while further increasing the use of gas for power generation in 2030. In 2050, part of the electricity demand is met through the import of electricity from renewable sources

  17. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Andreas; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO_2_e_q per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  18. Quality improvement of biodiesel blends using different promising fuel additives to reduce fuel consumption and NO emission from CI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Shahin, M.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Rashedul, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pentanol, EHN and DTBP are promising fuel additives for improving properties of biodiesel blends. • The utilization of additives improved the properties such as the cetane number, viscosity and oxidation stability. • BSFC, NO and smoke of the EHN and DTBP treated blends are improved by the addition of fuel additives. • Cylinder pressure and Heat Release Rate are enhanced with EHN and DTBP addition. - Abstract: Considering the low cetane number of biodiesel blends and alcohols, ignition promoter additives 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was used in this study at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Five carbon pentanol was used at a proportion of 10% with 20% jatropha biodiesel-70% diesel blends and engine testing was carried out in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. The fuel properties, engine performance, emission and combustion were studied and mainly the effects of two most widely used ignition promoter on the engine behaviour were compared and analyzed. Experimental results indicated that, the fuel properties like density (0.36–1.45%), viscosity (0.26–3.77%), oxidation stability (5.5–26.4%), cetane number (2–14.58%) are improved remarkably with a moderate change in calorific value for the pentanol and ignition promoter treated biodiesel blends depending on the proportion used and for different benchmark. The brake power (BP) is developed very slightly (0.66–1.52%), which is still below than that of diesel, however, the brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased significantly (0.92–5.84%). Although mixing of pentanol increased the nitric oxide (NO) (2.15% than JB20) with reducing the hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke, however, the addition of EHN and DTBP reduced the NO (2–4.62%) and smoke (3.45–15.5%) emissions showing higher CO (1.3–9.15%) and HC (5.1–17.87%) emission based on percentage of ignition promoter used. The NO emission

  19. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO 2 -capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO 2 emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels

  20. Spontaneous emission spectrum of a four-level atom coupled by three kinds of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Wang Jian; Zhang, Hanzhuang; Yao Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    A model of a four-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic crystal (PC) is presented. The atomic transitions from the upper two levels to the lower two levels are coupled by the same reservoir which is assumed in turn to be isotropic PC modes, anisotropic PC modes and free vacuum modes. The effects of the fine structure of the atomic ground state levels and the quantum interference on the spontaneous emission spectrum of an atom are investigated in detail. Most interestingly, it is shown for the first time that new spontaneous emission lines are produced from the fine splitting of atomic ground state levels in the isotropic PC case. Quantum interference induces additional narrow spontaneous lines near the transition from the empty upper level to the lower levels

  1. Super Rice Cropping Will Enhance Rice Yield and Reduce CH4 Emission: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu JIANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to learn the differences in plant productivity and CH4 emission between two rice cultivars, super rice variety Ningjing 1 and traditional variety Zhendao 11, which were currently commercially applied in Nanjing, China. Similar seasonal changes of CH4 emission fluxes and soil solution CH4 contents were found between the tested cultivars. Although there was no significant difference in plant biomass production between the cultivars, the grain yield of Ningjing 1 was significantly higher by 35.0% (P < 0.05 than that of Zhendao 11, whereas the total CH4 emission from Ningjing 1 was 35.2% lower (P < 0.05. The main difference in the amounts of CH4 emission between the cultivars occurred in the period from the tillering stage to the heading stage. The biomass-scaled and yield-scaled CH4 emissions were respectively 3.8 and 5.2 mg/g for Ningjing 1, significantly lower than those for Zhendao 11 (7.4 and 12.8 mg/g, respectively. According to the relationships between the plant growth characteristics and the CH4 emission, a stronger root system contributed mainly to the lower CH4 emission of Ningjing 1, as compared with Zhendao 11. Our results demonstrated that super rice has advantages not only in grain productivity but also in CH4 emission mitigation. Further expansion of super rice cropping will enhance rice yield and reduce greenhouse gas emission in China.

  2. Abstract Collection of 21st Forum: Reducing CO2 Emissions by 80% Before 2050 - Reality or Utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This years' annual Forum is held twenty-one year in a row. The objectives of the EU by the year 2020 known by the marketing message 20/20/20% to some extent obscures the level of changes in the energy sector, which should be obtained, if the goal of reducing CO 2 emission by the year 2050 in an amount of at least 80% and in the power sector in an amount of 95% would be set. Transient energy policy objectives for the year 2020 do not indicate the dramatic change in the energy sector to meet the goals in the year 2050. For this reason it is necessary, as soon as possible, to strategically perceive the period until 2050, in order to set up a complete economic, scientific and energy policies in each country. The choice of this years's Forum theme has the aim to encourage the debate on the strategic objectives for the year 2050 and to approach to the elaboration of a strategic document energy development as soon as possible. The level of integration of renewable energy sources is highly correlated with the capabilities and costs of producing energy in conventional power plants, fossil or nuclear, which can make the entire project of reducing the CO 2 less feasible, if for any reason, the construction or operation of alternative capacity is prevented. Also, closely related is the theme of priviledged relations of production from renewable sources and the rest of the electricity market.(author)

  3. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  4. Reducing CO2 emissions fourfold in France by 2050. Introduction to the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In light of the aforementioned IPCC report, and in order to limit the impacts of climate change on planet Earth, we conclude that it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere to less than 450 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Given the historic responsibility of the first industrial nations, and so that meeting this target does not ruin the development prospects of Southern hemisphere countries, the twofold reduction target means that industrialized countries must aim for a fourfold reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. As the French Prime Minister declared on 19 February 2003 at the opening of IPCC 20. plenary session in Paris, France has set itself on this course. Bearing in mind the nature of the phenomenon, only those policies that are resolutely long-term will be of relevance here. Implementing them assumes that, in order to inform possible choices, different energy consumption scenarios for 2050 in each of the major economic sectors emitting GHGs will have been clearly analysed. Such is the aim of this study conducted by the French Inter-ministerial Task Force on Climate Change (MIES). The study emphasises that it is absolutely imperative to pursue efforts undertaken in order to reach maximum energy efficiency in all sectors, to significantly reduce oil consumption in the transport sector and to rapidly increase energy production from renewable. Lastly, the study stresses the complementary role that technological progress can play. (A.L.B.)

  5. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, M. I.; Rodríguez, C. G.; Rodríguez, J. D.; Telmo, J.

    2013-12-01

    Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 oC. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons) and consumption.

  6. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Lamas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 °C. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide, HC (hydrocarbons and consumption.

  7. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  8. A strategy for reducing CO_2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Richner, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Within the general context of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction, decomposition analysis allows the quantification of the contribution of different factors to changes in emissions as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of policy and technology measures. The Kaya identity has been widely used for that purpose in order to disaggregate carbon emissions into various driving forces. In this paper, it is applied for the analysis of emissions resulting from energy use at three different scales. First, a decomposition analysis of the carbon emissions for the complete Swiss energy system is presented using the future projections from the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. The Kaya identity is then applied to the Swiss building sector after it is adapted with factors that are more relatable to building parameters, such as floor area instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Finally, the last level of analysis is a small scale community energy system for a unique Swiss village that aims to significantly reduce its emissions. An energy strategy is developed and its effectiveness is assessed with the adapted Kaya identity and benchmarked against the Swiss average values. The presented method demonstrates how the performance of buildings under various retrofitting scenarios can be benchmarked against future emission targets. - Highlights: • The Kaya identity is used to perform multi-scale emission decomposition analysis. • The original Kaya identity is updated with building-related parameters. • The main drivers of emissions reduction of the Swiss building stock are determined. • An energy strategy to transform the building stock of a Swiss village is developed. • The performance of efficiency measures are benchmarked using the Kaya identity.

  9. Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, Stig B.; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas; Pisso, Ignacio; Schwietzke, Stefan; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Helmig, Detlev; Reimann, Stefan; Sauvage, Stéphane; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Read, Katie A.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Punjabi, Shalini; Wallasch, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Ethane and propane are the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. However, their emissions, atmospheric distribution, and trends in their atmospheric concentrations are insufficiently understood. Atmospheric model simulations using standard community emission inventories do not reproduce available measurements in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we show that observations of pre-industrial and present-day ethane and propane can be reproduced in simulations with a detailed atmospheric chemistry transport model, provided that natural geologic emissions are taken into account and anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions are assumed to be two to three times higher than is indicated in current inventories. Accounting for these enhanced ethane and propane emissions results in simulated surface ozone concentrations that are 5-13% higher than previously assumed in some polluted regions in Asia. The improved correspondence with observed ethane and propane in model simulations with greater emissions suggests that the level of fossil (geologic + fossil fuel) methane emissions in current inventories may need re-evaluation.

  10. Potential of windbreak trees to reduce carbon emissions by agricultural operations in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Ballesteros-Possu; James R. Brandle; Michele Schoeneberger

    2017-01-01

    Along with sequestering C in forest, trees on farms are able to contribute to greenhouse mitigation through emission avoidance mechanisms. To evaluate the magnitude of these contributions, emission avoidance contributions for field and farmstead windbreak designs in regions across the United States were estimated, along with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission budgets for...

  11. State-level renewable electricity policies and reductions in carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Monica; Munch, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of renewable electricity policies has been adopted at the state level in the United States, but to date there has been no large-scale, empirical assessment of the effect of these policies on carbon emissions. Such an assessment is important because scholars have pointed out that increases in renewable electricity will not necessarily lead to declines in carbon emissions. We examine the effects of a range of policies across 39 states. We find significant and robust decreases in carbon emissions associated with the introduction of public benefit funds, a form of “carbon tax” adopted by 19 states to date. Our aim in this paper is not to provide a final judgment on these policies, many of which may not have been in place long enough to show strong effects, but to shift the attention of the research community away from proximate measures such as increases in clean electricity generation and onto measurement of lower carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We ask whether state-level renewable electricity policies in the United States have succeeded in lowering carbon emissions. ► We examine net metering, retail choice, fuel generation disclosure, mandatory green power options, public benefit funds, and renewable portfolio standards. ► The introduction of public benefit funds, a kind of carbon tax, is associated with decreases in carbon emissions.

  12. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO 2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO 2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO 2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO 2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO 2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  13. Biochar for reducing GHG emissions in Norway: opportunities and barriers to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasse, Daniel; O'Toole, Adam; Joner, Erik; Borgen, Signe

    2017-04-01

    Norway has ratified the Paris Agreement with a target nationally determined contribution (NDC) of 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, with the land sector (AFOLU) expected to contribute to this effort. Increased C sequestration in soil, as argued by the 4 per 1000 initiative, can provide C negative solutions towards reaching this goal. However, Norway has only 3% of its land surface that is cultivated, and management options are fairly limited because the major part is already under managed grasslands, which are assumed to be close to C saturation. By contrast, the country has ample forest resources, allowing Norway to report 25 Mt CO2-eq per year of net CO2 uptake by forest. In addition, the forest industry generates large amounts of unused residues, both at the processing plants but also left decaying on the forest floor. Because of the unique characteristics of the Norwegian land sector, the Norwegian Environment Agency reported as early as 2010 that biochar production for soil C storage had the largest potential for reducing GHG emissions through land-use measures. Although straw is a potential feedstock, the larger quantities of forest residues are a prime candidate for this purpose, as exemplified by our first experimental facility at a production farm, which is using wood chips as feedstock for biochar production. The highly controlled and subsidised Norwegian agriculture might offer a unique test case for implementing incentives that would support farmers for biochar-based C sequestration. However, multiple barriers remain, which mostly revolve around the complexity of finding the right implementation scheme (including price setting) in a changing landscape of competition for biomass (with e.g. bioethanol and direct combustion), methods of verification and variable co-benefits to the farmer. Here we will present some of these schemes, from on-farm biochar production to factories for biochar-compound fertilizers, and discuss barriers and

  14. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  15. Lactic acid fermentation of human urine to improve its fertilizing value and reduce odour emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N; Ronteltap, M; Boincean, B; Wernli, M; Zubcov, E; Bagrin, N; Borodin, N; Lens, P N L

    2017-08-01

    During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH 4 + -N = 1.2-1.3 g L -1 ) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine. In the lacto-fermented urine, the pH was reduced to 3.8-4.7 and the ammonium content by 22-30%, while the pH of the untreated urine rose to 6.1 and its ammonium content increased by 32% due to urea hydrolysis. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in lacto-fermented urine was 7.3 CFU ml -1 , suggesting that urine is a suitable growth medium for lactic acid bacteria. The odour of the stored urine was subjectively perceived by four people to be twice as strong as that of lacto-fermented samples. Lacto-fermented urine induced increased radish germination compared to stored urine (74-86% versus 2-31%). Adding a lactic acid bacterial inoculum to one week old urine in the storage tanks in a urine-diverting dry toilet reduced the pH from 8.9 to 7.7 after one month, while the ammonium content increased by 35%, probably due to the high initial pH of the urine. Given that the hydrolyzed stale urine has a high buffering capacity, the lactic acid bacterial inoculum should be added to the urine storage tank of a UDDT before urine starts to accumulate there to increase the efficiency of the lactic acid fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; De Kruijk, H.; Stoffer, A.; Maly, M.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for the Czech Republic. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in the Czech Republic and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Czech SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs, but at high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal, that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, low wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  17. Impacts of the Grenelle de l'Environnement: must France reduce its greenhouse gas emissions of 30% by 2020?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Within the international context (Copenhagen agreement), this text analyses efforts made by France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and compares them to those of other countries, notably the United States. Using the NEMESIS model, it also analyses the possible consequences of the present crisis for energy demand and CO 2 emissions. It proposes an assessment of additional efforts to be made to go from 20% to 30% of reduction of these emissions. It tries to assess impacts of investments foreseen by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' on activity, GNP, employment, and competitiveness

  18. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such

  19. Optimal carbon emissions trajectories when damages depend on the rate or level of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Teisberg, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors extend earlier work with the Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment model (CETA) to consider a number of issues relating to the nature of optimal carbon emissions trajectories. They first explore model results when warming costs are associated with the rate of temperature rise, rather than with its level, as in earlier work. It is found that optimal trajectories are more strongly affected by the degree of non-linearity in the warming cost function than by whether the cost function is driven by the warming level or the warming rate. The authors briefly explore the implications of simple uncertainty and risk aversion for optimal emissions trajectories to be somewhat lower, but that the effect is not noticeable in the near term and not dramatic in the long term; the long term effect on the shadow price of carbon is more marked, however. Finally, they experiment with scaling up the warming cost functions until optimal policies are approximately the same as a policy of stabilising emissions at the 1990 level. Based on the results of this experiment, it is concluded that damages would have to be very high to justify anything like a stabilization policy; and even in this case, a policy allowing intertemporal variation in emissions would be better. 18 refs., 15 figs

  20. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  1. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-01-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  2. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-11-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  3. Building local institutions for national conservation programs: lessons for developing Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Collen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programs that aim to promote forest conservation and poverty alleviation, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+, the participation of indigenous communities is essential to meet program goals. Using Ostrom's theory of collective action for common pool resource management, we evaluated the institutions governing indigenous participation in the Programa Socio Bosque incentive-based conservation program in Ecuador. We conducted structured interviews with 94 members in 4 communities to assess community institutions for 6 of Ostrom's principles, using 12 measures we developed for the principles. We found substantial variation between communities in terms of their institutional performance. The best-performing community performed well (>50% of interviewees reported successfully meeting the measure on 8 of the 12 measures. The weakest performed well on only 2 out of 12 measures. Overall, our results indicate that there is stronger performance for constitutional-level institutions, which determine who gets to make the rules, and some collective-choice institutions, which determine how local rules are made. We identified specific challenges with the day-to-day operational institutions that arise from participation in nation state-community conservation programs, such as restricted resource appropriation, monitoring and compliance, and conflict resolution. We found that top-down policy making has an important role to play in supporting communities to establish constitutional-level and some collective-choice institutions. However, developing operational institutions may take more time and depend on local families' day-to-day use of resources, and thus may require a more nuanced policy approach. As some countries and donors find a jurisdictional REDD+ approach increasingly attractive, complementing top-down policy measures with bottom-up institutional development could provide a stronger platform to achieve the

  4. Calculation of spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom in photonic crystals using fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Hsien; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Wu, Jing-Nuo; Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Li, Yen-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Fractional time derivative, an abstract mathematical operator of fractional calculus, is used to describe the real optical system of a V-type three-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal. A fractional kinetic equation governing the dynamics of the spontaneous emission from this optical system is obtained as a fractional Langevin equation. Solving this fractional kinetic equation by fractional calculus leads to the analytical solutions expressed in terms of fractional exponential functions. The accuracy of the obtained solutions is verified through reducing the system into the special cases whose results are consistent with the experimental observation. With accurate physical results and avoiding the complex integration for solving this optical system, we propose fractional calculus with fractional time derivative as a better mathematical method to study spontaneous emission dynamics from the optical system with non-Markovian dynamics.

  5. An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article we assess the costs of monitoring REDD based on available technologies and requirements associated with key elements of REDD policy. Results We find that the design of a REDD policy framework (and specifically its rules can have a significant impact on monitoring costs. Costs may vary from 0.5 to 550 US$ per square kilometre depending on the required precision of carbon stock and area change detection. Moreover, they follow economies of scale, i.e. single country or project solutions will face relatively higher monitoring costs. Conclusion Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management. Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring system, and demands for international cooperation.

  6. Introducing renewable energy in vineyards and agricultural machinery: A way to reduce emissions and provide sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carroquino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, depletion of nonrenewable resources in the current energies, pollution from them and the greater ecological awareness of the population, are factors that suggest the change of energy sources in business. The wine industry is concerned about sustainability and with a clear awareness of what climate change may mean for it. This sector is supposed to have a high receptivity to the implementation of clean energy, as this favours not only the environment but also the essence of its business. This work shows how the use of renewable energy, on a small scale, can be profitable in both vineyards and wineries. For this purpose, the European project LIFE REWIND (Renewable energy in the wine industry has developed several actions, including the installation and operation of a prototype in a Spanish winery. This paper shows how to introduce renewable energy in wineries and vineyards in a profitable way, reducing the emissions of CO2 associated to the activity and the product, without changing the processes of cultivation or production.

  7. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove the other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  8. Solid state solvation effect and reduced amplified spontaneous emission threshold value of glass forming DCM derivative in PMMA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vembris, Aivars, E-mail: aivars.vembris@cfi.lu.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV 1063 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, 14/24 Azenes Street, Riga LV 1048 (Latvia)

    2015-02-15

    Molecule crystallization is one of the limitations for obtaining high-gain organic laser systems. One of the examples is well known red laser dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). The lowest threshold value of amplified spontaneous emission was achieved by doping 2 wt% of DCM molecule in tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) matrix. Further increase of the DCM dye concentration makes the system less efficient as its threshold value increases. It is due to large intermolecular interaction, which induces photoluminescence quenching. Compounds with reduced intermolecular interaction could be prospective in organic laser systems due to higher possible doping. In this work photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of modified DCM molecule in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix were investigated. Bulky trityloxyethyl groups were attached to the donor part of DCM. These groups increase intermolecular distance wherewith reduce photoluminescence quenching. More than one order of magnitude lower excitation threshold energy of the amplified spontaneous emission was achieved in doped polymer films with investigated compound in comparison to doped polymer with DCM. It means that the investigated compound is more perspective as a laser material compared to the previously studied. In addition, amplified spontaneous emission maximum could be tuned within 15 nm by changing concentration from 0.1 wt% to 10 wt% DWK-1 in PMMA matrix due to solid state solvation effect. - Highlights: • Bulky groups attached to DCM dye reduce photoluminescence quenching. • Amplified spontaneous emission is in red spectral region. • Amplified spontaneous emission spectra were tuned by 15 nm. • Amplified spontaneous emission threshold value was reduced by one order of magnitude.

  9. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  10. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  11. The relation between otoacoustic emissions and the broadening of the auditory filter for higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    The active behaviour of outer hair cells (OHCs) is often used to explain two phenomena, namely otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and the level dependence of auditory filters. Correlations between these two phenomena may contribute to the evidence of these hypotheses. In this study auditory filters were

  12. Determining landscape-level carbon emissions from historically harvested forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean Healey; Todd Morgan; Jon Songster; Jason. Brandt

    2009-01-01

    Resources have been developed in the literature to enable landowners to estimate the carbon sequestration timeline of forest products derived from their land. These tools were used here to estimate sequestration and emissions related to harvests carried out in Ravalli County from 1945 to 2007. This county-level accounting of product carbon release can later be combined...

  13. Assessment of CO 2 emission level in urban transport of Mekelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transport plays a crucial role in accelerating development and improving quality of life by allowing ease transfer of people, goods and services. It is also one of the important preconditions for achieving developmental goals. This study therefore intends to assess the level of CO2 emissions in urban transport of Mekelle city.

  14. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  15. Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle NOx and CO2 Emissions Based on Prediction of Arrival Traffic Flows at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from vehicles have been increasing every year because of the growing number of vehicles, and they cause serious environmental problems such as air pollution and global warming. To alleviate these problems, this paper proposes a new traffic signal control method for reducing vehicle NOx and CO2 emissions on arterial roads. To this end, we first model the amount of vehicle emissions as a function of the traffic delay and the number of stops at intersections. This step is necessary because it is difficult to obtain the amount of emissions directly using traffic control systems. Second, we introduce a signal control model in which the control parameters are continuously updated on the basis of predictions of arrival traffic flows at intersections. The signal timings are calculated in such a manner so as to minimize the weighted sum of the two emissions, which depend on the traffic flow. To evaluate the validity of this method, simulation experiments are carried out on an arterial road. The experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods in reducing both the emissions and travel time.

  16. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF4:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Han; Cao, Wenbing; Huang, Qingming; Ma, En; Zhang, Xinqi; Yu, Jianchang

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF 4 synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF 4 :Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY 4 to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF 4 : Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY 4

  17. Road traffic emissions - predictions of future contributions to regional ozone levels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, S.; Friedrich, R.; Obermeier, A.; Unger, S.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the European Commission research project 'Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe,' detailed emission projections have been developed for the year 2010 based upon currently adopted measures, and feasible reductions. For road-traffic emissions this projection considers passenger cars, light- and heavy-duty vehicles, mopeds and motorcycles. Here we present model calculations made with the EMEP 3-D Eulerian model to illustrate the relative contribution of each of these road-traffic sectors to ozone concentrations across Europe. The model is run for a six-month period, April-September 1996. The model results clearly suggest that further reduction in road-traffic emissions beyond currently planned measures would be beneficial in reducing ozone over Europe, particularly in the case of heavy-duty vehicles and evaporative emissions. These results do of course depend on the estimated emissions in each sector for the year 2010, and we show that this is a major source of uncertainty in such scenario calculations. (author)

  18. Assessment of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound emissions from the polyvinyl chloride wallpaper production industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chiou, Chyow-Shan

    2006-05-01

    This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper production industry. In Taiwan, methyl ethyl ketone, TOL, and cyclohexanone have comprised the major content of solvents, accounting for approximately 113,000 t/yr to avoid excessive viscosity of plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and to increase facility in working. Emissions of these VOCs from solvents have caused serious odor and worse air quality problems. In this study, 80 stacks in five factories were tested to evaluate emission characteristics at each VOC source. After examining the VOC concentrations in the flue gases and contents, the VOC emission rate before treatment and from fugitive sources was 93,000 and 800 t/yr, respectively. In this study, the semiwet electrostatic precipitator is recommended for use as cost-effective control equipment.

  19. EPA and California Air Resources Board Approve Remedy to Reduce Excess NOx Emissions from Automatic Transmission “Generation 2” 2.0-Liter Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 17, 2017, EPA and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) approved an emissions modification proposed by Volkswagen that will reduce NOx emissions from automatic transmission diesel Passats for model years 2012-2014.

  20. Strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. A study of some Annex 1 countries; Strategier foer att minska koldioxidutslaeppen. En studie av naagra Annex 1 laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, M.; Olofsdotter, A.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the development of carbon dioxide emissions and the energy systems in a number of countries. The analysis also includes the strategies chosen by the countries to reduce the emissions.

  1. Communication impairments in mice lacking Shank1: reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wöhr

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1(-/- null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1(-/- mice as compared to wildtype Shank1(+/+ littermate controls. Shank1(-/- pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1(+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1(-/- males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1(+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1(+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1(-/- mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1(-/- males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1(-/- mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism.

  2. Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Roullet, Florence I.; Hung, Albert Y.; Sheng, Morgan; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1 −/− null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1 −/− mice as compared to wildtype Shank1 +/+ littermate controls. Shank1 −/− pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1 −/− males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1 −/− mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1 −/− males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1 −/− mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism. PMID:21695253

  3. Optimal distributed energy resources and the cost of reduced greenhouse gas emissions in a large retail shopping centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braslavsky, Julio H.; Wall, Josh R.; Reedman, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal options for distributed energy resources are analysed for a shopping centre. • A multiobjective optimisation model is formulated and solved using DER-CAM. • Cost and emission trade-offs are compared in four key optimal investment scenarios. • Moderate investment in DER technologies lowers emissions by 29.6% and costs by 8.5%. • Larger investment in DER technologies lowers emissions by 72% at 47% higher costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a case study on optimal options for distributed energy resource (DER) technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a large retail shopping centre located in Sydney, Australia. Large retail shopping centres take the largest share of energy consumed by all commercial buildings, and present a strong case for adoption of DER technologies to reduce energy costs and emissions. However, the complexity of optimally designing and operating DER systems has hindered their widespread adoption in practice. This paper examines and demonstrates the value of DER in reducing the carbon footprint of the shopping centre by formulating and solving a multiobjective optimisation problem using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) tool. An economic model of the shopping centre is developed in DER-CAM using on-site-specific demand, tariffs, and performance data for each DER technology option available. Four key optimal DER technology investment scenarios are then analysed by comparing: (1) solution trade-offs of costs and emissions, (2) the cost of reduced emissions attained in each investment scenario, and (3) investment benefits with respect to the business-as-usual scenario. The analysis shows that a moderate investment in combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) technology alone can reduce annual energy costs by 8.5% and carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions by 29.6%. A larger investment in CCHP technology, in conjunction with on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, can deliver

  4. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  5. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  6. Estimating the costs of reducing CO2 emission via avoided deforestation with integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Tabeau, A.A.; Stehfest, E.; Meijl, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates for deforestation and forest degradation were shown to account for about 17% of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD is suggested to provide substantial emission reductions at low costs. Proper calculation of such a costs requires integrated modeling approach involving

  7. The emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced by a new proposal for trade of quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The emission quota system will stimulate enterprises that do not currently have to pay a CO 2 tax and which are not subjected to any other political instrument to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, the main part of the total Norwegian emission of greenhouse gases will be covered by climate policy instruments. The quota system enters into force on January 1, 2005, from which date the EU quota system will also be in force. The quota system will comprise CO 2 emissions from oil refineries, iron and steel manufacturers, producers of cement, lime, glass and ceramic products, and certain energy plants. Not all firms that are obliged to obtain quotas will receive as many quotas as they are expected to need. Norway introduced a CO 2 tax in 1991 and is among the countries with the strongest and most extensive political instruments against emission of greenhouse gases

  8. Analysis of emission charges as a method of reducing sulfur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.G.; Chen, P.W.

    1976-06-01

    Requiring sulfur polluters to make payments which are functions of the emissions discharged (the ''polluter-pay-principle'') is a method of regulation which is an alternative but not an equivalent to the setting of sulfur-emission standards and the punishing of those who permit the emission of the facilities under their control to exceed these standards. It is shown that this approach gives greater incentives toward the rapid reduction of sulfur emissions than does the setting of standards, particularly when the charges are adjusted to represent estimates of the health and property damage resulting from the emissions. Some variations of an extension of the polluter-pay-principle are also examined.

  9. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, You