Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann
The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases...
Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut
Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.
Hill, J O
We previously developed a model of dietary obesity in adult male rats where duration of feeding a high fat diet (HFD; 60 percent of calories from fat) influences reversibility of the obesity following a reduction in dietary fat. In the model, rats fed the HFD for 4 months show an apparent complete reversal of obesity when switched to a low fat diet (LFD; 14 percent of calories from fat), but rats fed the HFD for 7 months show persistent obesity even when switched to the LFD. This model of dietary obesity is useful for studies of energy balance and energy requirements during obesity development and reversal. In the present study, rats fed the HFD for 4 or 7 months were switched to the LFD and, after weights stabilized, were subjected to food restriction followed by ad libitum refeeding. Food restriction (15 g/day of the LFD, or about 60 percent of usual control food intake) continued until body weights of the groups stabilized at new, reduced levels (about 2-2.5 months). This was followed by ad libitum refeeding of the LFD for 3--4.5 months. Rats fed the HFD for 4 months showed complete obesity reversal after 2 months of eating the LFD. They showed a similar response to food restriction to LFD controls, but surprisingly regained significantly more body weight, body fat and total body energy during refeeding than LFD controls. Rats fed the HFD for 7 months remained heavier and fatter than LFD controls after 2 months of eating the LFD. Despite losing more carcass energy than controls during food restriction, their body weights and body energy content stabilized at higher levels than LFD controls. During refeeding, they regained their obese state relative to controls. These results demonstrate that: (1) the duration of HFD feeding is an important factor in the reversibility of the obese state; (2) sustained HFD feeding produces an obese state that is defended more by a greater restoration of carcass energy during refeeding than by a preservation of carcass energy
Zhang, Yun Bo; Yan, Jing Dong; Yang, Su Qing; Guo, Ji Peng; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xiao Xi; Na, Xiao Lin; Dai, Shao Chun
The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between early exposure to genistein and obesity in young adulthood and to evaluate changes in reproductive health during puberty and adulthood following in utero exposure to genistein. Thirty-two female rats were randomized into four groups; low dose 400 mg genistein/kg diet group (LG), mid-dose 1200 mg genistein/kg diet group (MG), high dose 3600 mg genistein/kg diet group (HG), and control group without genistein diet (CON). Rats were fed genistein at the beginning of pregnancy along with a high-fat diet. Pups were sacrificed at week 4 and week 8 after birth. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed a correlation between maternal genistein intake and genistein concentration in pups' plasma. Compared to CON, body weight reduced significantly in male HG group at week 8. No statistical differences were found in plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with early genistein exposure. Furthermore, uterine histopathology showed notable changes in groups HG and MG compared with CON at week 4 and week 8. In conclusion, maternal genistein supplement could reduce body weight in male pups and alter uterine histopathology in female pups. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
... reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Label Statements § 105.66 Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight... because of usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition labeling in...
... usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 381.480 Section 381.480 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements. Any product that purports to be or is represented for special dietary use because of usefulness in reducing body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition labeling in...
... usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 317.380 Section 317.380 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements. Any product that purports to be or is represented for special dietary use because of usefulness in reducing body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition...
Kondo, Tomoo; Kishi, Mikiya; Fushimi, Takashi; Ugajin, Shinobu; Kaga, Takayuki
Acetic acid (AcOH), a main component of vinegar, recently was found to suppress body fat accumulation in animal studies. Hence we investigated the effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat mass in obese Japanese in a double-blind trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of similar body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. During the 12-week treatment period, the subjects in each group ingested 500 ml daily of a beverage containing either 15 ml of vinegar (750 mg AcOH), 30 ml of vinegar (1,500 mg AcOH), or 0 ml of vinegar (0 mg AcOH, placebo). Body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both vinegar intake groups than in the placebo group. In conclusion, daily intake of vinegar might be useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity.
Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf
Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification.
Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek
Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.
Jung, Eun Young; Cho, Mi Kyoung; Hong, Yang-Hee; Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Yooheon; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yeast hydrolysate on the abdominal fat in obese humans. We observed the effects of yeast hydrolysate that had a molecular weight below 10 kDa on the anti-abdominal fat accumulation in obese men and women ages 20 to 50 y for 10 wk. The abdominal fat mass was assessed by computed tomographic scans. By the sixth week, the reductions in energy intake in the yeast group (yeast hydrolysate 1 g/d) were significantly greater than those in the control group (placebo 1 g/d) (P weight and body mass index (BMI) were significantly reduced by week 10 compared with baseline in the yeast group, and these differences were significantly greater than those in the control group: body weight 0.83 kg versus -2.60 k g (P loss of body weight in the yeast group, lean body mass did not significantly differ between the two groups. Body fat mass in the control group did not significantly change between baseline and week 10. However, the yeast group lost a significant amount of body fat mass after 10 wk of treatment (P weight and the accumulation of abdominal fat without an adverse effect on lean body mass in obese adults, regardless of sex, via the reduction of energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung
Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs in the white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (: 0.0317, BAT (: 0.014, and SMT (: 0.0159 and UCP1 in BAT (: 0.026 were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1% while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, . Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.
De Pedro, Nuria; Martínez-Alvarez, Rosa M; Delgado, María Jesús
The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chronic melatonin (10 microg/g body weight) on body weight and the main energetic reserves, particularly hepatic and muscle content of proteins, lipids and glycogen in goldfish. In addition, we studied plasma leptin and ghrelin, and hypothalamic content of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and monoamines after chronic melatonin treatment in order to elucidate a possible interplay between melatonin and these feeding regulators on the body weight regulation in this species. Body weight gain and specific growth rate were reduced (74% and 76%, respectively) after chronic (10 days) intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with melatonin. The carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was regulated by melatonin in goldfish, because this indoleamine reduced muscle glycogen stores and increased lipid mobilization. A suppressive trend, but not statistically significant, in circulating ghrelin was observed after chronic treatment with melatonin. Chronic melatonin administration significantly reduced noradrenergic metabolism and increased dihydroxiphenylacetic acid content in the hypothalamus, without significant modifications in the serotoninergic system. Thus, it could be suggested that melatonin may mediate its action on energy balance in fish, at least in part, via interactions with hypothalamic catecholaminergic system. Plasma leptin and hypothalamic NPY remained unaltered after melatonin treatment, suggesting that these feeding regulators may not be involved in the effects of melatonin on energy homeostasis in fish.
Mulrow, Cynthia D; Chiquette, Elaine; Angel, L; Grimm, Richard; Cornell, John; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Anagnostelis, Betsy B; Brand, M
As early as the 1920's, researchers noted a relationship between caloric restriction, weight loss and a decreased incidence of hypertension (Terry 1922, Preble 1923, Bauman 1928, Master 1929). In 1988 a meta-analysis of aggregate data from 12 prospective studies, including 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), found that on average each 1 kilogram decrease in body weight in obese hypertensive patients was associated with a 2.4 mm Hg systolic and 1.5 mm Hg diastolic decrease in blood pressure (Staessen 1988). Blood pressure reductions were not dependent upon degree of baseline obesity.This review aims to: 1) update the work of Staessen (Staessen 1988) looking specifically at randomized controlled trials, and 2) assess whether any of the trials assess effects of weight-reducing diets on clinical outcomes such as quality of life, morbidity or mortality. Evaluate whether weight-loss diets are more effective than regular diets or other antihypertensive therapies in controlling blood pressure and preventing morbidity and mortality in hypertensive adults. MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library were searched through November 1997. Trials known to experts in the field were included through June 1998. For inclusion in the review, trials were required to meet each of the following criteria: 1) randomized controlled trials with one group assigned to a weight-loss diet and the other group assigned to either normal diet or antihypertensive therapy; 2) ambulatory adults with a mean blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic; 3) active intervention consisting of a calorie-restricted diet intended to produce weight loss (excluded studies simultaneously implementing multiple lifestyle interventions where the effects of weight loss could not be disaggregated); and 4) outcome measures included weight loss and blood pressure. Studies were dual abstracted by two independent reviewers using a standardized form designed specifically for this review. The primary
Slemenda, C; Heilman, D K; Brandt, K D; Katz, B P; Mazzuca, S A; Braunstein, E M; Byrd, D
To determine whether baseline lower extremity muscle weakness is a risk factor for incident radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This prospective study involved 342 elderly community-dwelling subjects (178 women, 164 men) from central Indiana, for whom baseline and followup (mean interval 31.3 months) knee radiographs were available. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometry and lean tissue (i.e., muscle) mass in the lower extremities by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Knee OA was associated with an increase in body weight in women (P = 0.0014), but not in men. In both sexes, lower extremity muscle mass exhibited a strong positive correlation with body weight. In women, after adjustment for body weight, knee extensor strength was 18% lower at baseline among subjects who developed incident knee OA than among the controls (P = 0.053), whereas after adjustment for lower extremity muscle mass, knee extensor strength was 15% lower than in the controls (P not significant). In men, in contrast, adjusted knee extensor strength at baseline was comparable to that in the controls. Among the 13 women who developed incident OA, there was a strong, highly significant negative correlation between body weight and extensor strength (r = -0.740, P = 0.003), that is, the more obese the subject, the greater the reduction of quadriceps strength. In contrast, among the 14 men who developed incident OA, a modest positive correlation existed between weight and quadriceps strength (r = 0.455, P = 0.058). No correlation between knee flexor (hamstring) strength and knee OA was seen in either sex. Reduced quadriceps strength relative to body weight may be a risk factor for knee OA in women.
De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L; Miller, Tracie L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Messiah, Sarah E
Ethnic minority adolescents, Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow-up data available (91 %) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Among 71 adolescents (80 % Hispanic, 77 % female), mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P < 0.001). Gastric bypass surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P < 0.05). Weight loss was similar among Hispanics and non-Hispanics. No peri-operative complications were reported. Three patients who stopped taking supplements as prescribed experienced iron deficiency anemia within the year following surgery. Our results show that bariatric surgery, gastric bypass procedure in particular, can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at a particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences.
Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik
To determine the effects of empagliflozin on adiposity indices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in weight, waist circumference, estimated total body fat, index of central obesity and visceral adiposity index were assessed using analysis of covariance and testing of treatment by strata for age, sex and baseline waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus randomized to blinded treatment with empagliflozin versus placebo in clinical trials of 12 weeks (cohort 1) or 24 weeks (cohort 2) duration. This study comprised 3300 patients (cohort 1, N = 823; cohort 2, N = 2477). Empagliflozin reduced weight, waist circumference and adiposity indices versus placebo in both cohorts. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline in empagliflozin versus placebo was -1.7 kg (-2.1 to -1.4 kg) and -1.9 kg (-2.1 to -1.7 kg) for body weight (p body fat; -0.007 (-0.011 to -0.004) and -0.008 (-0.010 to -0.006) for index of central obesity (p weight and adiposity indices with the potential to improve cardiometabolic risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ellacott, Kate L J; Lawrence, Catherine B; Rothwell, Nancy J; Luckman, Simon M
PRL-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a novel anorexigen that reduces food intake and body weight gain in rats. In common with other anorexigens, PrRP mRNA expression is reduced during states of negative energy balance, i.e. lactation and fasting in female rats. In this study, we examined the interaction between PrRP and the adiposity signal, leptin, which interacts with a number of peptidergic systems in the brain to regulate energy homeostasis. Intracerebroventricular coadministration of 4 nmol PrRP and 1 microg leptin in rats resulted in additive reductions in nocturnal food intake and body weight gain and an increase in core body temperature compared with each peptide alone. We show also, by quantitative in situ hybridization, that PrRP mRNA is reduced in fasted male rats and obese Zucker rats, indicating that PrRP mRNA expression, like that of other anorexigens, may be regulated by leptin. Finally we show, using immunohistochemistry, that greater than 90% of PrRP neurons in all regions where PrRP is expressed contain leptin receptors. Thus, we provide evidence for PrRP neurons forming part of the leptin-sensitive brain circuitry involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis.
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
To examine how weight information labels on variously sized media models affect (pre)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg underweight vs. 3-kg underweight vs. normal weight) experimental design in three age-groups (9-10 years, 12-13 years, and 15-16 years; n = 184). The girls completed questionnaires after exposure to media models. Weight information labels affected girls' body dissatisfaction, social comparison with media figures, and objectified body consciousness. Respondents exposed to an extremely thin body shape labeled to be of "normal weight" were most dissatisfied with their own bodies and showed highest levels of objectified body consciousness and comparison with media figures. An extremely thin body shape combined with a corresponding label (i.e., 6-kg underweight), however, induced less body dissatisfaction and less comparison with the media model. Age differences were also found to affect body perceptions: adolescent girls showed more negative body perceptions than preadolescents. Weight information labels may counteract the generally media-induced thin-body ideal. That is, when the weight labels appropriately informed the respondents about the actual thinness of the media model's body shape, girls were less affected. Weight information labels also instigated a normalization effect when a "normal-weight" label was attached to underweight-sized media models. Presenting underweight as a normal body shape, clearly increased body dissatisfaction in girls. Results also suggest age between preadolescence and adolescence as a critical criterion in responding to media models' body shape. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
...)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. METHODS: We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg underweight vs...
James L Trevaskis
Full Text Available Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209, comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lep(ob/Lep (ob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides.
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
PURPOSE: To examine how weight information labels on variously sized media models affect (pre)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. METHODS: We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg
Ravussin, Yann; LeDuc, Charles A.; Watanabe, Kazuhisa
We showed previously that, at ambient room temperature (22°C), mice maintained at 20% below their initial body weight by calorie restriction expend energy at a rate below that which can be accounted for by the decrease of fat and fat-free mass. Food-restricted rodents may become torpid at subthermoneutral temperatures, a possible confounding factor when using mice as human models in obesity research. We examined the bioenergetic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to maintenance of a 20% body weight reduction in singly housed C57BL/6J +/+ and Lepob mice housed at both 22°C and 30°C. Weight-reduced high-fat-fed diet mice (HFD-WR) showed similar quantitative reductions in energy expenditure—adjusted for body mass and composition—at both 22°C and 30°C: −1.4 kcal/24 h and −1.6 kcal/24 h below predicted, respectively, and neither group entered torpor. In contrast, weight-reduced Lepob mice (OB-WR) housed at 22°C became torpid in the late lights-off period (0200–0500) but did not when housed at 30°C. These studies indicate that mice with an intact leptin axis display similar decreases in “absolute” energy expenditure in response to weight reduction at both 22°C and 30°C ambient temperature. More importantly, the “percent” decrease in total energy expenditure observed in the HFD-WR compared with AL mice is much greater at 30°C (−19%) than at 22°C (−10%). Basal energy expenditure demands are ∼45% lower in mice housed at 30°C vs. 22°C, since the mice housed at thermoneutrality do not allocate extra energy for heat production. The higher total energy expenditure of mice housed at 22°C due to these increased thermogenic demands may mask physiologically relevant changes in energy expenditure showing that ambient temperature must be carefully considered when quantifying energy metabolism in both rodents and humans. PMID:22761182
Moncada, Rafael; Becerril, Sara; Rodríguez, Amaia; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Ramírez, Beatriz; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Gil, M Jesús; Fernández, Secundino; Cienfuegos, Javier A; Valentí, Víctor; Frühbeck, Gema
Susceptibility to obesity is associated with a notable inter-individual variation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on weight loss and metabolic profile in obesity-prone (OP) rats vs animals that are non-susceptible to obesity (NSO). Young male Wistar rats (n = 101) were put in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) programme with ad libitum access to a high-fed diet (HFD) during 12 months. Body weight and food intake were regularly registered. Thereafter, rats were ranked by final body weight to identify the obesity-prone (OP) (n = 13) and non-susceptible to obesity (NSO) (n = 14) animals. OP and NSO rats were submitted to surgical interventions (sham operation, SG and pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized rats). Body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, body temperature, fat pads weight, and metabolic profiling were analysed 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. SG in both OP and NSO rats decreased body weight as compared to sham and pair-fed groups (P weight loss achieved in sleeve-gastrectomized OP and NSO rats was higher than that of pair-fed ones (P obesity-prone rats also benefit from surgery responding effectively to SG, as evidenced by the significant body weight reduction and the metabolic profile improvement.
Jiang, Cheng; Lin, Wei-Jye; Sadahiro, Masato; Shin, Andrew C; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R
Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice. Adult male and female mice, with conditional ablation of the Vgf gene in embryonic neurons had significantly reduced body weight, increased energy expenditure, and were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Conditional forebrain postnatal ablation of VGF in male mice, primarily in adult excitatory neurons, had no measurable effect on body weight nor on energy expenditure, but led to a modest increase in adiposity, partially overlapping the effect of AAV-Cre-mediated targeted ablation of VGF in the adult ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus of floxed Vgf mice (Foglesong et al., 2016), and also consistent with results of icv delivery of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to adult mice, which resulted in increased energy expenditure and reduced adiposity (Bartolomucci et al., 2006). Because the lean, hypermetabolic phenotype of germline VGF knockout mice is to a great extent recapitulated in Syn-Cre+/-,Vgfflpflox/flpflox mice, we conclude that the metabolic profile of germline VGF knockout mice is largely the result of VGF ablation in embryonic CNS neurons, rather than peripheral endocrine and/or neuroendocrine cells, and that in forebrain structures such as hypothalamus, VGF and/or VGF-derived peptides play uniquely different roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Azra Okanović; Besim Prnjavorac; Edin Jusufović; Rifat Sejdinović
Aim To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2...
Rosenbaum, Michael; Leibel, Rudolph L
To test three proposed models for adaptive thermogenesis in compartments of energy expenditure following different degrees of weight loss. Specifically, (1) there is no adaptive thermogenesis [constant relationship of energy expenditure (EE) to metabolic mass]. (2) There is a fixed degree of adaptive thermogenesis once fat stores are below a "threshold." (3) The degree of adaptive thermogenesis is proportional to weight loss. The relationship between weight loss and EE was examined in 17 inpatient subjects with stable weight and obesity studied at usual weight and again following a 10% and a 20% weight loss. Following initial weight loss (10%), resting (REE) and non-resting (NREE) EE were significantly below those predicted on the basis of the amount and composition of weight lost. Further reductions below predicted values of NREE but not REE occurred following an additional 10% weight loss. Changes in body weight, composition, and/or energy stores were significantly correlated with changes in EE. All models are applicable to the decline in EE following weight loss. The disproportionate decline in REE is consistent with a threshold model (no change with further weight loss) while the disproportionate decline in NREE is largely reflective of the degree of weight loss. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.
Lu, Chuanwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Shen, Chwan-Li; Gao, Weimin
Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.
Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo
Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci
Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...
Full Text Available Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycaemia. However, data from South Asia region is very limited. In order to examine the effect of AGI in real-life setting, 10 PMS/NIS from all over the world from the launch of acarbose to date were pooled in one database and exploratory analysis was performed for glycemic parameters and weight. In total 62,905 patients were pooled from 21 countries and regions. Mean follow up (± SD was 12.2 ± 4.8 weeks (range 0.1-108.9. From South Asia region (India and Pakistan, 8,738 Asian patients were enrolled. Mean PPG decreased from 240.0 and 261.1 mg/dl at baseline by 70.26 ± 65.10 and 82.96 ± 56.59 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 53,883; n = 7,991, P < 0.0001 for both. Mean FPG decreased from 171.6 and 176.5 mg/dl at baseline by 38.48 ± 47.83 and 49.59 ± 41.41 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 56,672; n = 7,837, P < 0.0001 for both. Mean HbA1c decreased from 8.4 and 8.4% at baseline by 1.11 ± 1.31% and 0.91 ± 0.93% at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 38,843; n = 2,343, P < 0.0001 for both. Mean relative reduction of body weight (BW was 1.40 ± 3.28% and 1.10 ± 3.39% at the last visit for mean baseline BW 73.6 and 74.2 kg in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 54,760; n = 7,718, P < 0.0001 for both. Consistent with RCT meta-analyses, post-hoc analysis of real-life data showed acarbose treatment improved glycaemic control and reduced the BW. Acarbose treatment in real life setting showed significant reductions in all glycemic parameters and BW in Asian patients from South Asia region.
Kim, Eun Kyoung; An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo
Kimchi is a traditional fermented Korean food that has garnered international interest due to its various beneficial effects. Focusing on the effect of fermentation, this study hypothesized that consumption of fermented kimchi would have more beneficial effects compared with that of fresh kimchi on metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risks in overweight and obese subjects. Twenty-two overweight and obese patients with body mass indexes greater than 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to two 4-week diet phases separated by a 2-week washout period (crossover design). During each diet phase, the subjects consumed either fresh or fermented kimchi. Anthropometric data showed significant decreases in body weight, body mass index, and body fat in both groups, and the fermented kimchi group showed a significant decrease in the waist-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose. Net differences in the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol in the fermented kimchi group were significantly greater than those in the fresh kimchi group. There was also a tendency for a decrease in fasting insulin after consumption of fermented kimchi. Therefore, the ingestion of fermented kimchi had positive effects on various factors associated with metabolic syndrome, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol, compared with the fresh kimchi. These results suggest that the maturity of kimchi (fresh vs fermented) may affect obesity, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat
To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.
Full Text Available Aim To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males, and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males. All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day. Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. Results The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Conclusion Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
Donahey, Jamie C.K.; Dijk, Gertjan van; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.
Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (7–36) amide (GLP-1), when infused into the third ventricle (IVT), reduces short-term food intake. In the present experiments, we assessed whether IVT administration of GLP-1 could influence long-term food intake and body weight of lean Long Evans rats and of fatty Zucker
Gutiérrez, Emilio; Baysari, Melissa T; Carrera, Olaia; Whitford, Thomas J; Boakes, Robert A
This study examined the effect of ambient temperature (AT) on the relationship between activity and weight loss. Compared with a neutral AT of 21 degrees C, high ATs of 27-29 degrees C produced a slower rate of weight loss in rats given 1.5-hr food access and 22.5-hr running-wheel access in a standard activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure (Experiments 1 and 2). The high AT did not affect food intake or wheel running in Experiment 1, but did reduce running in Experiment 2. Switching from neutral to high AT had only a transient effect on weight loss when wheel access was maintained (Experiment 2) but resulted in less weight loss when wheel access was prevented (Experiment 3). Giving rats only 3 hr of wheel access each day at a neutral AT also produced substantial weight loss, but less if for the rest of each day they were maintained at a high AT (Experiment 4).
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.
Schmidt, J B; Cole, C A; Zanes, R B; Satterlee, D G
1. While changes in corticosterone (B) during late embryogenesis are thought to play a role in the hatching process, only a scant and controversial literature exists concerning the effects of in ovo B on the length of incubation and chick body weight at hatching. Because female Japanese quail selected for exaggerated (high stress, HS) rather than reduced (low stress, LS) plasma B response to brief mechanical restraint deposit more B into their eggs, these stress lines provide an excellent model to study the relationship between embryonic B and incubation length and hatchling body weight. 2. Differences in the duration of incubation and chick body weight at emergence were assessed using eggs laid by LS and HS quail. 3. On average, eggs from HS hens hatched 3.7 h sooner than did eggs from LS hens while mean body weight at emergence was similar in hatchlings of both lines. Thus, selection for exaggerated adrenocortical responsiveness is associated with a reduction in the length of egg incubation without altering hatchling body weight. 4. This finding is important to the poultry industry because it warns layer, breeder farm and hatchery managers that unless stress in hens during egg formation is avoided, an abbreviated incubation period may result.
Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk
tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on body weight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P body weight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P body weight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses body weight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression.
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Liu, Jiemin; Jin, Haifeng; Foreman, Robert D; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xiaohong; Li, Shiying; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z
The aim of this study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of chronic electrical stimulation at acupoints (CEA) using surgically implanted electrodes on food intake, body weight, and metabolisms in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Thirty-six DIO rats were chronically implanted with electrodes at acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli). Three sets of parameters were tested: electrical acupuncture (EA) 1 (2-s on, 3-s off, 0.5 ms, 15 Hz, 6 mA), EA2 (same as EA1 but continuous pulses), and EA3 (same as EA2 but 10 mA). A chronic study was then performed to investigate the effects of CEA on body weight and mechanisms involving gastrointestinal hormones and autonomic functions. EA2 significantly reduced food intake without uncomfortable behaviors. CEA at EA2 reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight (P postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c (P postprandial blood glucose (R (2) = 0.89, P blood glucose possibly attributed to multiple mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility and hormones via the autonomic pathway.
Fantini, Noemi; Cabras, Claudia; Lobina, Carla; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Donzelli, Fabio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Carai, Mauro A M
Extracts of kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) are known to reduce food intake and glycemia in rodents and humans. This study evaluated the effect of a novel extract of P. vulgaris on food (regular food pellets, starch-enriched diet, and chocolate-flavored beverage) intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats. The effect of the combination of the colecistokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist, lorglumide, and P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake was also investigated. Administration of doses of P. vulgaris dry extract devoid of any behavioral toxicity dose-dependently decreased food intake (irrespective of the diet), body weight gain, and glycemia. Pretreatment with lorglumide blocked the reducing effect of P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake. The capacity of this P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats may be due to (a) inhibition of alpha-amylase, (b) stimulation of CCK release from the intestinal brush border cells, and/or (c) interference with the central mechanism(s) regulating appetite, food intake, and food palatability.
Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243
Puhkala, Jatta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Aittasalo, Minna; Hublin, Christer; Kärmeniemi, Paula; Olkkonen, Seppo; Partinen, Markku; Sallinen, Mikael; Tokola, Kari; Fogelholm, Mikael
We conducted a randomized trial among overweight long-distance drivers to study the effects of structured lifestyle counseling on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Men with waist circumference >100 cm were randomized into a lifestyle counseling (LIFE, N=55) and a reference (REF, N=58) group. The LIFE group participated in monthly counseling on nutrition, physical activity, and sleep for 12 months aiming at 10% weight loss. After 12 months, the REF group participated in 3-month counseling. Assessments took place at 0, 12, and 24 months. Between-group differences in changes were analyzed by generalized linear modeling. Metabolic risk (Z score) was calculated from components of metabolic syndrome. The mean body weight change after 12 months was -3.4 kg in LIFE (N=47) and 0.7 kg in REF (N=48) [net difference -4.0 kg, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.9- -6.2]. Six men in LIFE reduced body weight by ≥10%. Changes in waist circumference were -4.7 cm in LIFE and -0.1 cm in REF (net -4.7 cm, 95% CI -6.6- -2.7). Metabolic risk decreased more in the LIFE than REF group (net -1.2 points, 95% CI -0.6- -2.0). After 24 months follow-up, there were no between-group differences in changes in body weight (net -0.5 kg, 95% CI -3.8-2.9) or metabolic risk score (net 0.1 points; 95% CI -0.8-1.0) compared to baseline. Weight reduction and decreases in cardiometabolic risk factors were clinically meaningful after 12 months of counseling.
Kaineder, K; Birngruber, T; Rauter, G
BACKGROUND: The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is marketed for obesity treatment where it induces body weight reduction possibly via the hypothalamus, which regulates energy homeostasis. In animal studies, acute liraglutide treatment triggers satiety, weight loss and activates thermogenesis...
Kaineder, K; Birngruber, T; Rauter, G
BACKGROUND: The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is marketed for obesity treatment where it induces body weight reduction possibly via the hypothalamus, which regulates energy homeostasis. In animal studies, acute liraglutide treatment triggers satiety, weight loss and activates thermogenesis i...
Carai, Mauro A M; Fantini, Noemi; Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo
Previous lines of experimental evidence have suggested that Phaseolus vulgaris extracts reduce food intake, body weight, lipid accumulation, hedonic properties of food, carbohydrate absorption and metabolism, and glycaemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of multiple cycles of repeated treatments with a standardised P. vulgaris dry extract on daily food intake and body weight in genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats (Expt 1). Additionally, the study tested the effect of acute treatment with P. vulgaris dry extract on postprandial glycaemia in Zucker fa/fa rats (Expt 2). In Expt 1, P. vulgaris dry extract was administered daily, at doses of 50 and 500 mg/kg, in three 5 d treatment periods followed by three 20 d off-treatment periods. Administration of P. vulgaris dry extract resulted in dose-dependent decreases in daily food intake and body weight in each treatment phase. Reductions in food intake were of comparable magnitude in each treatment phase. In Expt 2, food-deprived rats were acutely treated with 50 and 500 mg P. vulgaris dry extract per kg immediately before access to a fixed amount of a starch-enriched chow. Treatment with P. vulgaris dry extract resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of glycaemia. These results extend previous data on the anorectic and hypoglycaemic effects of the P. vulgaris dry extract to a validated animal model of obesity. Together with data published previously in the literature, these results strengthen the hypothesis that potentially effective, novel pharmacotherapies for obesity and related disorders may originate from extracts and derivatives of P. vulgaris.
Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)
Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.
Juan Manuel Decara
We have modelled elaidyl-sulfamide (ES, a sulfamoyl analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA. ES is a lipid mediator of satiety that works through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα. We have characterised the pharmacological profile of ES (0.3–3 mg/kg body weight by means of in silico molecular docking to the PPARα receptor, in vitro transcription through PPARα, and in vitro and in vivo administration to obese rats. ES interacts with the binding site of PPARα in a similar way as OEA does, is capable of activating PPARα and also reduces feeding in a dose-dependent manner when administered to food-deprived rats. When ES was given to obese male rats for 7 days, it reduced feeding and weight gain, lowered plasma cholesterol and reduced the plasmatic activity of transaminases, indicating a clear improvement of hepatic function. This pharmacological profile is associated with the modulation of both cholesterol and lipid metabolism regulatory genes, including the sterol response element-binding proteins SREBF1 and SREBF2, and their regulatory proteins INSIG1 and INSIG2, in liver and white adipose tissues. ES treatment induced the expression of thermogenic regulatory genes, including the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue and UCP3 in white adipose tissue. However, its chronic administration resulted in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, which represent a constraint for its potential clinical development.
Decara, Juan Manuel; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Rivera, Patricia; Macias-González, Manuel; Vida, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Cano, Carolina; Fresno, Nieves; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan
SUMMARY We have modelled elaidyl-sulfamide (ES), a sulfamoyl analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA). ES is a lipid mediator of satiety that works through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). We have characterised the pharmacological profile of ES (0.3–3 mg/kg body weight) by means of in silico molecular docking to the PPARα receptor, in vitro transcription through PPARα, and in vitro and in vivo administration to obese rats. ES interacts with the binding site of PPARα in a similar way as OEA does, is capable of activating PPARα and also reduces feeding in a dose-dependent manner when administered to food-deprived rats. When ES was given to obese male rats for 7 days, it reduced feeding and weight gain, lowered plasma cholesterol and reduced the plasmatic activity of transaminases, indicating a clear improvement of hepatic function. This pharmacological profile is associated with the modulation of both cholesterol and lipid metabolism regulatory genes, including the sterol response element-binding proteins SREBF1 and SREBF2, and their regulatory proteins INSIG1 and INSIG2, in liver and white adipose tissues. ES treatment induced the expression of thermogenic regulatory genes, including the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue and UCP3 in white adipose tissue. However, its chronic administration resulted in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, which represent a constraint for its potential clinical development. PMID:22736460
Pakdel, A; Bijma, P; Ducro, B J; Bovenhuis, H
Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for selection against this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies for BW and resistance to ascites syndrome using deterministic simulation. In addition to the consequences of current selection (i.e., selection for increased BW only) alternative selection strategies including information on different ascites-related traits measured under normal or cold conditions and the consequences of having information on the underlying genes (i.e., MAS) were quantified. Five different breeding schemes were compared based on the selection response for BW, ascites susceptibility, and the rate of inbreeding. Traits investigated in the index as indicators for ascites were hematocrit value (HCT) and ratio of right ventricle to the total ventricular weight of the heart (RV:TV). The results indicated that by ignoring ascites susceptibility in the breeding goal, the gain for BW is 130 g and the birds will become more susceptible to ascites. Testing 50% of the birds under cold temperature conditions and including information of ascites related traits (HCT and RV:TV) measured under normal and cold conditions makes it possible to achieve a relatively high gain for BW (111.4 g) while controlling the genetic level for ascites susceptibility (selection response was 0). The results of scenarios including QTL information of ascites susceptibility showed that QTL information could be used very effectively in controlling ascites susceptibility.
Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H
VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well
Sahu, Maitrayee; Anamthathmakula, Prashanth; Sahu, Abhiram
Insulin action in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, yet the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating insulin action are incompletely understood. Although phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) mediates insulin action in the adipose tissue and it is highly expressed in the hypothalamic areas implicated in energy homeostasis, its role, if any, in mediating insulin action in the hypothalamus is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that insulin action in the hypothalamus is mediated by PDE3B. Using enzymatic assay, we examined the effects of peripheral or central administration of insulin on hypothalamic PDE3B activity in adult mice. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry also examined p-Akt and p-STAT3 levels in the hypothalamus. Effects of leptin on these parameters were also compared. We injected cilostamide, a PDE3 inhibitor, prior to central injection of insulin and examined the 12- to 24-hour food intake and 24-hour body weight. Finally, we examined the effect of cilostamide on insulin-induced proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), neurotensin (Nt), neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related peptide (Agrp) gene expression in the hypothalamus by qPCR. Peripheral or central injection of insulin significantly increased PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus in association with increased p-Akt levels but without any change in p-STAT3 levels. However, leptin-induced increase in PDE3B activity was associated with an increase in both p-Akt and p-STAT3 levels in the hypothalamus. Prior administration of cilostamide reversed the anorectic and body weight-reducing effects as well as stimulatory effect of insulin on hypothalamic Pomc mRNA levels. Insulin did not alter Nt, Npy and Agrp mRNA levels. Insulin induction of hypothalamic PDE3B activity and the reversal of the anorectic and body weight-reducing effects and stimulatory effect of insulin on hypothalamic Pomc gene expression by cilostamide suggest that activation of PDE3B is a novel mechanism of
Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Suarez, Juan; Rivera, Patricia; Vida, Margarita; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; Alonso, Mónica; Martínez, Ana; López-Ogalla, Javier; Alonso-Gascón, Mercedes; Santamaría, Gema; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Pérez-Valero, Vidal; Baixeras, Elena; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando
Enhancement of adiponectin level has been shown to have beneficial effects, including antiobesity, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. This evidence supports the therapeutic utility of adiponectin in complicated obesity. The present study characterized the in vivo effects of sustained adiponectin release by NP-1, a new class of thiazol derivative that increases adiponectin levels. Acute administration of NP-1 reduced feeding, increased plasma adiponectin, and improved insulin sensitivity without inducing malaise, as revealed by conditioned taste aversion studies. Short-term (7 days) treatment with NP-1 also reduced feeding and body weight gain and increased phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle, a main intracellular effector of adiponectin. NP-1 was also evaluated in diet-induced obesity, and adult male Wistar rats were fed two different types of diet: a standard high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (SD) and a high-fat diet (HFD). Once obesity was established, animals were treated daily with NP-1 (5 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Chronic NP-1 induced body weight loss and reduction of food intake and resulted in both a marked decrease in liver steatosis and an improvement of biochemical indexes of liver damage in HFD-fed rats. However, a marked induction of tolerance in adiponectin gene transcription and release was observed after chronic NP-1 with respect to the acute actions of this drug. The present results support the role of adiponectin signaling in diet-induced obesity and set in place a potential use of compounds able to induce adiponectin release for the treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver, with the limits imposed by the induction of pharmacological tolerance.
Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)
Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L
BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P ... by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined...
Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo
We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.
Armitage, Christopher J.
Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256
Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)
The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.
Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V
To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....
Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A and α-amylase (RP-E on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS. Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P P P P P > 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.
because of its high meat quality and acceptance by ... respectively. Thus, morphometric traits were recommended by Okon et al. (2010a, b) as good predictors of hatchling weights in. Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, .... wt = body weight, w = hatchling body shell width, L = hatchling body shell length.
Schnell, Oliver; Weng, Jianping; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Watada, Hirotaka; Kalra, Sanjay; Soegondo, Sidartawan; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Rathod, Rahul; Zhang, Cheryl; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw
The objective of this study is to examine the effect of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on body weight in a real-life setting by pooling data from post-marketing surveillance. Data from 10 studies were pooled (n=67,682) and the effect of acarbose on body weight was analysed taking into account baseline body weight, glycemic parameters and other baseline characteristics. The mean relative reduction in body weight was 1.45 ± 3.24% at the 3-month visit (n=43,510; mean baseline 73.4 kg) and 1.40 ± 3.28% at the last visit (n=54,760; mean baseline 73.6 kg) (both pbody weight (overweight: -1.33 ± 2.98% [n=13,498; mean baseline 71.6 kg]; obese: -1.98 ± 3.40% [n=20,216; mean baseline 81.3 kg]). When analysed by baseline glycemic parameter quartiles, the reduction was independent of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial glucose excursion (PPGE). A bivariate analysis of covariance identified female sex, South East Asian and East Asian ethnicity, younger age, higher body mass index, short duration of diabetes, and no previous treatment as factors likely to impact positively on body weight reduction with acarbose. This post-hoc analysis showed that acarbose treatment reduces body weight independent of glycemic control status but dependent on baseline body weight. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kratky, Sascha; Müller, Erich
It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was used. The subjects performed flying 20-m sprints under 3 conditions: (a) free sprint; (b) body-weight supported sprint-normal speed (BWS-NS); and (c) body-weight supported sprint-overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was derived from the 20-m sprint time. Compared with the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, whereas ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p training.
Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M
Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. © 2013.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
... munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer...
Kim, Karen Hye-cheon; Bursac, Zoran; DiLillo, Vicki; White, Della Brown; West, Delia Smith
Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is body weight. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and body weight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) was assessed at baseline only and body weight (body mass index) was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Stress was not related to baseline body weight. With every 1 unit lower scored on the baseline stress measure, women lost 0.10 kg +/- .04 more at 6 months (p women were divided into tertiles based on baseline stress scores, those in the lowest stress group had significantly greater weight loss (5.2 kg +/- 4.9) compared with those in the highest stress group (3.0 kg +/- 4.0) (p weight loss has implications for enhancing weight loss programs for women with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte
The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L
We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anth...
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L
BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...
Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Moore, Helen J; Douthwaite, Wayne; Skeaff, C Murray; Summerbell, Carolyn D
To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. 33 randomised controlled trials (73,589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval -2.0 to -1.2 kg, I(2)=75%, 57,735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (-0.51 kg/m(2), 95% confidence interval -0.76 to -0.26, nine trials, I(2)=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval -0.58 to -0.02, 15,671 women, one trial). There was no
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. Methods We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined gender specific associations between the prevalence of poor body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI with generalized additive models and applied multilevel logistic regression methods to estimate associations of body satisfaction with BMI, rural residence, parental education and income, and neighborhood household income. Results We observed a linear increase in poor body satisfaction with increasing BMI in girls. Among boys, however, we found a U-shape association where boys with low BMI and those with high BMI reported higher levels of poor body satisfaction. We also found that poor body satisfaction was more prevalent among girls whose parents had lower educational attainment and among those who reside in rural areas. Conclusion Insight into the unique relationships between body satisfaction and BMI experienced by prepubescent children, males, and populations diverse in parental education and geographic location may help to inform public health initiatives designed to improve weight-related behaviors and reduce overweight in children.
Rita R. Ellithorpe
Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements
Alexander, Janet E.; Colyer, Alison; Penelope J Morris
Approximately 40 % of pet dogs are estimated to be overweight and this is associated with health conditions significantly reducing life span and quality. In cats, dietary energy dilution has been reported to increase activity levels and aid healthy body-weight maintenance. Our aim was to investigate this in dogs. For 28 d, a complete and balanced standard dry diet, hydrated to a total moisture content (TMC) of 72 %, was offered to forty-six dogs at individual maintenance energy requirements (...
Bolinder, J; Ljunggren, Ö; Johansson, L; Wilding, J; Langkilde, A M; Sjöström, C D; Sugg, J; Parikh, S
Dapagliflozin, a highly selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), reduces hyperglycaemia and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Long-term glycaemic control, body composition and bone safety were evaluated in patients with T2DM after 102 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT00855166) enrolled patients with T2DM [mean: age 60.7 years; HbA1c 7.2%; body mass index (BMI) 31.9 kg/m(2) ; body weight 91.5 kg] inadequately controlled on metformin. Patients (N = 182) were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg/day or placebo added to open-label metformin for a 24-week double-blind treatment period followed by a 78-week site- and patient-blinded extension period. At week 102, changes from baseline in HbA1c, weight, waist circumference, total body fat mass as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum markers of bone turnover, bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by DXA, and adverse events were evaluated. A total of 140 patients (76.9%) completed the study. Over 102 weeks, dapagliflozin-treated patients showed reductions in HbA1c by -0.3%, weight by -4.54 kg, waist circumference by -5.0 cm and fat mass by -2.80 kg without increase in rate of hypoglycaemia. Compared with placebo, no meaningful changes from baseline in markers of bone turnover or BMD were identified over 102 weeks. One fracture occurred in each treatment group. The frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and genital infection was similar in both treatment groups. Over 102 weeks, dapagliflozin improved glycaemic control, and reduced weight and fat mass, without affecting markers of bone turnover or BMD in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on metformin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Samuel, Renata Oliveira; Prieto, Annelise Katrine Carrara; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Dezan-Júnior, Eloi; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo
The effects of apical periodontitis (AP) and periodontal disease (PD) on organ weights in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) were evaluated. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into eight groups of ten: normoglycemic (N), AP, PD, AP+PD, DM, DM+AP, DM+PD, and DM+AP+PD. DM was induced by streptozotocin; AP, by dental exposure to the oral environment; and PD, by periodontal ligature. Blood glucose concentration was measured at 0, 6, 15, and 35days; body weight, measured daily; and animals were sacrificed after 30days after induction of oral infections. Liver, kidney, pancreas, brain, heart, lungs, and gonads were each weighed. Glycemia, feed intake, organ weight, and body weight were subjected to statistical analyses (pdiabetic groups after day 6, but were consistently similar in normoglycemic groups. Blood glucose was higher in DM+PD and DM+AP+PD groups than in the DM group at days 15 and 35. The feed intake was similar among all groups. Brain, heart, and gonad weights were significantly increased in DM+AP+PD. Kidney and lung weights were increased in DM, regardless of the presence of oral infections. Liver weight was reduced in AP and/or PD. Pancreas weight was reduced in DM, independent of AP or PD. Among the normoglycemic groups, there were no significant differences among organ weights. Apical periodontitis and periodontal disease may potentiate the adverse effects of diabetes. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K
Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in
Vrang, Niels; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Tang-Christensen, Mads
The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single intraperit......The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single...... intraperitoneal injection of PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake in mice, but not in rats. We next investigated the effects of increasing doses (100, 300, and 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps on food intake and body weight in DIO C57BL/6J mice. Whereas only...... the highest dose (1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) significantly reduced food intake over the first 3 days, body weight gain was dose dependently reduced, and on day 28 the group treated with 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1 PYY(3-36) weighed approximately 10% less than the vehicle-treated group. Mesenteric...
Full Text Available In the delivery room, wrapping a low-birth-weight neonate (defined as ≤2.499 g in a polyethylene bag reduces the risk of hypothermia. However, extended use of the bag (e.g., during neonatal surgery might conceivably increase the risk of thermal stress and thus body overheating. Here, we assessed the efficacy of a polyethylene bag in infants assigned to wrap (W or nonwrap (NW, control groups during placement of a percutaneous vena cava catheter by applying a new mathematical model that calculates heat exchanges for covered and uncovered body segments. At the end of the placement procedure, the W and NW groups did not differ significantly in terms of whole-body heat loss (15.80 versus 14.97 kJ·h−1·kg−1, resp., whereas the abdominal skin temperature was slightly but significantly higher (by 0.32°C in the W group. Greater evaporation in the W group (2.49 kJ·h−1·kg−1 was primarily balanced by greater whole-body radiant heat loss (3.44 kJ·h−1·kg−1. Wrapping the neonate in a polyethylene bag provides a small thermal benefit when catheter placement takes a long time. Given that polyethylene is transparent to radiant energy, it might be of value to incorporate polymers that are less transparent at infrared wavelengths.
Tiago Roque Pinheiro
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations between carcass traits measured by ultrasound and other economically important traits generally used as selection criteria in beef cattle and to estimate the genetic changes in the carcass traits as a result of selection for post-yearling weight. Carcass traits measured by ultrasound at two ages (12 and 18 months and the correlation of these traits with weight, hip height and body condition score of males (yearling and females (post-yearling were analyzed. Multi-trait analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model. To demonstrate the effect of selection for growth, phenotypic and expected breeding value means of the carcass traits and weights according to selection line (Nellore control line, selection line and traditional line were estimated using records from animals born in the last 3 years (2006 to 2008. The heritability estimates were high for longissimus muscle area (LMA at 12 and 18 months of age (0.47 and 0.40, respectively. For fat thickness measures, heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.29. Genetic correlations of the same trait between the two ages were high for LMA (0.95. The Nellore breed shows medium to high genetic variability in carcass traits measured by ultrasound at 12 and 18 months of age, and a greater response is expected if selection for backfat thickness is performed at about 12 months of age. Selection for higher body weight will lead to an increase of LMA at the two ages without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness.
Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Umegatani, Minami; Shiraishi, Aya; Morita, Yukiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao
Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055.
Anderberg, Rozita H; Richard, Jennifer E; Eerola, Kim; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Banke, Elin; Hansson, Caroline; Nissbrandt, Hans; Berqquist, Filip; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Lamy, Christophe M; Skibicka, Karolina P
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and serotonin play critical roles in energy balance regulation. Both systems are exploited clinically as antiobesity strategies. Surprisingly, whether they interact in order to regulate energy balance is poorly understood. Here we investigated mechanisms by which GLP-1 and serotonin interact at the level of the central nervous system. Serotonin depletion impaired the ability of exendin-4, a clinically used GLP-1 analog, to reduce body weight in rats, suggesting that serotonin is a critical mediator of the energy balance impact of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation. Serotonin turnover and expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus were altered by GLP-1R activation. We demonstrate that the 5-HT2A, but surprisingly not the 5-HT2C, receptor is critical for weight loss, anorexia, and fat mass reduction induced by central GLP-1R activation. Importantly, central 5-HT2A receptors are also required for peripherally injected liraglutide to reduce feeding and weight. Dorsal raphe (DR) harbors cell bodies of serotonin-producing neurons that supply serotonin to the hypothalamic nuclei. We show that GLP-1R stimulation in DR is sufficient to induce hypophagia and increase the electrical activity of the DR serotonin neurons. Finally, our results disassociate brain metabolic and emotionality pathways impacted by GLP-1R activation. This study identifies serotonin as a new critical neural substrate for GLP-1 impact on energy homeostasis and expands the current map of brain areas impacted by GLP-1R activation. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Yashiro, Hiroaki; Takagahara, Shuichi; Tamura, Yumiko Okano; Miyahisa, Ikuo; Matsui, Junji; Suzuki, Hideo; Ikeda, Shota; Watanabe, Masanori
Obesity is now recognized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and is called as metabolic inflammation. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is an enzyme that metabolizes dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). Thus, D5D inhibition increases DGLA (precursor to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids) while decreasing AA (precursor to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids), and could result in synergistic improvement in the low-grade inflammatory state. Here, we demonstrate reduced insulin resistance and the anti-obesity effect of a D5D selective inhibitor (compound-326), an orally active small-molecule, in a high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. In vivo D5D inhibition was confirmed by determining changes in blood AA/DGLA profiles. In DIO mice, chronic treatment with compound-326 lowered insulin resistance and caused body weight loss without significant impact on cumulative calorie intake. Decreased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was expected from mRNA analysis. Increased daily energy expenditure was also observed following administration of compound-326, in line with sustained body weight loss. These data indicate that the novel D5D selective inhibitor, compound-326, will be a new class of drug for the treatment of obese and diabetic patients.
James Lester Figarola
Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.
Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L
In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.
Full Text Available Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG, could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor
Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.
Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...
Full Text Available Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060 to high-fat diet (HFD-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.
Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D
Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.
Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.
O'Connor, A; Phelan, N; Tun, T Kyaw; Boran, G; Gibney, J; Roche, H M
High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. This was a cross-sectional study. A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.
The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...
Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...
Full Text Available The existing data about the role of dairy foods in body weight management, as a physiological explanation are shown in this paper. There is accumulating evidence about inverse association between body weight and dairy intake. Research showed that obese individuals consume fewer dairies than normal weight people. Also three servings of dairy foods per day in a reduced calorie diet may help accelerate body fat loss when compared to a calorie-restricted diet low in dairy foods. Calcium plays the main role and is present in great amounts in dairy foods. Its anti-obesity effect is attributed to its impact on lypogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes. Calcium supplements do not have such effect as dairy calcium, possibly due to the effects of other bioactive components in dairy foods such as conjugated linoleic acid, whey peptides, branched aminoacids and lactose which amplify anti-obesity effect. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies confirmed the hypothesis that high dairy food intake can act in a weight management, but prospective studies and randomized controlled intervention trials have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore there is a need of conducting more large population-based clinical trials and meta-analysis.
Ting, Wei-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Jiang, Chong-He; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chung, Li-Chin; Shen, Chia-Yao; Pai, Peiying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Liao, Shih-Chieh
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment. Notably, an almost 16% reduction in body weight was observed in the 17β-E-treated (12 μg/kg/day for 60 days) high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice. These results suggested that 17β-E supplements may reduce CVD risk due to obesity.
Jakubowicz, Daniela; Wainstein, Julio; Landau, Zohar; Ahren, Bo; Barnea, Maayan; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Froy, Oren
Acute studies show that addition of whey protein at breakfast has a glucose-lowering effect through increased incretin and insulin secretion. However, whether this is a long-term effect in Type 2 diabetes is unknown. Fifty-six Type 2 diabetes participants aged 58.9±4.5 years, BMI 32.1±0.9 kg/m(2) and HbA1C 7.8±0.1% (61.6±0.79 mmol/mol) were randomized to one of 3 isocaloric diets with similar lunch and dinner, but different breakfast: 1) 42 g total protein, 28 g whey (WBdiet, n=19); 2) 42 g various protein sources (PBdiet, n=19); or 3) high-carbohydrate breakfast, 17 g protein from various sources (CBdiet, n=18). Body weight and HbA1C were examined after 12 weeks. All participants underwent three all-day meal challenges for postprandial glycemia, insulin, C-peptide, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (iGLP-1), ghrelin and hunger and satiety scores. Overall postprandial AUCglucose was reduced by 12% in PBdiet and by 19% in WBdiet, compared with CBdiet (Pbreakfast is an important adjuvant in the management of Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Estrogen receptor α (ERα and estrogen receptor β (ERβ play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment. Notably, an almost 16% reduction in body weight was observed in the 17β-E-treated (12 μg/kg/day for 60 days high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice. These results suggested that 17β-E supplements may reduce CVD risk due to obesity.
Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia Garcia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador
The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women. Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose). Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic
Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello
The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.
Verhoef, S.P; Camps, S.G; Gonnissen, H.K; Westerterp, K.R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss...
Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters – it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX
Holmquist, Fredrik [Lund University, Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital, 205 02, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [Lund University, Department of Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, 23185, Trelleborg (Sweden)
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of minimising contrast-medium (CM) doses using 80-peak kilovoltage (kVp) 16-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with CM dose tailored to body weight, when diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) in azotaemic patients. Twenty-nine patients (68-93 years; 38-79 kg) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 12-49 ml/min underwent 80 kVp MDCT at a median dose of 200 mg iodine (I)/kg and 15 s injection time. Pulmonary artery (PA) enhancement where compared with our own reference material using 320 mg I/kg at 120 kVp and with reported figures in the literature at 120-140 kVp and a 42 g iodine CM dose. Median (1st and 3rd quartiles) values regarding CM dose were 12.2 (9.9-12.8) g iodine; density of left main and lower lobe segmental PA 339 (275-395) Hounsfield units (HU) and 354 (321-442) HU, respectively. Those enhancement values were similar to those obtained from the reference population at 120 kVp and those reported in the literature at 120-140 kVp. One patient had a transient increase in plasma creatinine. Three months' follow-up revealed deep venous thrombosis among 1/18 patients with negative results from computed tomography (CT). We conclude that 80 kVp 16-channel MDCT to diagnose PE in azotaemic patients may be performed with markedly reduced CM doses, implying a lesser risk for CM-induced nephropathy. (orig.)
Miana, María; Galán, María; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Varona, Saray; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bausa-Miranda, Belén; Antequera, Alfonso; Luaces, María; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cachofeiro, Victoria
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters - it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX activity for
The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
Barbieri, Paolo Nicola
This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.
Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de
Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.
www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed with Diets Based on Treated ... nutritional quality. Some processing methods including dry heat and wet heat treatment, soaking, dehulling, fermentation, sprouting etc. have been used in the past.
Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra
Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...
Full Text Available The majority of laboratory animals were transported from commercial breeders to a research facility by ground transportation. During the transportation, many biological functions and systems can be affected by stress. In this experiment, the change of body weight during the transportation was measured and the recovery periods from the transportation stress established based on the body weight changes. Total 676 laboratory animals which were aged between 3 to 9 wk old were studied. The transportation time taken from container packing to unpacking the container was approximately 24 h. The temperature of animal container was constantly maintained by air-conditioning and heating equipment. Rats were found to be more sensitive than mice. The body weight of rats was significantly decreased 3.71% (p<0.05 compared to the body weight of mice which decreased 0.9% There was no significant difference between the strains in the same species. When the changes of body weights were compared between delivery days, C57BL/6 mice showed the most variable changes compared to other species and strains. Consequently, C57BL/6 was more sensitive to stress than the other strains and the transportation process needs to be standardized to reduce between day variability. To establish the recovery periods from transportation stress, the body weight changes were measured during the acclimation period. Although the body weight of animals decreased during transportation, animals recovered their weight loss after the next day.
Full Text Available Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.
Leibel, R L; Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J
No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy expenditure to determine whether they lead to metabolic changes and whether obese subjects and those who have never been obese respond similarly. We repeatedly measured 24-hour total energy expenditure, resting and nonresting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in 18 obese subjects and 23 subjects who had never been obese. The subjects were studied at their usual body weight and after losing 10 to 20 percent of their body weight by underfeeding or gaining 10 percent by overfeeding. Maintenance of a body weight at a level 10 percent or more below the initial weight was associated with a mean (+/- SD) reduction in total energy expenditure of 6 +/- 3 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P weight at a level 10 percent above the usual weight was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure of 9 +/- 7 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P weight gain. These changes in energy expenditure were not related to the degree of adiposity or the sex of the subjects. Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.
Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G
.23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...
The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...
S) kids at weaning were used to compare body weight (BWT), body measurements (BM) and testicular measurements ™ of the two breeds. Efforts were also made to relate BWT with BM and TM in order to identify those that best predict BWT.
Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen
Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...
Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara; Chiriboga, David; Hebert, James R.; Li, Youfu; Li, Wenjun; Campbell, MaryJane; Gendreau, Katherine; Ockene, Ira S.
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly f...
Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery
Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M
Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.
L. P. Shelestova
Full Text Available Deficiency of a woman's body weight is in direct proportion to the mass of adipose tissue in the body and leads to a significant restructuring of the reproductive function endocrine mechanisms regulation. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of the elaborated complex pregravid preparation of women with body weight deficiency. Materials and Methods. We observed 130 women with body weight deficiency, who have visited the antenatal clinic for the purpose of planning pregnancy, 65 of them were treated with the proposed complex of therapeutic and preventive measures, 65 - traditional measures and 35 women with normal body weight. All women were determined by pituitary and ovarian hormones serum content and bone and mineral metabolism indices. The peculiarities of the proposed pregravid preparation are health food (mainly a protein-carbohydrate, daily calorie diet no less then 35 kcal/kg and metabolic correction (prescription of combined cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate drug, which reduces in bone resorption and increases in bone density. Results. It has been noted that hormonal therapy prescription for women with deficiency of body weight, could improve ovarian hormones and prolactin indices, which influenced on menstrual cycle normalization, ovulation induction, and accordingly contributed the pregnancy. The total content of calcium, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and vitamin D in women treated with the proposed measures, with the inclusion of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, did not differ from women with normal body weight, and whereas women who received traditional therapy, they were reduced significantly. Using the elaborated system promoted a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of spontaneous abortions from 16.3% to 2.0% (P=0.015. Conclusions. Applying elaborated complex of therapeutic and preventive measures for women with low body weight, which additionally to the hormonal status normalization includes health food
MRS FOLA AJAYI
October 11th – 14th, 2004, University of Agriculture. Abeokuta 88 – 91. Campbell, J. R., Kenealy, M. D. and Campbell, K. L., 1994. Animal Science: The biology, care and production of domestic animals. McGraw-Hill Companies. Fourth. Edition New York. 510pp. ESTIMATION OF BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY ...
Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n = 9), activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n = 9), no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n = 12) and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n = 11). During the first week all rats were fed ad libitum, ABA and AC had access to a running wheel for 24 h/day. From week two ABA and RF only had access to food from 9:00 to 10:30 a.m. Body weight was assessed daily, activity and food intake monitored electronically, brain activation assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. While during the first week no body weight differences were observed (p > 0.05), after food restriction RF rats showed a body weight decrease: −13% vs. day eight (p 0.05). Similarly, the daily physical activity was not different between AC and ABA (p > 0.05). The investigation of Fos expression in the brain showed neuronal activation in several brain nuclei such as the supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract of ABA compared to AL rats. In conclusion, ABA combining physical activity and restricted feeding likely represents a suited animal model for AN to study pathophysiological alterations and pharmacological treatment options. Nonetheless, cautious interpretation of the data is necessary since rats do not voluntarily reduce their body weight as observed in human AN. PMID:27826222
Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n=9, activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n=9, no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n=12 and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n=11. During the first week all rats were fed ad libitum, ABA and AC had access to a running wheel for 24h/d. From week two ABA and RF only had access to food from 9:00-10:30 am. Body weight was assessed daily, activity and food intake monitored electronically, brain activation assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. While during the first week no body weight differences were observed (p>0.05, after food restriction RF rats showed a body weight decrease: -13% vs. day eight (p0.05. Similarly, the daily physical activity was not different between AC and ABA (p>0.05. The investigation of Fos expression in the brain showed neuronal activation in several brain nuclei such as the supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract of ABA compared to AL rats. In conclusion, ABA combining physical activity and restricted feeding likely represents a suited animal model for AN to study pathophysiological alterations and pharmacological treatment options. Nonetheless, cautious interpretation of the data is necessary since rats do not voluntarily reduce their body weight as observed in human AN.
Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.
Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne
Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (
Hwang, Ji-Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Nam, Moon-Suk; Cho, Hyeongjin; Han, Inn-Oc
This study investigated the potential of glucosamine (GlcN) to affect body weight gain and insulin sensitivity in mice normal and at risk for developing diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) and the half of mice from CD and HFD provided with a solution of 10% (w/v) GlcN. Total cholesterol and nonesterified free fatty acid levels were determined. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. HepG2 human hepatoma cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin under normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. Effect of GlcN on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake was determined. JNK and Akt phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation were assayed by Western blotting. GlcN administration stimulated body weight gain (6.58±0.82 g vs. 11.1±0.42 g), increased white adipose tissue fat mass (percentage of bodyweight, 3.7±0.32 g vs. 5.61±0.34 g), and impaired the insulin response in livers of mice fed CD. However, GlcN treatment in mice fed HFD led to reduction of body weight gain (18.02±0.66 g vs. 16.22±0.96 g) and liver weight (2.27±0.1 vs. 1.85±0.12 g). Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance and impaired Akt insulin signaling in the liver were alleviated by GlcN administration. GlcN inhibited the insulin response under low (5 mM) glucose conditions, whereas it restored the insulin response for Akt phosphorylation under high (25 mM) glucose conditions in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Uptake of 2-DG increased upon GlcN treatment under 5 mM glucose compared to control, whereas insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake decreased under 5 mM and increased under 25 mM glucose in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that GlcN increased body weight gain and reduced the insulin response for glucose maintenance when fed to normal CD mice, whereas it alleviated body weight gain and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Therefore, the current data support the integrative
Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n = 9), activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n = 9), no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n = 12) and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n = 11). During the first week all rats were fed ad libitum, ABA and AC had access to a running wheel for 24 h/day. From week two ABA and RF only had access to food from 9:00 to 10:30 a.m. Body weight was assessed daily, activity and food intake monitored electronically, brain activation assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. While during the first week no body weight differences were observed (p > 0.05), after food restriction RF rats showed a body weight decrease: -13% vs. day eight (p weight (+10% and +13%, respectively; p weight loss (-9%) compared to RF (p weight loss of -22% during the 2-week restricted feeding period (p 0.05). Similarly, the daily physical activity was not different between AC and ABA (p > 0.05). The investigation of Fos expression in the brain showed neuronal activation in several brain nuclei such as the supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract of ABA compared to AL rats. In conclusion, ABA combining physical activity and restricted feeding likely represents a suited animal model for AN to study pathophysiological alterations and pharmacological treatment options. Nonetheless, cautious interpretation of the data is necessary since rats do not voluntarily reduce their body weight as
Xu, Yong; O'Malley, Bert W; Elmquist, Joel K
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.
Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W
Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...
Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang
Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383
Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang
Energy balance--that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure--is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance in order to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene encoding BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity.
Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have "spillover effects"; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID
Chiriboga, David E; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Matthews, Charles E; Hebert, James R; Ockene, Ira S
Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels.
Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.
Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C
Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not
Sinclair, Liam A; Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M P B; Wilkinson, Robert G; de Veth, Michael J; Bauman, Dale E
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous dairy ewes were fed a basal diet for 10 wk that was supplemented with a lipid-encapsulated CLA at 1 of 3 levels: no CLA (control, CON), low CLA (L-CLA), or high CLA (H-CLA) to supply 0, 1.5, or 3.8 g/d, respectively, of both trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Ewes fed H-CLA had a 13% higher milk yield compared with those receiving either CON or L-CLA. Compared with CON, milk fat yield (g/d) was 14 and 24% lower in ewes fed L-CLA or H-CLA, respectively. Supplementing ewes with CLA did not affect carcass or organ weights, carcass composition, or organ FA content. Compared with ewes receiving the CON diet, CLA supplementation had little effect on the FA composition of the Longissimus dorsi, although cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA were increased in ewes receiving H-CLA. The current findings are consistent with the view that the energy spared by the CLA reduction in milk fat content was mainly partitioned to milk yield and there was no evidence of organ hypertrophy or liver steatosis.
The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...
Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.
Improved body weight and performance status and reduced serum PGE2 levels after nutritional intervention with a specific medical food in newly diagnosed patients with esophageal cancer or adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction.
Faber, Joyce; Uitdehaag, Madeleen J; Spaander, Manon; van Steenbergen-Langeveld, Sabine; Vos, Paul; Berkhout, Marloes; Lamers, Cor; Rümke, Hans; Tilanus, Hugo; Siersema, Peter; van Helvoort, Ardy; van der Gaast, Ate
The majority of cancer patients loses weight and becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Metabolic alterations and reduced immune competence lead to wasting and an increased risk of infectious complications. In the present study, the effect of a nutritionally complete medical food, which is high in protein and leucine and enriched with fish oil and specific oligosaccharides, was investigated on immune function, nutritional status, and inflammation in patients with esophageal cancer and compared with routine care. In this exploratory double-blind study, 64 newly diagnosed esophageal cancer patients were randomized. All patients received dietary counselling and dietary advice. In the Active group, all patients received the specific medical food for 4 weeks before the start of anticancer therapy. In the routine care control arm, patients with nutritional intervention, and patients were asked to complete quality of life questionnaires. In addition, blood samples were taken for the measurement of several immune, nutritional, and safety-parameters. No effect of the specific nutritional intervention could be detected on ex vivo stimulations of blood mononuclear cells. By contrast, body weight was significantly increased (P intervention with the specific medical food (P Nutritional intervention with the specific medical food significantly increased body weight and improved performance status compared with routine care in newly diagnosed esophageal cancer patients. This effect was accompanied by significantly reduced serum PGE2 levels. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.
Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J
We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.
Schrempf, Andreas; Schossleitner, Gerold; Blaha, Armin; Leipold, Stefan
A bed was equipped with four force transducers so that the location of the Center Of Mass (COM) can be computed, when the bed contains a person. The computation of the COM and its alterations in combination with the sum of all measured forces allows to compute the person's position in bed, an activity level, the resulting body weight and the corresponding weight change rate over time (overnight and long-term) as well as simply to determine whether the person is in the bed or not. The results of several overnight measurement experiments show, that the person's position in the bed (central, left, right) can be correctly detected, the proposed activity level is a promising indicator for the sleep-activity and furthermore the initial body weight as well as the nightly weight change rate can be determined.
This study was carried out to determine the body weight perception of Igbo people in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) community. The study evaluated the body weight perception among age groups and sex categories of UNN staff and students. It examined the relationship between perception of body weight among the ...
Leger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; de Sanctis, Alice
Sleep participates in the regulation of body weight. The amount of sleep and synchronization of the biological clock are both necessary to achieve the energy balance and the secretion of hormones that contribute to weight regulation. In this review, we first reconsider what normal physiological sleep is and what the normative values of sleep are in the general population. Second, we explain how the biological clock regulates the hormones that may be involved in weight control. Third, we provide some recent data on how sleep may be disturbed by sleep disorders or reduced by sleep debt with consequences on weight. Finally, we explore the relationships between sleep debt and obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Looy, H; Eikelboom, R
The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.
Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Gurrola, Georgina B; Cisneros, Miguel; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Possani, Lourival D; Charli, Jean-Louis
Voltage-gated potassium channels 1.3 (Kv1.3) can be targeted to reduce diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Since species-specific differences in Kv1.3 expression and pharmacology have been observed, we tested the effect of Vm24, a high-affinity specific blocker of Kv1.3 channels from Vaejovis mexicanus smithi, on body weight (BW), glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats. Young adult male Wistar rats were switched to a high-fat/high-fructose (HFF) diet. Eighteen days later animals were divided in two groups: vehicle and Vm24 group. Subcutaneous injections were applied every other day until sacrifice 2months later. An additional cohort was maintained on standard chow. The HFF diet promoted obesity. Treatment with Vm24 did not alter various metabolic parameters such as food intake, BW gain, visceral white adipose tissue mass, adipocyte diameter, serum glucose, leptin and thyroid hormone concentrations, brown adipose tissue mass or uncoupling protein-1 expression, and insulin tolerance. Vm24 did reduce basal and glucose-stimulated serum insulin concentrations, serum C-peptide concentration, increased QUICKI, and tended to lower HOMA-IR. Vm24 treatment did not change the activation of insulin receptor substrate-1, but enhanced protein-kinase B activation and membrane glucose-transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein levels in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, in male rats, long-term blockade of Kv1.3 channels with Vm24 does not reduce weight gain and visceral adiposity induced by HFF diet; instead, it reduces serum insulin concentration, and enhances GLUT4 mobilization in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muenzner, M; Tappenbeck, N; Gembardt, F; Rülke, R; Furkert, J; Melzig, M F; Siems, W-E; Brockmann, G A; Walther, T
Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight per day) in the drinking water. In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, Pneuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.
Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail
Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pbody weight significantly predicted WC (pbody weight correctly. Intervention studies for obesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.
Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki
.... Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h...
Duda Joan L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007
Tappy, L; Binnert, C; Schneiter, Ph
Regular physical exercise and endurance training are associated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The relationship between exercise and body-weight control is complex and incompletely understood. Regular exercise may decrease energy balance through an increase in energy expenditure or an increase in fat oxidation. It may also contribute to weight loss by modulating nutrient intake. An intriguing question that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body compositi...
Lopez, Hector L; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Hofheins, Jennifer E; Habowski, Scott M; Arent, Shawn M; Weir, Joseph P; Ferrando, Arny A
Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8 weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P weight loss program by augmenting improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted.
Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM
This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…
Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa
Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…
The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight changes with Diets 2(cooked kudzu) and Diet 8(positive control) having the highest values(55.10g and 90.0g).
Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.
Rush, D.; Lumey, L. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Myers, B.
We aimed to estimate the relationship of prior breastfeeding to perimenopausal body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). While most long-term studies of women's body weight after reproductive experience have found a negative relationship between lactation and body weight, most short-term studies found either
Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho
Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.
Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R
Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.
Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying
Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.
Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese , highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622
Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese , highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models.
Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo
Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P weight gain in PD.
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Hurwitz, Dennis J; Ayeni, Omodele
Plastic surgeons subspecializing in body contouring are meeting the challenge of postbariatric surgery massive weight loss patients. With an appreciation of the magnitude of the surface deformity, and altered metabolism, nutrition, and psychological makeup of these patients, innovative plastic surgeons have forged an organized approach to preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. Patients at greatest risk for complications are identified, appraised, and either their condition improved or they are counselled to reduce expectations. Beyond the removal of excess skin and adipose tissue, advanced gender-specific techniques have improved aesthetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.
Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)
Peterson, M.E.; Castellano, C.A.; Rishniw, M.
Background The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. Objectives To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Animals Four hundred sixty?two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Methods Prospective cross?sectional and before?after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight...
Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P
By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli
Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited...
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848
Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus...
Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.
Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,
Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine
Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
BROWN, RUTH E; CANNING, KARISSA L; FUNG, MICHAEL; JIANDANI, DISHAY; RIDDELL, MICHAEL C; MACPHERSON, ALISON K; KUK, JENNIFER L
... meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status...
Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.
Woods, Stephen C; D'Alessio, David A
.... Evidence Acquisition: A relatively novel insight is that satiation signals that control meal size and adiposity signals that signify the amount of body fat are distinct and interact in the hypothalamus and elsewhere...
Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper offers a study of possible favoritism of normal-weight individuals when firms make decisions on hiring, firing and promoting. Most existing studies use a wage equation to document dispersion in wages between normal- and overweight, however little is known about the reason for dispersion...... is used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further...
Bellisle, F; Drewnowski, A
Replacing sugar with low-calorie sweeteners is a common strategy for facilitating weight control. By providing sweet taste without calories, intense sweeteners help lower energy density of beverages and some foods. Reduced dietary energy density should result in lower energy intakes--but are the energy reduction goals, in fact, achieved? The uncoupling of sweetness and energy, afforded by intense sweeteners, has been the focus of numerous studies over the past two decades. There are recurring arguments that intense sweeteners increase appetite for sweet foods, promote overeating, and may even lead to weight gain. Does reducing energy density of sweet beverages and foods have a measurable impact on appetite and energy intakes, as examined both in short-term studies and over a longer period? Can reductions in dietary energy density achieved with intense sweeteners really affect body weight control? This paper reviews evidence from laboratory, clinical and epidemiological studies in the context of current research on energy density, satiety and the control of food intake.
Sayer, R D; Speaker, K J; Pan, Z; Peters, J C; Wyatt, H R; Hill, J O
The objective of this randomized equivalence trial was to determine the impact of consuming lean beef as part of a high protein (HP) weight-reducing diet on changes in body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health. A total of 120 adults (99 female) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 35.7 ± 7.0 kg m-2) were randomly assigned to consume either a HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) or a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60) during a 16-week weight loss intervention. Body weight was reduced by 7.8 ± 5.9% in B and 7.7 ± 5.5% in NB (p equivalent between B and NB (mean difference: 0.06%, 90% confidence interval: (-1.7, 1.8)). Fat mass was reduced in both groups (p mass was not reduced in either group. Improvements in markers of cardiometabolic health (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure) were not different between B and NB. Results of this study demonstrate that HP diets - either rich or restricted in red meat intakes - are effective for decreasing body weight and improving body composition and cardiometabolic health.
Beyer, P L; Palarino, M Y; Michalek, D; Busenbark, K; Koller, W C
To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects. Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal body weight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness, midarm muscle circumference, and percentage body fat (BF) as determined by bioelectrical impedance. Fifty-one free-living patients with Parkinson's disease and 49 matched control subjects were recruited from the neurology clinic and the surrounding area. We anticipated that reported weight loss would be greater and actual measures of body composition would show greater nutritional risk in the patients with Parkinson's disease. chi 2 Analysis was used to determine differences in the ratio of patients and control subjects who lost weight. Paired t tests were used to compare amount of weight change and measures of body composition. Correlations were performed among measures of weight change, body composition, and associated disease factors. Patients with Parkinson's disease were four times more likely to report weight loss greater than 10 lb than the matched control subjects (odds ratio > 4.2). Patients reported a mean (+/- standard deviation) weight loss of 7.2 +/- 2.9 lb and control subjects reported a mean weight gain of 2.1 +/- 1.6 lb (P weight change and percentage IBW, BMI, TSF, percentage BF, and stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION: Patients with Parkinson's disease appear to be at greater nutritional risk than a matched population. Simple screening and assessment tools can be used to detect nutritional risk.
Doaa K. Hussin
Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...
Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive
Andrea eKistner; Eugénie eLhommée; Paul eKrack
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Compr...
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopami...
Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8 weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P < 0.01), fat mass (METABO -7.8 vs. placebo -2.8%, P < 0.001), lean mass (METABO +3.4% vs. placebo +0.8%, P < 0.03), waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P < 0.0007), hip girth (METABO -1.7% vs. placebo -0.4%, P < 0.003), and energy levels per anchored visual analogue scale (VAS) (METABO +29.3% vs. placebo +5.1%, P < 0.04). During the first 4 weeks, effects/trends for maintaining elevated serum leptin (P < 0.03) and decreased serum resistin (P < 0.08) in the METABO group vs. placebo were also observed. No changes in systemic hemodynamics, clinical blood chemistries, adverse events, or dietary intake were noted between groups. Conclusions METABO administration is a safe and effective adjunct to an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program by augmenting improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in
Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....... infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death. Time-to-event analyses of the POE were performed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: During the initial 6-week sibutramine treatment period, the induced pulse rate increase was related to weight change (1.9±7.7 beats per...
Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E
Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.
Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS:
Marie H Larsson
Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.
IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation
Mbofung Carl MF
Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the
Flatt, J P
Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.
Yamamoto, Loren G; Inaba, Alson S; Young, Lynette L; Anderson, Kathy M
Length-based dosing systems reduce errors associated with resuscitation drug dosing. Obese and thin children of the same length are dosed the same despite their different weights. Length (height) and weight were measured in children after a body habitus icon assignment. Within each body habitus group, regression analysis was performed to generate a weight-estimation formula using body habitus and length (BHL). This BHL method was compared to the Broselow tape (BT). Height and weight data were plotted to obtain visual scattergrams. Logarithmic regression yielded higher correlation coefficients than standard linear regression. Within body habitus groups, BHL epinephrine dose estimates were more accurate than BT dose estimates using 0.01 mg/kg as a dosing standard. Adding body habitus information to the patient's length results in a more accurate weight estimate than length alone in children. The accuracy improvement is greater in children 3 years and older as compared to younger children.
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric....... The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....
Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A
Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Toddler may have poor appetite and picky eater stage. It will influence the children food intake and thereby they loss weight. As a result they may get a growth and developmental disorder. Curcuma honey can increase appetite and influence body weight. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of giving curcuma honey in increasing body weight in toddler. Method: Quasy experimental design was used in this study. Sample was 10 toddlers and divided into two groups. Independent variable was the giving of curcuma honey and dependent variable was the increase of body weight in toddler (1–3 years. Data were collected by appetite and bodyweight observation and analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test with significance level ofα ≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that the giving of curcuma honey had a significant effect to increase toddler’s body weight (p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that curcuma honey could increase body weight of toddler by increasing the toddler’s appetite. Honey contains high level of glucose and fructose that can help digestion proccess and curcuma contains curcuminoid and asiri oil that help the work of the bile and pancreas, that made the increasing in apetite and fi nally the increasing in body weight.
Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.
Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza
The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight.
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.
Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric
Background: Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. Objective: In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. Design: A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Results: Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Conclusions: Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. PMID:26354535
Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than
Body weight of does before mating ranged from 13.0 kg to 59.6 kg (average = 34.6 kg) among animals, while body weight at scanning ranged from 18.0 kg to 67.0 kg (average = 38.6 kg). All reproductive parameters recorded had a typical inverted U-shaped relationship with age of dam, where the 2- and 3-year-old does ...
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own.
Stevens, Serena D; Herbozo, Sylvia; Morrell, Holly Er; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin
The goal of this study was to examine lifetime weight stigmatization as a mediator of the relationships among current body mass index, childhood overweight, depression, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 299 female undergraduates (mean age = 20.52, standard deviation = 2.57; mean body mass index = 23.29, standard deviation = 4.51). Weight stigmatization significantly mediated the relationships between body mass index and body dissatisfaction, body mass index and depressive symptoms, and childhood overweight and depressive symptoms. The model accounted for 44.7 percent of the variance in depressive symptoms and 28.2 percent of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Findings indicated that a decrease in weight stigmatization may predict better mental health.
Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F
To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMIage of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend 12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and subsequent weight gain till middle age were positively correlated with low HDL-C after adjusted other risk factors(all P for trend early adulthood and significant adult weight gain from early adulthood to middle age were both independently associated with marked increases in the risk of low HDL-C in middle-aged Chinese men and women. Thus, body weight control at early adulthood could be a key strategy to reduce the incidence of low HDL-C at middle-aged population.
Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.
Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination
Maruf, F A; Akinpelu, A O; Nwankwo, M J
Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight perception is a strong determinant of nutritional habits and weight management among adolescents. One of the barriers to reducing rise in obesity prevalence could be its cultural acceptability in some developing countries. To explore the gender influences on perception of self- and opposite-sex body images (BI), perceived body weight and the actual body weight categories at which discrepancies occur among the perceived BIs in undergraduates. This was a survey of perceptual dimension of BI, perceived body weight and actual body weight carried out in 121 undergraduates aged 21-29 years. Discrepancies occurred between self-perceived BI and each of actual body weight (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 confidence interval (CI)), perceived body weight (p= 0.01 at 0.000-0.02 CI) and self-ideal BI (p= 0.03 at 0.000-0.05 CI) of normal-weight males. Self-perceived BI and perceived body weight also differed in normal-weight females (p= 0.02 at 0.000-0.04 CI). Discrepancies (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) occurred between self-perceived BI and self-ideal BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) in overweight females. Gender differences occurred for self-ideal BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI), ideal image for the opposite sex (IBIOS) (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) and desired BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI). Normal-weight males perceived their BI differently from their actual body weight, perceived body weight and self-ideal BI whereas normal-weight females perceived their BI differently from only their perceived body weight. Discrepancies occur between self-ideal BI and self-perceived BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI in overweight females. There are differential
Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D
A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of ...
Dumesnil, C; Dauchet, L; Ruidavets, J B; Bingham, A; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Ducimetière, P; Haas, B; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Amouyel, P; Dallongeville, J
The impact of alcohol on health depends on both the total amount ingested per week and the drinking pattern. Our goal was to assess the relationship between drinking occasions and anthropometric indicators of adiposity. For this cross-sectional study, 7,855 men aged 50-59 years were recruited between 1991 and 1993 in France. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained in a standardized clinical examination by trained staff. Alcohol intake was assessed by a questionnaire recording daily consumption of each type of alcohol during a typical week. 75% of the participants drank alcohol daily (264.7 ml per week). For a given total alcohol intake and after adjustment of confounders, the number of drinking episodes was inversely correlated with body mass index (p 280 ml/week), the intake was almost always daily. The results were similar for wine and beer consumption. Our findings suggest that drinking occasion is a risk indicator of obesity independent of total alcohol intake. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie
The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status
Background: Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight ...
Gabel, Kathe A.; Kearney, Kathy
Provides an overview of research about excessive preoccupation with body image, body weight, and dieting in children, adolescents, and young adults. Provides counselor information concerning the continuum from disordered eating to serious eating disorders. Suggests strategies for counselors to utilize when dealing with students experiencing these…
Guardia, D; Metral, M; Pigeyre, M; Bauwens, I; Cottencin, O; Luyat, M
Behavioural therapy and bariatric surgery often produce rapid, massive body weight loss that may impact a patient's ability to gauge his/her new body shape. Although the patient is aware of the weight loss, he/she continues to feel obese, as if there was a conflict between the previous body schema and the new one. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed major body distortions after massive weight loss. Psychometric and behavioural assessments revealed strong disturbances in several tasks involving body representation. In particular, we observed abnormal behaviour in a body-scaled action task. Our findings suggest that the rapidity of our patient's weight loss prevented her central nervous system from correctly updating the body schema.
Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.
Bosomworth, N John
To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.
Tanner-Smith, Emily E.
Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Dunaev, Jamie; Markey, Charlotte H; Brochu, Paula M
Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (M age = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition. These effects were in the small range (ds = 0.27-0.33), and neither gender nor BMI moderated these effects. These findings provide preliminary support for body-focused gratitude writing exercises as an effective individual-level strategy for both reducing internalized weight bias and improving body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of body weight and feeding level on the changeof body composition of indigenous ram. This research was expected to establish the efficient feeding levelto produce high growth rate and meat quality of ram in tropical environment. Sixteen rams with differentbody weight (BW were divided into 2 groups, i.e. light BW (10 + 1.47 kg and heavy BW (18 + 1.18 kg.The experimental design was Split Plot design with two factors. The main plot was body weight (light andheavy and the sub plot was level of feeding (FL, 1x maintenance and 1.5 x maintenance. The parametersmeasured in this experiment were live weight gain and body composition. The results of this study showedthat body water, body protein and body fat were significantly higher (P<0.01 in heavy body weight (HBWthan those in light body weight (LBW, and was higher in 1.5xM than those 1xM. Ram of HW and LW hadsimilar change rate of physical composition. Ram given 1.5xM had higher rate of change of body fat andbody water than those given feed at maintenance level. It can be concluded that there was no interactionbetween BW and FL on the change of body water, body protein and body fat. Ram of HBW and LBW hadsimilar rate of change of physical composition. Level of feeding affected body water content, the higherlevel of feeding resulted in fatter ram, leading to less body water content.
Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. Â© 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.
Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Cho, Clara E; Kubant, Ruslan; Reza-López, Sandra A; Poon, Abraham N; Wang, Jingzhou; Huot, Pedro S P; Smith, Christopher E; Anderson, G Harvey
High multivitamin gestational diets (HV, 10-fold AIN-93G levels) increase body weight (BW) and food intake (FI) in rat offspring weaned to a recommended multivitamin (RV), but not to a HV diet. We hypothesized that high vitamin A (HA) alone, similar to HV, in post-weaning diets would prevent these effects of the HV maternal diet consistent with gene expression in FI and reward pathways. Male offspring from dams fed HV diets were weaned to a high vitamin A (HA, 10-fold AIN-93G levels), HV or RV diet for 29 weeks. BW, FI, expression of genes involved in regulation of FI and reward and global and gene-specific DNA methylation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus were measured. Both HV and HA diets slowed post-weaning weight gain and modified gene expression in offspring compared to offspring fed an RV post-weaning diet. Hypothalamic POMC expression in HA offspring was not different from either HV or RV, and dopamine receptor 1 was 30% (Pweight gain and FI and modifies gene expression in FI and reward pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kooy, van der K.
This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for
Fitra Aji Pamungkas
Full Text Available Genetic parameter estimation for production traits are important in designing genetic selection program for Kampung chicken. The aimed of this research is to study heritability, accuracy of selection, and phenotypic and genotypic correlation of hatched weight and body weight at 12 weeks of Kampung chicken. Five hundred and fourteen head of Kampung chicken consist of 13 cocks, 65 hens, and 436 chicks were used in this study. Nested design analysis were used as described by Becker. The heritability estimation of hatched weight was calculated based on paternal half-sib, maternal half-sib, and full-sib corelation and it’s values were 0.35, 0.37, and 0.36 respectively. Heritability of body weight at 12 weeks based on paternal half-sib, maternal half-sib, and full-sib corelation were 0.27, 0.18, and 0.22 respectively. Selection accuracy of hatched weight were 59-61%, and selection accuracy of body weight at 12 weeks were 42 up to 52%. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of hatched weight and body weight at 12 weeks estimation based on paternal half-sib, maternal half-sib, full-sib corelation were 0.29, 0.78, 0.51, and 0.17 respectively, indicated selection on one trait will affected the response on other traits positively.
Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A
Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB
Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan
Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.
Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.
Auld, M Christopher
I estimate models of endogenous social interactions in body weight at the county and state levels. The results show that dispersion in body weight across time and space in the U.S. is not clearly excessive, and that much of this variation can be attributed to observable individual and regional characteristics. Models exploiting variants of methods proposed by Glaeser et al. (2003), fixed effects, instrumental variable and split-sample instrumental variable methods to address endogeneity suggest that there are not large social multipliers on body weight outcomes. The evidence suggests there may be small multipliers on BMI, obesity, and morbid obesity. There is no evidence that underweight is subject to a social multiplier. The results are sensitive to specification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... may aid to achieve these goals. Energy density of the diet can be reduced by substituting energy-dense food items with less energy-dense food items such as fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are considered as relatively low energy-dense food groups due to their high content of water...... and dietary fibre. Most research, currently available, including intervention and observational studies, has investigated the combined role of fruit and vegetables in relation to body weight. However, a separation between these two food groups seems important as they differ in terms of nutrient composition...
Giacco, R; Della Pepa, G; Luongo, D; Riccardi, G
This viewpoint aims to 1) review the available scientific literature on the relationship between whole grain consumption and body weight regulation; 2) evaluate the potential mechanisms whereby whole grain intake may help reduce overweight and 3) try to understand why epidemiological studies and clinical trials provide diverging results on this topic. All the prospective epidemiological studies demonstrate that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower BMI and body weight gain. However, these results do not clarify whether whole grain consumption is simply a marker of a healthier lifestyle or a factor favoring "per se" lower body weight. Habitual whole grain consumption seems to cause lower body weight by multiple mechanisms such as lower energy density of whole grain based products, lower glycemic index, fermentation of non digestible carbohydrates (satiety signals) and finally by modulating intestinal microflora. In contrast with epidemiological evidence, the results of few clinical trials do not confirm that a whole grain low-calorie diet is more effective in reducing body weight than a refined cereal diet, but their results may have been affected by small sample size or short duration of the intervention. Therefore, further intervention studies with adequate methodology are needed to clarify this question. For the time being, whole grain consumption can be recommended as one of the features of the diet that may help control body weight but also because is associated with a lower risk to develop type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal
Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... taurine and glycine. Conclusion: In summary, our results show that consumption of lean seafood is less obesogenic than lean meat. The benefits of lean seafood consumption were associated with increased spontaneous locomotor activity and possible increased satiety....
Mehra, Karishma; Berkowitz, Alyssa; Sanft, Tara
Diet, physical activity, and body weight have been shown to play an important role in cancer survivorship. The impact of each of these lifestyle factors differs slightly among cancer types, and adherence to recommended diet and physical activity guidelines has been associated with positive outcomes, including decrease in the risk of cancer recurrence and improvement of quality of life. Although there are compelling data that appropriate diet, physical activity, and body weight have beneficial effects in cancer survivorship, additional trials are needed to understand the relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M
Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P sleep duration.
Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.
Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term
Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Casanueva, Esther; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; de Regil, Luz María; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María
To evaluate changes in weight and body fat of Mexican adolescent compared to those of adult lactating women from the Northwest (NM) and Central (CM) regions of Mexico in the first trimester postpartum. A prospective design was used to evaluate 41 exclusively breastfeeding women (21 adolescents and 20 adults) recruited 1-2 days after delivering a healthy singleton at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora (Northwest Mexico) and Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, in Mexico City. Socioeconomic status, height, body weight and composition, dietary intake, physical activity, and milk volume (quantified by deuterium dilution method) were measured at the 1st and 3rd month postpartum. Women did not lose weight throughout the first trimester postpartum. Mean postpartum weight retention at the end of the study was 3.8 kg. No differences in weight and body mass index (BMI) were found between adolescent and adult women in both periods. Energy and macronutrient intakes, physical activity and milk volume were similar between the two groups of women. In both periods, adolescents from the CM region had lower weight, BMI, and body fat than adolescents from the NM region (Pbreastfeeding for 3 months did not reduce weight or body fat in the Mexican population of this study. Efforts to avoid weight retention in the lactation period may contribute to prevent overweight and obesity in women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth
B. Bayram; GÜLER, O.; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut
Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE) and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficien...
Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M
Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G
The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M
The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P muscle wasting persisted in 45% of treated cats. Most hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa
We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India...
Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Bertéus Forslund, H; Brekke, H K
To examine associations among eating frequency, energy intake and body weight at baseline, as well as associations among change in eating frequency and change in energy intake and weight during a 12-week successful weight loss intervention in overweight and obese postpartum women. Sixty-one Swedish women with pre-pregnancy body mass index of 25-35 kg/m(2) completed a 4-day diet record at 10-14 weeks postpartum (baseline) and 12 weeks later (post-intervention), which were used to calculate energy intake and eating frequency, that is, the mean number of intake occasions per day. The women had a mean eating frequency of 5.9 ± 1.2 intake occasions at baseline. A positive association was found between eating frequency and energy intake at baseline (β: 307 ± 46 kcal, PWomen receiving dietary intervention reduced their eating frequency more during the intervention period than did women not receiving dietary intervention (-1.0 ± 0.7 vs -0.5 ± 1.1, P=0.001). A positive association was found between eating frequency and energy intake at baseline and between reduced eating frequency and reduced energy intake during a 12-week weight loss intervention in overweight and obese postpartum women. Intervention studies on eating frequency are warranted to elucidate its effect on energy intake and weight among postpartum women.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on body weight and morphometric traits of crossbred buck kids produced from a mating of Red Sokoto(RS) and West African Dwarf(WAD) goats in a humid tropical environment. Results showed that the main crossbred (RS x WAD) buck kids had significantly ...
Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...
Variance components resulting from direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects, as well as the relationship between direct and maternal genetic effects for several body weight and fleece traits, were estimated by DFREML procedures. Traits analysed included ...
Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...
The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an aqueous ethanol ...
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M
Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources,. University of Tehran, Karaj 31587111674111, Iran. [Gholizadeh M., Rahimi-Mianji G. and Nejati-Javaremi A. 2015 Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep. J. Genet. 94, 143–146].
Across flock genetic parameter estimation for yearling body weight and fleece. ... Accurate genetic parameter estimates are needed upon which to perform multiple-trait across flock breed analyses. Genetic parameters for ... Keywords: Direct heritability, maternal effects, genotype x environment interaction, correlations
Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong
Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…
DR. TONUKARI NYEROVWO
Nov 2, 2011 ... The purposes of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to develop a suitable model for the data set ... Key words: Sheep, body weight, genetic parameters, maternal effects. INTRODUCTION ... lambs were kept indoors and allowed to nurse their mothers twice a day. The suckling ...
Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...
The estimation of Holstein heifer body weight (BW) from heart girth (HG) measurements is needed as many farms do not have animal scales to make the management decisions that require BW. The correlation between HG and BW is known to vary with differing animal conformation. The previous equation to co...
Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W
Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology.
Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Introduction. Genetic evaluation of animals has been based on several traits depending on the species such as milk characteristics, body weight, feed intake and longevity. A trait that changes with age as a trajectory ...
Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...
The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...
A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol content of broilers. The EM was added to drinking water at a rate of 1 part EM to 1000 parts of water. The two treatments ...
Feb 21, 2012 ... Body weight and carcass traits were under intensive selection for more .... All previous muscles and organs were also calculated as ..... Sel. Evol. J. 38: 85-97. Liu X, Li H, Wang S, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang Q, Li N, Wang Y, Zhang H.
Jan 26, 2012 ... Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were.
The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Prediction of the body weight of Nguni goats. S.C. Slippers, B.A. Letty, ...
Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...
Sep 3, 2008 ... The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an.
Two 7-week trials were carried out to examine the effect of supplementing the existing feed of weaned pigs in Eritrea with locally produced fishmeal on the body weight gain of the pigs. The diet of the weaned pigs consisted of 'bakery waste', wheat middlings and wheat bran to make 62, 22, and I5%, respectively, by air-dry ...
To elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth trait in Takifugu rubripes during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of body weight was conducted by mixed genetic model with additive-dominance effects, using complete diallel cross with three different strains of T. rubripes from Laizhou Shandong, Tangshan Hebei ...
Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M
Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.
'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.
Ransone, Jack; Hughes, Brian
OBJECTIVE: To determine fluctuations in total body weight of the elite collegiate wrestler during the competitive season. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study period lasted 2 competitive seasons, beginning 1 month before the 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001 competitive seasons and ending 1 month after the National Championships. SUBJECTS: Seventy-eight male subjects (age = 21.3 +/- 1.5 years, height = 154.1 +/- 0.5 cm) from 4 major universities whose teams finished in the top 5 at both the 2000 and 2001 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I National Wrestling Championships. MEASUREMENTS: Each subject was asked to report to the testing area 24 hours before, 1 hour before, and 24 hours after a competitive wrestling match, and weight was recorded to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.45 kg). Comparisons among the prematch weights, official weigh-ins, and postmatch weights were made using a randomized, 1-group, repeated-measures factorial analysis of covariance with an alpha level of.05. RESULTS: A significant difference (F(2,154) = 229.99, P body-weight changes 24 hours and 1 hour before the match (t(77) = 56.21, P <.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Elite collegiate wrestlers, like novice wrestlers, significantly reduce weight immediately before and gain weight after the competition.
Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L
The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.
Complex interactions between the brain and peripheral tissues mediate the effective control of energy balance and body weight. Hypothalamic and hindbrain neural circuits integrate peripheral signals informing the nutritional status of the animal and in response regulate nutrient intake and energy utilization. Obesity and its many medical complications emerge from the dysregulation of energy homeostasis. Excessive weight gain might also arise from alterations in reward systems of the brain that drive consumption of calorie dense, palatable foods in the absence of an energy requirement. Several neurotrophins, most notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor, have been implicated in the molecular and cellular processes underlying body weight regulation. Here, we review investigations interrogating their roles in energy balance and reward centers of the brain impacting feeding behavior and energy expenditure.
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep. PMID:23666828
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Machado, Thais Costa; Nascimento, Viviane G; Silva, Janaína P C da; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio
to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW). probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59) composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI) ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity). The arm muscle area (AMA) and the arm fat area (AFA) were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110) and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44). The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa) (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107). The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047). among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
L. V. Ledyaykina
Full Text Available The work purpose is to study blood indicators in dynamics among children with extremely low body weight in the Republic of Mordovia. 90 cards of outpatient observation (form 112/u within one year of every child’s life were analyzed: 30 children born with extremely low body weight, 30 – with very low body weight, 30 – the full-term, healthy newborns. We studied anamnesis of the children, the analysis of blood indicators and influence of various factors. Hematologic parameters in each group were analyzed, correlation analysis of erythroid lineage indicators and anthropometric data of children were carried out.The levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leucocytes and neutrophils at birth in small premature infants were lower than indicators of control group; stabilization of hemoglobin level took place only to six months of life, accompanied by simultaneous rising of erythrocytes level and the marked thrombocytosis, the reduced level of neutrophils persisted during the whole first year of life. Also average degree of correlation between indicators of body weight and hemoglobin level, and strong correlation dependence between a gain of body weight and indicators of erythrocytes in group of children with extremely low body/birth weight were detected.
Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.
Tremblay, A; Royer, M-M; Chaput, J-P; Doucet, E
The decrease in energy expenditure that occurs during weight loss is a process that attenuates over time the impact of a restrictive diet on energy balance up to a point beyond which no further weight loss seems to be possible. For some health professionals, such a diminished energy expenditure is the normal consequence of a progressive decrease in the motivation to exercise over the course of a weight-reducing program. Another explanation of decreased energy needs during weight loss is the decrease in body energy stores (that is, fat mass and muscle mass) and its related obligatory costs of living. Many studies have also documented the existence of adaptive thermogenesis in the context of weight loss, which represents a greater-than-predicted decrease in energy expenditure. In this paper, we pursue the analysis of this phenomenon by demonstrating that an adaptive decrease in thermogenesis can have a major role in the occurrence of resistance to further lose fat in weight-reduced obese individuals. Evidence is also presented to support the idea of greater hunger sensations in individuals displaying more pronounced thermogenic changes. Finally, as the decrease in thermogenesis persists over time, it is also likely associated with a greater predisposition to body-weight regain after weight loss. Globally, these observations suggest that the adaptive reduction in thermogenesis that accompanies a prolonged negative energy balance is a major determinant of the ability to spontaneously lose body fat.
Martin, Dion C; Richards, Glenn N
The lung-protective ventilation bundle has been shown to reduce mortality in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This concept has expanded to other areas of acute adult ventilation and is recommended for pediatric ventilation. A component of lung-protective ventilation relies on a prediction of lean body weight from height. The predicted body weight (PBW) relationship employed in the ARDS Network trial is considered valid only for adults, with a dedicated formula required for each sex. No agreed PBW formula applies to smaller body sizes. This analysis investigated whether it might be practical to derive a unisex PBW formula spanning all body sizes, while retaining relevance to established adult protective ventilation practice. Historic population-based growth charts were adopted as a reference for lean body weight, from pre-term infant through to adult median weight. The traditional ARDSNet PBW formulae acted as the reference for prevailing protective ventilation practice. Error limits for derived PBW models were relative to these references. The ARDSNet PBW formulae typically predict weights heavier than the population median, therefore no single relationship could satisfy both references. Four alternate piecewise-linear lean body-weight predictive formulae were presented for consideration, each with different balance between the objectives. The 'PBWuf + MBW' model is proposed as an appropriate compromise between prevailing practice and simplification, while also better representing lean adult body-weight. This model applies the ARDSNet 'female' formula to both adult sexes, while providing a tight fit to median body weight at smaller statures down to pre-term. The 'PBWmf + MBW' model retains consistency with current practice over the adult range, while adding prediction for small statures.
Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B; Pomp, Daniel
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTLs. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity.
Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B
Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.
Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.
The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In
Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.
Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.
(Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds
Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo
Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…
The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss.
Patients with psoriasis, in particular those requiring systemic treatment, tend to be above normal weight. Obesity is associated with psoriasis and contributes significantly to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Most biologics used to treat psoriasis in the European Union are fixed dosed treatments: etanercept, adalimumab and ustekinumab. Apart from infliximab, dosing regimens do not account for weight, with the exception of ustekinumab, the dose of which should be doubled in patients weighing more than 100 kg. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the association of obesity and psoriasis, and the effect of body weight or obesity on the efficacy of biologics as well as their practical implications in daily practice. A review was performed of the literature relating to obesity and psoriasis and weight effect, including subgroup analyses, on the efficacy of the biologicals available for treatment of psoriasis in the European Union, namely adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab. Optimal responses with fixed dose biological agents are less frequent in patients with increasing weight, especially above 100 kg, who account for approximately 25% to 30% of patients in clinical trials. Body weight effect on drug clearance might partly account for this fact. The data are limited to subgroup analyses, often with no statistical significance reported. Further studies, including weight-based subanalysis of clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic evaluations, are required to assess the issue of body weight and response to therapy of the biologics. Infliximab response appears to be independent of body mass index. Possible weight-based dose adjustments and the impact of treatment on body weight changes also require additional study. © 2011 The Author. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Priya Singh Rangey
Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.
Ketterer, Caroline; Heni, Martin; Stingl, Krunoslav; Tschritter, Otto; Linder, Katarzyna; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas
The cannabinoid-receptor system is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we test whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CNR2, encoding the cannabinoid-receptor 2, are associated with weight in a cross-sectional cohort. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate if the identified hits influence weight loss during lifestyle intervention; and study a potential involvement of cerebral insulin action. 2006 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus were genotyped for 5 tagging SNPs in the CNR2 locus. All subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT. 345 subjects participated in a lifestyle intervention (TUebingen Lifestyle Intervention Programme). Cerebrocortical insulin sensitivity was measured by magnetoencephalography after intranasal insulin application in 43 subjects. In the cross-sectional cohort, the minor allele of rs3123554 was associated with lower BMI (Padd = 0.01, Prec = 0.004), and this was attributable to its effect in women only. Interestingly, during lifestyle intervention, carriers of the same allele lost less body weight (Padd = 0.03, Prec = 0.008). Moreover, carriers of this minor allele showed lower cerebral insulin sensitivity (Prec = 0.0402). The minor allele of rs3123554 is associated cross-sectionally with lower body weight, whereas during intervention the same allele led to less reduction of body weight. Reduced cerebral insulin sensitivity in carriers of this allele might contribute to these disadvantageous effects during lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi
Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.
Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.
Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.
Synopsis Despite its growing pervasiveness, the health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and under-studied. A defined treatment for geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related co-morbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This restrospective article highlights our current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. As the findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions continue to accumulate, we are moving closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092
Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A
To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.
Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.
Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed
Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight .... unemployed were younger in age than blue- or white-collar workers (F = 13.1; P < 0.001). Weight ...
Snijder, Marieke B.; Van Der Heijden, Amber A W A; Van Dam, Rob M.; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.
BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for
Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Rodriguez, Antony
Summary A recent study published in Cell may represent a paradigm shift in the way we look at cardiac metabolism: The study identifies the heart as an endocrine organ that regulates body weight. It raises two important questions: What would be the “slimming factor” released by the heart that regulates fuel homeostasis in distant organs? What are the possible mechanisms directing metabolic energy to either storage or dissipation? PMID:22904039
Sabia, Joseph J; Rees, Daniel I
This note uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the relationship between body weight and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and individual fixed effects estimates provide evidence that overweight and obese white women are paid substantially less per hour than their slimmer counterparts. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation confirms this relationship, suggesting that it is not driven by time-variant unobservables. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology, and some biochemical parameters. M.K.C. Duru*1, B. A.Amadi2, C.T.Amadi3, K.C.Lele2, J. C.Anudike4, O.R.Chima-Ezika1, K. Osuocha1. 1Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Imo State ...
Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A
An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.
Patel, Sanjay R; Malhotra, Atul; White, David P; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Hu, Frank B
Physiologic studies suggest that sleep restriction has metabolic effects that predispose to weight gain. The authors investigated the association between self-reported usual sleep duration and subsequent weight gain in the Nurses' Health Study. The 68,183 women who reported habitual sleep duration in 1986 were followed for 16 years. In analyses adjusted for age and body mass index, women sleeping 5 hours or less gained 1.14 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 1.79) more than did those sleeping 7 hours over 16 years, and women sleeping 6 hours gained 0.71 kg (95% CI: 0.41, 1.00) more. The relative risks of a 15-kg weight gain were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.47) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.19) for those sleeping 5 and 6 hours, respectively. The relative risks for incident obesity (body mass index: >30 kg/m(2)) were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.26) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11). These associations remained significant after inclusion of important covariates and were not affected by adjustment for physical activity or dietary consumption. These data suggest that short sleep duration is associated with a modest increase in future weight gain and incident obesity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which sleep duration may affect weight.
Quintero, P; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A
Obesity is nowadays a major public health problem. The World Health Organization reported that globally 400 million adults are obese, and the situation seems to raise in the future. Furthermore, obesity is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, several studies have reported that appetite suppression and body weight loss are frequently observed at high altitude. This observation has opened some possibilities for losing weight under hypoxia or living in altitude. Nevertheless, the triggering mechanisms for the decrease in energy intake in hypoxic conditions still remain unclear as well as the impact on body mass components. On the other hand, obese subjects often present a chronic inflammatory state on the adipose tissue that might have a strong relationship with onset and development of obesity-related diseases. Thus, it has been consistently reported that adipose tissue of obese subjects is poorly oxygenated and that this hypoxia state is a new potential risk factor for the chronic inflammation in obesity. In this sense, oxygen therapy is a common technique used in current medicine for the treatment of several diseases, while animal studies have demonstrated that treatment with hyperoxia produces some beneficial effects in different diseases related with lack of oxygen in several organs. In this article, we review the role of oxygen availability in body weight homeostasis and hypothesize the possible applicability of hypoxia and hyperoxia for the treatment of obesity and related disorders.
Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction, importance of thinness, dieting behaviour, and weight watching were examined through discussions with 34 girls in five focus groups and with a questionnaire survey on the sample of 184 girls. The article emphasis is on sociocultural and interpersonal influences on girl's body images and eating practices. Quantitative and qualitative results point to fashion and media as the strongest pressures to be thin for subjects. Family members and peers are beside magazines, TV programmes and numbers of clothes important source of message about the importance and attainability of thinness. Some respondents reported direct pressures to diet from friends and parents but indirect social influences were more common. These influences included social comparison, teasing, criticizing. A few girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behaviour.
Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.
Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight
Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick
Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its
Martin V Day
Full Text Available Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.
Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at
Lukaski, Henry C; Siders, William A; Penland, James G
This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 microg Cr/d, compared with an equivalent amount of picolinic acid (1720 microg) in CrPic and placebo, decreases body weight, alters body composition, and reduces iron status of women fed diets of constant energy and nutrients. We fed 83 women nutritionally balanced diets, used anthropometry and dual x-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition, and measured serum and urinary Cr and biochemical indicators of iron status before and serially every 4 wk for 12 wk in a double-blind, randomized trial. CrPic supplementation increased (P weight or fat, although all groups lost (P weight and fat; it did not affect fat-free, mineral-free mass or measurements of iron status. Under conditions of controlled energy intake, CrPic supplementation of women did not independently influence body weight or composition or iron status. Thus, claims that supplementation of 200 microg of Cr as CrPic promotes weight loss and body composition changes are not supported.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...
Nguyen, Mary M N; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Melhorn, Susan J; Ma, Li Y; Gardner, Stacy R; Sakai, Randall R
The visible burrow system (VBS) is a model used to study chronic social stress in colony-housed rats. A hierarchy develops among the males resulting in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) animals. Hierarchy-associated changes in body weight, body composition, behavior, and neuroendocrine measures have been observed. After 14 d of VBS housing, SUB animals have decreased body weight, elevated corticosterone, and decreased testosterone (T), compared with DOM animals and controls, placing SUB animals in an ideal endocrine state to regain lost body weight as adipose tissue. It is hypothesized that maintaining constant androgen concentrations in SUB males during stress will prevent body weight loss by maintaining more lean body mass. To test this, animals were gonadectomized and implanted with SILASTIC implants containing T, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or cholesterol. Implants maintained constant physiological levels of T. Standard intact, T, and DHT implant colonies formed hierarchies, whereas cholesterol colonies did not. Androgen manipulations significantly altered offensive and defensive behaviors only on the first day of VBS housing. After VBS stress, intact, T, and DHT SUB animals weighed less and lost more adipose and lean tissue than DOM and control males, whereas DOM animals primarily lost adipose tissue. However, on recovery, DHT SUB animals maintained more lean tissue than intact SUB animals. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that glucose clears faster in stressed T-implanted males that have increased adipose tissue. Overall, these data suggest that constant androgen concentrations in SUB animals do not prevent weight loss and changes in body composition during stress but do so during recovery.
Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie L
This study investigates a relationship between overweight perception and smoking among adolescents. Data were retrieved from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial survey of a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. We analyze five waves of repeated cross-sections (N = 73 376) for the years 2005-2013. We estimate a recursive simultaneous-equations system in which body weight perception, which is a function of actual weight, influences smoking status. Outcome measures are binary indicators for current smoking and frequent current smoking. Perceived weight is categorized into very overweight perception, slightly overweight perception, and about the right weight/underweight perception. In comparison to adolescents who perceive themselves to be the right weight or underweight, adolescents who perceive themselves to be very overweight are 6.1 percentage points (pp) (standard error [SE] = 1.6pp) more likely to currently smoking and 3.3pp (SE = 1.2pp) more likely to frequently smoke. Adolescents with slightly overweight perception are 7.9pp (SE = 1.0pp) and 2.5pp (SE = 0.6pp) more likely to currently smoke and frequently smoke, respectively, as compared to those with the right weight/underweight perception. The relationships are larger for females, and appear to be mediated by weight-loss activity. In an era of tight budgets, it is crucial to address both obesity and smoking in manners that do not work at cross purposes. Strategies to combat youth smoking may be more effective if the perception of being overweight is considered an important risk factor, especially among female adolescents. We find that perception of being overweight is an important causal risk factor for adolescent smoking. Main findings of this study imply that even a slight change in the perception of body weight may lead to a significant change in smoking behavior among adolescents, especially among females and that the perception of being
Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E
The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-women in all BMI categories with weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.
Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a te...
Full Text Available Ongoing changes in societies are driving an expanding fraction of the world’s population towards a sedentary and overfed lifestyle. An overwhelming amount of data has linked increased body weight with an increased risk of acquiring a number of major diseases. Gerontologists, in order to extend the life span of laboratory animals, have used caloric restriction successfully for decades. This basic research on animals along with epidemiological data taken from vast human cohorts is cumulatively indicating that reducing one’s body weight should be part of the strategy to increase health and life span while reducing pathologies. What is not a trivial matter is defining the correct weight for each individual. This mini review raises some discussion points regarding this important public health issue.
Kukidome, T; Shirai, K; Kubo, J; Matsushima, Y; Yanagisawa, O; Homma, T; Aizawa, K
Changes in body composition of college wrestlers undergoing rapid weight reduction were evaluated over time using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study evaluated 12 wrestlers (male, 18-22 years of age) who participated in Japan's 2005 intercollegiate wrestling tournament. For this study, MRI (of the right femoral region and the trunk), as well as measurements of body weight, body fat percentage and body water content, were performed 1 month and 1 week prior to the weigh-in, on the day of the weigh-in, on the day of the match (after the match), and 1 week after the weigh-in. A survey of food and fluid intake was also conducted. Several variables were significantly lower on the day of the weigh-in than one month prior: body weight (pfat (pmuscle, and trunk fat; quadriceps muscle; lower subcutaneous; and food intake (pweight reduction reduced the wrestlers' cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat tissues, which tended to recover through rehydration after the weigh-in. These results suggest that rapid weight reduction of wrestlers induced changes in different regions of the body.
Taub, Alan I.
Today's land, sea and air transportation industries — as a business necessity — are focused on technology solutions that will make vehicles more sustainable in terms of energy, the environment, safety and affordability. Reducing vehicle weight is a key enabler for meeting these challenges as well as increasing payload and improving performance. The potential weight reductions from substituting lightweight metals (advanced high-strength steels, aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys) are well established. For magnesium castings, weight savings of 60% have been reported . The value of weight reduction depends on the transportation sector and ranges from about 5/kg saved for automobiles to over 500/kg saved for aircraft . The challenge is to optimize the material properties and develop robust, high volume, manufacturing technologies and the associated supply chain to fabricate components and subsystems at the appropriate cost for each application.
Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Bhuva, Kalpesh; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Lehman, Erik B; Chuang, Cynthia H
Overweight and obese women may avoid contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain. The objective of this study was to examine the role of weight and weight perception on contraceptive use. Using cross-sectional data from the MyNewOptions study, we analyzed contraceptive use among 987 privately insured, sexually active women aged 18-40 years. Contraception was categorized into three groups: (1) long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), (2) non-LARC prescription methods and (3) nonprescription methods/no method. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the effect of body mass index category and weight perception on contraceptive use while controlling for pregnancy intentions, sexual behavior and sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three (8.4%) women were using LARCs, 490 (49.6%) women were using non-LARC prescription methods and 414 (42.0%) were using nonprescription methods or no method. In the adjusted multinomial model, overweight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-7.98) and obese women (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.72) were significantly more likely to use LARCs compared to normal-weight women. There were greater adjusted odds of overweight and obese women using nonprescription methods/no method compared with non-LARC prescription methods, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. Weight perception was not associated with contraceptive use. In this study sample, overweight and obese women were more likely to use LARCs than normal-weight women. It will be important to further understand how weight influences women and providers' views on contraception in order to better assist women with individualized, patient-centered contraceptive decision making. Overweight and obese women may be reluctant to use contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain (i.e., pills, shot), but how that affects contraceptive use is unclear. Compared with normal-weight women, overweight
Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich
Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.
Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.
Priya, D; Prasanna, K S; Sucharitha, S; Vaz, Nafisa C
Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people’s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17%) were undernourished while 111(75.5%) and 11(7.5%) were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8%) of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6%) felt they were normal and 17(11.6%) felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7%) of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 %) wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6%) of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight. PMID:20922115
Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.
Full Text Available Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW. Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%. Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the / value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (. Discussion. Recovery times to / of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.
Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi
Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys’ teasing, 67.1% of girls’ teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08–7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53– 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing. PMID:28326288
Abshire, Demetrius A; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia T; Moser, Debra K
-fold increased risk of overweight or obesity, controlling for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors (odds ratio=6.36, 95%CI=1.97-20.48, p=0.002). Living in economically distressed rural Appalachia was associated with excess body weight in college students independent of sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms, and obesity-related behaviors. Further research is needed to determine other characteristics of this region that are associated with excess body weight so that effective programs to reduce obesity risk can be implemented.
Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe
Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4
Howlett Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.
Du, Meng-Kai; Ge, Li-Ya; Zhou, Meng-Lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-Yue; Chen, Dan-Qing
To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (Ppre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (Ppre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese.
Hillebrand, J J G; de Wied, D; Adan, R A H
Energy homeostasis is controlled by a complex neuroendocrine system consisting of peripheral signals like leptin and central signals, in particular, neuropeptides. Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions are involved in this complex (partly redundant) controlling system. Starvation as well as overfeeding lead to changes in expression levels of these neuropeptides, which act downstream of leptin, resulting in a physiological response. In this review the role of several anorexigenic and orexigenic (hypothalamic) neuropeptides on food intake and body weight regulation is summarized.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029
Bryngelsson, Susanne; Asp, Nils-Georg
This overview focuses on the scientific support for selected popular diets; the Atkins diet, glycaemic index methods, the Montignac diet and the palaeolithic diet. The practical application of the diets, and their nutritional composition, in comparison with official dietary recommendations, are also discussed. In conclusion, any diet reducing energy intake may be effective in short-term weight reduction. However, the long-term safety and efficacy of the popular diets need more research to be ...
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI. Weight loss and exercise training intervention studies can be of benefit to frail older adults. Obesity and high waist circumference may be important determinants of frailty in old age, whereas the role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration is still unclear. More prospective studies that will specifically focus on frailty as an outcome measure are needed to identify specific body composition components as potential targets for the prevention of frailty in old age.
Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I
Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. © 2015 World Obesity.
Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.
The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750
Kang, K-T; Lee, P-L; Weng, W-C; Hsu, W-C
The relationship between weight status, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children has not yet been well studied. As the sleep parameters may show a disparity in different weight statuses, this study examined the relationship between the data of over-night polysomnography and different weight statuses, as well as the impact of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on children with OSA. Children with sleep disturbances were recruited from our clinics. Standard physical examinations, history taking, lateral neck roentgenography, and full-night polysomnography were obtained. Children were divided into four groups based on the age- and gender-corrected body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. An adenoidal/nasopharyngeal ratio of more than 0.67 was considered adenoidal hypertrophy. Tonsillar hypertrophy was defined as having Grade III tonsils or above. From July 2006 to January 2009, 197 children were included in this study. Obese children had a significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea index and lower minimum oxygen saturation (MinSaO(2)) than those of the other groups. Underweight children had the second highest AHI. A negative correlation was also found between BMI z scores and MinSaO(2) (r = -0.194; P = 0.007). Children with tonsillar hypertrophy (P = 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of having OSA. The risk of having OSA was significantly higher in obese children (P = 0.001) and underweight children (P = 0.043) than in those with a normal weight. Obesity, underweight status and tonsillar hypertrophy are associated with children having OSA, and obese children have a significantly higher risk than children with underweight status.
Appleton, Katherine M
Body weight, shape and body image were assessed in 16 males and 18 females before and after both 6 x 40 mins exercise and 6 x 40 mins reading. Over both conditions, body weight and shape did not change. Various aspects of body image, however, improved after exercise compared to before, while no changes were found over reading. These findings have implications for exercise promotion where a possible role for body image in exercise adherence is suggested, and confirm current theories of body image, where changes in body image are mediated by body perceptions as opposed to actual body indices.
The effects of cigarette smoking on body weight remain inconclusive. This study evaluated this relationship using the latest data from China, the largest consumer market of tobacco in the world, which is also experiencing a steady increase in patients with obesity. Using data obtained from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 1991-2011, Logit Model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion (2SRI) estimation were applied. Local tobacco yield was considered as instrument variable for smoking behavior and corrected for endogeneity. Smoking increased the likelihood of being underweight by 0.9 % and healthy weight by 5.3 %, while the likelihood of overweight and obesity decreased by 6.5 %, of which obesity reduced by 5.1 %. After correcting for endogeneity, the results were consistent and stronger. Cigarette smoking increased the likelihood of being underweight by 2.7 % and healthy weight by 12.7 %, while it decreased the likelihood of overweight and obesity by 13 %, of which obesity reduced by 10 %. Smoking induced heterogeneous effects on body weight. Smoking had a positive effect on underweight and healthy weight, while a negative effect on overweight and obesity. Tobacco control interventions may lead to weight loss among healthy subjects, while the effects on obese subjects were not obvious as expected.
Angela S. Anderson
Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.
Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and body weight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity.
Hauff, Laura E; Demerath, Ellen W
To test differences in breastfeeding duration by prepregnant maternal weight status, and determine whether body image concerns mediate any differences. A prospective longitudinal cohort of primiparous women was followed from pregnancy to, at minimum, 6 months postpartum. Questionnaire responses on body concerns were obtained during pregnancy and at 4 months postpartum. Kaplan-Meier curves compared breastfeeding duration in overweight/obese and normal weight groups. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine whether body image variables mediated the relationship between maternal weight and duration. Although intended duration was similar between groups, overweight/obese women had a shorter median duration of any breastfeeding (38.6 weeks) compared to normal weight women (48.9 weeks) (P confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.01; P body comfort/confidence postpartum more frequently than normal BMI women (P body comfort/confidence postpartum was negatively associated with duration after adjusting for maternal BMI (P = 0.01). Thus, the effect of BMI on duration was reduced by this variable (HR = 1.31; CI = 0.93, 1.86; P = 0.13), suggesting mediation. Women with high prepregnant BMI have reduced lactation duration that is mediated by lack of comfort/confidence with one's body. Further research into the interplay between body image, weight status, and breastfeeding outcomes may point to behavioral targets amenable to intervention and modification that may in turn improve breastfeeding outcomes for overweight/obese women and their infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel
There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.
Ramona C. Krauss
Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette
The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =
Baldinotti, Ivan; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P; Kutz, Dieter F
Recent studies have shown that whole-body vibration improves posture and gait control in stroke patients. Patients with degenerative cerebellar disease suffer from ataxic gait also which is characterised by the variation of gait pattern. Our interest is to test whole-body vibration as a method for rehabilitation treatment in cerebellar patients and to assess the success of the treatment using dynamic tests. The aim of this study was to introduce a method for quantifying movement dynamics during an active voluntary sidestep that results in a body-weight-transfer. Subjects had to perform a step from a feet-apart-position to a feet-together-position and back again. The algorithms presented in this study allow automatic identification of the timing of the dynamic phases by analysing the centre of pressure trajectory. For this study the time flow of averaged speed, acceleration, and jerk was calculated for the active movement only. This study demonstrates that jerk provides a sensitive measure for the improvement in gait in rehabilitation and during training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solah, Vicky A.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Hunt, Wendy J.; Johnson, Stuart K.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Meng, Xingqiong; Gahler, Roland J.; James, Anthony P.; Mukhtar, Aqif S.; Fenton, Haelee K.; Wood, Simon
Fibre supplementation can potentially reduce energy intake and contribute to weight loss. The mechanism may be reduced frequency of eating, resulting in reduced food consumption. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of fibre supplementation with PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), on body weight and composition, frequency of eating and dietary intake in 118 overweight adults. In a three‐arm, parallel, blind, randomised controlled trial participants were random...
Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B.; Townsend, R. Leigh; Morrison, Christopher D.; Münzberg, Heike; Ye, Jianping; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf
Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in sustained lowering of body weight in most patients, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to obtain support for the notion that reprogramming of defended body weight, rather than passive restriction of energy intake, is a fundamental mechanism of RYGB. Methods Male C57BL6J mice reaching different degrees of obesity on a high-fat diet either with ad libitum access or with caloric restriction (weight-reduced) were subjected to RYGB. Results RYGB-induced weight loss and fat mass loss was proportional to pre-surgical levels, with moderately obese mice losing less body weight and fat compared with very obese mice. Remarkably, mice that were weight-reduced to the level of chow controls before surgery, immediately gained weight after surgery, exclusively accounted for by lean mass gain. Conclusions The results provide additional evidence for re-programming of a new defended body weight as an important principle by which RYGB lastingly suppresses body weight. RYGB appears to selectively abolish defense of a higher fat mass level, while remaining sensitive to the defense of lean mass. The molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this re-programming remain to be elucidated. PMID:26847390
Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Ye, Jianping; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in sustained lowering of body weight in most patients, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to obtain support for the notion that reprogramming of defended body weight, rather than passive restriction of energy intake, is a fundamental mechanism of RYGB. Male C57BL6J mice reaching different degrees of obesity on a high-fat diet either with ad libitum access or with caloric restriction (weight-reduced) were subjected to RYGB. RYGB-induced weight loss and fat mass loss were proportional to pre-surgical levels, with moderately obese mice losing less body weight and fat compared with very obese mice. Remarkably, mice that were weight-reduced to the level of chow controls before surgery immediately gained weight after surgery, exclusively accounted for by lean mass gain. The results provide additional evidence for reprogramming of a new defended body weight as an important principle by which RYGB lastingly suppresses body weight. RYGB appears to selectively abolish defense of a higher fat mass level, while remaining sensitive to the defense of lean mass. The molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this reprogramming remain to be elucidated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L
This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M
This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon
With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean...
Reed, Danielle R; Duke, Fujiko F; Ellis, Hillary K; Rosazza, Matthew R; Lawler, Maureen P; Alarcon, Laura K; Tordoff, Michael G
The goal of this study was to determine the adiposity of a range of rat strains, including a panel of consomics, to estimate heritability. To that end, we assessed the body fat distribution and organ weights of groups of adult male rats from 3 outbred strains, 11 inbred strains and 22 consomic strains. We measured the weights of the gonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, femoral, subscapular and pericardial white fat depots, the subscapular brown fat depot, the kidneys, liver, heart, spleen, and brain. Strains were compared for the measured weight of each of these adipose depots and organs, and also for these weights adjusted statistically for body size. All individual adipose depot and organ weights were highly heritable, in most cases h(2)>0.50. The fourteen inbred and outbred rat strains were not very different in body length but there was a three-fold difference in body weight, and up to a twenty-fold difference in the weight of some adipose depots. Comparison of the FHH-Chr n(BN) consomic strains with the FHH host strain revealed 98 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body composition and organ weight, with the introgressed chromosome reducing weight or adiposity in most cases. These results can be used to guide the choice of appropriate rat strains for future studies of the genetic architecture of obesity and body size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005
Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish...... consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5·0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption...... and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5·70 (95 % CI 4·35, 7·06), 2·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 4·31) and 11·12 (95 % CI 8·17, 14·08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal...
Sabia, Joseph J; Nguyen, Thanh Tam; Rosenberg, Oren
Previous research has found that high school physical education (PE) requirements are largely ineffective at reducing youth body weight. However, these studies were forced to rely on cross-state variation in PE requirements to identify their impacts, raising concerns that estimated policy effects may be confounded by state-level unobservables. Using data from the State and National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and exploiting recent changes in state high school PE laws, we re-examine the effect of PE requirements on body weight. Our estimates show that a one-semester increase in PE requirements is associated with a 10 to 13% increase in minutes per week spent physically active in PE classes, but with no change in net vigorous exercise and little change in youth body weight. We conclude that substitution of in-school for outside-of-school physical activity and small resultant net energy expenditures can explain the absence of body weight effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Moo In; Lee, Sang Ho; Hwang, Hyun Yong; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won
AIM: To investigate the relationship between the function of vagus nerve and peptide YY3-36 and ghrelin levels after subtotal gastrectomy. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 16 patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric cancer. All surgeries were performed by a single skilled surgeon. We measured peptide YY3-36, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, growth hormone levels, and body weight immediately before and one month after surgery. RESULTS: Vagus nerve preservation group showed less body weight loss and less increase of peptide YY3-36 compared with vagotomy group (-5.56 ± 2.24 kg vs -7.85 ± 1.57 kg, P = 0.037 and 0.06 ± 0.08 ng/mL vs 0.19 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P = 0.021, respectively). Moreover, patients with body weight loss of less than 10% exhibited reduced elevation of peptide YY3-36 level, typically less than 20% [6 (66.7%) vs 0 (0.0%), P = 0.011, odd ratio = 3.333, 95% confidence interval (1.293, 8.591)]. CONCLUSION: Vagus nerve preservation contributes to the maintenance of body weight after gastrectomy, and this phenomenon may be related to the suppressed activity of peptide YY3-36. PMID:22912556
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study
Keijer, J.; Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.G.; Schothorst, van E.M.
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not
Rutten, M.J.M.; Komen, J.; Bovenhuis, H.
Genetic parameters for body weight at ages over approximately 120 days are scarce in Nile tilapia. In this study, genetic parameters for body weight in Nile tilapia were estimated for ages ranging from 100 to 326 days. To this end, five repeated observations of body weight were collected on 2483
Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kiełczewska, Magdalena; Szymczyk, Jerzy; Leszczyńsk, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan
Effective change the appearance of the body through available both invasive and non-invasive methods such as treatment has been documented in numerous clinical trials. Liposuction and lipoplasty are currently the most widely used methods of reducing fat deposits. Technological advances made has become increasingly popular use of invasive procedures using energy fields and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. It is now one of the most effective and safe methods of treatment, based on the principle of mechanical and thermal stimulation of the physiological processes leading to the reduction of locally accumulated fat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of selected parameters of body weight in patients undergoing fat reduction BTL Exilis device. IThe study included a 50-group of women who are patients of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic Al-Med in Kolobrzeg. Taken twice the measurement of body weight, waist circumference and thickness measurement of skinfolds before the first treatment, and after a series of treatments. Treatment consisted of 4 sessions while maintaining the 10-day interval between treatments. In the study a statistically significant reduction in the studied parameters such as actual body weight, waist circumference, fat mass and thickness of the skinfolds were showed. The effect of treatment with the energy field of highfrequency ultrasonic wave in a reduction in the size of fat body mass and improving the contour shape. Willingness to continue participation examined in this type of surgery proves positive reception of therapy and its effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
WIELINGA, Peter Y.; LÖWENSTEIN, Christian; MUFF, Sabine; MUNZ, Manuela; WOODS, Stephen C.; LUTZ, Thomas A.
The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, body weight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered body weight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior body weight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores. PMID:20416330
Hulmi, Juha J; Isola, Ville; Suonpää, Marianna; Järvinen, Neea J; Kokkonen, Marja; Wennerström, Annika; Nyman, Kai; Perola, Markus; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Häkkinen, Keijo
Worries about the potential negative consequences of popular fat loss regimens for aesthetic purposes in normal weight females have been surfacing in the media. However, longitudinal studies investigating these kinds of diets are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 4-month fat-loss diet in normal weight females competing in fitness-sport. In total 50 participants finished the study with 27 females (27.2 ± 4.1 years) dieting for a competition and 23 (27.7 ± 3.7 years) acting as weight-stable controls. The energy deficit of the diet group was achieved by reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing aerobic exercise while maintaining a high level of protein intake and resistance training in addition to moderate fat intake. The diet led to a ~12% decrease in body weight (P fat mass (DXA, bioimpedance, skinfolds, P fat mass (diet × group interaction P muscle cross-sectional area (ultrasound) were observed in diet (P weight and all hormones except T3 and testosterone returned to baseline during a 3-4 month recovery period including increased energy intake and decreased levels aerobic exercise. This study shows for the first time that most of the hormonal changes after a 35-50% decrease in body fat in previously normal-weight females can recover within 3-4 months of increased energy intake.
Acuña-Espinoza, Alejandro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando
Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500 g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N). The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS) and a normal (CON) weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (mean ± s.d.) (640.7 ± 62.8 N and 640.3 ± 62.7 N, respectively, p effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community.
Westerterp, Klaas R
Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.
Littlejohn, M; Grala, T; Sanders, K; Walker, C; Waghorn, G; Macdonald, K; Coppieters, W; Georges, M; Spelman, R; Hillerton, E; Davis, S; Snell, R
Variation at the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) locus has recently been implicated in the regulation of stature and weight in Bos taurus. Using a population of 942 outbred Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, we report confirmation of this effect, demonstrating strong association of early life body weight with PLAG1 genotype. Peripubertal body weight and growth rate were also significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. Growth rate per kilogram of body weight, daily feed intake, gross feed efficiency and residual feed intake were not significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. This study supports the status of PLAG1 as a key regulator of mammalian growth. Further, the data indicate the utility of PLAG1 polymorphisms for the selection of animals to achieve enhanced weight gain or conversely to aid the selection of animals with lower mature body weight and thus lower maintenance energy requirements. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim
We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.
Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E; Rhinehart, Erin
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring. Few previous studies have used a lower level of food restriction, and no experiments, to the best of our knowledge, were designed to determine whether the effects of gestational restriction have postgestational effects independent of the effects that occurred during gestation. In the present experiment, Syrian hamsters were either restricted to 90% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum during pregnancy. All litters were cross-fostered at birth and all were fed ad libitum during lactation. Half of the litters from ad libitum-fed pregnant dams were fostered to dams that had been food restricted during pregnancy and half of the litters from food-restricted pregnant dams were fostered to ad libitum-fed dams. The latter group allowed us to test the hypothesis that the effects of having a gestationally food-restricted mother affects offspring characteristics independent of the prenatal programming. First, we found significant increases in the postnatal body weight of the offspring of ad libitum-fed mothers fostered to food-restricted dams, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of gestational restriction carry over to postnatal maternal ability (e.g., milk yield, milk content, or parental behavior). Second, the carry-over effects of gestational food restriction on offspring postnatal body weight were
Hartmann, B; Bramlage, P; Schneider, S; Tschöpe, D; Gitt, A K
Treatment strategies for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aim to increase physical activity, reduce body weight, and improve glucose control using weight-beneficial antidiabetic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine whether these strategies are implemented, and to identify factors predictive of glucose control and body weight management in a large, real-world patient population. The prospective DiaRegis cohort study included 3807 patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the treating physician decided to intensify and optimize treatment because of insufficient glucose control. Antidiabetic treatment of overweight and obese patients was compared with that of normal-weight patients over a 2-years follow-up period, and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of body weight loss. Among the 3807 participants, 92.5 % were overweight or obese. Normal-weight participants were more often treated with sulfonylureas or insulin, and overweight and obese patients with metformin or glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues. Predictors of weight loss were body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and any reported physical activity. DiaRegis study shows that under real-world conditions, antidiabetic drug therapy is performed dependent on body weight. This strategy results in adequate glucose control and moderate weight reductions in overweight and obese patients. Weight loss is affected by treatment with weight-beneficial drugs, but also by any reported physical activity. However, only a small subgroup of patients perform physical activity. Initiation and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle remains a significant challenge for physicians, and patients with type 2 diabetes.
Lang, B J; Legates, J E
Mice selected for high (H6) and low (L6) 6-week body weight and a randombred control population (C1) were characterized for rate, composition and efficiency of growth. Individual body weights were obtained from birth to 8 weeks of age on 682 mice representative of the three lines. Individual whole carcass determinations of water, fat, ash and protein (residual) were obtained for 180 mice sampled weekly from 3-8 weeks of age. Efficiency of feed utilization was estimated from individual body weight and feed consumption data obtained on 189 mice from 3-8 weeks of age. Growth curves for body weight and gain in body weight, constructed by line and sex, showed a temporary retardation of maximum growth rate in the L6 line, which was attributed in part to an extended depression in growth following weaning. The composition of growth yielded no evidence that the more rapid growth rate in the H6 line resulted from an increase in fat deposition relative to the other carcass components. A decrease in fat percent at 7 weeks of age in the H6 and C1 lines was not evident in the L6 line until 8 weeks of age. Females had a higher percentage carcass fat than did males during the 4-7 weeks growth period, but this difference was essentially reduced to zero by 8 weeks of age. Percentage water was highly correlated negatively with percentage fat. Percentages protein and ash were essentially constant across lines and ages. A positive relation between rate and efficiency of growth was observed between lines. Consistent sex differences, males more efficient than females, were observed prior to 6 weeks of age, but were not evident in the later (6-8 week) data.
Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M
Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KOTTWITZ, Maria U.; GREBNER, Simone; SEMMER, Norbert K.; TSCHAN, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516
Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher
Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual's genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.
Full Text Available Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.
Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273
Gong, Zhejun; Gong, Zhefeng
Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen.
Russell, Ashley L; Grimes, Jamie Moran; Cruthirds, Danette F; Westerfield, Joanna; Wooten, Lawren; Keil, Margaret; Weiser, Michael J; Landauer, Michael R; Handa, Robert J; Wu, T John; Larco, Darwin O
17β-Estradiol is known to regulate energy metabolism and body weight. Ovariectomy results in body weight gain while estradiol administration results in a reversal of weight gain. Isoflavones, found in rodent chow, can mimic estrogenic effects making it crucial to understand the role of these compounds on metabolic regulation. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of dietary isoflavones on body weight regulation in the ovariectomized rat. This study will examine how dietary isoflavones can interact with estradiol treatment to affect body weight. Consistent with previous findings, animals fed an isoflavone-rich diet had decreased body weight (pbody weight (pbody weight gain. We screened a host of cytokines and chemokines that may be altered by dietary isoflavones or estradiol replacement. Serum cytokine analysis revealed significant (pbody weight regulation depending on the presence of isoflavones in rodent chow. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Silva, Wanderson Roberto da; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Fa...
Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong
Estrogen receptor–α (ERα) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERα-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ERα. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ERα (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight–lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ERα in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ERα agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug–mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ERα signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%. BMI ≥ 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%. Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ≥ 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08, 18.04 (7.19–45.30, 4.12 (1.64–10.37, respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Title: Physical profile of judo athletes and its changes due to body weight reduction Aim of work: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intensive pre-competitive body weight reduction on body composition, anthropometric parameters, postural stability, reaction time, maximal isometric muscle strength and biochemical parameters in the blood of elite judo athletes. Methods: The work compares the results of laboratory testing at the beginning and at the end of body weight reductio...
Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q
The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4
Shi, Rong-fu; Wang, Ke-ling; Li, Qing-hua; Zheng, Hua-cheng; Yang, Hua-fang; Tang, Hong-xia; Sun, Su-zhen; Wang, Li-hui; Tian, Jie
Topiramate is a new broad-spectrum anti-epileptic drug. Decreased body weight and appetite are common side effects of topiramate. The side effect affects the growth and development in children greatly. Little is known about the mechanisms of topiramate-induced weight loss and decreased appetite in children with epilepsy in China and abroad. galanin is one of factors that affect appetite. It is a neuroendocrine peptide and play an important role in the control of appetite and body weight in the mechanism of hormone release. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of topiramate-induced weight loss in children with epilepsy and the relation of weight loss with change of galanin, thereby to provide evidences for improvement of quality of life, compliance to treatment and reduce side effects of growth and development in children with epilepsy. Totally 61 patients with especial epilepsy were enrolled into this study and the disease was defined by clinical manifestations and electroencephalography (EEG). Among them 32 cases had generalized seizures and 29 had local seizures. Sixteen normal children were enrolled as control group. The patients' age ranged from 0.5 to 14 (4.76 +/- 4.05) years and the patients were instructed to take 0.5 - 1 mg/kg of topiramate per day, with 0.5 - 1 mg/kg every 3 - 5 d increased to maximum of 3 - 8 mg/kg per day. Patients continued receiving the doses for 4 months. All patients' serum galanin levels and body height and weight and hepatic function were detected before and after antiepileptic drugs treatment. The galanin was detected by using radioimmunoassay. After treatment with topiramate (61 cases) for 4 months, plasma galanin [(22.01 +/- 8.12) pg/ml] declined as compared with baseline [(26.56 +/- 9.35) pg/ml, t = 2.85, P 0.05]. Topiramate treatment may lower the body weight and reduce appetite in part of children with epilepsy which may be mediated by the reduced plasma galanin level.
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female's motivation to interact with conspecifics. 2010 Elsevier
Di Masso Ricardo J.
Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli
Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 85th percentile) was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI > or = 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%). BMI > or = 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%). Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI > or = 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53-8.08), 18.04 (7.19-45.30), 4.12 (1.64-10.37), respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Anderson, Angela S; Good, Deborah J
For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan-May 2013 and Jan-May 2014) were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male) consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs) and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = - 0.190) and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Tan, Andrew K G; Yen, Steven T; Feisul, Mustapha I
To investigate the roles of sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors in affecting body mass index (BMI) across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Data are obtained from 2,436 observations from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The multi-ethnic sample is segmented into Malay, Chinese, and Indian/other ethnicities. Ordered probit analysis is conducted and marginal effects of sociodemographic and health lifestyle variables on BMI calculated. Malays between 41 and 58 years are more likely to be overweight or obese than their 31-40 years counterparts, while the opposite is true among Chinese. Retirees of Chinese and Indian/other ethnicities are less likely to be obese and more likely to have normal BMI than those between 31 and 40 years. Primary educated Chinese are more likely to be overweight or obese, while tertiary-educated Malays are less likely to suffer from similar weight issues as compared to those with only junior high school education. Affluent Malays and Chinese are more likely to be overweight than their low-middle income cohorts. Family illness history is likely to cause overweightness or obesity, irrespective of ethnicity. Malay cigarette smokers have lower overweight and obesity probabilities than non-cigarette smokers. There exists a need for flexible policies to address cross-ethnic differences in the sociodemographic and health-lifestyle covariates of BMI.
Ali, Mir M; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A
The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has increased three-fold over the last thirty years. During the same period, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in children also rose significantly. Previous literature suggests an association between actual body weight and mental health, but there is little evidence on self-perception of weight and mental health status. To examine the relationship between actual body weight, self-perception of body weight and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Using data for a nationally-representative sample of adolescents in the United States, we ascertain the effect of body weight status on depressive symptoms by estimating endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects to account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders. Actual body weight status was calculated using interviewer-measured height and weight. We also used a measure of self-perceived weight status to compare how actual versus self-perceived weight status affects mental health. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and a dichotomous version of self-reported indicator for depression were utilized as mental health indicators. Potential mediators between mental health and weight status such as levels of physical activity, participation in risky health behaviors and parental characteristics were also controlled for in the analysis. The analytical sample consisted of 13,454 adolescents aged 11 to 18. After accounting for a wide array of relevant characteristics, we did not find a direct and significant association between actual weight status and mental health outcomes. Instead, our analysis revealed a strongly negative and significant relationship between self-perceived weight status and mental health. The negative relationship between self-perceived weight and depressive symptoms was more pronounced among females. The RSE scale was particularly correlated with body
Correll, Jennifer A; Dalton, William T; Bailey, Beth
To examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight and body image concerns and smoking status in late pregnancy. Participants included 172 pregnant smokers. Pre-pregnancy weight and body image concerns were assessed during first trimester via the Weight Concern Scale and Body Image Concern Inventory. Smoking status was evaluated at third trimester via self-report. Logistic regression analyses revealed that weight concerns played a significant role in smoking continuation in late pregnancy. Beliefs about weight control properties of cigarettes may play an important role in smoking continuation among pregnant women. These findings suggest assessing weight concerns with pregnant women who smoke in an effort to facilitate successful cessation.
Effects of castration on growth rate, body and visceral organ weights of pigs were investigated using data from intact males, intact females of Large White pigs full or half castrated at 2, 4, or 6 weeks of age. Body weights and feed intake were recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg at weekly intervals from birth, while weights of ...
Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Bos, A.E.R.; Mayer, B.
Introduction: This study examined what methods people use to determine and interpret their body weight, and what factors are associated with either an underestimation of overweight or an overestimation of a healthy body weight. Method: The study used self-reported data on weight and height. Data
Monteagudo, C.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Visser, M.
Introduction: Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current
Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre
Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...
Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit
Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Case-control study. Sports medicine laboratory. Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P .05). In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation.
Grzybek, Agnieszka; Pachocka, Lucyna; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina
Implementation of a lowenergy diet is recommended for overweight and obesity treatment. However, some patients gain weight after successful body weight reduction achieved at the beginning. This study was aimed to evaluate body weight and body composition changes in subjects with BMI > or = 25 after 1 year of a low-energy diet. The study group consisted of 70 women, aged 47.3, BMI 37.5 kg/m2 and 25 men, aged 42.4, BMI 37.1 kg/m2. 1000 kcal diet was recommended for women and 1500 kcal diet for men. Body weight measurement and body composition assessment by BIA were performed at entry and every 2 months of the study. Subjects were divided in 2 groups: I--patients with body weight reduction achieved after 6 and 12 months of treatment (38 women, 16 men), II--subjects who lost weight in first 6 months and gained weight in the next 6 months (32 women, 9 men). After 1 year treatment averaged body weight reduction in women was 11.9% +/- 8.6, in men 13.9% +/- 8.3. In women from group I body weight decrement was 16.4 +/- 11.2 kg (15 +/- 9%), and in women from group II 7.5 +/- 7.7 kg, (8.1 +/- 6.7%), respectively. Men in group I lost 22 +/- 14.3 kg (16.7 +/- 8.7%), men in group II 8.8 +/- 5.3 kg (9 +/- 5.3%). 10% body weight reduction after 1 year was achieved in 29 women (41.4%) and in 16 men (64%). In group I changes of body weight in 6-12 months were related to body weight decrement in the first 6 months, in group II this correlation was not stated. Effect of treatment achieved in 6-12 months was not related to age. Implementation of a low energy diet resulted in body weight reduction, the goal of treatment--10% body weight decrement, was achieved in 41.4% women and in 64% men.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
Full Text Available Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500 g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N. The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS and a normal (CON weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (mean ± s.d. (640.7 ± 62.8 N and 640.3 ± 62.7 N, respectively, p < 0.0001 under both treatments. No treatment vs. time of test interaction was found. No significant difference was found between CON and HS weight (640.6 ± 62.8 N and 640.9 ± 62.9 N, respectively, p=0.3815. The metrological tests suggest that the statistical differences found are related to the force plate measuring errors in every pre-established time interval. The 45 g (0.44 N difference found between pretest and post-test lies within the uncertainty range identified for the equipment (± 110 g or 1.08 N. In conclusion, a 30-second headstand has no significant effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community.
Crovesy, L; Ostrowski, M; Ferreira, D M T P; Rosado, E L; Soares-Mota, M
Gut microbiota is important for maintaining body weight. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics may result in weight loss and thus help in obesity treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus on weight loss and/or fat mass in overweight adults. A search was performed on the Medline (PubMed) and Scopus electronic databases using the search terms: 'probiotics', 'Lactobacillus, 'obesity', 'body weight changes', 'weight loss', 'overweight', 'abdominal obesity', 'body composition', 'body weight', 'body fat' and 'fat mass'. In the total were found 1567 articles, but only 14 were included in this systematic review. Of these nine showed decreased body weight and/or body fat, three did not find effect and two showed weight gain. Results suggest that the beneficial effects are strain dependent. It can highlight that Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus when combined with a hypocaloric diet, L. plantarum with Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei with phenolic compounds, and multiple species of Lactobacillus.
Leidy, H J; Gardner, J K; Frye, B R; Snook, M L; Schuchert, M K; Richard, E L; Williams, N I
Ghrelin is directly involved with short-term regulation of energy balance. Although circulating levels of ghrelin are elevated in anorexia nervosa and reduced in obesity, the role of ghrelin in regulating long-term energy balance in healthy women has not been investigated. We examined the effects of a 3-month energy deficit-imposing diet and exercise intervention on circulating ghrelin in normal-weight, healthy women. Body composition, resting metabolic rate, and serum ghrelin were measured at pre-, mid-, and postintervention in controls (n = 7), who performed no exercise, and exercising women who remained weight stable (n = 5) or lost weight (n = 10). Exercise training occurred five times per week, and subjects were fed a specific diet. Ghrelin significantly increased over time (770 +/- 296 to 1322 +/- 664 pmol/liter) in the weight-loss group compared with the controls and the weight-stable group (P weight (r = -0.61; P weight, and resting metabolic rate significantly decreased in the weight-loss group before the increase in ghrelin. These findings suggest that ghrelin responds in a compensatory manner to changes in energy homeostasis in healthy young women, and that ghrelin exhibits particular sensitivity to changes in body weight.
Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.
Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.
Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne
Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.
Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.
Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotova, Vladimíra; Stöhr, Jiří; Haluzík, Martin; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka
Anorexigenic neuropeptides produced and acting in the brain have the potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but are ineffective after peripheral application, owing to a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. We have designed lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), which is involved in energy balance regulation as demonstrated by obesity phenotypes of both Prrp-knockout and Prrp receptor-knockout mice. The aim of this study was to characterize the subchronic effect of a palmitoylated PrRP analog in two rat models of obesity and diabetes: diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats and leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic (ZDF) rats. In the rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO), a two-week intraperitoneal treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake by 24% and body weight by 8%. This treatment also improved glucose tolerance and tended to decrease leptin levels and adipose tissue masses in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, in ZDF rats, the same treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake but did not significantly affect body weight or glucose tolerance, probably in consequence of severe leptin resistance due to a nonfunctional leptin receptor. Our data indicate a good efficacy of lipidized PrRP in DIO rats. Thus, the strong anorexigenic, body weight-reducing, and glucose tolerance-improving effects make palmitoylated PrRP an attractive candidate for anti-obesity treatment. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.
Huazano-García, Alicia; Shin, Hakdong; López, Mercedes G
Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10), for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.
Jensen, Rasmus B; Danielsen, Signe H; Tauson, Anne-Helene
Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms were included. All horses were assigned a BCS on a scale from 1 to 9 (1 is poor, 5 is moderate and 9 is extremely fat) by their owner and by an experienced person. Two weight tapes were used to assess BW. Girth circumference (GC), neck circumference (NC) and height at withers (HW) were measured, and the GC:HW and NC:HW ratios were calculated. Categorising the horses into four groups, 5.9 % were underweight (BCS 3-4), 70.1 % were optimal (BCS 5-6), 13.8 % were overweight (BCS 7) and 10.2 % were obese (BCS 8-9). The GC:HW and NC:HW ratios increased with increasing BCS, as did the BW estimated with the weight tapes. A GC:HW ratio >1.21 might indicate overweight or obesity in Icelandic horses. Horse owners underestimated the BCS of their horses compared to an experienced person. The results from this study show that 24.0 % of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark are overweight or obese, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.
Carly R. Pacanowski
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.
Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S
We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Mai, Knut; Brachs, Maria; Leupelt, Verena; Schwartzenberg, Reiner Jumpertz-von; Maurer, Lukas; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Ernert, Andrea; Bobbert, Thomas; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim
Lifestyle based weight loss interventions are hampered by long-term inefficacy. Prediction of individuals successfully reducing body weight would be highly desirable. Although sympathetic activity is known to contribute to energy homeostasis, its predictive role in body weight maintenance has not yet been addressed. We investigated, whether weight regain could be modified by a weight maintenance intervention and analyzed the predictive role of weight loss-induced changes of the sympathetic system on long-term weight regain. 156 subjects (age > 18; BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2) participated in a 12-week weight reduction program. After weight loss (T0), 143 subjects (weight loss >8%) were randomized to a 12-month lifestyle intervention or a control group. After 12 months (T12) no further intervention was performed until month 18 (T18). Weight regain at T18 (regainBMI) was the primary outcome. Evaluation of systemic and tissue specific estimates of sympathetic system was a pre-defined secondary outcome. BMI was reduced by 4.67 ± 1.47 kg/m2 during the initial weight loss period. BMI maintained low in subjects of the intervention group until T12 (+0.07 ± 2.98 kg/m2; p = 0.58 compared to T0), while control subjects regained +0.98 ± 1.93 kg/m2 (p weight than controls after ceasing the intervention (1.17 ± 1.34 vs. 0.57 ± 0.93 kg/m2) until T18. Consequently, BMI was not different at T18 (33.52 ± 5.71 vs. 34.62 ± 6.08 kg/m2; p = 0.17). Weight loss-induced modification of urinary metanephrine excretion independently predicted regainBMI (R2 = 0.138; p weight loss. Our lifestyle intervention successfully maintained body weight during the intervention period. However, no long-term effect could be observed beyond the intervention period. Predictive sympathetic activity was not persistently modified by the intervention, which may partially explain the lack of long-term success of such interventions. Copyright © 2018
H. Anwar, Z.U. Rahman*, I. Javed and F. Muhammad
Full Text Available Two hundred White Leg Horn Layers (70 week age were arranged and brought to the poultry research station, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Four groups were made (n=50 each into keeping G1 as control (CP 16%, No other supplement, G2 (CP 18% diet, G3 (CP16% diet; symbiotic @ 85 mg L-1/day and G4 (CP 16% diet; probiotic @ 85 mg L-1/day. The body and organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, brain and pituitary weight from fifteen birds in each group at 5% (5P, peak (PP and end (EP of post molt production stage were determined. The overall mean heart weight in G2 and pituitary weight in G2 and G3 reduced (P≤0.05 as compared to G1. The mean kidney weight found increased (P≤0.05 in G3 and G4 as compared to G1. The results show metabolic relation of protein and probiotics with body organs.
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M
Sleep restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight gain. It was hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and the effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was examined. OR and SD rats (n = 12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light phase for 9 days. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake, and body weight were documented. Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased the number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery sleep during the active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during the rest phase increases active period sleep. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Kinsey-Jones, James S; Alamshah, Amin; McGavigan, Anne K; Spreckley, Eleanor; Banks, Katherine; Cereceda Monteoliva, Nicholas; Norton, Mariana; Bewick, Gavin A; Murphy, Kevin G
The G-protein coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is activated by proteinogenic amino acids and may sense amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The study investigated whether GPRC6A was necessary for the effects of low- and high-protein diets on body weight and food intake in mice. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a low-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a knockout (GPRC6a-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low-protein diet (6% protein) for 9 days. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a-KO and WT mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a high-protein diet (50% protein) for 5 weeks. A high-protein diet reduced body weight gain and food intake compared with a control diet in both WT and GPRC6a-KO mice. A low-protein diet decreased body weight gain in GPRC6a-KO mice. GPRC6A was not necessary for the effects of a low- or high-protein diet on body weight and likely does not play a role in protein-induced satiety. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Fischer, Arielle G; Wolf, Alon
Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait. Fifteen healthy subjects walked overground under three (0%, 15%, and 30%) body weight unloading experimental conditions. Kinetic measures included hip and knee frontal plane moments and impulses and the foot center of pressure. A significant inverse relationship was shown between increased body weight unloading levels (0% to 30%) and a decrease in the hip and knee first adduction moments and impulses and an increase in the lateral shift of the foot center of pressure. Frontal plane hip and knee kinetic curvature patterns remained similar as evidenced by low normalized RMSE under paired comparisons of the experimental conditions. Overground gait with up to 30% body weight unloading stands out as an efficient method of reducing loads on joints without distorting kinetic gait curvature patterns. The relationship between increased unloading with decreased hip and knee moments and impulses and increased lateral shift of the center of pressure also suggests that this shift may be an important diagnostic tool in gait assessment and correction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F
Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449
Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective ...
York, David A; Thomas, Sonyja; Greenway, Frank L; Liu, Zhijun; Rood, Jennifer C
Chinese herbal extract Number Ten (NT) is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage and tumeric. This study tested the effectiveness of NT in reducing body weight gain in rats. Sixty female Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and acclimated to gavage feeding. The rats were divided into five treatment groups: (1) Control (n = 15); (2) NT-H (n = 15), 1.5 g/day; (3) NT-L (n = 10), 0.75 g/day; (4) Pr-fed (n = 10), pair fed to NT-H; (5) d-FF (n = 10), d-fenfluramine 2 mg/kg. Ten rats per group were sacrificed on day 56. Weight, food intake, clinical chemistry and body composition were evaluated. Five animals in the control and 1.5 g/day NT groups were left untreated during a two week recovery period. The 0.75 g/day NT, 1.5 g/day NT, d-fenfluramine and pair fed groups gained 24.6%, 33.3%, 12.3% and 33.3% less than the control respectively (P loss of hair around the mouth and coloration to the urine and stool without evidence of blood or bilirubin (attributed to chromogens in NT). There were no differences between groups in the clinical chemistry. This study demonstrated the efficacy of NT in reducing weight gain in rodents.
Greenway Frank L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese herbal extract Number Ten (NT is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage and tumeric. This study tested the effectiveness of NT in reducing body weight gain in rats. Methods Sixty female Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and acclimated to gavage feeding. The rats were divided into five treatment groups: (1 Control (n = 15; (2 NT-H (n = 15, 1.5 g/day; (3 NT-L (n = 10, 0.75 g/day; (4 Pr-fed (n = 10, pair fed to NT-H; (5 d-FF (n = 10, d-fenfluramine 2 mg/kg. Ten rats per group were sacrificed on day 56. Weight, food intake, clinical chemistry and body composition were evaluated. Five animals in the control and 1.5 g/day NT groups were left untreated during a two week recovery period. Results The 0.75 g/day NT, 1.5 g/day NT, d-fenfluramine and pair fed groups gained 24.6%, 33.3%, 12.3% and 33.3% less than the control respectively (P Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of NT in reducing weight gain in rodents.
Monica H T Wong
Full Text Available Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain.The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain.Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002 were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043 and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023 were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight.LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.
Nasiri, Ebrahim; Nasiri, Reza
Context: Accurate patient weight is an important factor in the emergency and operating room departments. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients. Settings and Design: Education of hospitals, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, prospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: This is prospective observational study. Nursing staff were asked to estimated weight that knows about a similar person weight on the operating room and matched together, then told his/her guests. They were measured total body weight before anesthesia and then patient head and legs weight after anesthesia. The main outcome was mean weight of these methods and percent accuracy in weight estimation for each group recorded. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistically used. Results: Overall, 57.3% (243/425) of operating personnel estimations were equal with actual weight. 35.4% (150/425) of the estimations were less 10 kg than the actual weight and only 7.3 (31/425) of the estimations were above 5 kg of actual weight. The accuracy of overall estimations by operating personnel and its comparison to the accuracy of legs weight, head, and sum weight by a similar method is demonstrated. Conclusions: Despite having no formula in the critical intensive care and anesthesia region for estimation anesthetized, for comatose patient weight. We can use this formula, but where possible, should be based on measured weight for drug dose calculation and this is not possible, combination of these formulas is suitable. PMID:25885980
SUTO, Jun-ichi; SATOU, Kunio
The Ay allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. However, body weight gain stops between 16 and 17 weeks after birth, and then, body weight decreases gradually in DDD.Cg-Ay male mice. Body weight loss is a consequence of diabetes mellitus, which is genetically controlled mainly by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4. This study aimed to further characterize diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in DDD.Cg-Ay males. The number of β-cells was markedly reduced, and plasma insulin levels were very low in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. Using a backcross progeny of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay, we identified one significant QTL for plasma insulin levels on distal chromosome 4, which was coincidental with QTL for hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The DDD allele was associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. When the DDD.Cg-Ay males were housed under three different housing conditions [group housing (4 or 5 DDD.Cg-Ay and DDD males), individual housing (single DDD.Cg-Ay male) and single male housing with females (single DDD.Cg-Ay male with DDD.Cg-Ay or DDD females)], diabetes mellitus and body weight loss were most severely expressed in individually housed mice. Thus, the severity of diabetes and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males was strongly influenced by the housing conditions. These results demonstrate that both genetic and nongenetic environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. PMID:25373882
Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B; Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Fuss, Paul; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa
To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 weeks. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high) but were matched for protein, fiber, and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR-predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability. No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass (FM) was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (-226 kJ/day [95% CI: -314 to -138 kJ/day], P Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI and was not associated with weight regain 12 months later. Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce FM, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Smith Jean L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would
Damms-Machado, Antje; Louis, Sandrine; Schnitzer, Anna; Volynets, Valentina; Rings, Andreas; Basrai, Maryam; Bischoff, Stephan C
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 43.7 ± 5.2; 78% with moderate or severe liver steatosis] were included in the follow-up intervention study (n = 13 by month 12). All patients reduced their weight to a mean ± SD BMI of 36.4 ± 5.1 within 12 mo. We assessed barrier functions by the oral Lac:Man and the fecal zonulin tests. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA), and liver steatosis by sonography and the fatty liver index (FLI). The Lac:Man ratio and circulating interleukin (IL) 6 concentration decreased during intervention from 0.080 (95% CI: 0.073, 0.093) to 0.027 (95% CI: 0.024, 0.034; P obese patients with steatosis compared with obese patients without. The increased permeability fell to within the previously reported normal range after weight reduction. The data suggest that a leaky gut barrier is linked with liver steatosis and could be a new target for future steatosis therapies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344525. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Meth...
Only overweight and obese children were assigned to participant with BMI percentile values for age and sex of >85 to 95, respectively. Students selected a figure to represent their current images. Body image was measured using a body image tool with a sequence of seven body silhouettes progressing from ...
Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae
.... The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression...
Tomchesson, Joshua L
.... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...
Evans Ellen M
Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.
Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin
Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.
Drury, Christine Aramburu Alegria; Louis, Margaret
To explore the stigma of obesity and its effect on health care utilization, associations between self-esteem, attribution for weight, body mass index (BMI), satisfaction with medical care and the behavior of delaying/avoiding health care were examined. A convenience sample of 216 women recruited from church sites in Las Vegas completed self-administered questionnaires. The findings show an increase in BMI is associated with an increase in the delay/avoidance of health care. Weight-related reasons for delaying/avoiding health care included having "gained weight since last health care visit," not wanting to "get weighted on the provider's scale," and knowing they would be told to "lose weight." The obese are a stigmatized and vulnerable population. Nurse practitioners are challenged to be aware of attitudes towards obesity and to identify ways to promote continuity of care and regular health maintenance. The goals of Healthy People 2010 to reduce obesity-related morbidity cannot be met if health care is delayed/avoided.
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.
The results of regression models revealed that live weight of A. achatina was best predicted with multiple linear regression models, while with live weight of A. marginata was best predicted with simple linear regression model and multiple linear regression models. A test of accuracy of the linear regression models showed ...
Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones...
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel
The regulation of body weight and composition is complex, simultaneously affected by genetic architecture, the environment, and their interactions. We sought to analyze the complex phenotypic relationships between voluntary exercise, food consumption, and changes in body weight and composition and simultaneously localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits. A large (n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G(4)) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. Body weight and composition (% fat, % lean) were measured at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. After measurements at 8 wk of age, mice were given access to running wheels, during which food consumption was quantified and after which body weight and composition were assessed to evaluate exercise-induced changes. Phenotypic correlations indicated that the relationship between exercise and overall change in weight and adiposity depended on body composition before the initiation of exercise. Interval mapping revealed QTL for body weight, % fat, and % lean at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. Furthermore, QTL were observed for food consumption and changes in weight, % fat, and % lean in response to short-term exercise. Here we provide some clarity for the relationship between weight loss, reduction in adiposity, food consumption, and exercise. Simultaneously, we reinforce the genetic basis for body weight and composition with some independent loci controlling growth at different ages. Finally, we present unique QTL providing insight regarding variation in weight loss and reduction in adiposity in response to exercise.
Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogeni