WorldWideScience

Sample records for reduce waste volume

  1. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  2. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  3. Evaluation of Composting for Reducing Volume of Solid Waste on Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    electrical current draw – Labor requirements for operations and maintenance • Discharge – Volume removed – Labor requirements for operations and...biodigestion  Low or no water addition reduces equipment size  Near-commercial for equipment size needs  Provides combined heat and power ( CHP

  4. Reducing medical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  6. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  7. Lanreotide Reduces Liver Volume, But Might Not Improve Muscle Wasting or Weight Loss, in Patients With Symptomatic Polycystic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Frederik; Ho, Thien Ahn; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Coudyzer, Walter; Billen, Jaak; Dobbels, Fabienne; van Pelt, Jos; Bammens, Bert; Pirson, Yves; Nevens, Frederik

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) can induce malnutrition owing to extensive hepatomegaly and patients might require liver transplantation. Six months of treatment with the somatostatin analogue lanreotide (120 mg) reduces liver volume. We investigated the efficacy of a lower dose of lanreotide and its effects on nutritional status. We performed an 18-month prospective study at 2 tertiary medical centers in Belgium from January 2011 through August 2012. Fifty-nine patients with symptomatic PCLD were given lanreotide (90 mg, every 4 weeks) for 6 months. Patients with reductions in liver volume of more than 100 mL (responders, primary end point) continued to receive lanreotide (90 mg) for an additional year (18 months total). Nonresponders were offered increased doses, up to 120 mg lanreotide, until 18 months. Liver volume and body composition were measured by computed tomography at baseline and at months 6 and 18. Patients also were assessed by the PCLD-specific complaint assessment at these time points. Fifty-three patients completed the study; 21 patients (40%) were responders. Nineteen of the responders (90%) continued as responders until 18 months. At this time point, they had a mean reduction in absolute liver volume of 430 ± 92 mL. In nonresponders (n = 32), liver volume increased by a mean volume of 120 ± 42 mL at 6 months. However, no further increase was observed after dose escalation in the 24 patients who continued to the 18-month end point. All subjects had decreased scores on all subscales of the PCLD-specific complaint assessment, including better food intake (P = .04). Subjects did not have a mean change in subcutaneous or visceral fat mass, but did have decreases in mean body weight (2 kg) and total muscle mass (1.06 cm(2)/h(2)). Subjects also had a significant mean reduction in their level of insulin-like growth factor 1, from 19% below the age-adjusted normal range level at baseline to 50% at 18 months (P = .002). In a prospective study, we

  8. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  9. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  10. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  11. Overview of techniques for volume reduction and immobilization of radioactive waste, as investigated at KEMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, J.; Matteman, J. L.; Vanloon, A. J.

    Measures to decrease the amount of radioactive waste generated by power plants, to decontaminate active material, and to reduce the final volume of the waste, e.g., by incineration or acid digestion are reviewed. Organic radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are treated adequately: only inorganic end-products remain, and they have a relatively small volume and are immobilized. Chemical, biological, and alteration processes therefore do not significantly increase the risk of storage, even if water intrudes the storage facility. The considerable volumes of activated and/or contaminated metal that remain after repair or decommissioning of the plants could be treated. Decontamination and melting may significantly reduce the volume of the final waste. It seems probable that estimates of waste volumes are too pessimistic, and relatively small storage facilities will be sufficient. Waste in those facilities presents unacceptable risk for the biosphere during the period it is considered as radioactive.

  12. Reducing the tritium inventory in waste produced by fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela, J., E-mail: jerome.pamela@cea.fr [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Decanis, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Liger, K.; Gaune, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste, some of which will need to be detritiated before disposal. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Incineration is very attractive for VLLW and possibly SL-LILW soft housekeeping waste, since it offers higher tritium and waste volume reduction than the alternative thermal treatment technique. • For metallic waste, further R&D efforts should be made to optimize tritium release management and minimize the need for interim storage. - Abstract: The specific issues raised by tritiated waste resulting from fusion machines are described. Of the several categories of tritium contaminated waste produced during the entire lifespan of a fusion facility, i.e. operating phase and dismantling phase, only two categories are considered here: metal components and solid combustible waste, especially soft housekeeping materials. Some of these are expected to contain a high level of tritium, and may therefore need to be processed using a detritiation technique before disposal or interim storage. The reference solution for tritiated waste management in France is a 50-year temporary storage for tritium decay, with options for reducing the tritium content as alternatives or complement. An overview of the strategic issues related to tritium reduction techniques is proposed for each radiological category of waste for both metallic and soft housekeeping waste. For this latter category, several options of detritiation techniques by thermal treatment like heating up or incineration are described. A comparison has been made between these various technical options based on several criteria: environment, safety, technical feasibility and costs. For soft housekeeping waste, incineration is very attractive for VLLW and possibly SL-LILW. For metallic waste, further R&D efforts should be conducted.

  13. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  14. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  16. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  17. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  18. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  1. Using Photogrammetry to Estimate Tank Waste Volumes from Video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted with HiLine Engineering & Fabrication, Inc. to assess the accuracy of photogrammetry tools as compared to video Camera/CAD Modeling System (CCMS) estimates. This test report documents the results of using photogrammetry to estimate the volume of waste in tank 241-C-I04 from post-retrieval videos and results using photogrammetry to estimate the volume of waste piles in the CCMS test video.

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  4. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  6. REDUCING WASTE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN LEAN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Jakfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PT. XYZ is one of some cigarette companies in Indonesia. In producing cigarette, the firm requires a material named “etiket” which is produced by printing division for internal consumers of PT. XYZ. merupakan salah satu dari beberapa produsen rokok di Indonesia yang telah dikenal masyarakat. In order to produce “etiket”, there are some wastes occurred. One of wastes occurred in printing division is product defects. This paper attempts to identify wastes in the division of printing using Lean Manufacturing approach by applying Value Stream Mapping (VSM method. The results from Cause Root analysis found that the problems caused the defects in production process. It shows that the most wastes occurs in the printing division are product defect and waiting time. The product defects are caused because there is no standard applied in processing the product and poor inspections by management, while the causes of waiting time wastes is because of lack of carrier and no standard in each process. The recommendation can be suggested to the company are adding some carrier (product’s transporter, creating process standard in each process.

  7. Reducing waste in administrative services with lean principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Beckers, David; Amrit, Chintan Amrit

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, lean techniques have been developed for removing with waste in manufacturing. More recently, lean is used outside the manufacturing context as well. This article focuses on using lean thinking for reducing waste in administrative services, i.e., business services with

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  9. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  10. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  11. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  12. Research of the indicators the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of bio- degradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, whatęs the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50 % weighted in 2013 and the most 35 % weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I

  13. Reducing disposable equipment waste for tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Eddie; Yasso, Sabrina F; Wei, Julie L

    2012-10-01

    Large amounts of waste in hospitals are generated in the operating rooms from disposable surgical supplies. Tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy (T&A) cases use many disposable supplies that are not recyclable. It is critical to reduce disposable waste, as such waste directly affects the environment and increases health care costs. The authors noticed a difference between the number of disposable items prepared, available, but almost never used, for each tonsillectomy case between a children's hospital setting and a university ambulatory surgery center setting. The aims were the following: (1) identify what disposable medical supplies were unnecessarily opened for each case, (2) eliminate all disposable medical waste that was not critical to the case in both settings, and (3) determine the cost reduction at both hospital and surgery center facilities by revising the current disposable instruments/supplies pulled for tonsillectomy cases. The authors report projected cost savings and reduction in waste for one children's hospital and nationally based on their waste reduction.

  14. Radioactive wastes: the challenge of volumes reduction; Dechets radioactifs: le defi de la reduction des volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V

    2005-11-01

    The reduction of radioactive waste volumes is a priority for the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and for the Areva group. This article gives a rapid overview of the equipments and processes used to separate the valorizable materials from the ultimate wastes: pulsed separation columns and evaporators for the liquid-liquid extraction, compactification of spent fuel hulls, remote handling systems, recoverable colloid for surface decontamination, decontaminating foam, hydrothermal oxidation of organic and aqueous effluents, cold crucible vitrification etc. (J.S.)

  15. EPA Recognizes Charleston County School District for Reducing Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Charleston County School District for the District's achievements in reducing food waste. The District cultivated one of the state's first student-driven commercial compostin

  16. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  17. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  18. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  19. Research: increasing value, reducing waste 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Greenland, Sander; Hlatky, Mark A; Khoury, Muin J; Macleod, Malcolm R; Moher, David; Schulz, Kenneth F; Tibshirani, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Correctable weaknesses in the design, conduct, and analysis of biomedical and public health research studies can produce misleading results and waste valuable resources. Small effects can be difficult to distinguish from bias introduced by study design and analyses. An absence of detailed written protocols and poor documentation of research is common. Information obtained might not be useful or important, and statistical precision or power is often too low or used in a misleading way. Insufficient consideration might be given to both previous and continuing studies. Arbitrary choice of analyses and an overemphasis on random extremes might affect the reported findings. Several problems relate to the research workforce, including failure to involve experienced statisticians and methodologists, failure to train clinical researchers and laboratory scientists in research methods and design, and the involvement of stakeholders with conflicts of interest. Inadequate emphasis is placed on recording of research decisions and on reproducibility of research. Finally, reward systems incentivise quantity more than quality, and novelty more than reliability. We propose potential solutions for these problems, including improvements in protocols and documentation, consideration of evidence from studies in progress, standardisation of research efforts, optimisation and training of an experienced and non-conflicted scientific workforce, and reconsideration of scientific reward systems. PMID:24411645

  20. Wastes: reduce the bill; Dechets: reduisez la facture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.

    2004-11-01

    With the more constraining pollution regulations, the saturation of reprocessing and valorization centers, the elimination of industrial wastes has become more and more expensive for industrialists. The only solution is to optimize their management already inside the industrial facility and even to reduce them upstream at the stage of production processes. The implementation of these solutions requires some organizing qualities which are reviewed in this article: identifying and rationalizing the waste fluxes (handling, storage, sorting..), selecting the proper waste management processes (incineration, recycling, recovery..), negotiating with contractors, optimizing the upstream production processes, and controlling the drifts (periodical personnel information). (J.S.)

  1. Managing resources and reducing waste in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; Wells, Bill

    2016-05-18

    The NHS is under pressure to increase its effectiveness and productivity. Nurses are tasked with delivering effective and efficient care, as well as improving patient safety, experiences and results. The reduction of waste in service delivery, care and treatment can release time and resources for nurses to engage in direct patient care. Nurses have an important role in reducing waste and influencing other professionals in the healthcare environment to increase their efficiency and productivity.

  2. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  3. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY... Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management that updates the 1981 Policy... are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The public comment period closed on...

  4. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission) is revising its 1981 Policy Statement on Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction..., ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML090410531), and referenced the Policy...

  5. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-04-28

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation.

  6. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m{sup 3}/year) to a cumulative value (m{sup 3}).

  7. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  8. Reengineering of waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1997-08-01

    A reengineering evaluation of the waste management program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during the months of February through July 1997. The goal of the reengineering was to identify ways in which the waste management process could be streamlined and improved to reduce costs while maintaining full compliance and customer satisfaction. A Core Team conducted preliminary evaluations and determined that eight particular aspects of the ORNL waste management program warranted focused investigations during the reengineering. The eight areas included Pollution Prevention, Waste Characterization, Waste Certification/Verification, Hazardous/Mixed Waste Stream, Generator/WM Teaming, Reporting/Records, Disposal End Points, and On-Site Treatment/Storage. The Core Team commissioned and assembled Process Teams to conduct in-depth evaluations of each of these eight areas. The Core Team then evaluated the Process Team results and consolidated the 80 process-specific recommendations into 15 overall recommendations. Volume 2 consists of nine appendices which contain the Process Team reports and Benchmarking reports.

  9. Treatment of Uranium-Contaminated Concrete for Reducing Secondary Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S; Park, U. K; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A volume reduction of the concrete waste by appropriate treatment technologies will decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of and result in a reduction of the disposal cost and an enhancement of the efficiency of the disposal site. Our group has developed a decontamination process for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) concrete, and some experiments were performed to reduce the second radioactive waste. A decontamination process was developed to remove uranium from concrete waste. The yellow or brown colored surface of the wall brick with high concentration of uranium was removed by a chisel until the radioactivity of remaining block reached less than 1 Bq/g. The concrete waste coated with epoxy was directly burned by an oil flame, and the burned surface was then removed using the same method as the treatment of the brick. The selective mechanical removal of the concrete block reduced the amount of secondary radioactive waste. The concrete blocks without an epoxy were crushed to below 30 mm and sifted to 1 mm. When the concrete pieces larger than 1 mm were sequentially washed with a clear recycle solution and 1.0 M of nitric acid, their radioactivity reached below the limit value of uranium for self-disposal. For the concrete pieces smaller than 1 mm, a rotary washing machine and electrokinetic equipment were also used.

  10. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  11. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godin, T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available high power within the focal volume, is much more ?general? and could then be applied to different applications such as 3-D laser prototyping, linear and non-linear fluorescence microscopy, nano-structuration of materials, optical tweezers, optical... laser beams? allowing to improve significantly the spatial resolution of a certain number of laser applications such as non-linear microscopy, optical trapping and tweezing, 3-D prototyping? Let us consider a collimated symmetrical Laguerre-Gauss 0pTEM...

  12. Photogrammetry and Laser Imagery Tests for Tank Waste Volume Estimates: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Feasibility tests were conducted using photogrammetry and laser technologies to estimate the volume of waste in a tank. These technologies were compared with video Camera/CAD Modeling System (CCMS) estimates; the current method used for post-retrieval waste volume estimates. This report summarizes test results and presents recommendations for further development and deployment of technologies to provide more accurate and faster waste volume estimates in support of tank retrieval and closure.

  13. Asphalt dust waste material as a paste volume in developing sustainable self compacting concrete (SCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Isham; Shahidan, Shahiron; Bahari, Nur Amira Afiza Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures are usually designed to have high workability during the fresh state through the influence of higher volumes of paste in concrete mixtures. Asphalt dust waste (ADW) is one of disposed materials obtained during the production of asphalt premix. These fine powder wastes contribute to environmental problems today. However, these waste materials can be utilized in the development of sustainable and economical SCC. This paper focuses on the preliminary evaluations of the fresh properties and compressive strength of developed SCC for 7 and 28 days only. 144 cube samples from 24 mixtures with varying water binder ratios (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and ADW volume (0% to 100%) were prepared. MD940 and MD950 showed a satisfactory performance for the slump flow, J-Ring, L-Box and V-Funnel tests at fresh state. The compressive strength after 28 days for MD940 and MD950 was 36.9 MPa and 28.0 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the use of ADW as paste volume should be limited and a higher water binder ratio will significantly reduce the compressive strength.

  14. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  15. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  16. Lean manufacturing implementation in reducing waste for electronic assembly line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Nurul Husna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is the most convenient way to eliminate unnecessary waste and can provide what customers demand. This paper presents possibilities and sustainability of application of lean manufacturing method by using a virtual simulation of the workers performance in a line production of small and medium industry. Actual case study and Witness simulation were used in this study to find the waste that exists in the production and identified the performance of workers in the production line. Lean manufacturing concept has identified and rectified problems related to low productivity in the assembly line. The case study is involved a line production for electronic part assembly. The result of this preliminary study should illustrate the relationship of worker’s performance by lean manufacturing method as well as the productivity improvements which help to reduce cost for manufacturer. Lean manufacturing method has been used during the study to reduce the cost when waste is eliminated by reducing the workstation without reducing the performance of the production. The performance of the production is increased when allocating the labor in a needed working area. Lastly, the study also proves that the new layout has improved the process to be used for future production process.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  18. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-10-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications.

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  20. Reducing Energy Waste Due to Idle Network Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rafiullah; Khan, Sarmad Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Network devices always demand full time Internet connectivity for remote access, VoIP & Instant Messaging (IM) clients and other Internet based applications. Their built-in low power management features are usually disabled by users due to their incapability of maintaining network connectivity. The concept of Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP) has recently been proposed as an effective mechanism for reducing energy waste by impersonating presence of sleeping devices. However, proposed strat...

  1. Reducing construction waste: A study of urban infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Ruane Fernandes; Danilevicz, Ângela de Moura Ferreira; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2017-09-01

    The construction industry is well-known for producing waste detrimental to the environment, and its impacts have increased with the development process of cities. Although there are several studies focused on the environmental impact of residential and commercial buildings, less knowledge is available regarding decreasing construction waste (CW) generation in urban infrastructure projects. This study presents best practices to reduce waste in the said projects, stressing the role of decision-making in the design stage and the effective management of construction processes in public sector. The best practices were identified from literature review, document analysis in 14 projects of urban infrastructure, and both qualitative and quantitative survey with 18 experts (architects and engineers) playing different roles on those projects. The contributions of these research are: (i) the identification of the main building techniques related to the urban design typologies analyzed; (ii) the identification of cause-effect relationships between the design choices and the CW generation diagnosis; (iii) the proposal of a checklist to support the decision-making process, that can be used as a control and evaluation instrument when developing urban infrastructure designs, focused on the construction waste minimization (CWM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste management units - Savannah River Site. Volume 1, Waste management unit worksheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  3. Conceptual design of a fluidized bed combustor for volume reduction of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.K.; Morris, G.J.; Atkinson, C.M.; Clark, N.N.; Gautam, M.; Loth, J.L.; Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, L.M.; Kono, H.O.

    1992-06-01

    A group of research engineers was assembled to investigate novel fluidized bed combustion systems for incinerating low-level radioactive wastes. The goal of this project was to significantly reduce the volume of these wastes in an efficient and environmentally safe manner. The process is to be limited by a maximum temperature of 600 {degrees}C and the waste product was to contain a minimum of waste material produced by the process itself (refractory, absorbents, catalysts, etc.). The approach presented in this study is to evaluate: (1) a modification of the existing system, (2) a hybrid reactor concept, and (3) a fast circulating reactor concept. Carbon dioxide and oxygen were to be the only gases introduced into the reactors. The results of this study indicate that the existing system may be more efficient with gas and solids recirculation; however, two beds are required. The hybrid reactor concept involves a bubbling bed and a fast bed in one reactor. Although a simple operation is envisioned for this system, there are several technical questions which must be addressed in order to optimize the system for a final analysis. The fast circulating reactor concept also appears to represent a simple system to operate; however, it also presents several technical questions which must be addressed before a thorough evaluation of this concept may be completed. In conclusion, this report represents a first evaluation of new concepts for significant volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes. The technical issues required for a complete evaluation of these concepts are presented. A future research effort is outlined the result of which should significantly increase our knowledge of these issues.

  4. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form.

  5. Does recyclable separation reduce the cost of municipal waste management in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifari, Rosaria; Lo Piano, Samuele; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Tasaki, Tomohiro

    2017-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a system involving multiple sub-systems that typically require demanding inputs, materials and resources to properly process generated waste throughput. For this reason, MSW management is generally one of the most expensive services provided by municipalities. In this paper, we analyze the Japanese MSW management system and estimate the cost elasticity with respect to the waste volumes at three treatment stages: collection, processing, and disposal. Although we observe economies of scale at all three stages, the collection cost is less elastic than the disposal cost. We also examine whether source separation at home affects the cost of MSW management. The empirical results show that the separate collection of the recyclable fraction leads to reduced processing costs at intermediate treatment facilities, but does not change the overall waste management cost. Our analysis also reveals that the cost of waste management systems decreases when the service is provided by private companies through a public tender. The cost decreases even more when the service is performed under the coordination of adjacent municipalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  7. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  8. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jiménez Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O, poultry litter (P, or sewage sludge (S was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4 was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6 g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7 g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and NOx vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and NOx reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and NOx from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse.

  9. The Self-Reducing Pellet Production from Organic Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Alberto; Takano, Cyro; Mourão, Marcelo; Pillihuaman, Adolfo

    The organic household waste has a growing disposal problem, requiring costly disposal systems. It is necessary to find new applications for these materials; one could be the steelmaking raw material production. In this paper is studied the development of self-reducing pellets from the organic waste pyrolysis, where is generated carbon and condensable and non-condensable volatiles. Non-condensable volatiles were burned and condensable volatiles were recovered. The resulting tar was mixed with iron ore, coal powder and flux (CaO), to then be pelletized together. Compression, falls and tumbler tests were conducted to characterize the pellets before and after heat treatment and reduction processes. The reduction curve and their physical and morphological characterization were measured. The results were as was expected, the fluidized coal create sufficient adhesion that pellets earned resistance with an equivalent resistance of common pellets, showing a good feasibility of this process.

  10. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  11. Consumers’ Perspective on Circular Economy Strategy for Reducing Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Borrello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current linear system of production and consumption is unsustainable. In the food sector, despite the fact that valuable natural resources are intensively used to produce and distribute food products, little is done to upcycle residues generated along the supply chain. Circular economy strategies are crucial for restructuring the take-make-dispose model through the active participation of all actors of supply chains. However, little is known about consumers’ willingness to participate in circular economy. A structured questionnaire was submitted to a representative sample of Italian households to assess the willingness of consumers to be actively involved in closed loops aiming at reducing food waste. Consumers are involved by returning their organic food waste to retailers in exchange for discounts on the purchase of animal products. The organic food waste returned enters in the production process of animal products. A choice experiment was designed to analyse alternative programs. Two scenarios were presented: one with a traditional technology (composting, and a second one with a radically innovative technology (insects as feed. Preferences and trade-offs, in monetary terms, among attributes were computed. Results depict a comprehensive portrait of the potential participation of consumers to closed loops inspired by the principles of circular economy.

  12. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  13. Study for reducing radioactive solid waste at ITER decommissioning period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shinichi; Araki, Masanori; Ohmori, Junji; Ohno, Isamu; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    It is one of the foremost goals for ITER to demonstrate the attractiveness with regard to safety and environmental potential. This implies that the radioactive materials and waste at decommissioning phase should carefully be treated with prescribed regulations. As possible activities during the Coordinated Technical Activity (CTA), the authors have performed a feasibility study for searching the possibility of effective reduction in the activated level as reasonably achievable as possible by taking account of minimum material changes while keeping original design concept and structure. Major induced activation in ITER comes from activated nickel and cobalt so that it is effective for the major structural components to minimize their material contents. Employing less Ni and Co steel in place of high-Ni austenitic stainless steel for blanket shield block, vacuum vessel shield material and TF coil casing has been considered as one of the effective plans to reduce the activated materials at the decommissioning phase. In this study, two less-Ni austenitic stainless steels are evaluated; one is high-Mn austenitic stainless steel JK2 which is developing for jacket material of ITER CS coil and the other is SS204L/ASTM-XM-11 which is also high-Mn steel specified in the popular standards such as American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Based on the material changes, activation analyses have been performed to investigate the possibility of reducing radioactive wastes. As a most impressive result, at 40 years after the termination some of main components such as a TF coil casing will reach to the clearance level which is specified by IAEA, and most components will be categorized into extremely low level waste except for limited components. These results will give the appropriate short decommissioning period that is assumed to start at 100 years after the termination in the original design. (author)

  14. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 238}U can be found, and {sup 238}U behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  15. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1.

  16. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  17. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  18. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  19. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  20. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ({sup 242}Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 242}Cm can be found and {sup 242}Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  1. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste which demonstrates the feasibility of several processes for converting solid waste to an energy form is presented. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered and recommendations made in regard to legislation and policy. A technical and economic evaluation of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given with emphasis on thermal decomposition and biodegradation. A pyrolysis process is suggested. The use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal is considered to be the most economic process for recovery of energy from solid waste. Markets are discussed with suggestions for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste.

  2. Developing and Evaluating Prototype of Waste Volume Monitoring Using Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathhan Arief, Mohamad; Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2017-06-01

    In Indonesia, especially Jakarta have a lot of garbage strewn that can be an eyesore and also cause pollution that can carry diseases. Garbage strewn can cause many things, one of her dues is bins are overflowing due to the full so it can not accommodate the waste dumped from other people. Thus, the author created a new method for waste disposal more systematic. In creating new method requires a technology to supports, then the author makes a prototype for waste volume monitoring. By using the internet of things prototype of waste volume monitoring may give notification to the sanitary agency that waste in the trash bin needs to be disposal. In this study, conducted the design and manufactured of prototype waste volume monitoring using LinkItONE board based by Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor for appliance senses. Once the prototype is completed, evaluation in order to determine whether the prototype will function properly. The result showed that the expected function of a prototype waste volume monitoring can work well.

  3. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  4. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  5. Sickle cell patients are characterized by a reduced glycocalyx volume

    OpenAIRE

    Beers, Eduard; Nieuwdorp, Max; Duits, Ashley; Evers, Ludo; Schnog, J.J.B.; Biemond, Bart

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe glycocalyx is an important anti-inflammatory and anti-adhesive barrier at the luminal side of endothelial cells. Glycocalyx volume was significantly reduced in sickle cell patients (HbSS/HbSβ0-thalassemia median 0.47L, IQR 0.27-0.66, HbSC/HbSβ+-thalassemia 0.23L, 0.0-0.58) compared with controls (1×109L, 0.52-1.77) (p=0.03). Reduced glycocalyx may be a new factor in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease.

  6. Discounting and dynamic shelf life to reduce fresh food waste at retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, M.E.; Haijema, R.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 89 million of tonnes of food is wasted every year in the EU along the whole food supply chain. The reasons for food waste by retailers include inappropriate quality control, overstocking and inaccurate forecasting. This study shows that food wasted by retailers can be reduced by

  7. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 2, Exhibits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  9. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Waste: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halada, Gary P

    2008-04-10

    In order to understand the susceptibility of transuranic and mixed waste to microbial degradation (as well as any mechanism which depends upon either complexation and/or redox of metal ions), it is essential to understand the association of metal ions with organic ligands present in mixed wastes. These ligands have been found in our previous EMSP study to limit electron transfer reactions and strongly affect transport and the eventual fate of radionuclides in the environment. As transuranic waste (and especially mixed waste) will be retained in burial sites and in legacy containment for (potentially) many years while awaiting treatment and removal (or remaining in place under stewardship agreements at government subsurface waste sites), it is also essential to understand the aging of mixed wastes and its implications for remediation and fate of radionuclides. Mixed waste containing actinides and organic materials are especially complex and require extensive study. The EMSP program described in this report is part of a joint program with the Environmental Sciences Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Stony Brook University portion of this award has focused on the association of uranium (U(VI)) and transuranic analogs (Ce(III) and Eu(III)) with cellulosic materials and related compounds, with development of implications for microbial transformation of mixed wastes. The elucidation of the chemical nature of mixed waste is essential for the formulation of remediation and encapsulation technologies, for understanding the fate of contaminant exposed to the environment, and for development of meaningful models for contaminant storage and recovery.

  10. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  11. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed.

  13. Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Prout, W.E.; Buckner, J.T.; Buckner, M.R.

    1980-12-01

    Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.

  14. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  15. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan

    2018-02-01

    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  16. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  17. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ [RWE NUKEM GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m{sup 3} result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m{sup 3}/a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m{sup 3}/a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured

  18. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  1. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  2. Constant load and constant volume response of municipal solid waste in simple shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Fei, Xunchang

    2017-05-01

    Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW. Comparisons between constant volume and constant load simple shear testing results indicated significant differences in the shear response of MSW with the shear resistance in constant volume being lower than the shear resistance in constant load. The majority of specimens were nearly uncompacted during specimen preparation to reproduce the state of MSW in bioreactor landfills or in uncontrolled waste dumps. The specimens had identical percentage of waste. The results of these tests suggest the possibility of significantly lower shear strength of MSW in bioreactor landfills where waste is placed with low compaction effort and constant volume, i.e., "undrained", conditions may occur. Compacted MSW specimens resulted in shear strength parameters that are higher than uncompacted specimens and closer to values reported in the literature. However, the normalized undrained shear strength in simple shear for uncompacted and compacted MSW was still higher than the normalized undrained shear strength reported in the literature for clayey and silty soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  4. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  6. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  7. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 2, Niobium-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to, state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information used to produce this series of reports and an introductory report. This report is Volume 11 of the series. It outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of niobium-94, waste types and forms that contain it, and its behavior in environmental media such as soils, plants, groundwater, air, animals and the human body.

  8. Volumes of common industrial wastes: a study report; Dechets industriels banals: quel tonnage? rapport d`etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The total common industrial waste volume production in France has been evaluated, taking into consideration all the industrial and commercial sectors and the following materials: glass, metals, plastics, rubber, textiles, papers, cardboard, wood, leather, organic matters, building wastes, mixtures. Results are presented for the various regions of France, as a function of enterprise size, waste type and destination; data are also given concerning packaging materials, and waste collection and processing. Comparisons are made with data from other information sources and calculations

  9. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  10. Feasibility Study – Using a Solar Evaporator to Reduce the Metalworking Fluid (MWF) Waste Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2008-12-03

    A solar evaporator was designed, built, and operated to reduce the water-based metalworking fluid waste stream. The evaporator was setup in Waste Management’s barrel lot inside one of the confinement areas. The unit processed three batches of waste fluid during the prototype testing. Initial tests removed 13% of the fluid waste stream. Subsequent modifications to the collector improved the rate to almost 20% per week. Evaluation of the risk during operation showed that even a small spill when associated with precipitation, and the unit placement within a confinement area, gave it the potential to contaminate more fluid that what it could save.

  11. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2005 THRU FY2035 VERSION 2005.0 VOLUME 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2005-04-13

    The SWIFT Report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. This report is an annual update to the SWIFT 2004.1 report that was published in August 2004. The SWIFT Report is published in two volumes. SWIFT Volume II provides detailed analyses of the data, graphical representation, comparison to previous years, and waste generator specific information. The data contained in this report are the official data for solid waste forecasting. In this revision, the volume numbers have been switched to reflect the timing of their release. This particular volume provides the following data reports: (1) Summary volume data by DOE Office, company, and location; (2) Annual volume data by waste generator; (3) Annual waste specification record and physical waste form volume; (4) Radionuclide activities and dose-equivalent curies; and (5) Annual container type data by volume and count.

  12. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Breslin, J.J. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following subjects: waste isolation and the natural geohydrologic system; repository perturbations of the natural system; radionuclide migration through the natural system; and repository design technology. Individual papers are abstracted.

  13. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  15. Hypovolemia explains the reduced stroke volume at altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Hug, Mike; Keiser, Stefanie; Müller, Andrea; van Lieshout, Johannes; Rasmussen, Peter; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    During acute altitude exposure tachycardia increases cardiac output (Q) thus preserving systemic O2 delivery. Within days of acclimatization, however, Q normalizes following an unexplained reduction in stroke volume (SV). To investigate whether the altitude-mediated reduction in plasma volume (PV)

  16. KAIZEN METHODOLOGY IN QUALITY MANAGEMENT TO REDUCE WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gratiela Dana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaizen cannot deal with all problems and one size does not fit all but a flexibleimplementation opens up the dimension of collaboration between the workforce, themanagement and the technical departments. In every company, it operates in a differentway to suit the circumstances but all consider it indispensable. It is more flexible andtolerant than may be expected; it is a tool for integration of technological strategy with thebusiness strategy of the organization. Technology is forcing organizations to become morecompetitive as at every instance innovations take place. Recent innovations in the form oftotal quality management, reengineering work process, flexible manufacturing system haveonly one thing in common - well serving the customer by improved operational efficiency.For instant Quality Management advocates emphasize the importance of achieving higherquality and flexibility at lower level of cost and waste.

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  18. Pituitary volumes are reduced in patients with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Hanefi; Atmaca, Murad; Sirlier, Burcu; Kayali, Alperen

    2012-09-01

    Despite of the suggested physiological relationship between somatoform disorder and disturbances in HPA axis function no volumetric study of pituitary volumes in somatization disorder has been carried out. Therefore, we aimed to use structural MRI to evaluate the pituitary volumes of the patients with somatization disorder. Eighteen female patients with somatization disorder according to DSM-IV and same number of healthy controls were included into the study. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5-T General Electric (GE; Milwaukee, USA) scanner. Pituitary volume measurements were determined by using manuallly tracings according to standard antomical atlases. It was found significantly smaller pituitary volumes of the whole group of somatization patients compared to healthy (t=-3.604, p=0.001). ANCOVA predicting pituitary volumes demonstrated a significant main effect of diagnostic group (F=13.530, p0.05) or age (F=1.159, p>0.05). It was determined that there was no significant correlation between smaller pituitary volumes and the duration of illness (r=0.16, p>0.05) in the patient group. In conclusion, we suggest that the patients with somatization disorder might have significantly smaller pituitary volumes compared to healthy control subjects.

  19. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Objective of this document is to provide descriptions of all WRAP 2A feed streams, including physical and chemical attributes, and describe the pathway that was used to select data for volume estimates. WRAP 2A is being designed for nonthermal treatment of contact-handled mixed low-level waste Category 1 and 3. It is based on immobilization and encapsulation treatment using grout or polymer.

  20. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  1. Reducing the Cost of RLS: Waste Heat from Crop Production Can Be Used for Waste Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Richard; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of plant-based life support systems has traditionally suffered from the limitations imposed by the high energy demand of controlled environment growth chambers. Theme types of systems are typically less than 2% efficient at converting electrical energy into biomass. The remaining 98% of supplied energy is converted to thermal energy. Traditionally this thermal energy is discharged to the ambient environment as waste heat. This paper describes an energy efficient plant-based life support system which has been designed for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. At the South Pole energy is not lost to the environment. What is lost is the ability to extract useful work from it. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Program (CAAP) has developed a system which is designed to extract useful work from the waste thermal energy generated from plant growth lighting systems. In the CAAP system this energy is used to purify Station Sewage.

  2. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

  3. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  4. Food flows in the UK: the potential of surplus food redistribution to reduce waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Elisa; Iacovidou, Eleni; Gronow, Jan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2017-12-07

    The increasing amount of food waste generated as a direct consequence of its excessive production, mismanagement and wasteful behaviours, represents a real challenge in promoting resource efficiency. In the UK, the lack of robust mass flow data hinders both the ability to understand and address food waste challenges, and to devise long-term sustainable prevention strategies. In recognition of these challenges, this paper seeks to: i) provide insights into the UK's annual estimates of food mass flows, including imports, exports, distribution, consumption, surplus food production, and final disposal, and ii) scrutinise the uptake and surplus food redistribution as a potential food waste prevention strategy. Evidence collected from several enterprises and community-led initiatives in the UK, and London specifically, supports that there is an increasing potential of making a shift towards food redistribution and reuse. Further analysis has shown that the outreach of food redistribution initiatives in the UK is currently limited, possibly because redistribution efforts remain largely fragmented and independent from each other. It is concluded that a national commitment could be instrumental in encouraging the roll-out of this practice, and governmental support through fiscal incentives, could lead to the development of a larger and coherent surplus food redistribution system, ultimately enabling food waste prevention and recovery of food's multi-dimensional value. Implications Our manuscript entitled 'FOOD FLOWS IN THE UK: THE POTENTIAL OF SURPLUS FOOD REDISTRIBUTION TO REDUCE WASTE' deals with the topical issue of the increasing amount of food waste generated as a direct consequence of excessive production, mismanagement, and wasteful behaviour, representing a real challenge in achieving sustainability and resource efficiency. Currently only a small fraction of food is redistributed back in to the system. Yet, a considerable fraction of food waste generated is edible

  5. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  6. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  7. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  8. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  9. Vacuum evaporation, a technology for re-using water and reducing waste; La evaporacion al vacio una tecnologia para la reduccion de residuos y reutilizacion del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, O.; Sabate, E.; Casas, F.; Lopez, J.

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve companies sustain ability and environmental commitment, we have developed a concentration technology for reducing the volume of industrial waste water at low energy cost and recovering the water for various applications. The advantages of this system are recovery of the water, minimum maintenance without reagents and compactness with any type of waste water. Industrials Titan represents and example of the recycling of water by means of vacuum evaporation to solve a double problem: the conductivity of the water from the decalcified and the COD of the water from the painting process. (Author)

  10. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  12. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  13. Gastric irradiation for MALT lymphoma: Reducing the target volume, fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, A.; Teo, A.; Wittwer, H.; MacManus, M.; Ryan, G. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy

    1999-02-01

    A case of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma treated with radiotherapy alone is reported here. This case highlights treatment issues related to the variability in size and position of the stomach, and the substantial reduction in the size of the irradiated volume achieved by treating the patient in a fasting state. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 10 refs., 5 figs.

  14. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  15. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  16. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 3: Main report -- Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information.

  17. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 6: Appendices G--J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  18. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 7: Appendices K--P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  19. Increasing fill volume reduces cardiac performance in peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, Per; Povlsen, Johan V; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2007-01-01

    the demand on the heart even during normal daily activities. METHODS: Fifteen stable PD patients were included in this randomized, controlled, open-label crossover study. After drainage, we measured blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output (CO) after 30 min in the supine position. The measurements were...... arterial blood pressure remained unchanged. In the upright position, SV and CO decreased and total peripheral systemic resistance increased. Pulse rate and mean arterial blood pressure were unchanged independent of fill volume when compared with the drained situation. During postural change, no significant...... repeated 5 min later in an upright position. Subsequently, following fill, the measurements were repeated after 30 min in the supine and 5 min later in the upright position. The two procedures were repeated twice. The fill was either 2 l or 3 l of dialysate. CO was measured with a non-invasive device based...

  20. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  1. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: High sulphide Concentrations tolerated by sulphate reducing bacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common result of mining activities caused by bacterial oxidation of sulphide minerals (pyrite) that results in sulphate rich waste water. AMD can be treated biologically in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria...

  2. Optimizing Nutrient Utilization and Reducing Waste Through Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the findings of the Southern Regional Aquaculture Center project Optimizing Nutrient Utilization and Reducing Waste through Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies. The primary objectives of the project were to determine the effects of diet composition on fish production, n...

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  4. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  5. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  6. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  7. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  8. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The twenty papers in this volume are divided into three parts: site exploration and characterization; repository development and design; and waste package development and design. These papers represent the status of technology that existed in 1981 and 1982. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Nadia; Clemente, Rafael; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Lepp, Nicholas W; Beesley, Luke

    2011-07-15

    Green waste compost and biochar amendments were assessed for their assistance in regulating the mobility of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) and the resultant uptake of these metals into vegetation. The amendments were mixed with a heavily Cu and Pb contaminated soil (600 and 21,000 mg kg(-1), respectively) from a former copper mine in Cheshire (UK), on a volume basis both singly and in combination in greenhouse pot trials. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Cadix) was grown for the following 4 months during which biomass, metals in soil pore water and plant uptake were measured in three consecutive harvests. Very high Pb concentrations in pore water from untreated soil (>80 mg l(-1)) were reduced furthest by compost amendment (<5 mg l(-1)) whereas biochar was the more effective treatment at reducing pore water Cu concentrations. Duly, ryegrass shoot Cu levels were reduced and large, significant reductions in shoot Pb levels were observed after biochar and compost amendments, respectively during successive harvests. However, because green waste compost singly and in combination with biochar vividly enhanced biomass yields, harvestable amounts of Pb were only significantly reduced by the compost amendment which had reduced shoot Pb levels furthest. The low biomass of ryegrass with biochar amendment meant that this was the only amendment which did not significantly increase harvestable amounts of Cu. Therefore the two amendments have opposing metal specific suitability for treating this contaminated soil regarding whether it is a maximum reduction in plant tissue metal concentration or a maximum reduction in harvestable amount of metal that is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges of Reducing Fresh Produce Waste in Europe—From Farm to Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Blanke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper summarizes key “hotspots” for waste generation along the food supply chain and identifies a range of existing solutions/measures that can help producers, retailers and consumers reduce the amount of food that is wasted. The majority of food waste of 71–92 kg/head/year in Western Europe was found to originate from private households (61%, followed by restaurants and canteens (17% and then supermarkets (5%; 59%–65% (of this food waste (71–92 kg can be avoided and 54% thereof are fruit and vegetables. Since ethylene accelerates fruit ripening and its accumulation can lead to fruit decay and waste and new portable instruments now enable continuous in-situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, there is a possible key to reducing food waste of perishable, fresh produce. Hence, suggested countermeasures at the field level are use of ethylene inhibitors (AVG as “Retain” or MCP as “Harvista”, the former prevents pre-mature fruit drop in pome fruit, incentives for processing fruit of industrial grade and whole crop purchase (“WCP”. Along the supply chain, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g., 1-MCP as “SmartFresh” absorber strips (e.g., “It’s Fresh”, Sensitech, bags (e.g., “Peakfresh” as well as simply cooling and venting, and shading to avoid sun exposure. Countermeasures also include superstores no longer promoting multi-packs, e.g., “two strawberry punnets for the price of one”, abandon the “Display until” or “Sell by” date, conservative consumer shopping behavior, and sale of class II produce (“Wunderlinge” in Billa or “Kleine Äpfel” in REWE, “Ünique” in Coop, collection (rather than wasting of perishable food by volunteers (“Die Tafel”, or “Food Sharing” of private household left-over perishable on social media, or any combination of the above to aid reducing fresh produce waste.

  11. Reduced pyramidal cell somal volume in auditory association cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Robert A; Pierri, Joseph N; Auh, Sungyoung; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2003-03-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia have decreased gray matter volume of auditory association cortex in structural imaging studies, and exhibit deficits in auditory sensory memory processes subserved by this region. In dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), similar in vivo observations of reduced regional volume and working memory deficits in subjects with schizophrenia have been related to reduced somal volume of deep layer 3 pyramidal cells. We hypothesized that deep layer 3 pyramidal cell somal volume would also be reduced in auditory association cortex (BA42) in schizophrenia. We used the nucleator to estimate the somal volume of pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 of BA42 in 18 subjects with schizophrenia, each of whom was matched to one normal comparison subject for gender, age, and post-mortem interval. For all subject pairs, somal volume of pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 of dPFC (BA9) had previously been determined. In BA42, somal volume was reduced by 13.1% in schizophrenic subjects (p=0.03). Reductions in somal volume were not associated with the history of antipsychotic use, alcohol dependence, schizoaffective disorder, or death by suicide. The percent change in somal volume within-subject pairs was highly correlated between BA42 and BA9 (r=0.67, p=0.002). Deep layer 3 pyramidal cell somal volume is reduced in BA42 of subjects with schizophrenia. This reduction may contribute to impairment in auditory function. The correlated reductions of somal volume in BA42 and BA9 suggest that a common factor may affect deep layer 3 pyramidal cells in both regions.

  12. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali

    2016-11-01

    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  14. Options for reducing food waste by ‘Quality Controlled Logistics’ using intelligent packaging along the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

  16. Archaeal community structure in leachate and solid waste is correlated to methane generation and volume reduction during biodegradation of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-02-01

    Duplicate carefully-characterized municipal solid waste (MSW) specimens were reconstituted with waste constituents obtained from a MSW landfill and biodegraded in large-scale landfill simulators for about a year. Repeatability and relationships between changes in physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics taking place during the biodegradation process were evaluated. Parameters such as rate of change of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the leachate (rsCOD), rate of methane generation (rCH4), rate of specimen volume reduction (rVt), DNA concentration in the leachate, and archaeal community structures in the leachate and solid waste were monitored during operation. The DNA concentration in the leachate was correlated to rCH4 and rVt. The rCH4 was related to rsCOD and rVt when waste biodegradation was intensive. The structures of archaeal communities in the leachate and solid waste of both simulators were very similar and Methanobacteriaceae were the dominant archaeal family throughout the testing period. Monitoring the chemical and microbial characteristics of the leachate was informative of the biodegradation process and volume reduction in the simulators, suggesting that leachate monitoring could be informative of the extent of biodegradation in a full-scale landfill. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A collaborative approach to lean laboratory workstation design reduces wasted technologist travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Lisa M; Seestadt, Joseph A; Gomez, Erron R; Marchant, Kandice K

    2012-08-01

    Lean methodologies have been applied in many industries to reduce waste. We applied Lean techniques to redesign laboratory workstations with the aim of reducing the number of times employees must leave their workstations to complete their tasks. At baseline in 68 workflows (aggregates or sequence of process steps) studied, 251 (38%) of 664 tasks required workers to walk away from their workstations. After analysis and redesign, only 59 (9%) of the 664 tasks required technologists to leave their workstations to complete these tasks. On average, 3.4 travel events were removed for each workstation. Time studies in a single laboratory section demonstrated that workers spend 8 to 70 seconds in travel each time they step away from the workstation. The redesigned workstations will allow employees to spend less time travelling around the laboratory. Additional benefits include employee training in waste identification, improved overall laboratory layout, and identification of other process improvement opportunities in our laboratory.

  18. Design and implementation of Ad-Hoc collaborative proxying scheme for reducing network energy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiullah Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Network devices are equipped with low power states but they are rarely activated due to their inability of maintaining network connectivity. Recently, Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP concept has been proposed in literature as an effective mechanism to exploit full potential of low power features on network devices by impersonating their virtual presence. However, the NCP concept faces several open issues and challenges especially related to proxying of TCP connections and majority of daily used proprietary closed-source applications. This paper presents a new approach for reducing network energy waste through intelligent collaboration among daily used devices (e.g., desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. It guarantees to run applications on only and only one user device that is under active use at that specific moment. To reduce energy waste and allow idle devices to sleep, our approach also takes benefit from a light-weight home gateway proxy with very basic practically realizable functionalities. The proposed system not just reduces energy waste of fixed devices but also enables mobile devices to significantly improve their battery life. Our developed software prototypes allow devices to autonomously and seamlessly collaborate with each other without requiring any configuration or user input. Further, this paper also presents the basic performance evaluation of developed prototypes in real networking environments.

  19. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 5. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume V of the five-volume report consists of appendices, which provide supplementary information, with emphasis on characteristics of geologic formations that might be used for final storage or disposal. Appendix titles are: selected glossary; conversion factors; geologic isolation, including, (a) site selection factors for repositories of wastes in geologic media, (b) rock types--geologic occurrence, (c) glossary of geohydrologic terms, and (d) 217 references; the ocean floor; and, government regulations pertaining to the management of radioactive materials. (JGB)

  20. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-08-31

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available.

  1. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  2. Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  4. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Negoias, Simona; Symmank, Anja; Schellong, Julia; Joraschky, Peter; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The human olfactory bulb (OB) is the first relay station of the olfactory pathway and may have the potential for postnatal neurogenesis in early childhood. In animals, chronic stress affects the OB and olfactory functioning. For humans, it has been shown that major depressive disorder is accompanied by reduced OB volume and reduced olfactory function. However, it is not clear if major stress in childhood development also affects olfactory functioning and OB volume in humans. OB volume was measured and olfactory function was tested in 17 depressive patients with and 10 without a history of severe childhood maltreatment (CM). CM patients exhibited a significantly reduced olfactory threshold and identification ability. The OB volume of the CM patients was significantly reduced to 80% of the non-CM patients. In conclusion, postnatal neurogenesis might be by reduced in CM, which may affect olfactory function of the brain in later life. Alternatively, a reduced OB volume may enhance psychological vulnerability in the presence of adverse childhood conditions although other areas not analyzed in this study may also be involved.

  5. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults.

  6. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking waters is 250 mg.l-1 . In rivers the contents of sulphates increases mainly by the discharge of waste waters, which are coming mainly from chemical, textile, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, paper and mining industry. The concentration of sulphates in these waters is in the order of grams per litre.Many technologies for the sulphates removal from waste waters exist, including biologico-chemical processes. The principle of one of these methods is the reduction of sulphates by sulphate-reducing bacteria to hydrogen-sulphide.The objective of this work was to study the effect of initial sulphates concentration on the activity of anaerobic sulphate reducers as well as the kinetics of the anaerobic sulphate reduction. The batch reactor was used at temperature of 30°C and pH 7,5. Lactate was used as the carbon source.

  7. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Low Tidal Volume Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Liquid Ventilation in Piglets With Severe Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Feng, Huizhen; Chen, Xiaofan; Liang, Kaifeng; Ni, Chengyao

    2017-05-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively. Extracorporeal CO2 removal was applied in low tidal volume group to improve CO2 clearance and in high tidal volume group as sham control. Gas exchange and hemodynamic status were monitored every 30 min during TLV. At the end of the study, pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by collecting lung tissue and blood samples from piglets. Arterial blood pressure, PaO2 , and PaCO2 showed no remarkable difference between groups during the observation period. Compared with high tidal volume strategy, low tidal volume resulted in 76% reduction of minute volume and over 80% reduction in peak inspiratory pressure during TLV. In addition, low tidal volume significantly diminished pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic level of IL-6 and IL-8. We conclude that during TLV, low tidal volume reduces lung inflammation in piglets with acute lung injury without compromising gas exchange. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  10. 10-Year trend in crystalloid resuscitation: Reduced volume and lower mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Megan Y; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Smith, Eric J T; Patel, Bansuri K; Dhillon, Navpreet K; Thomsen, Gretchen M; Ley, Eric J

    2017-02-01

    Liberal emergency department (ED) resuscitation after trauma may lead to uncontrolled hemorrhage, reduced organ perfusion, and compartment syndrome. Recent guidelines reduced the standard starting point for crystalloid resuscitation from 2 L to 1 L and emphasized "balanced" resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to characterize how an urban, Level 1 trauma center has responded to changes in crystalloid resuscitation practices over time and to describe associated patient outcomes. This is a retrospective review of trauma patients who sustained moderate to severe injury (ISS > 9) and received crystalloid resuscitation in the ED during 1/2004-12/2013 at an urban, Level 1 trauma center. Patient data collected included age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, initial systolic blood pressure (SBP), mechanism of injury, regional Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), volume of blood products and crystalloids administered in the ED. Patients who received <2 L of crystalloid were considered low-volume while those who received ≥2 L were high-volume patients. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between high- and low-volume cohorts, and multivariate regression was used to adjust for confounders. Trend analysis examined changes in variables over time. 1571 moderate to severely injured patients received crystalloid resuscitation; 1282 (82%) were low-volume and 289 (18%) were high-volume. Compared to high-volume patients, low-volume patients presented with a higher median SBP (134 vs. 122 mmHg, p < 0.001) and GCS (15 vs. 14, p < 0.001). Low-volume patients also had lower median ISS (15 vs. 19, p < 0.001). Unadjusted mortality was lower in the low-volume cohort (7% vs. 19%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high-volume patients had increased odds of mortality compared to low-volume patients (AOR 1.88, p = 0.008). Decreased rates of high-volume resuscitation and overall mortality were

  11. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil......Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...

  12. Reducing Energy Waste in Post-secondary Educational Institutions using Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta Cabrera, David Francisco

    This thesis focuses on computer-related and lighting energy consumption in post-secondary educational institutions. In this respect, artificial intelligence and data association mining are proposed as tools to identify and reduce energy waste. First, an artificial intelligence-based method for forecasting computer usage is proposed. Based on the models' forecast, workstations can be turned on and off, in order to strike a balance between energy savings and user comfort. The models are evaluated on different datasets and their results compared to commercially available alternatives. Second, a data association mining-based approach is proposed to uncover possible relationships between occupancy patterns and lighting-related energy waste in classrooms. A wireless data collection system is used to log data from both lighting consumption and occupancy states during a year. Next, energy savings results of using the proposed approach are compared to those of an occupancy-activated lighting control system for classrooms.

  13. The Central Importance of Laboratories for Reducing Waste in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroth, Nikolas

    2016-12-01

    The global biomedical research enterprise is driving substantial advances in medicine and healthcare. Yet it appears that the enterprise is rather wasteful, falling short of its true innovative potential. Suggested reasons are manifold and involve various stakeholders, such that there is no single remedy. In the present paper, I will argue that laboratories are the basic working units of the biomedical research enterprise and an important site of action for corrective intervention. Keeping laboratories relatively small will enable better training and mentoring of individual scientists, which in turn will yield better performance of the scientific workforce. The key premise of this argument is that people are at the heart of the successes and failures of biomedical research, yet the human dimension of science has been unduly neglected in practice. Renewed focus on the importance of laboratories and their constituent scientists is one promising approach to reducing waste and increasing efficiency within the biomedical research enterprise.

  14. Lean Manufacturing - A Powerfull Tool for Reducing Waste During the Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Apreutesei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing provides a new management approach for many small and medium size manufacturers, especially older firms organized and managed under traditional push systems. Improvement results can be dramatic in terms of quality, cycle times, and customer responsiveness. Lean manufacturing is more than a set of tools and techniques and has been widely adopted by many production companies. Lean manufacturing is a culture in which all employees continuously look for ways to improve processes. In the present article are presented the Lean Manufacturing tools, like kaizen, Kanban, poka-yoke witch a company can use to reduce the waste(muda during a production process. The paper contains also, the most common seven types of waste from production and some examples from our daily activity.

  15. Analysis on 3RWB model (Reduce, reuse, recycle, and waste bank) in comprehensive waste management toward community-based zero waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandy, Nur Azizah; Isnaini, Enik; Laksono, Arif Budi

    2017-06-01

    Waste management becomes a serious issue in Indonesia. Significantly, waste production in Lamongan Regency is increasing in linear with the growth of population and current people activities, creating a gap between waste production and waste management. It is a critical problem that should be solved immediately. As a reaction to the issue, the Government of Lamongan Regency has enacted a new policy regarding waste management through a program named Lamongan Green and Clean (LGC). From the collected data, it showed that the "wet waste" or "organic waste" was approximately 63% of total domestic waste. With such condition, it can be predicted that the trashes will decompose quite quickly. From the observation, it was discovered that the generated waste was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day. Meanwhile, the number of population in Tumenggungan Village, Lamongan (data obtained from Monograph in Lamongan district, 2012) was 4651 people. Thus, it can be estimated the total waste in Lamongan was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day x 4651 characters = 930 kg/day. Within 3RWB Model, several stages have to be conducted. In the planning stage, the promotion of self-awareness among the communities in selecting and managing waste due to their interest in a potential benefit, is done. It indicated that community's awareness of waste management waste grew significantly. Meanwhile in socialization stage, each village staff, environmental expert, and policymaker should bear significant role in disseminating the awareness among the people. In the implementation phase, waste management with 3RWB model is promoted by applying it among of the community, starting from selection, waste management, until recycled products sale through the waste bank. In evaluation stage, the village managers, environmental expert, and waste managers are expected to regularly supervise and evaluate the whole activity of the waste management.

  16. Reduced striatal volumes in Parkinson’s disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitcher Toni L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence and extent of structural changes in the brain as a consequence of Parkinson’s disease (PD is still poorly understood. Methods High-resolution 3-tesla T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images in sixty-five PD and 27 age-matched healthy control participants were examined. Putamen, caudate, and intracranial volumes were manually traced in the axial plane of 3D reconstructed images. Striatal nuclei volumes were normalized to intracranial volume for statistical comparison. Disease status was assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. Cognitive status was assessed using global status tests and detailed neuropsychological testing. Results Both caudate and putamen volumes were smaller in PD brains compared to controls after adjusting for age and gender. Caudate volumes were reduced by 11% (p = 0.001 and putamen volumes by 8.1% (p = 0.025. PD striatal volumes were not found to be significantly correlated with cognitive or motor decline. Conclusion Small, but significant reductions in the volume of both the caudate and putamen occur in PD brains. These reductions are independent of the effects of age and gender, however the relation of these reductions to the functional loss of dopamine, which is characteristic of PD, remains unclear.

  17. A novel approach for reducing toxic emissions during high temperature processing of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, R; Khanna, R; Dutta, R K; Cayumil, R; Ikram-Ul-Haq, M; Agarwala, V; Ellamparuthy, G; Jayasankar, K; Mukherjee, P S; Sahajwalla, V

    2017-06-01

    A novel approach is presented to capture some of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs), other particulates and emissions during the heat treatment of e-waste using alumina adsorbents. Waste PCBs from mobile phones were mechanically crushed to sizes less than 1mm; their thermal degradation was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analysis. Observed weight loss was attributed to the degradation of polymers and the vaporization of organic constituents and volatile metals. The sample assembly containing PCB powder and adsorbent was heat treated at 600°C for times ranging between 10 and 30min with air, nitrogen and argon as carrier gases. Weight gains up to ∼17% were recorded in the adsorbent thereby indicating the capture of significant amounts of particulates. The highest level of adsorption was observed in N 2 atmosphere for small particle sizes of alumina. SEM/EDS results on the adsorbent indicated the presence of Cu, Pb, Si, Mg and C. These studies were supplemented with ICP-OES analysis to determine the extent of various species captured as a function of operating parameters. This innovative, low-cost approach has the potential for utilization in the informal sector and/or developing countries, and could play a significant role in reducing toxic emissions from e-waste processing towards environmentally safe limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced-portion entr?es in a worksite and restaurant setting: impact on food consumption and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Design Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and...

  19. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  2. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume III: Test protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers' [ASME] Center for Research and Technology Development [CRTD] has been awarded a subcontract by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL] to demonstrate the technical performance and viability of flue gas temperature control in combination with dry acid gas reagent and activated carbon injection at an existing electrostatic precipitator [ESP] equipped municipal waste combustor [MWC]. The objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration test is to economically and reliably meet 40 CFR 60 Subpart Cb Emissions Guidelines for MWC's at existing ESP equipped facilities. The effort is being directed by a Subcommittee of tile ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes [RCIMW] chaired by Dave Hoecke. Mr. Greg Barthold of ASME/CRTD is the Project Manager. ASME/CRTD contracted with Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc. in cooperation with A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd. to be the Principal Investigator for the project and manage the day-t o-day aspects of the program, conduct the testing reduce and interpret the data and prepare the report. Testing will be conducted at the 2 by 210 TPD, ESP equipped MWC at the Davis County Resource Recovery Facility in Layton, Utah. The test plan calls for duplicate metals (Cd, Pb and Hg), dioxin and acid gas runs.

  3. Reduced right posterior hippocampal volume in women with recurrent familial pure depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifosì, Francesco; Toffanin, Tommaso; Follador, Halima; Zonta, Filippo; Padovan, Giordano; Pigato, Giorgio; Carollo, Carla; Ermani, Mario; Amistà, Pietro; Perini, Giulia Ida

    2010-10-30

    Volumetric changes in mood-relevant distributed limbic/paralimbic structures have been reported in the recent literature on the course of mood disorders. Patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders have been found to have smaller hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes. We examined hippocampal, amygdalar and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes in female patients with recurrent familial pure depressive disorder (rFPDD). We used semi-automated software for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, ACC and subgenual prefrontal cortex (SGPFC) in 15 female patients with familial recurrent major depression (MD) and 15 healthy female subjects. Analysis of covariance, with whole brain volume as covariate, was used to compare volumetric measurements in the two groups. Volumes of the right hippocampal body and tail were significantly smaller in female patients with familial depressive disorder than in healthy subjects. Our data provide evidence of structural lateralized hippocampal body and tail abnormalities in women with familial history and recurrent episodes of depression. Although global reduction of hippocampal volume has been widely reported, data on lateralized regional reductions in familial recurrent depression had not been previously reported. Reduced volume of the right posterior hippocampus could be a structural endophenotype for recurrent depressive disorders in women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  5. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 3. Public comments hearing board report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains written public comments and hearing board responses and reports offered on the draft statement.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part C, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities at ORNL including waste management and remedial action at the site; also waste processing and disposal; robotics and automation of the laboratory; and regulatory compliance

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  8. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  9. The concept of value stream mapping to reduce of work-time waste as applied the smart construction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizar, Suripin, Wibowo, Mochamad Agung

    2017-11-01

    Delays in construction sites occur due to systematic additions of time waste in various activities that are part of the construction process. Work-time waste is non-adding value activity which used to differentiate between physical construction waste found on site and other waste which occurs during the construction process. The aim of this study is identification using the concept of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to reduce of work-time waste as applied the smart construction management.VSM analysis is a method of business process improvement. The application of VSM began in the manufacturing community. The research method base on theoretically informed case study and literature review. The data have collected using questionnaire through personal interviews from 383 respondents on construction project in Indonesia. The results show that concept of VSM can identify causes of work-time waste. Base on result of questioners and quantitative approach analysis was obtained 29 variables that influence of work-time waste or non-value-adding activities. Base on three cases of construction project founded that average 14.88% of working time was classified as waste. Finally, the concept of VSM can recommend to identification of systematic for reveal current practices and opportunities for improvement towards global challenges. The concept of value stream mapping can help optimize to reduce work-time waste and improve quality standard of construction management. The concept is also can help manager to make a decision to reduce work-time waste so as to obtain of result in more efficient for performance and sustainable construction project.

  10. Use of raw or incubated organic wastes as amendments in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, J M; Brown, C D; Herrero-Hernández, E; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2013-10-01

    Soil amendment with organic wastes is becoming a widespread management practice since it can effectively solve the problems of uncontrolled waste accumulation and improve soil quality. However, when simultaneously applied with pesticides, organic wastes can significantly modify the environmental behaviour of these compounds. This study evaluated the effect of sewage sludges (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrates (SMS) on the leaching of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil in packed columns of a sandy soil with low organic matter (OM) content (Soil plus amendments had been incubated for one month (1 m) or 12 months (12 m). Data from the experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) were fitted to the one-dimensional transport model CXTFIT 2.1. All three amendments reduced leaching of linuron and myclobutanil relative to unamended soil. SMS was the most effective in reducing leaching of these two compounds independent of whether soil was incubated for 1 m or 12 m. Soil amendments increased retardation coefficients (Rexp) by factors of 3 to 5 for linuron, 2 to 4 for diazinon and 3 to 5 for myclobutanil relative to unamended soil. Leaching of diazinon was relatively little affected by soil amendment compared to the other two compounds and both SS and SMS amendment with 1m incubation resulted in enhanced leaching of diazinon. The leaching data for linuron and myclobutanil were well described by CXTFIT (mean square error, MSEpesticides were similar in soils incubated for one month or one year, indicating that the effect of amendment on leaching persists over relatively long periods of time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Data package for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Appendices E-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    This volume contains 11 appendices to the main document in Volume 1. Topics in Volume 2 include hydrologic data for a proposed solid waste storage area, soil characterizations, well logs, surface water discharge data, water quality data, atmospheric precipitation and stream flow, a small mammal survey, and general ecological information. (TEM)

  12. Reduced thalamic volume in Parkinson disease with REM sleep behavior disorder: volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, M; Cerasa, A; Arabia, G; Morelli, M; Gambardella, A; Mumoli, L; Nisticò, R; Vescio, B; Quattrone, A

    2014-09-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common non motor feature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) affecting about half the patients with this disease. Distinct structural brain tissue abnormalities have been reported in several regions modulating REM sleep of the patients with idiopathic RBD. At the present time, there are no conventional MRI studies investigating patients with PD associated with RBD. Herein, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect the neuroanatomical profile of PD patients with and without RBD. Optimized VBM was applied to the MRI brain images in 11 PD patients with RBD (PD-RBD), 11 PD patients without RBD (PD) and 18 age-and sex-matched controls. To corroborate VBM findings we used automated volumetric method (FreeSurfer) to quantify subcortical brain regions volumes. Patients and controls also underwent DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies. The VBM analysis showed markedly reduced gray matter volume in the right thalamus of PD-RBD patients in comparison with PD patients and controls. Automatic thalamic segmentation in PD-RBD patients showed a bilaterally reduced thalamic volume as compared with PD patients or controls. All PD patients (with and without RBD) showed a reduced tracer uptake on DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies as compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of RBD symptoms in PD patients is associated with a reduced thalamic volume suggesting a pathophysiologic role of the thalamus in the complex circuit causing RBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Talking Trash: Bringing Research into Action while Reducing Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation was an exploration of how changing the waste system is a necessary part of achieving sustainable human systems and how transforming consumer attitudes towards waste is a vital piece of sustainable waste management. This research was also an exploration of the attitudes and beliefs that promote and prohibit waste reduction…

  14. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 3, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), was held on waste management. Topics of discussion were transuranic waste management, chemical and physical treatment technologies, waste minimization, land disposal technology and characterization and analysis. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  15. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 2, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) was held on Waste Mangement. Topics discussed were waste stabilization technologies regulations and standards, innovative treatment technology, waste stabilization projects. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  16. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  18. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 2: Preliminary Design Concept for the Repository and Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  19. Lung Tissue Volume is Elevated in Obesity and Reduced by Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Arnoldo; Rivas, Eva; Rodríguez-Roisin, Roberto; Sánchez, Marcelo; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Arismendi, Ebymar; Venegas, José G

    2016-10-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) in severely obese subjects causes a significant reduction of body weight with lung function improvement. We have shown that abnormalities in pulmonary gas exchange in morbidly obese subjects are substantially improved with BS. These abnormalities were thought to be related to reduced lung volumes as well as to abnormal endothelial function induced by low-grade chronic inflammation linked to perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). In this study, we used computed tomography (CT) to assess whether BS also caused measurable structural changes in the lung tissue volume (Vtiss) and cross-sectional vessel analysis, hypothesizing that these measures could be related to the previously reported lung functional changes. This is a post hoc analysis of a previous reported prospective study. Pulmonary vessels and lung volumes, including Vtiss, were quantified in thoracic CT scans. We compared findings in 12 obese women before and after BS and in 8 healthy lean women. Vtiss was significantly elevated in obese subjects before BS compared to control subjects and systematically reduced after BS (by 8 %); other CT lung volumes or vascular areas were not affected in a consistent manner. No relationship was observed between BS-induced individual changes in Vtiss and pulmonary vessel area. Vtiss is elevated in morbidly obese subjects, compared to lean individuals of similar body height, and is systematically reduced by BS. These effects do not appear related to vascular changes but may be caused by elevated extravascular lung water, due to low-grade inflammation, and/or hypertrophic PVAT in severe obesity.

  20. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  1. Development of graded Ni-YSZ composite coating on Alloy 690 by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique to reduce hazardous metallic nuclear waste inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Hans Werner; Dey, Gautam Kumar; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2011-08-15

    Alloy 690 based 'nuclear waste vitrification furnace' components degrade prematurely due to molten glass-alloy interactions at high temperatures and thereby increase the volume of metallic nuclear waste. In order to reduce the waste inventory, compositionally graded Ni-YSZ (Y(2)O(3) stabilized ZrO(2)) composite coating has been developed on Alloy 690 using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Five different thin-films starting with Ni80YSZ20 (Ni 80 wt%+YSZ 20 wt%), through Ni60YSZ40 (Ni 60 wt%+YSZ 40 wt%), Ni40YSZ60 (Ni 40 wt%+YSZ 60 wt%), Ni20YSZ80 (Ni 20 wt%+YSZ 80 wt%) and Ni0YSZ100 (Ni 0 wt%+YSZ 100 wt%), were deposited successively on Alloy 690 coupons. Detailed analyses of the thin-films identify them as homogeneous, uniform, pore free and crystalline in nature. A comparative study of coated and uncoated Alloy 690 coupons, exposed to sodium borosilicate melt at 1000°C for 1-6h suggests that the graded composite coating could substantially reduced the chemical interactions between Alloy 690 and borosilicate melt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of a concrete additive to eliminate returned concrete waste volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bester Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of the use of a recently developed two-component powdered product made from polymers and inorganic compounds that can be mechanically mixed into returned fresh ready-mix concrete to allow for the separation of the concrete into fine and coarse aggregates. This allows for the re-use of the returned concrete as aggregates in the manufacturing of new concrete. The returned concrete waste can therefore be eliminated, thus reducing virgin aggregate usage, as well as reducing the environmental impact of returned concrete. In this study, the treated recycled fresh concrete was separated into fine and coarse aggregates, and then used at replacement levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The effect of the product on the material classification, and on important fresh and hardened properties of the concrete for the above-mentioned replacement values was tested. For the fine aggregate, the results indicate minimal changes in both the fresh and hardened properties. For the coarse aggregate, the results show a marked improvement of flexural strength with an increase in replacement value when coarse aggregates are used. Very high replacement levels may be used with very little effect on the quality of the new concrete.

  3. The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2011-05-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds.

  4. Ni and Cr addition to alloy waste forms to reduce radionuclide environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-11

    Reference alloy waste forms (RAW) were fabricated and underwent hybrid corrosion/immersion testing to parameterize the ANL analytical oxidative-dissolution model to enable the calculation of fractional release rates and to determine the effectiveness of Ni and Cr trim additions in reducing release rates of radionuclide surrogates. Figure 1 shows the prototypical multiphase microstructure of the alloys with each phase type contributing about equally to the exposed surface area. The waste forms tested at SRNL were variations of the RAW-6 formulation that uses HT9 as the main alloy component, and are meant to enable evaluation of the impact of Ni and Cr trim additions on the release rates of actinides and Tc-99. The test solutions were deaerated alkaline and acidic brines, ranging in pH 3 to pH 10, representing potential repositories with those conditions. The testing approach consisted of 4 major steps; 1) bare surface corrosion measurements at pH values of 3, 5, 8, and 10, 2) hybrid potentiostatic hold/exposure measurements at pH 3, 3) measurement of radionuclide concentrations and relations to anodic current from potentiostatic holds, and 4) identification of corroding phases using SEM/EDS of electrodes.

  5. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  6. Decreased blood product usage during extracorporeal life support with reduced circuit volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Samuel D; Buck, Marcia L; Fang, Gary Y; Gangemi, James J; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    Activation and consumption of platelets (PLT) and clotting factors along with hemolysis occurs when blood contacts the extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit and its components. The objective was to examine the effects of reducing ECLS circuit volume by decreasing tubing length and changing components on blood product usage in neonatal and pediatric patients. Blood product administration was analyzed in 40 consecutive patients who required ECLS for respiratory or cardiac failure before (PRE) and after (POST) changes in circuit design and components. The total circuit volume was reduced from 500 mL (PRE) to 275 mL (POST). In the POST group, total blood product volume usage was 58% lower compared to the PRE group (81 mL/kg/day vs. 191 mL/kg/day, p = 0.003), 65% lower for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; 15 mL/kg/day vs. 43 mL/kg/day, p = 0.001), and PLT volumes trended lower. In the subgroup of infants with respiratory or cardiac failure, there was a 55% reduction of a total blood product replacement (61 mL/kg/day vs. 136 mL/kg/day, p = 0.008), red blood cell (RBC) use was 61% lower (28 mL/kg/day vs. 71 mL/kg/day, p < 0.049), and there was a 73% reduction in FFP use (11 mL/kg/day vs. 41 mL/kg/day, p < 0.001). In the subgroup of postoperative infants, there was a 25% decrease in RBC use (86 mL/kg/day vs. 115 mL/kg/day, p = 0.03). Decreasing the ECLS circuit volume by reducing the tubing length and changing the components was associated with a significant reduction in blood product usage. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Sustainable management of C&D waste - reducing the source to ozone depletion and global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) are produced. Buildings in many countries are thermally insulated by insulation foam containing large amounts of fluorocarbons (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or hydrofluoro-carbons (HCFCs), which are ...

  8. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  10. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  11. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  12. The Reclamation of Industrial Wastes Inclusive Sulphates by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kušnierová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of using coal mine drainage and gypsum from the „stabilizate“ (the final product from the combustion desulphurisation as the source of sulphate for the cultivation of SRB with the prospect of: purging of mine waste waters inclusive sulphates, recycling of desulphurisation agent (limestone and production of elemental sulphur from hydrogen sulphide. The results confirmed the theoretical assumptions on the use of gypsum, which forms the substantial component of „stabilizate“, as the source of sulphate for sulphate-reducing bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulphide in the process of bacterial reduction of sulphates. They also showed the possibility of recycling the desulphurisation agent – limestone, as well as the realistic alternative of using „stabilizate“ in the production of elemental sulphur which still represents an important raw material needed in chemical, paper or other industries.

  13. Reducing ion exchange resins rad-wastes, experience at EDF PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fene, G. [Rohm and Haas Co. (France); Hoffman, B. [Rohm and Haas Co. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Life time of an ion exchange resin in a Nuclear Power Station (EDF PWR). At the end of its life, an ion exchange resin which has been used to treat radioactive streams becomes a radwaste itself. Its level of radioactivity depends on the point of use and consequently on the circuit where it was used. Roughly speaking, in a Nuclear Power Station PWR we can consider two types of radwaste families: High radioactive family Ion exchange resins which come from primary circuit: reactor control and storage pools. Ion exchange resins which have worked in a decontamination circuit: waste water treatment. Low radioactive family Ion exchange resins which come from secondary circuit: Steam Generator Blowdown By understanding and carefully applying some critical properties of ion exchange resins, such as total capacity, selectivity, and physical structure, it is possible for nuclear power stations to minimize radwaste volumes, while at the same time improving plant performance. This type of improvement can be facilitated by close cooperation and communication between the resin producer and the nuclear power user. (authors)

  14. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...

  15. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of bacterial sulphate reduction, which is used to removal of heavy metals and sulphate ions from waste waters.The life of animals and plants depends on the existence of microscopic organisms – microorganisms (MO, which play an important role in cycle changes of biogenic elements on the earth. The sulphur cycle in the nature is considered as one of the oldest and most significant biological systems (Fig. 1. The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB miss the assimilatory part of the cycle and produce sulphides. The microbial population of this dissimilatory part is called “sulfuretum”. The SRB can be found in anaerobic mud and sediments of freshwater, thermal or non-thermal sulphur springs, mining waters from sulphide deposits, oil deposits, sea and ocean beds, and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. The SRB represent a group of chemoorganotrophic, strictly anaerobic and gramnegative bacteria, which exhibit a great morphological and physiological diversity. Despite of their considerable morphological variety, they have one property in common, which is the ability to utilise preferentially sulphates (occasionally sulphites, thiosulphates, tetrathionates as electron acceptors, which are reduced to sulphides, during anaerobic respiration. The electron donors in these processes are simple organic compounds as lactate, malate, etc.,(heterotrophically reduction or gaseous hydrogen (autotrophically reduction. SRB can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen sulphide, which reacts easily in aqueous solution with the cations of heavy metals, forming metal sulphides that have low solubility. The bacterial sulphate reduction can be used for the treatment of acid mine drainage waters, which is considered to be the major problem associated with mining activities.In order to remove heavy metals from waste waters, e.g., from galvanizing plants, mine waters (Smolnik, Šobov locality and metallurgic plants (works

  16. Options for reducing food waste by quality-controlled logistics using intelligent packaging along the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, Jenneke K; Claassen, G D H; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-10-01

    Optimising supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This paper describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on quality-controlled logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate with the critical quality attribute of a food product. The information on the quality of each individual packaged food item that is provided by the intelligent packaging can be used for QCL. In a conceptual approach it is explained that monitoring food quality by intelligent packaging sensors makes it possible to obtain information about the variation in the quality of foods and to use a dynamic expiration date (IP-DED) on a food package. The conceptual approach is supported by quantitative data from simulations on the effect of using the information of intelligent packaging in supply chain management with the goal to reduce food waste. This simulation shows that by using the information on the quality of products that is provided by intelligent packaging, QCL can substantially reduce food waste. When QCL is combined with dynamic pricing based on the predicted expiry dates, a further waste reduction is envisaged.

  17. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  18. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  19. Increased oxygen pulse after lung volume reduction surgery is associated with reduced dynamic hyperinflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew R; Ciccolella, David; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Kohler, Malcolm; Criner, Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Stroke volume augmentation during exercise is limited in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients because of decreased preload from dynamic hyperinflation (DH). We hypothesised that oxygen pulse and pulse pressure (PP) improve following lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), and the magnitude of improvement correlates with reduction in DH. We compared 16 emphysema patients undergoing LVRS with six emphysema patients not undergoing LVRS. Oxygen pulse and PP were calculated from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests at baseline and 6 months. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV)/total lung capacity (TLC) represented DH. Comparisons were made between baseline and 6 months at metabolic isotimes (per cent maximal carbon dioxide production (V'(CO(2),max))). At baseline, the LVRS group was older with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s, but had similar hyperinflation to the non-LVRS group. At 6 months, oxygen pulse (50%, 75%, and 100% V'(CO(2),max)) and PP (50% and 75% V'(CO(2),max)) increased in the LVRS, but not in the non-LVRS group. Baseline functional residual capacity/TLC inversely correlated with resting oxygen pulse (r= -0.449, p=0.04). Decreased EELV/TLC correlated with increased oxygen pulse at 75% (r= -0.487, p=0.02) and 100% V'(CO(2),max) (r= -0.548, p=0.008). LVRS led to increased oxygen pulse and PP during exercise at metabolic isotimes 6 months following surgery. Reductions in DH correlated with increases in oxygen pulse during exercise. Reducing lung volume may improve stroke volume response to exercise by decreasing DH.

  20. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  1. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 2: Engineered-facility sites (HISS data base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 refs.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  3. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  4. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  5. Report on Intact and Degraded Criticality for Selected Plutonium Waste Forms in a Geologic Repository, Volume I: MOX SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. McClure

    1998-09-21

    As part of the plutonium waste form development and down-select process, repository analyses have been conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of these forms for repository acceptance. Intact and degraded mode criticality analysis of the mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel is presented in Volume I, while Volume II presents the evaluations of the waste form containing plutonium immobilized in a ceramic matrix. Although the ceramic immobilization development program is ongoing, and refinements are still being developed and evaluated, this analysis provides value through quick feed-back to this development process, and as preparation for the analysis that will be conducted starting in fiscal year (FY) 1999 in support of the License Application. While no MOX fuel has been generated in the United States using weapons-usable plutonium, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted calculations on Westinghouse-type reactors to determine the expected characteristics of such a fuel. These spent nuclear fuel (SNF) characteristics have been used to determine the long-term potential for criticality in a repository environment. In all instances the methodology and scenarios used in these analyses are compatible with those developed and used for Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF) and Defense High Level Waste (DHLW), as tailored for the particular characteristics of the waste forms. This provides a common basis for comparison of the results. This analysis utilizes dissolution, solubility, and thermodynamic data that are currently available. Additional data on long-term behavior is being developed, and later analyses (FY 99) to support the License Application will use the very latest information that has been generated. Ranges of parameter values are considered to reflect sensitivity to uncertainty. Most of the analysis is focused on those parameter values that produce the worst case results, so that potential licensing issues can be identified.

  6. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The options, reference definitions and/or requirements currently envisioned for the total nuclear waste disposal in space mission are summarized. The waste form evaluation and selection process is documented along with the physical characteristics of the iron nickel-base cermet matrix chosen for disposal of commercial and defense wastes. Safety aspects of radioisotope thermal generators, the general purpose heat source, and the Lewis Research Center concept for space disposal are assessed as well as the on-pad catastrophic accident environments for the uprated space shuttle and the heavy lift launch vehicle. The radionuclides that contribute most to long-term risk of terrestrial disposal were determined and the effects of resuspension of fallout particles from an accidental release of waste material were studied. Health effects are considered. Payload breakup and rescue technology are discussed as well as expected requirements for licensing, supporting research and technology, and safety testing.

  7. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  8. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, April 1984-September 1984. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Veakis, E.; Soo, P.

    1985-06-01

    This ongoing study is part of a task to specify tests that may be used to verify that engineered waste package/repository systems comply with NRC radionuclide containment and controlled release performance objectives. Work covered in this report includes crushed tuff packing material for use in a high level waste tuff repository. A review of available tests to quantify packing performance is given together with recommendations for future testing work. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Study of stress-strain and volume change behavior of emplaced municipal solid waste using large-scale triaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the stress-strain and volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness parameters of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from two dump sites located in Delhi, India. Over 30 drained triaxial compression (TXC) tests were conducted on reconstituted large-scale specimens of 150mm diameter to study the influence of fiber content, age, density and confining pressure on the shear strength of MSW. In addition, a few TXC tests were also conducted on 70mm diameter specimen to examine the effect of specimen size on the mobilized shear strength. It is observed that the fibrous materials such as textiles and plastics, and their percentage by weight have a significant effect on the stress-strain-volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness of solid waste. The stress-strain-volume change behavior of MSW at Delhi is qualitatively in agreement with the behavior reported for MSW from different countries. Results of large-scale direct shear tests conducted on MSW with an identical composition used for TXC tests revealed the cross-anisotropic behavior as reported by previous researchers. Effective shear strength parameters of solid waste evaluated from this study is best characterized by ϕ'=39° and c'=0kPa for the limiting strain-based failure criteria of K0=0.3+5% axial strain and are in the range of the data reported for MSW from different countries. Data presented in this article is useful for the stress-deformation and stability analysis of the dump sites during their operation as well as closure plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-level waste borosilicate glass a compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Current plans call for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to start up facilities for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, in 1995; West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, in 1996; and at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, after the year 2000. The product from these facilities will be canistered HLW borosilicate glass, which will be stored, transported, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. The behavior of this glass waste product, under the range of likely service conditions, is the subject of considerable scientific and public interest. Over the past few decades, a large body of scientific information on borosilicate waste glass has been generated worldwide. The intent of this document is to consolidate information pertaining to our current understanding of waste glass corrosion behavior and radionuclide release. The objective, scope, and organization of the document are discussed in Section 1.1, and an overview of borosilicate glass corrosion is provided in Section 1.2. The history of glass as a waste form and the international experience with waste glass are summarized in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.

  11. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  12. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 7: Appendix GCR Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    This report contains the second part of the geological characterization report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Both hydrology and geochemistry are evaluated. The following aspects of hydrology are discussed: surface hydrology; ground water hydrology; and hydrology drilling and testing. Hydrologic studies at the site and adjacent site areas have concentrated on defining the hydrogeology and associated salt dissolution phenomena. The geochemical aspects include a description of chemical properties of geologic media presently found in the surface and subsurface environments of southeastern New Mexico in general, and of the proposed WIPP withdrawal area in particular. The characterization does not consider any aspect of artificially-introduced material, temperature, pressure, or any other physico-chemical condition not native to the rocks of southeastern New Mexico.

  13. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  14. Splenectomy reduces infarct volume and neuroinflammation in male but not female mice in experimental stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Abby L.; Wang, Jianming; Saugstad, Julie; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Offner, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral immune response contributes to neurodegeneration after stroke yet little is known about how this process differs between males and females. The current study demonstrates that splenectomy prior to experimental stroke eliminates sex differences in infarct volume and activated brain monocytes/microglia. In the periphery of both sexes, activated T cells correlate directly with stroke outcome while monocytes are reduced by splenectomy only in males. This study provides new information about the sex specific mechanisms of the peripheral immune response in neurodegeneration after stroke and demonstrates the need for representation of both sexes in basic and clinical stroke research. PMID:25434281

  15. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment.

  16. Reducing Food Waste at a Migrant Day Care Center through the Rearrangement of Existing Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Luis; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An intervention in which second food helpings were made contingent upon consumption of at least half of all food groups and, children who ate half of each food category were the first to be allowed to brush their teeth resulted in a reduction of waste for all three categories (vegetables, meat, milk) in which waste was high. (Author/CL)

  17. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  18. Reduced resting state connectivity and gray matter volume correlate with cognitive impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas-Losada, Alba; Urios, Amparo; Forn, Cristina; Escudero-García, Desamparados; Kosenko, Elena; Ordoño, Juan Fermín; Tosca, Joan; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Serra, Miguel Angel; Avila, César; Belloch, Vicente; Felipo, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with cognitive alterations and changes in connectivity. We assessed the relationship of the abnormalities of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and gray matter (GM) volume with different cognitive alterations and biochemical parameters associated to MHE. Methods Thirty-nine cirrhotic patients (26 without and 13 with MHE) and 24 controls were widely cognitive assessed with a battery of psychometric tests. Atrophy was determined using Voxel-Based Morphometry and rs-FC was assessed by independent component analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was performed to assess the diagnostic utility of rs-FC and GM reduction for the discrimination of patients with and without MHE. Blood ammonia, cGMP, and levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins were measured. Results MHE patients showed significant decrease of GM volume and lesser degree of rs-FC in different networks related to attention and executive functions as compared to controls and patients without MHE. There is a progressive reduction in rs-FC in the default mode network with the progression of cognitive impairment. MHE patients showed GM reduction in the right frontal lobe, right insula and right cerebellum compared to patients without MHE. Alterations in GM volume and rs-FC correlated with the scores of different cognitive tests. Conclusions Decreased cognitive performance is associated by reduced rs-FC and GM atrophy in MHE patients. These changes could have predictive value for detecting MHE. PMID:29023586

  19. Overweight Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Lung Volumes in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte G W Seijger

    Full Text Available In this large observational study population of 105 myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients, we investigate whether bodyweight is a contributor of total lung capacity (TLC independent of the impaired inspiratory muscle strength.Body composition was assessed using the combination of body mass index (BMI and fat-free mass index. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory muscle strength measurements were performed on the same day. Patients were stratified into normal (BMI < 25 kg/m(2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 groups. Multiple linear regression was used to find significant contributors for TLC.Overweight was present in 59% of patients, and body composition was abnormal in almost all patients. In overweight patients, TLC was significantly (p = 2.40×10(-3 decreased, compared with normal-weight patients, while inspiratory muscle strength was similar in both groups. The decrease in TLC in overweight patients was mainly due to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume (ERV further illustrated by a highly significant (p = 1.33×10(-10 correlation between BMI and ERV. Multiple linear regression showed that TLC can be predicted using only BMI and the forced inspiratory volume in 1 second, as these were the only significant contributors.This study shows that, in DM1 patients, overweight further reduces lung volumes, as does impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Additionally, body composition is abnormal in almost all DM1 patients.

  20. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 2: Technical report. [pyrolysis and biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste demonstrates the feasibility of several current processes for converting solid waste to an energy form. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered in depth with recommendations made in regard to new legislation and policy. Biodegradation and thermal decomposition are the two areas of disposal that are considered with emphasis on thermal decomposition. A technical and economic evaluation of a number of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given. Based on present technical capabilities, use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal seems to be the most economic process by which to recover energy from solid waste. Markets are considered in detail with suggestions given for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste, and a new pyrolysis process is suggested. An application of the methods of this study are applied to Houston, Texas.

  1. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  3. Site investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1, Text: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 4 is located south of the main facility along Lagoon Road. WAG 4 consists of three separate areas: Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land-burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; an experimental Pilot Pit Area, which includes a pilot-scale testing pit; and sections of two abandoned underground pipelines used for transporting liquid, low-level, radioactive waste. SWSA 4 is the largest site at WAG 4, covering approximately 23 acres. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low- and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data, collected during monitoring of the tributary to White Oak Creek as part of WAG 2 investigations as well as during previous studies conducted at WAG 4, indicate that a significant amount of {sup 90}Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk (DOE 1993). With recent corrective measures the proportion of the release has increased in 1995. A detailed discussion of the site history and previous investigations is presented in the WAG 4 Preliminary Assessment Report, ORNL/ER-271 (Energy Systems 1994b). In an effort to control the sources of the {sup 90}Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation was initiated to pinpoint those trenches that are the most prominent {sup 90}Sr sources.

  4. Disease Control After Reduced Volume Conformal and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Radiological Sciences, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Kun, Larry E.; Hua, Chia-Ho [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Radiological Sciences, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Biostatistics, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A. [Semmes Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Neurosurgery, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the rate of disease control after conformal radiation therapy using reduced clinical target volume (CTV) margins and to determine factors that predict for tumor progression. Methods and Materials: Eighty-eight children (median age, 8.5 years; range, 3.2-17.6 years) received conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy between 1998 and 2009. The study group included those prospectively treated from 1998 to 2003, using a 10-mm CTV, defined as the margin surrounding the solid and cystic tumor targeted to receive the prescription dose of 54 Gy. The CTV margin was subsequently reduced after 2003, yielding 2 groups of patients: those treated with a CTV margin greater than 5 mm (n=26) and those treated with a CTV margin less than or equal to 5 mm (n=62). Disease progression was estimated on the basis of additional variables including sex, race, extent of resection, tumor interventions, target volume margins, and frequency of weekly surveillance magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 5 years. Results: There was no difference between progression-free survival rates based on CTV margins (>5 mm vs ≤5 mm) at 5 years (88.1% ± 6.3% vs 96.2% ± 4.4% [P=.6386]). There were no differences based on planning target volume (PTV) margins (or combined CTV plus PTV margins). The PTV was systematically reduced from 5 to 3 mm during the time period of the study. Factors predictive of superior progression-free survival included Caucasian race (P=.0175), no requirement for cerebrospinal fluid shunting (P=.0066), and number of surveillance imaging studies during treatment (P=.0216). Patients whose treatment protocol included a higher number of weekly surveillance MR imaging evaluations had a lower rate of tumor progression. Conclusions: These results suggest that targeted volume reductions for radiation therapy using smaller margins are feasible and safe but require careful monitoring. We are currently investigating

  5. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  6. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report: Volume 4, Appendices F-O: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, H R; Scully, L W; Tillerson, J R [comps.

    1987-09-01

    The site for the prospective repository is located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, and the waste emplacement area will be constructed in the underlying volcanic tuffs. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases, design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases. Volume 4 contains Appendices F to O.

  7. Reduced Maximum Pitch Elevation Predicts Silent Aspiration of Small Liquid Volumes in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Theyyar Rajappa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposePreliminary evidence has shown that reduced ability to maximally raise vocal pitch correlates with the occurrence of aspiration (i.e., airway invasion by food or liquid. However, it is unclear if this simple task can be used as a reliable predictor of aspiration in stroke patients. Our aim was to examine whether maximum vocal pitch elevation predicted airway invasion and dysphagia in stroke.MethodsForty-five consecutive stroke patients (<1 month poststroke at a rehabilitation setting participated in a videofluoroscopic swallow study and two maximum vocal pitch elevation tasks. Maximum pitch was evaluated acoustically [maximum fundamental frequency (max F0] and perceptually. Swallowing safety was rated using the Penetration/Aspiration Scale and swallowing performance was assessed using components of the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImPTM©. Data were analyzed using simple regression and receiver operating characteristics curves to test the sensitivity and specificity of max F0 in predicting aspiration. Correlations between max F0 and MBSImP variables were also examined.ResultsMax F0 predicted silent aspiration of small liquid volumes with 80% sensitivity and 65% specificity (p = 0.023; area under the curve: 0.815; cutoff value of 359.03 Hz. Max F0 did not predict non-silent aspiration or penetration in this sample and did not significantly correlate with MBSImP variables. Furthermore, all participants who aspirated silently on small liquid volumes (11% of sample had suffered cortical or subcortical lesions.ConclusionIn stroke patients (<1 month poststroke, reduced maximum pitch elevation predicts silent aspiration of small liquid volumes with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. Future large-scale studies focusing on further validating this finding and exploring the value of this simple and non-invasive tool as part of a dysphagia screening are warranted.

  8. Experimental Methods to Observe Asymmetric Instability of Intermediate-Reduced-Volume Vesicles in Extensional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Joanna; Narsimhan, Vivek; Gouveia, Bernardo; Kumar, Sanjay; Shaqfeh, Eric; Muller, Susan

    2014-11-01

    Vesicles provide an attractive model system to understand the deformation of living cells in response to mechanical forces. These enclosed lipid bilayer membranes are suitable for complementary theoretical and experimental analysis. A recent study (Narsimhan et al., J. Fluid Mech. 750, 144 (2014)) predicted that intermediate-aspect-ratio vesicles break up asymmetrically in extensional flow. Upon infinitesimal perturbation to its shape, the vesicle stretches into an asymmetric dumbbell. In this work, we present preliminary results from cross-slot microfluidic experiments observing this instability. The onset of breakup depends on two non-dimensional parameters: reduced volume (vesicle asphericity) and capillary number (ratio of viscous to bending forces). We will present strategies for accurately measuring these quantities in order to plot a stability diagram. Specifically, we will describe our synthesis of floppy, intermediate-reduced-volume vesicles and our measurement of their bending moduli by analyzing membrane thermal fluctuations. We will discuss coupling particle-image velocimetry (PIV) with cross-slot trapping of vesicles to ensure that breakup occurs at the stagnation point. A preliminary phase diagram for asymmetric breakup will be reported.

  9. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.

  10. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. (ed.)

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC`s review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs.

  11. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Background Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Results In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE wit...

  12. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  13. THE IMPACT OF REDUCING THE CAPACITY INCINERATORS OF MEDICAL WASTE ON THE VALUE OF THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Walery

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper is the optimization of a model of disposal and treatment of municipal waste as well as computer software MRGO+ (Model for Regional Waste Management, through which the model was implemented. It has been verified by the author and adapted to the needs of the proposed model to optimize the disposal and treatment of medical waste in the example of the Podlaskie Province. This paper describes the optimization study aimed to analysis of the impact of reducing the capacity incinerators of medical waste on the value of the cost-effectiveness index (E. The study was conducted on the example of the analysis of medical waste management system in north-eastern Poland, in the Podlaskie Province. Introduction of bandwidth limitations 3 intermediate objects and lack of bandwidth limitations in an incineration plant in Hajnówka, resulted in a significant decrease in system costs by approx. 17%, and consequently also a significant decrease in the cost-effectiveness index E.

  14. Removal of chromium from synthetic plating waste by zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saumyen; Bhargava, Puja

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for reduction and removal of chromium from synthetic electroplating waste. The zero-valent iron shows promising results as a reductant of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) to trivalent chromium (Cr+3), capable of 100% reduction. The required iron concentration was a function of chromium concentration in the waste stream. Removal of Cr+3 by adsorption or precipitation on iron leads to complete removal of chromium from the waste and was a slower process than the reduction of Cr+6. Presence SRB in a completely mixed batch reactor inhibited the reduction of Cr+6. In a fixed-bed column reactor, SRB enhanced chromium removal and showed promising results for the treatment of wastes with low chromium concentrations. It is proposed that, for waste with high chromium concentration, zero-valent iron is an efficient reductant and can be used for reduction of Cr+6. For low chromium concentrations, a SRB augmented zero-valent iron and sand column is capable of removing chromium completely.

  15. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  18. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 1: Executive summary of technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives, approach, assumptions, and limitations of a study of nuclear waste disposal in space are discussed with emphasis on the following: (1) payload characterization; (2) safety assessment; (3) health effects assessment; (4) long-term risk assessment; and (5) program planning support to NASA and DOE. Conclusions are presented for each task.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  1. EPA Regional Administrator Highlights the Benefits of Reducing Food Waste in South Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    (SOUTH BEND, IND. - November 5, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Susan Hedman joined South Bend Mayor Pete Buttigieg today at Ivy Tech Community College's culinary school to highlight the benefits of diverting food waste fr

  2. New England Organizations Step Up for EPAs Food Recovery Challenge and Help to Reduce Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen New England organizations have backed a national effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to help cut down on the nearly 35 million tons of food wasted in the United States each year.

  3. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  4. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Baradey; M. N. A. Hawlader; Ahmad Faris Ismail; Meftah Hrairi

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to rec...

  5. Cumulative subgroup analysis to reduce waste in clinical research for individualised medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Bachmann, Max O

    2016-12-15

    Although subgroup analyses in clinical trials may provide evidence for individualised medicine, their conduct and interpretation remain controversial. Subgroup effect can be defined as the difference in treatment effect across patient subgroups. Cumulative subgroup analysis refers to a series of repeated pooling of subgroup effects after adding data from each of related trials chronologically, to investigate the accumulating evidence for subgroup effects. We illustrated the clinical relevance of cumulative subgroup analysis in two case studies using data from published individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses. Computer simulations were also conducted to examine the statistical properties of cumulative subgroup analysis. In case study 1, an IPD meta-analysis of 10 randomised trials (RCTs) on beta blockers for heart failure reported significant interaction of treatment effects with baseline rhythm. Cumulative subgroup analysis could have detected the subgroup effect 15 years earlier, with five fewer trials and 71% less patients, than the IPD meta-analysis which first reported it. Case study 2 involved an IPD meta-analysis of 11 RCTs on treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension that reported significant subgroup effect by aetiology. Cumulative subgroup analysis could have detected the subgroup effect 6 years earlier, with three fewer trials and 40% less patients than the IPD meta-analysis. Computer simulations have indicated that cumulative subgroup analysis increases the statistical power and is not associated with inflated false positives. To reduce waste of research data, subgroup analyses in clinical trials should be more widely conducted and adequately reported so that cumulative subgroup analyses could be timely performed to inform clinical practice and further research.

  6. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Ryne A; Vajtai, Petra L; Hopkins, Katharine L

    2015-02-01

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDIvol. Reduced CTDIvol was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAseff) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDIvol, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDIvol was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDIvol and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols.

  7. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, Ryne A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Hopkins, Katharine L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-05

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI{sub vol}. Reduced CTDI{sub vol} was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs{sub eff}) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI{sub vol}, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  8. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  9. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This volume consists of the following sections: WRAP 2A value engineering assessment, resolution of value engineering assessment actions (white paper), HAZOP studies for identifying major safety and operability problems, and time and motion simulation.

  10. Feed Materials Production Center. Final phase-in report volume 11 of 15 waste management, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.E.

    1986-01-17

    This volume of the Transition Final Report provides the findings, recommendations and corrective actions for the Waste Management areas developed during the phase-in actions by Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO). The objective is to provide a summary of the studies and investigations performed by the WMCO Company during the transition period. The Waste Management effort at FMPC was expanded in 1984 when a separate group was formed within the NLO organization. This is considered to be an area where significant increase in priority and effort must be applied to resolve waste management problems and to bring the site in conformity to regulations and the Environmental Health/Safety Standards. During the transition, there was a comprehensive investigation in all areas of air, liquid and solid waste management for nuclear, chemical and conventional wastes. Not all of these investigations are documented in this report, but the information gathered was used in the development of the budgets (cost accounts), programs, and organizational planning.

  11. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  13. Reduced Gray Matter Volume in the Social Brain Network in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by behavioral impairment in social interactions. Although theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that impairment in the social brain network could be the neural underpinnings of ASD, previous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies in adults with ASD have not provided clear support for this, possibly due to confounding factors, such as language impairments. To further explore this issue, we acquired structural MRI data and analyzed gray matter volume in adults with ASD (n = 36 who had no language impairments (diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, with symptoms milder than those of Asperger’s disorder, had no comorbidity, and were not taking medications, and in age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD controls (n = 36. Univariate voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that regional gray matter volume was lower in the ASD than in the control group in several brain regions, including the right inferior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral amygdala, right inferior frontal gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A multivariate approach using a partial least squares (PLS method showed that these regions constituted a network that could be used to discriminate between the ASD and TD groups. A PLS discriminant analysis using information from these regions showed high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision (>80% in discriminating between the groups. These results suggest that reduced gray matter volume in the social brain network represents the neural underpinnings of behavioral social malfunctioning in adults with ASD.

  14. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  15. Reduced-portion entrées in a worksite and restaurant setting: impact on food consumption and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla

    2016-11-01

    Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and 7 weeks after introduction of five reduced-size entrées in a worksite lunch cafeteria and for 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after introduction of five reduced-size dinner entrées in a restaurant setting. Full-size entrées were available throughout the entire study periods. A worksite cafeteria and a commercial upscale restaurant in a large US Midwestern metropolitan area. Adult worksite employees and restaurant patrons. Reduced-size entrées accounted for 5·3-12·8 % and 18·8-31·3 % of total entrées selected in the worksite and restaurant settings, respectively. Food waste, energy intake and intakes of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, Na, fibre, Ca, K and Fe were significantly lower when both full- and reduced-size entrées were served in the worksite setting and in the restaurant setting compared with when only full-size entrées were served. A relatively small proportion of reduced-size entrées were selected but still resulted in reductions in overall energy and nutrient intakes. These outcomes could serve as the foundation for future studies to determine strategies to enhance acceptance of reduced-portion menu items in restaurant settings.

  16. Increases in consumer cost sharing redirect patient volumes and reduce hospital prices for orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Brown, Timothy T

    2013-08-01

    Some employers are implementing reference-pricing benefit designs, which establish limits on the amount they will pay for some procedures covered by employer-sponsored insurance. Employees are required to pay the difference between the employer's contribution limit and the actual price received by the hospital. These initiatives encourage patients to select low-price facilities and indirectly encourage facilities to reduce prices to increase patient volume. We evaluated the impact of reference pricing on the use of and prices paid for knee and hip replacement surgery by members of the California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) from 2008 to 2012, using enrollees in Anthem Blue Cross as a comparison group. In the first year after implementation, surgical volumes for CalPERS members increased by 21.2 percent at low-price facilities and decreased by 34.3 percent at high-price facilities. Prices charged to CalPERS members declined by 5.6 percent at low-price facilities and by 34.3 percent at high-price facilities. Our analysis indicates that in 2011 reference pricing accounted for $2.8 million in savings for CalPERS and $0.3 million in lower cost sharing for CalPERS members.

  17. Personalization of a cardiac electromechanical model using reduced order unscented Kalman filtering from regional volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesseau, S; Delingette, H; Sermesant, M; Cabrera-Lozoya, R; Tobon-Gomez, C; Moireau, P; Figueras i Ventura, R M; Lekadir, K; Hernandez, A; Garreau, M; Donal, E; Leclercq, C; Duckett, S G; Rhode, K; Rinaldi, C A; Frangi, A F; Razavi, R; Chapelle, D; Ayache, N

    2013-10-01

    Patient-specific cardiac modeling can help in understanding pathophysiology and therapy planning. However it requires to combine functional and anatomical data in order to build accurate models and to personalize the model geometry, kinematics, electrophysiology and mechanics. Personalizing the electromechanical coupling from medical images is a challenging task. We use the Bestel-Clément-Sorine (BCS) electromechanical model of the heart, which provides reasonable accuracy with a reasonable number of parameters (14 for each ventricle) compared to the available clinical data at the organ level. We propose a personalization strategy from cine MRI data in two steps. We first estimate global parameters with an automatic calibration algorithm based on the Unscented Transform which allows to initialize the parameters while matching the volume and pressure curves. In a second step we locally personalize the contractilities of all AHA (American Heart Association) zones of the left ventricle using the reduced order unscented Kalman filtering on Regional Volumes. This personalization strategy was validated synthetically and tested successfully on eight healthy and three pathological cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Captivity reduces hippocampal volume but not survival of new cells in a food-storing bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Bernard A; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Ali Imtiaz, Mubdiul; DeVoogd, Timothy J

    2009-12-01

    In many naturalistic studies of the hippocampus wild animals are held in captivity. To test if captivity itself affects hippocampal integrity, adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) were caught in the fall, injected with bromodeoxyuridine to mark neurogenesis, and alternately released to the wild or held in captivity. The wild birds were recaptured after 4-6 weeks and perfused simultaneously with their captive counterparts. The hippocampus of captive birds was 23% smaller than wild birds, with no hemispheric differences in volume within groups. Between groups there was no statistically significant difference in the size of the telencephalon, or in the number and density of surviving new cells. Proximate causes of the reduced hippocampal volume could include stress, lack of exercise, diminished social interaction, or limited caching opportunity-a hippocampal-dependent activity. The results suggest the avian hippocampus-a structure essential for rapid, complex relational and spatial learning-is both plastic and sensitive, much as in mammals, including humans.

  19. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the

  20. Waste-aware fluid volume assignment for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analysers integrating the necessary functions onchip. We are interested in Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips (FBMB), where a continuous flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. Using microvalves and channels, more ...... is able to minimize the fluid consumption through optimal fluid assignment and reuse of fluid waste. Due to the algorithm's low complexity, fluid requirements can also be calculated during runtime for error recovery or statically unknown cases....

  1. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume I. Identification of the processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treat, R.L.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Blair, H.T.; Carter, J.G.; Gorton, P.S.; Partain, W.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document contains preconceptual design data on 11 processes for the solidification and isolation of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HLLW). The processes are: in-can glass melting (ICGM) process, joule-heated glass melting (JHGM) process, glass-ceramic (GC) process, marbles-in-lead (MIL) matrix process, supercalcine pellets-in-metal (SCPIM) matrix process, pyrolytic-carbon coated pellets-in-metal (PCCPIM) matrix process, supercalcine hot-isostatic-pressing (SCHIP) process, SYNROC hot-isostatic-pressing (SYNROC HIP) process, titanate process, concrete process, and cermet process. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that each of the solidification processes is capable of handling similar amounts of HLLW generated in a production-sized fuel reprocessing plant. It was also assumed that each of the processes would be enclosed in a shielded canyon or cells within a waste facility located at the fuel reprocessing plant. Finally, it was assumed that all of the processes would be subject to the same set of regulations, codes and standards. Each of the solidification processes converts waste into forms that may be acceptable for geological disposal. Each process begins with the receipt of HLLW from the fuel reprocessing plant. In this study, it was assumed that the original composition of the HLLW would be the same for each process. The process ends when the different waste forms are enclosed in canisters or containers that are acceptable for interim storage. Overviews of each of the 11 processes and the bases used for their identification are presented in the first part of this report. Each process, including its equipment and its requirements, is covered in more detail in Appendices A through K. Pertinent information on the current state of the art and the research and development required for the implementation of each process are also noted in the appendices.

  2. 1999 Annual Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Correction - Action Report (Volumes I, II, and III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-06-14

    This Corrective Action Report (CAR) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is being prepared to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit Number SC1 890 008 989, dated October 31, 1999. This CAR compiles and presents all groundwater sampling and monitoring activities that are conducted at the MWMF. As set forth in previous agreements with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), all groundwater associated with the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) (comprised of the MWMF, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground) will be addressed under this RCRA Permit. This CAR is the first to be written for the MWMF and presents monitoring activities and results as an outcome of Interim Status and limited Permitted Status activities. All 1999 groundwater monitoring activities were conducted while the MWMF was operated during Interim Status. Changes to the groundwater monitoring program were made upon receipt of the RCRA Permit, where feasible. During 1999, 152 single-screened and six multi-screened groundwater monitoring wells at the BGC monitored groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer as required by the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR), settlement agreements 87-52-SW and 91-51-SW, and RCRA Permit SC1 890 008 989. However, overall compliance with the recently issued RCRA Permit could not be implemented until the year 2000 due to the effective date of the RCRA Permit and scheduling of groundwater monitoring activities. Changes have been made to the groundwater monitoring network to meet Permit requirements for all 2000 sampling events.

  3. LLW (Low-Level Waste) Notes, Volume 13, Number 1, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    LLW Notes is a newsletter distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties. This issue focuses on the following topics: DOI approves Ward Valley permit application; Project evidentiary hearings begin in Texas; and Summary judgment motions in California breach of contract action.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  6. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  7. Innovative cross-flow membrane system for volume reduction of mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, W. [SpinTek Membrane Systems, Huntington Beach, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this task, SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., and the Institute of Gas Technology are completing engineering development leading to a full-scale demonstration of the SpinTek ST-II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System (ST-II) under a Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA) with the Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown. The SpinTek ST-II technology will be scaled-up, and a two-stage ST-II system will be designed, constructed, and operated on both surrogate and actual feed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LRWTF). Results from these studies on both surrogate and actual wastewater streams will also be used by LANL personnel to produce a model for determining the applicability and economics of the SpinTek ST-II system to other DOE waste and process streams. The ST-II is a unique, compact cross-flow membrane system having several advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems. Staff at LANL have performed pilot-scale testing with the SpinTek technology to evaluate its feasibility for enhanced radionuclide removal from wastewater at its 5- to 8-million-gallon-per-year LRWTF. Recent data have shown the system`s capabilities to remove radionuclides from the waste stream at concentration factors greater than 2000:1, and performance has exceeded both conventional and all other advanced technologies examined.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-Migration Variance Petition. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Arlen

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of the WIPP No-Migration Variance Petition is to demonstrate, according to the requirements of RCRA {section}3004(d) and 40 CFR {section}268.6, that to a reasonable degree of certainty, there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the facility for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. The DOE submitted the petition to the EPA in March 1989. Upon completion of its initial review, the EPA provided to DOE a Notice of Deficiencies (NOD). DOE responded to the EPA`s NOD and met with the EPA`s reviewers of the petition several times during 1989. In August 1989, EPA requested that DOE submit significant additional information addressing a variety of topics including: waste characterization, ground water hydrology, geology and dissolution features, monitoring programs, the gas generation test program, and other aspects of the project. This additional information was provided to EPA in January 1990 when DOE submitted Revision 1 of the Addendum to the petition. For clarity and ease of review, this document includes all of these submittals, and the information has been updated where appropriate. This document is divided into the following sections: Introduction, 1.0: Facility Description, 2.0: Waste Description, 3.0; Site Characterization, 4.0; Environmental Impact Analysis, 5.0; Prediction and Assessment of Infrequent Events, 6.0; and References, 7.0.

  9. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  10. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  11. Comparison of reduced volume versus four liters sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solutions for colonoscopy colon cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPalma, Jack A; Wolff, Bruce G; Meagher, Alan; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2003-10-01

    In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colonoscopy cleansing, a reduced volume lavage regimen with 2 L sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution (SF-ELS, NuLYTELY, Braintree Laboratories, Braintree, MA) plus 20 mg p.o. bisacodyl (Half Lytely, Braintree Laboratories) was compared with standard 4 L SF-ELS lavage for safety and efficacy. At two centers, 200 patients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications were randomized to receive the reduced volume or standard 4 L method. The day before scheduled colonoscopy, study subjects were allowed a normal breakfast and clear liquids for lunch and dinner. Those randomized to receive the reduced volume method received four 5-mg bisacodyl tablets p.o. at noon. Six hours later, they received 2 L SF-ELS given as 10 oz every 10 min. Subjects randomized to receive 4 L SF-ELS also drank their solution at 6:00 PM in a similar fashion. Colonoscopists, unaware as to the randomized preparation received, rated efficacy of cleansing. Patient tolerance and various hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Physician assessment of colon cleansing showed no differences between those patients randomized to receive reduced volume (n = 93) or 4 L (n = 93) SF-ELS cleansing (p = 0.16). There was a profound reduction in preparation side effects. The reduced volume preparation had less fullness (p < 0.01), nausea (p < 0.01), vomiting (p = 0.01), and overall discomfort (p < 0.01). There were no clinically significant changes in hematology or blood chemistry associated with either preparation. Reduced volume preparation with 2 L SF-ELS and bisacodyl is safe and effective. Clinical symptoms from the reduced volume preparation are significantly reduced compared with traditional 4 L gut lavage.

  12. Using Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires to Reduce Road Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of sound pressure levels on an experimental road section (road pavement with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires in Mala Ida village (Kosice region, Slovakia and on a road with stone mastic asphalt in Haniska village (Presov region, Slovakia are presented in the paper. The results obtained using statistical pass-by methods were compared and they confirmed that road surface with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires produced quieter pavement than stone mastic asphalt road pavement alone.

  13. Reprocessing and clearance as ways for reducing radioactive waste from fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, P.; Zucchetti, M. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy); Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    The irradiated material chosen to investigate this concept is V-4Cr-4Ti, used as in-vessel structural material of PM-1, one of the three reactor models of SEAFP-2 assessments. The analysis performed deserves the following comments: in general, the modified concentrations of the parent isotopes have been assumed equal to the actual detection limits of the concerned elements. The nuclides investigated are those having the higher activities in the irradiated alloy (dominant nuclides). The contribution to the clearance index of other nuclides, present in the irradiated alloy and not yet examined should also be assessed. Even having reduced the concentrations of the impurities to the very low levels hypothesized, the ratios (A/L{sub c}){sub m} of some nuclides are too great. Beside K-42 and Ar-42, deriving from titanium, this happens for nuclides deriving from niobium, silver, nickel, copper, strontium. Hence the clearance index of the modified alloy is greater than the unity and clearance conditions are not achieved. Additional purification process have to be envisaged after the irradiation, with an elemental dilution of the noxious nuclides and then performing a purification process. As an example, it is found from table 2 that the sum of the ratios (A/L{sub c}){sub m} of Nb-93m, Nb-91 and Nb-94, nuclides deriving from a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -2} ppm of niobium, is 7.75. An addition of 5/10 ppm of natural niobium to the molten irradiated material and a further purification of niobium to levels near to the initial one could achieve a 100-fold reduction of the ratios (A/L{sub c}){sub m}. 10000 t of V-4Cr4Ti, representing the total amount (maintenance + decommissioning) arising from the in vessel structures of a power reactor should be reprocessed with 100 kg of niobium, in the highly conservative hypothesis that all material is irradiated in first wall conditions. The secondary waste arising from the purification processes would not exceed a few ton which could be

  14. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  15. Bioremediation of Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE Wastes using Lipolitic Bacteria (Bacillus cereus with Variation of Inoculum Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lusia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent bleaching earth (SBE is a solid waste was generated from the CPO refining step into cooking oil.  SBE that was discharged directly into the environment has the potential to pollute the environment, because in the SBE waste contained oil and acid residues, which are easily to be oxidized and flammable.  Therefore, SBE must be processed first before being discharged into the environment.  One way to manage SBE is by bioremediation.  Bioremediation is a method on cleaning the environment from contaminants by using  biological agents, such as bacteria, fungi etc.  The bacterial isolates used in this study were Bacillus cereus.  This study aims to obtain the best inoculum and to know the ability of Bacillus cereus bacteria in degrading the oil content in SBE waste. This study used Completely Randomized Design with the volume of Bacillus cereus bacteria inoculum as a treatment, consisting of 6 treatment levels of 0 mL kg-1, 25 mL kg-1, 50 mL kg-1, 75 mL kg-1, 100 mL kg-1, 125 mL kg-1.  Each treatment level was repeated 3 times, so taht 18 experimental units were obtained.  Observation was done once a week, in a month.  Parameters observed were bacterial population, percentage of oil degradation, and oil content degradation.  The best treatment result for the bacterial population was obtained at the treatment of 100 mL kg-1, at week 4 which was 7,4 x 108 cfu g-1, and for the oil degradation was obtained at 50 mL kg-1 on the treatment at week 4 as big as 90,43%.

  16. Data Summary of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives. Volume VIII: Appendix F - Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community's solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a transition'' document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 8, Appendix F, Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community`s solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a ``transition`` document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  18. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series: Volume 12, Cobalt-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological and chemical characteristics of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 60}Co in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 60}Co production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 60}Co. All cobalt atoms contain 27 protons (Z = 27) and various numbers of neutrons (typically N = 27 to 37 neutrons) within the atom`s nucleus. There is only one stable isotope of cobalt, namely {sup 59}Co. All other cobalt isotopes, including {sup 60}Co, are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of cobalt have half-lives ranging from less than a second ({sup 54}Co-0.19 s) to 5.2 years ({sup 60}Co). The radioactive isotopes of cobalt are not a normal constituent of the natural environment and are generated as a result of human activities. The primary source of {sup 60}Co in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 59}Co that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. This isotope is also intentionally produced, usually in reactors but also to some degree in accelerators for industrial and medical uses, such as for radiation sources for cancer treatment and nondestructive testing of metals and welds. {sup 60}Co may enter the environment as a result of the activities associated with nuclear reactor operations and decommissioning and when industrial and medical sources are being used, manufactured, or disposed.

  19. Exploring Effective Incentive Design to Reduce Food Waste: A Natural Experiment of Policy Change from Community Based Charge to RFID Based Weight Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabinne Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the impact of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID Household-Based Food Waste Charging System (RHWC on the reduction of food waste in Mapo-Gu district located in Seoul city from June 2013 to July 2016. Through comparing the amount of food waste disposal between 12 apartment complexes with the RHWC policy (treatment group and 61 apartment complexes (control group without the policy, we attempt to identify whether the RHWC can contribute in reducing food waste. In June 2013, all these apartment complexes adopted an apartment complex unit-based food-waste system (i.e., Community-Based Waste Charging system-CWC, but, in January 2016, the 12 apartment complexes introduced the RHWC policy, while the other 61 apartment complexes kept the CWC policy. This natural experiment setting allows us to compare the difference in the quantity of food waste disposal between these two payment policies. The RHWC uses a weight based payment design, through which each household is electronically charged for the weight of food waste they disposes, while the CWC uses a group incentive system where residents pay the same price by dividing total amount of waste charge by total number of household in apartment complex. We, relying on propensity score matching and Difference-In-Difference (PSM-DID methodology, found a significant difference in the amount of food waste disposal between these two payment systems. Our empirical finding shows that the RHWC deign can reduce more food waste than the CWC design. This study suggests that municipalities can reduce food waste through redesigning incentive mechanism in which it is able to reduce free riding by electronically identifying and monitoring how much residents throw out thanks to RFID technology.

  20. Soil weight (lbf/ft{sup 3}) at Hanford waste storage locations (2 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford Reservation waste storage tanks are fabricated in accordance with approved construction specifications. After an underground tank has been constructed in the excavation prepared for it, soil is place around the tank and compacted by an approved compaction procedure. To ensure compliance with the construction specifications, measurements of the soil compaction are taken by QA inspectors using test methods based on American Society for the Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Soil compaction tests data taken for the 241AP, 241AN, and 241AW tank farms constructed between 1978 and 1986 are included. The individual data values have been numerically processed to obtain average soil density values for each of these tank farms.

  1. Reduced visual cortex grey matter volume in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Shimada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and into adulthood. One negative outcome of child maltreatment can be a disorder of emotional functioning, reactive attachment disorder (RAD, where the child displays wary, watchful, and emotionally withdrawn behaviours. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of RAD. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RAD was associated with alterations in grey matter volume (GMV. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging datasets were obtained for children and adolescents with RAD (n = 21; mean age = 12.76 years and typically developing (TD control subjects (n = 22; mean age = 12.95 years. Using a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach, structural images were analysed controlling for age, gender, full scale intelligence quotient, and total brain volume. The GMV was significantly reduced by 20.6% in the left primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17 of the RAD group compared to the TD group (p = .038, family-wise error-corrected cluster level. This GMV reduction was related to an internalising problem measure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The visual cortex has been viewed as part of the neurocircuit regulating the stress response to emotional visual images. Combined with previous studies of adults with childhood maltreatment, early adverse experience (e.g. sensory deprivation may affect the development of the primary visual system, reflecting in the size of the visual cortex in children and adolescents with RAD. These visual cortex GMV abnormalities may also be associated with the visual emotion regulation impairments of RAD, leading to an increased risk for later psychopathology.

  2. Reduced compensatory responses to maintain central blood volume during hypovolemic stress in women with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Länne, Toste; Lindenberger, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Although vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common clinical condition, the underlying pathophysiology is not fully understood. A decrease in cardiac output has recently been suggested as a factor in orthostatic VVS. The aim was to investigate compensatory mechanisms to maintain central blood volume and venous return during hypovolemic stress in women with VVS. Fourteen VVS women (25.7 ± 5.0 yr) and 15 matched controls (22.8 ± 3.2 yr) were investigated. Single-step and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope were used to create hypovolemic stress. Peripheral mobilization of venous blood from the arm (capacitance response and net capillary fluid absorption) and lower limb blood pooling (calf capacitance response) were evaluated using a volumetric technique. Cardiovascular responses and plasma norepinephrine (P-NE) were measured. Resting P-NE was elevated in VVS women (P < 0.01). Despite a similar hypovolemic stimulus, the increase in P-NE was blunted (P < 0.01) and the maximal percent increase in total peripheral resistance was reduced (P < 0.05) during graded LBNP in VVS women. The arm capacitance response was slower (P < 0.05) and reduced in VVS women at higher levels of LBNP (P < 0.05). Capillary fluid absorption from extra- to intravascular space was reduced by ∼40% in VVS women (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the reduction in cardiac output was more pronounced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in VVS women, mobilization of peripheral venous blood and net fluid absorption from tissue to blood during hypovolemic stress were decreased partly as a result of an attenuated vasoconstrictor response. This may seriously impede maintenance of cardiac output during hypovolemic stress and could contribute to the pathogenesis of VVS. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

  4. Commercial radioactive waste management system feasibility with the universal canister concept. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morissette, R.P.; Schneringer, P.E.; Lane, R.K.; Moore, R.L.; Young, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    A Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) was initiated by DOE to solicit from industry new and novel ideas for improvements in the nuclear waste management system. GA Technologies Inc. was contracted to study a system utilizing a universal canister which could be loaded at the reactor and used throughout the waste management system. The proposed canister was developed with the objective of meeting the mission requirements with maximum flexibility and at minimum cost. Canister criteria were selected from a thorough analysis of the spent fuel inventory, and canister concepts were evaluated along with the shipping and storage casks to determine the maximum payload. Engineering analyses were performed on various cask/canister combinations. One important criterion was the interchangeability of the canisters between truck and rail cask systems. A canister was selected which could hold three PWR intact fuel elements or up to eight consolidated PWR fuel elements. One canister could be shipped in an overweight truck cask or six in a rail cask. Economic analysis showed a cost savings of the reference system under consideration at that time.

  5. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marieen, A., E-mail: amarien@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mokni, N., E-mail: Nadia.mokni@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Valcke, E. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Olivella, S. [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Smets, S. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Li, X., E-mail: xli@sckcen.be [EIG EURIDICE, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The water uptake by Eurobitum is studied to judge the safety of geological disposal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High pressures of up to 20 MPa are measured in constant volume water uptake tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of leached Eurobitum samples is studied with {mu}CT and ESEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observations are reproduced by an existing CHM formulation for Eurobitum. - Abstract: The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluna, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO{sub 3} leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography ({mu}CT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to

  6. Use of farming and agro-industrial wastes as versatile barriers in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, J; Ruiz, E; Flores, P; Vela, N; Hellín, P; Navarro, S

    2011-03-15

    Increased interest has been recently focused on assessing the influence of the addition of organic wastes related to movement of pesticides in soils of low organic matter (OM) content. This study reports the effect of two different amendments, animal manure (composted sheep manure) and agro-industrial waste (spent coffee grounds) on the mobility of 10 pesticides commonly used for pepper protection on a clay-loam soil (OM = 0.22%). The tested compounds were azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, and triadimenol (fungicides), pirimicarb (insecticide), and propyzamide (herbicide). Breakthrough curves were obtained from disturbed soil columns. Cumulative curves obtained from unamended soil show a leaching of all pesticides although in different proportions (12-65% of the total mass of compound applied), showing triadimenol and pirimicarb the higher leachability. Significant correlation (r = 0.93, p<0.01) was found between the observed and bibliographical values of GUS index. The addition of the amendments used drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. Only two pesticides were found in leachates from amended soils, pyrimethanil (<1%) for both, and pirimicarb (44%) in the soil amended with spent coffee grounds. A decrease in pesticide leaching was observed with the increase in dissolved organic matter (DOM) of leachates. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic wastes in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume II: Field and laboratory reports, Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Volume II (part 2 of 2) of ''Retrofit of Waste-to-energy Facilities Equipped with Electrostatic Precipitators'' contains the field and laboratory reports, including: (1) field reports, (2) analytic laboratory reports, (3) chain of custody forms, and (4) TCLP laboratory reports.

  8. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  9. Normative Beliefs, Attitudes, and Social Norms: People Reduce Waste as an Index of Social Relationships When Spending Leisure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has adopted and refined Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, theory of reasoned action, and the value–belief–norm theory by Stern et al. to investigate the effects of normative beliefs, attitudes, and social norms on pro-environmental behavioral intentions. A total of 391 valid responses were collected from visitors to a theme park in Taiwan. A structure equation analysis indicated that the overall fit of the proposed model was supported. It was also found that both attitudes and social norms had positive and significant influence on waste reduction. While the results did not reveal any direct relation between normative beliefs and behavioral intentions, normative beliefs had positive direct influence on social norms and attitudes, which in turn had an impact on behavioral intentions. The findings provided further insights about pro-environmental behavioral intentions from an Asia perspective and highlighted important implications for environmental policies and education to reduce waste.

  10. Prediction total specific pore volume of geopolymers produced from waste ashes by fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, total specific pore volume of inorganic polymers (geopolymers made from seeded fly ash and rice husk bark ash has been predicted by fuzzy logic. Different specimens, made from a mixture of fly ash and rice husk bark ash in fine and coarse form together with alkali activator made of water glass and NaOH solution, were subjected to porosimetry tests at 7 and 28 days of curing. The curing regime was different: one set of the specimens were cured at room temperature until reaching to 7 and 28 days and the other sets were oven cured for 36 hours at the range of 40-90 °C and then cured at room temperature until 7 and 28 days. A model based on fuzzy logic for predicting the total specific pore volume of the specimens has been presented. To build the model, training and testing using experimental results from 120 specimens were conducted. The used data as the inputs of fuzzy logic models are arranged in a format of six parameters that cover the percentage of fine fly ash in the ashes mixture, the percentage of coarse fly ash in the ashes mixture, the percentage of fine rice husk bark ash in the ashes mixture, the percentage of coarse rice husk bark ash in the ashes mixture, the temperature of curing and the time of water curing. According to the input parameters, in the fuzzy logic model, the pore volume of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the fuzzy logic model have shown a strong potential for predicting the total specific pore volume of the geopolymer specimens in the considered range.

  11. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  13. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Mokni, N.; Valcke, E.; Olivella, S.; Smets, S.; Li, X.

    2013-01-01

    The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluña, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO3 solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1-2 mm were hydrated (as derived from μCT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10-20% of the initial NaNO3 content was released by the samples. In the studied test

  14. A consumption approach to wastes from economic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced Prefrontal Cortical Gray Matter Volume in Young Adults Exposed to Harsh Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods 1,455 young adults (18–25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3T trio scanner. Results GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P = 0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA 9) (P = 0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) (P effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP. PMID:19285558

  16. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  17. Surgeon Volume Correlates with Reduced Mortality and Improved Quality in the Surgical Management of Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rachelle N; Flahive, Julie M; Davids, Jennifer S; Sweeney, W Brian; Sturrock, Paul R; Maykel, Justin A; Alavi, Karim

    2016-02-01

    Volume has been shown to be an important determinant of quality and cost outcomes. We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery for diverticulitis using the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2008–2012. Outcomes evaluated included minimally invasive approach, stoma creation, intensive-care admission, post-operative complications, length of stay, and total direct hospital costs by surgeon volume. Surgeon volume was categorized into four categories by mean annual volumes: very-high (VHVS) (>31), high (HVS) (13–31), medium (MVS) (6–12), and low (LVS) (≤5). A total of 19,212 patients with a mean age of 59 years, 54 % female makeup, and 55 % rate of private insurance were included. Similar to the unadjusted analysis, multivariable analysis revealed decreasing odds of stoma creation, complications, ICU admission, reoperation, readmission, and inpatient mortality with increasing surgeon volume. Additionally, compared with LVS, a higher surgeon volume was associated with higher rates of the minimally invasive approach. Median length of stay and costs were also notably lower with increasing surgeon volume. Quality and the use of minimally invasive technique are tightly associated with surgeon volume. Further studies are necessary to validate the direct association of volume with outcomes in surgery for diverticulitis.

  18. EPA Proposes Rules to Improve Hazardous Waste Management and Better Protect our Waterways / New Rules Also Reduce Regulatory Burden on Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing two new hazardous waste rules to strengthen environmental protection while reducing regulatory burden on businesses. One of the proposed rules will protect waterways, includin

  19. High-volume resistance training reduces postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Cobos, Roberto Carlos Rebolledo; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Carteri, Randall Bruce Kreismann; Radaelli, Régis; Gross, Julia Silveira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 11 weeks of low-volume resistance training (LVRT) and high-volume resistance training (HVRT) on muscle strength, muscle thickness (MT), and postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six healthy and untrained postmenopausal women (age, 58.9 ± 5.8 years; 68.6 ± 10.3 kg; and BMI, 26.9 ± 4.8 kg · m(-2)) participated in resistance training 3× per week for 11 weeks (HVRT = 12; LVRT = 13; and control group = 11). Biochemical variables, both pretraining and post-training, were evaluated 16 h after the administration of an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and metabolic variable during [energy expenditure (EE)] and after training session [excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)]. Muscle strength (1 RM) and MT were also calculated, and no significant differences were observed between the groups for PPL (mmol · L(-1) per 5 h) as measured by glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. EE total (EE + EPOC; 6.12 ± 1.21 MJ vs. 2.26 ± 0.85 MJ), resting fat oxidation (5.52 ± 1.69 g · h(-1) vs. 4.11 ± 1.12 g · h(-1)); MT (vastus medialis, 21.4 ± 1.8 mm vs. 18.4 ± 1.2 mm and vastus lateralis 22.3 ± 1.2 mm vs. 20.8 ± 1.3 mm); triacylglycerol (TAG) 0, 1, 2, 4; and 5 h after OFTT, TAG area under the curve (AUC) (5.79 ± 0.42 vs. 7.78 ± 0.68), and incremental AUC (-46.21 ± 14.42% vs. 7.78 ± 4.68%) were all significantly different post-training for HVRT versus LVRT, respectively (P < 0.05). The results of this investigation suggest that HVRT reduces PPL in postmenopausal women.

  20. Advanced volume reduction program for LLW at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, H.; Sato, M.; Hirabayashi, T.; Tanaka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has recently decided to adopt an advanced volume reduction program and started the construction of facilities, in which volume reduction techniques will be applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the amount of the wastes by operating the advanced volume reduction facilities. These facilities consist of Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities and Waste Volume Reduction Facilities; the former have cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter have melting units and a super compactor. The waste volume reduction will be carried out by a super compactor, a metal melting unit and a non-metal melting unit equipped plasma torch, and an annual processing capacity is around 10,000 drums of 200-liter size. The volume reduction ratio of waste is around 1/3 to 1/6. Molten metal is cast to receptacles for receiving molten slag from non-metal melting unit. Thus the amount of secondary wastes are reduced by utilizing the metallic wastes as receptacles. (authors)

  1. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  2. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal

  3. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  4. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riak Asie Erina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag, P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag, P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag, and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag. The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag, L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag, L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag, and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag. Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1 fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2 the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  5. Reduced Volume of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Correia, Marta M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Atypical language is a fundamental feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC), but few studies have examined the structural integrity of the arcuate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting frontal and temporal language regions, which is usually implicated as the main transfer route used in processing linguistic information by the brain. Abnormalities in the arcuate have been reported in young children with ASC, mostly in low-functioning or non-verbal individuals, but little is known regarding the structural properties of the arcuate in adults with ASC or, in particular, in individuals with ASC who have intact language, such as those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. We used probabilistic tractography of diffusion-weighted imaging to isolate and scrutinize the arcuate in a mixed-gender sample of 18 high-functioning adults with ASC (17 Asperger syndrome) and 14 age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls. Arcuate volume was significantly reduced bilaterally with clearest differences in the right hemisphere. This finding remained significant in an analysis of all male participants alone. Volumetric reduction in the arcuate was significantly correlated with the severity of autistic symptoms as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. These data reveal that structural differences are present even in high-functioning adults with ASC, who presented with no clinically manifest language deficits and had no reported developmental language delay. Arcuate structural integrity may be useful as an index of ASC severity and thus as a predictor and biomarker for ASC. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27242478

  6. Reduced Pineal Volume in Alzheimer Disease: A Retrospective Cross-sectional MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yuka; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2017-07-26

    Purpose To evaluate pineal volume in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects and to correlate the findings with results of cognitive testing and brain parenchymal volumes. Materials and Methods The ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The participants included 63 patients with AD, 33 patients with MCI, and 24 healthy control subjects. There were 36 men and 84 women, with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 76.7 years ± 7.6. The pineal gland volume and pineal parenchymal volume were measured by using three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence; spatial resolution, 0.9 × 0.98 × 0.98 mm). With age and total intracranial volume as covariates, analysis of covariance with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to compare the pineal volume among the AD, MCI, and control groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictor variables associated with pineal volume. Results The mean pineal gland volume in patients with AD (72.3 mm(3) ± 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.5 mm(3), 83.1 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in control subjects (102.1 mm(3) ± 9.0; 95% CI: 84.4 mm(3), 119.9 mm(3)) (P = .019). The mean pineal parenchymal volume in patients with AD (63.8 mm(3) ± 4.2; 95% CI: 55.4 mm(3), 72.1 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in patients with MCI (81.7 mm(3) ± 5.8; 95% CI: 70.3 mm(3), 93.1 mm(3); P = .044) and control subjects (89.1 mm(3) ± 6.9; 95% CI: 75.4 mm(3), 102.9 mm(3); P = .009). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Mini-Mental State Examination score and total intracranial volume were significant independent predictors of both pineal gland volume and pineal parenchymal volume (P Pineal volume reduction showed correlation with cognitive decline and thus might be useful to predict cognitive decline in patients with AD. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  7. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    -3 times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 x 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for seven weeks and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol and protein expression...... thr17 phosphorylation were also higher (Phigh intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K+ homeostasis during......The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclist replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 x ~30-s sprints) 2...

  8. EVALUATION OF GIN WASTE AS A GROWING SUBSTRATE, ENRICHED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME PERCENTAGE OF THE WHEAT BRAN FOR CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotusostreatus mushroom was cultivated on cotton gin waste amended with wheat bran in order to judge its growth potential. Two substrates (cotton gin waste and wheat bran were employed alone and with different combinations. Experiment consisted of four treatments T0 (100 % cotton gin waste, T1(97% cotton gin waste + 3% wheat bran, T2(94% cotton gin waste + 6% wheat bran and T3(91% cotton gin waste + 9% wheat bran. Data about time needed for commencement of spawn run, time needed for completion of mycelial growth, time needed for initiation of pinheads, time needed for harvesting of 1st, 2nd and 3rd flush, fresh weight of 1st, 2nd and 3rd flush harvested, total yield, pH of mushroom, total soluble solids of mushroom, acidity and ascorbic acid contents, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars of mushroom, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of mushroom was recorded. T0 (100 % cotton gin waste performed better as compared to other treatments.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant shaft sealing system compliance submittal design report. Volume 2 of 2: Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  10. Rationale and design of the RESOLVE trial: lanreotide as a volume reducing treatment for polycystic livers in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, T.J.G.; Chrispijn, M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease.

  11. Octreotide reduces hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) received octreotide for 12 months, and this was associated with a 6.3% reduction in liver volume, an 8% reduction in total kidney volume and stabilization of renal function. There was also a reduction of cyst size in fibrocystic disease of breast. These data suggest that the cyst fluid accumulation in different organs from patients with ADPKD is a dynamic process which can be reversed by octreotide. This is the first report of a case of simultaneous reduction in hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume with preservation of renal function in a patient with ADPKD receiving octreotide.

  12. Benchmarking on the management of radioactive waste; Benchmarking sobre la gestion de los residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gomez, M. a.; Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Gomez Castano, N.

    2013-09-01

    In this project, an evaluation of the practices carried out in the waste management field at the Spanish nuclear power plants has been done following the Benchmarking methodology. This process has allowed the identification of aspects to improve waste treatment processes; to reduce the volume of waste; to reduce management costs and to establish ways of management for the waste stream which do not have. (Author)

  13. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Lean Six Sigma in Health Care: Improving Utilization and Reducing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare costs have been increasing worldwide mainly due to over utilization of resources. The savings potentially achievable from systematic, comprehensive, and cooperative reduction in waste are far higher than from more direct and blunter cuts in care and coverage. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center inappropriate and over utilization of the glucose test strips used for whole blood glucose determination using glucometers was observed. The hospital implemented a project to improve its utilization. Using the Six Sigma DMAIC approach (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control), an efficient practice was put in place including updating the related internal policies and procedures and the proper implementation of an effective users' training and competency check off program. That resulted in decreasing the unnecessary Quality Control (QC) runs from 13% to 4%, decreasing the failed QC runs from 14% to 7%, lowering the QC to patient testing ratio from 24/76 to 19/81.

  15. Reduced Gray Matter Volume Is Associated With Poorer Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients require assistance with instrumental activities of daily living in part because of the high rates of cognitive impairment in this population. Structural brain insult (eg, reduced gray matter volume) is theorized to underlie cognitive dysfunction in heart failure, although no study has examined the association among gray matter, cognition, and instrumental activities of daily living in heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among gray matter volume, cognitive function, and functional ability in heart failure. A total of 81 heart failure patients completed a cognitive test battery and the Lawton-Brody self-report questionnaire to assess instrumental activities of daily living. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify total gray matter and subcortical gray matter volume. Impairments in instrumental activities of daily living were common in this sample of HF patients. Regression analyses controlling for demographic and medical confounders showed that smaller total gray matter volume predicted decreased scores on the instrumental activities of daily living composite, with specific associations noted for medication management and independence in driving. Interaction analyses showed that reduced total gray matter volume interacted with worse attention/executive function and memory to negatively impact instrumental activities of daily living. Smaller gray matter volume is associated with greater impairment in instrumental activities of daily living in persons with heart failure, possibly via cognitive dysfunction. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the utility of clinical correlates of gray matter volume (eg, cognitive dysfunction) in identifying heart failure patients at risk for functional decline and determine whether interventions that target improved brain and cognitive function can preserve functional independence in this high-risk population.

  16. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF SIROLIMUS IN REDUCING CYST VOLUME IN PATIENTS WITH AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha Melemadathil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease is by far the most frequent inherited kidney disease. In White populations, its prevalence ranges from one in 400 to one in 1000 (Gabow 1993. Though the corresponding figure in Blacks is not yet available, the incidence of ESRD due to ADPKD is similar in American Blacks and Whites (Yium et al, 1994. Renoprotective interventions in ADPKD are maximal reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria and limit the effects of additional potential promoters of disease progression such as dyslipidaemia, chronic hyperglycaemia or smoking. At present, there is no definitive treatment for reducing cyst volume and hence disease progression. Sirolimus (Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant mostly used for the management of kidney transplant recipients. This drug by specifically and effectively inhibiting mTOR, exerts antiproliferative and growth inhibiting effects and could be important for the inhibition of cyst progression in ADPKD. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is an interventional randomised open label, active control study for six months. ADPKD type 1 patients between the age of 18 to 60 years with a GFR > 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included in the study. RESULTS Total number of subjects enrolled – 60. Patients enrolled in sirolimus arm – 40. Patients enrolled in conventional treatment arm - 20. Patients dropped out due to sirolimus side effects - 5. Patients lost to followup - 1. Patients completed treatment in conventional treatment arm - 20. CONCLUSION Treatment with mTOR inhibitor sirolimus for 6 months was effective in reducing total kidney volume, total renal cyst volume and volume of the largest cyst in patients with ADPKD. There was a small, but significant increase in renal parenchymal volume on treatment with sirolimus. Extending the duration of treatment to one year caused further significant reduction in total kidney volume and cyst volume. Major side effect of sirolimus in our patients was

  17. How to become a Food Waste-Fighter?: An exploratory study into food waste-reducing business practices in the food service industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Kristine Amundsen; Eikaas, Julie Normann

    2016-01-01

    By the end of this century, global food production must increase by 70 per cent to feed the world’s growing population. Currently, we waste one-third of all food produced for human consumption. This is major problem, affecting not only the environment, but also labour in the food value chain, waste management services, commodity prices, and global food security. If no action is taken, the current problem of food waste can soon develop into a global tragedy. High income level...

  18. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  19. Reduced hippocampal volume in healthy young ApoE4 carriers: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available The E4 allele of the ApoE gene has consistently been shown to be related to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The E4 allele is also associated with functional and structural grey matter (GM changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess volumes of deep grey matter structures of 22 healthy younger ApoE4 carriers and 22 non-carriers (20-38 years. Volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus and brain stem were calculated by FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST algorithm. A significant drop in volume was found in the right hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers (ApoE4+ relative to non-carriers (ApoE4-, while there was a borderline significant decrease in the volume of the left hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers. The volumes of no other structures were found to be significantly affected by genotype. Atrophy has been found to be a sensitive marker of neurodegenerative changes, and our results show that within a healthy young population, the presence of the ApoE4+ carrier gene leads to volume reduction in a structure that is vitally important for memory formation. Our results suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to further degeneration in ApoE4 carriers as they enter middle and old age. Although volume reductions were noted bilaterally in the hippocampus, atrophy was more pronounced in the right hippocampus. This finding relates to previous work which has noted a compensatory increase in right hemisphere activity in ApoE4 carriers in response to preclinical declines in memory function. Possession of the ApoE4 allele may lead to greater predilection for right hemisphere atrophy even in healthy young subjects in their twenties.

  20. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  1. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  2. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    : Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT......(S): Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from...

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF HETEROGENEOUS UTILIZATION OF THORIUM IN PWRS TO ENHANCE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND REDUCE WASTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TODOSOW,M.; KAZIMI,M.

    2004-08-01

    Issues affecting the implementation, public perception and acceptance of nuclear power include: proliferation, radioactive waste, safety, and economics. The thorium cycle directly addresses the proliferation and waste issues, but optimization studies of core design and fuel management are needed to ensure that it fits within acceptable safety and economic margins. Typical pressurized water reactors, although loaded with uranium fuel, produce 225 to 275 kg of plutonium per gigawatt-year of operation. Although the spent fuel is highly radioactive, it nevertheless offers a potential proliferation pathway because the plutonium is relatively easy to separate, amounts to many critical masses, and does not present any significant intrinsic barrier to weapon assembly. Uranium 233, on the other hand, produced by the irradiation of thorium, although it too can be used in weapons, may be ''denatured'' by the addition of natural, depleted or low enriched uranium. Furthermore, it appears that the chemical behavior of thoria or thoria-urania fuel makes it a more stable medium for the geological disposal of the spent fuel. It is therefore particularly well suited for a once-through fuel cycle. The use of thorium as a fertile material in nuclear fuel has been of interest since the dawn of nuclear power technology due to its abundance and to potential neutronic advantages. Early projects include homogeneous mixtures of thorium and uranium oxides in the BORAX-IV, Indian Point I, and Elk River reactors, as well as heterogeneous mixtures in the Shippingport seed-blanket reactor. However these projects were developed under considerably different circumstances than those which prevail at present. The earlier applications preceded the current proscription, for non-proliferation purposes, of the use of uranium enriched to more than 20 w/o in {sup 235}U, and has in practice generally prohibited the use of uranium highly enriched in {sup 235}U. They were designed when

  4. Resource Management Plan for the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 15, Appendix P: waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B.A.

    1984-07-01

    Since their inception, the DOE facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation have been the source of a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes which are characterized as nonhazardous, hazardous, and/or radioactive. The major airborne releases come from three primary sources: steam plant emissions, process discharge, and cooling towers. Liquid wastes are handled in various manners depending upon the particular waste, but in general, major corrosive waste streams are neutralized prior to discharge with the discharge routed to holding or settling ponds. The major solid wastes are derived from construction debris, sanitary operation, and radioactive processes, and the machining operations at Y-12. Nonradioactive hazardous wastes are disposed in solid waste storage areas, shipped to commercial disposal facilities, returned in sludge ponds, or sent to radioactive waste burial areas. The radioactive-hazardous wastes are treated in two manners: storage of the waste until acceptable disposal options are developed, or treatment of the waste to remove or destroy one of the components prior to disposal. 5 references, 4 figures, 13 tables.

  5. Ubiquinol reduces muscle wasting but not fatigue in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Yvonne Y; Wold, Loren E; Szalacha, Laura A; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-05-01

    Fatigue is the most common and distressing symptom reported by cancer patients during and after treatment. Tumor growth increases oxidative stress and cytokine production, which causes skeletal muscle wasting and cardiac dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with the antioxidant ubiquinol improves muscle mass, cardiac function, and behavioral measures of fatigue in tumor-bearing mice. Adult female mice were inoculated with colon26 tumor cells. Half the control and tumor-bearing mice were administered ubiquinol (500 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water. Voluntary wheel running (i.e., voluntary running activity [VRA]) and grip strength were measured at Days 0, 8, 14, and 17 of tumor growth. Cardiac function was measured using echocardiography on Day 18 or 19. Biomarkers of inflammation, protein degradation, and oxidative stress were measured in serum and heart and gastrocnemius tissue. VRA and grip strength progressively declined in tumor-bearing mice. Muscle mass and myocardial diastolic function were decreased, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines was increased in serum and muscle and heart tissue on Day 19 of tumor growth. Oxidative stress was present only in the heart, while biomarkers of protein degradation were increased only in the gastrocnemius muscle. Ubiquinol increased muscle mass in the tumor-bearing and control animals but had no effect on the expression of biomarkers of inflammation, protein degradation, or oxidative stress or on behavioral measures of fatigue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

    2011-08-01

    Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating and reducing the impact of white matter lesions on brain volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Marco; Jenkinson, Mark; De Stefano, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    MR-based measurements of brain volumes may be affected by the presence of white matter (WM) lesions. Here, we assessed how and to what extent this may happen for WM lesions of various sizes and intensities. After inserting WM lesions of different sizes and intensities into T1-W brain images of healthy subjects, we assessed the effect on two widely used automatic methods for brain volume measurement such as SIENAX (segmentation-based) and SIENA (registration-based). To explore the relevance of partial volume (PV) estimation, we performed the experiments with two different PV models, implemented by the same segmentation algorithm (FAST) of SIENAX and SIENA. Finally, we tested potential solutions to this issue. The presence of WM lesions did not bias measurements for registration-based method such as SIENA. By contrast, the presence of WM lesions affected segmentation-based brain volume measurements such as SIENAx. The misclassification of both gray matter (GM) and WM volumes varied considerably with lesion size and intensity, especially when the lesion intensity was similar to that of the GM/WM interface. The extent to which the presence of WM lesions could affect tissue-class measures was clearly driven by the PV modeling used, with the mixel-type PV model giving a lower error in the presence of WM lesions. The tissue misclassification due to WM lesions was still present when they were masked out. By contrast, refilling the lesions with intensities matching the surrounding normal-appearing WM ensured accurate tissue-class measurements and thus represents a promising approach for accurate tissue classification and brain volume measurements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  10. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  11. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...

  12. Cinacalcet effectively reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and gland volume regardless of pretreatment gland size in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2010-12-01

    Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH size at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Findings were also compared with those of historical controls. Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm(3) (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm(3) (group L). Treatment with cinacalcet effectively decreased intact PTH by 55% from baseline in group S and by 58% in group L. A slightly greater proportion of patients in group S versus group L achieved an intact PTH 30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia.

  13. Environmental restoration/waste management-applied technology semiannual report, January--June 1992. Volume 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Kline-Simon, K. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    This is the first issue from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Semiannual Report, a continuation of the Advanced Processing Technology (APT) Semiannual Report. The name change reflects the consolidation of the APT Program with the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program to form the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program. The Livermore site mirrors, on a small scale, many of the environmental and waste management problems of the DOE Complex. The six articles in this issue cover incineration- alternative technologies, process development for waste minimization, the proposed Mixed Waste Management Facility, dynamic underground stripping, electrical resistance tomography, and Raman spectroscopy for remote characterization of underground tanks.

  14. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 3, May-June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This issue includes the following articles: Vermont ratifies Texas compact; Pennsylvania study on rates of decay for classes of low-level radioactive waste; South Carolina legislature adjourns without extending access to Barnwell for out-of-region generators; Southeast Compact Commission authorizes payments for facility development, also votes on petitions, access contracts; storage of low-level radioactive waste at Rancho Seco removed from consideration; plutonium estimates for Ward Valley, California; judgment issued in Ward Valley lawsuits; Central Midwest Commission questions court`s jurisdiction over surcharge rebates litigation; Supreme Court decides commerce clause case involving solid waste; parties voluntarily dismiss Envirocare case; appellate court affirms dismissal of suit against Central Commission; LLW Forum mixed waste working group meets; US EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air rulemakings; EPA issues draft radiation site cleanup regulation; EPA extends mixed waste enforcement moratorium; and NRC denies petition to amend low-level radioactive waste classification regulations.

  15. Recombinant Factor VIIa Reduces Rebleed Hemorrhage Volume in a Swine Aortotomy Model: A Randomized Double-Blinded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    the recommended dose in hemophilia patients with inhibitors, reduced rebleed hemorrhage volume, suggesting that this dose is effective in this swine... acquired on a data acquisition system. Samples from the heart, lung, brain, kidney, and adrenal glands were harvested within 10 min of death and were...trauma and surgical patients with acquired coagulopathy. Curr Surg 63:246Y251, 2006. 12. Klemcke HG, Delgado A, Holcomb JB, Ryan KL, Burke A, DeGuzman

  16. Environmental Restoration/Waste Management - applied technology. Semiannual report, July 1992--June 1993, Volume 1, Number 2, and Volume 2, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.; Bruner, J.M.; Price, M.E.; Talaber, C.J. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program is developing restoration and waste treatment technologies needed for the ongoing environmental cleanup of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and treatment technologies for wastes generated in the nuclear weapons production complex. These technologies can find application to similar problems nationally and even worldwide. They can be demonstrated at the Livermore site, which mirrors (on a small scale) many of the environmental and waste management problems of the rest of the DOE complex. Their commercialization should speed cleanup, and the scope of the task should make it attractive to US industry. The articles in this semi-annual report cover the following areas: ceramic final forms for residues of mixed waste treatment; treatment of wastes containing sodium nitrate; actinide volatility in thermal oxidation processes; in situ microbial filters for remediating contaminated soils; collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union on new ER/WM technologies; and fiber-optic sensors for chlorinated organic solvents.

  17. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2005 THRU FY2035 2005.0 VOLUME 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2005-08-17

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: (1) an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; (2) multi-level and waste class-specific estimates; (3) background information on waste sources; and (4) comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. The focus of this report is low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and transuranic waste, both non-mixed and mixed (TRU(M)). Some details on hazardous waste are also provided, however, this information is not considered comprehensive. This report includes data requested in December, 2004 with updates through March 31,2005. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY2005 through the end of each program's life cycle and are an update of the previous FY2004.1 data version.

  18. Primary visual cortex volume and total neuron number are reduced in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph H.; Wu, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    with schizophrenia reported an increased density of neurons in the primary visual cortex (Brodmann's area 17, BA17). The observed changes in visual processing may thus be reflected in structural changes in the circuitry of BA17. To characterize the structural changes further we used stereological methods based...... on unbiased principles of sampling (Cavalieri's principle and the optical fractionator) to estimate the total volume and neuron number of BA17 in postmortem brains from 10 subjects with schizophrenia and 10 matched normal comparison subjects. In addition, we assessed cortical thickness. We found a marked...... and significant reduction in total neuron number (25%) and volume (22%) of BA17 in the schizophrenia group relative to the normal comparison subjects. In contrast, we found no changes in neuronal density or cortical thickness between the two groups. Subjects with schizophrenia therefore have a smaller cortical...

  19. Glue embolization of the giant aneurysm by reducing thrombosis-induced volume expansion effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Yoo Kyung; Suh, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A giant aneurysm due to a large intra-aneurysmal volume can be complicated by a delayed massive volume expansion caused by thrombus formation. To prevent such a severe mass effect, we obliterated the aneurysmal lumen by gluing and prevented further development of thrombosis. A 52-year-old female with a giant aneurysm at the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery presented with tinnitus and intermittent diplopia. After confirming with a negative occlusion test, the right internal carotid artery was trapped by coiling and with further obliteration of the aneurysmal lumen by gluing. She developed a mild diplopia after the procedure and recovered without any deficit. The magnetic resonance angiography showed a stable occlusion of the aneurysm and good collateral filling of the cerebral vessel 15 months later.

  20. Economic analysis of solid waste management and drainage for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Good solid waste management involves reducing volumes, improving collection, investing in drainage, replacing riverside and wetland dumping with engineered landfills, and identifying sustainable mechanisms to finance waste management. Research is needed to understand the potential impacts of climate change and ...

  1. Reducing sugar-producing bacteria from guts of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) for lignocellulosic waste minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The guts of Tenebrio Molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) were used as inocula to isolate reducing sugar-producing bacteria during bioconversion of lignocellulose to reducing sugars in this study. Three carbon sources, i.e., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), filter paper (FP), and lignocellulosic waste (LIG), were specifically selected; and two types of culturing media (M1 and M2) were used. After 6 months of sequential cultivation, lignocellulose (i.e., polysaccharides) degradation of enrichments M1-CMC (47.5%), M1-FP (73.3%), M1-LIG (70.4%), M2-CMC (55.7%), M2-FP (73.1%) and M2-LIG (71.7%) was achieved, respectively, with incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated corresponding to most of the major bands detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The maximum reducing sugars yield by the combination of Agromyces sp. C42 and Stenotrophomonas sp. A10b was 56.7 mg g·LIG(-1) of 48 h, which is approximate 2-5 times higher than the original enrichments and individual microbial strains. These findings suggest that bioconversion by microorganisms from mealworm guts has great application potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis.

  2. New approach to purging monitoring wells: Lower flow rates reduce required purging volumes and sample turbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain representative' ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water and access the adjacent formation water. However, a common result of such purging practice is highly turbid samples from excessive downhole disturbance to the sampling zone. An alternative purging strategy has been proposed using pumps which permit much lower flow rates (<1 liter/min) and placement within the screened interval of the monitoring well. The advantages of this approach include increased spatial resolution of sampling points, less variability, less purge time (and volume), and low-turbidity samples. The overall objective is a more passive approach to sample extraction with the ideal approach being to match the intake velocity with the natural ground water flow velocity. The volume of water extracted to access formation water is generally independent of well size and capacity and dependant upon well construction, development, hydrogeologic variability and pump flow rate.

  3. Whole-Body High-Pitch CT Angiography: Strategies to Reduce Radiation Dose and Contrast Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manneck, Sebastian; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Seaman, Danielle M; Heye, Tobias; Boll, Daniel T

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the noninferiority of dual-source high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) performed with high-concentration (iopamidol 370) low-volume (60 mL) iodinated contrast material at low voltage (100 kVp) in comparison with dual-source high-pitch CTA with standard-of-care low-concentration (iopamidol 300) standard-volume (75 mL) iodinated contrast material at high voltage (120 kVp) to determine whether use of the high-concentration low-volume method would afford a reduction in radiation dose and contrast volume without negatively affecting vascular opacification. This study had three arms. A phantom was used to assess vascular contrast enhancement at different iodine and saline solution dilutions with iopamidol 300 or 370 to compare lower-iodination (iopamidol 300) high-voltage (120 kVp) high-pitch (120 kVp, 250 mAs) imaging with higher-iodination (iopamidol 370) low-voltage (100 kVp) high-pitch (100 kVp, 100-240 mAs) acquisition. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom to extract organ-based radiation profiles, and ANOVA was performed. The study prospectively enrolled 150 patients: 50 patients received 75 mL iopamidol 300, and image acquisition was performed at 120 kVp and 250 mAs; 50 patients received 75 mL iopamidol 370, and acquisition was performed at 100 kVp and 240 mAs; and 50 patients received 60 mL iopamidol, and acquisition was performed at 370 at 100 kVp and 240 mAs. Vascular signal-to-noise ratio was evaluated at 18 anatomic locations. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratio was used to assess homogeneity of contrast enhancement. Size-specific dose estimates were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA. Noninferiority of high-concentration (iopamidol 370) low-voltage (100 kVp) high-pitch acquisitions compared with low-concentration (iopamidol 300) high-voltage (120 kVp) high-pitch acquisition was achieved at 170 mAs in vitro. Radiation assessment showed significant

  4. Oil Palm Waste-Based Precursors as a Renewable and Economical Carbon Sources for the Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide from Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salisu Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a new approach was proposed to produce reduced graphene oxide (rGO from graphene oxide (GO using various oil palm wastes: oil palm leaves (OPL, palm kernel shells (PKS and empty fruit bunches (EFB. The effect of heating temperature on the formation of graphitic carbon and the yield was examined prior to the GO and rGO synthesis. Carbonization of the starting materials was conducted in a furnace under nitrogen gas for 3 h at temperatures ranging from 400 to 900 °C and a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min. The GO was further synthesized from the as-carbonized materials using the ‘improved synthesis of graphene oxide’ method. Subsequently, the GO was reduced by low-temperature annealing reduction at 300 °C in a furnace under nitrogen gas for 1 h. The IG/ID ratio calculated from the Raman study increases with the increasing of the degree of the graphitization in the order of rGO from oil palm leaves (rGOOPL < rGO palm kernel shells (rGOPKS < rGO commercial graphite (rGOCG < rGO empty fruit bunches (rGOEFB with the IG/ID values of 1.06, 1.14, 1.16 and 1.20, respectively. The surface area and pore volume analyses of the as-prepared materials were performed using the Brunauer Emmett Teller-Nitrogen (BET-N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms method. The lower BET surface area of 8 and 15 m2 g−1 observed for rGOCG and rGOOPL, respectively could be due to partial restacking of GO layers and locally-blocked pores. Relatively, this lower BET surface area is inconsequential when compared to rGOPKS and rGOEFB, which have a surface area of 114 and 117 m2 g−1, respectively.

  5. Oil Palm Waste-Based Precursors as a Renewable and Economical Carbon Sources for the Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide from Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Salisu; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusof, Nor Azah; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2017-07-13

    Herein, a new approach was proposed to produce reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphene oxide (GO) using various oil palm wastes: oil palm leaves (OPL), palm kernel shells (PKS) and empty fruit bunches (EFB). The effect of heating temperature on the formation of graphitic carbon and the yield was examined prior to the GO and rGO synthesis. Carbonization of the starting materials was conducted in a furnace under nitrogen gas for 3 h at temperatures ranging from 400 to 900 °C and a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min. The GO was further synthesized from the as-carbonized materials using the 'improved synthesis of graphene oxide' method. Subsequently, the GO was reduced by low-temperature annealing reduction at 300 °C in a furnace under nitrogen gas for 1 h. The IG/ID ratio calculated from the Raman study increases with the increasing of the degree of the graphitization in the order of rGO from oil palm leaves (rGOOPL) rGO palm kernel shells (rGOPKS) rGO commercial graphite (rGOCG) rGO empty fruit bunches (rGOEFB) with the IG/ID values of 1.06, 1.14, 1.16 and 1.20, respectively. The surface area and pore volume analyses of the as-prepared materials were performed using the Brunauer Emmett Teller-Nitrogen (BET-N₂) adsorption-desorption isotherms method. The lower BET surface area of 8 and 15 m2 g-1 observed for rGOCG and rGOOPL, respectively could be due to partial restacking of GO layers and locally-blocked pores. Relatively, this lower BET surface area is inconsequential when compared to rGOPKS and rGOEFB, which have a surface area of 114 and 117 m² g-1, respectively.

  6. Surgical waste audit of 5 total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, Nathan M; Kagoma, Yoan M; Bondy, Jennifer N; Naudie, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Operating rooms (ORs) are estimated to generate up to one-third of hospital waste. At the London Health Sciences Centre, prosthetics and implants represent 17% of the institution's ecological footprint. To investigate waste production associated with total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), we performed a surgical waste audit to gauge the environmental impact of this procedure and generate strategies to improve waste management. We conducted a waste audit of 5 primary TKAs performed by a single surgeon in February 2010. Waste was categorized into 6 streams: regular solid waste, recyclable plastics, biohazard waste, laundered linens, sharps and blue sterile wrap. Volume and weight of each stream was quantified. We used Canadian Joint Replacement Registry data (2008-2009) to estimate annual weight and volume totals of waste from all TKAs performed in Canada. The average surgical waste (excluding laundered linens) per TKA was 13.3 kg, of which 8.6 kg (64.5%) was normal solid waste, 2.5 kg (19.2%) was biohazard waste, 1.6 kg (12.1%) was blue sterile wrap, 0.3 kg (2.2%) was recyclables and 0.3 kg (2.2%) was sharps. Plastic wrappers, disposable surgical linens and personal protective equipment contributed considerably to total waste. We estimated that landfill waste from all 47 429 TKAs performed in Canada in 2008-2009 was 407 889 kg by weight and 15 272 m3 by volume. Total knee arthroplasties produce substantial amounts of surgical waste. Environmentally friendly surgical products and waste management strategies may allow ORs to reduce the negative impacts of waste production without compromising patient care. Level IV, case series.

  7. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 4: Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions, the choice of parameters selected for sampling, and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect compliance with 40 CFR 191B are: drilling intensity, intrusion borehole permeability, halite and anhydrite permeabilities, radionuclide solubilities and distribution coefficients, fracture spacing in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, porosity of the Culebra, and spatial variability of Culebra transmissivity. Performance with respect to 40 CFR 191B is insensitive to uncertainty in other parameters; however, additional data are needed to confirm that reality lies within the assigned distributions.

  8. Quality Indicators but Not Admission Volumes of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Are Effective in Reducing Mortality Rates of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochow, Niels; Landau-Crangle, Erin; Lee, Sauyoung; Schünemann, Holger; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how two different strategies to form larger neonatal intensive care units (NICU) impact neonatal mortality rates. Cross-sectional study modeling admission volumes and mortality rates of 177,086 VLBW infants aggregated into 862 NICUs. Cumulative 3-year data was abstracted from Vermont Oxford Network. The model simulated a reduction in number of NICUs by stepwise exclusion using either admission volume (VOL) or quality (QUAL) cut-offs. After randomly redirecting infants of excluded to remaining NICUs resulting system mortality rates were calculated with and without adjusting for effects of experience levels (EL) using published data to reflect effects of different team-to-patient exposure. The quality-based strategy is more effective in reducing mortality; while VOL alone was not able to reduce system mortality, QUAL already achieved a 5% improvement after reducing 8% of NICUs and redirecting 6% of infants. Including "EL", a 5% improvement of mortality was achieved by reducing 77% (VOL) vs. 7% (QUAL) of NICUs and redirecting 54% (VOL) vs. 5% (QUAL) of VLBW infants, respectively. While a critical number of admissions is needed to maintain skills this study emphasizes the importance of including quality parameters to restructure neonatal care. The findings can be generalized to other medical fields.

  9. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.; Christensen, Peter M.; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10–12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4–5 × 3–4 min at 90–95% of peak aerobic power output) 1–2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na+/K+ pump activity and muscle K+ homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:26791827

  10. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology.

  12. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  13. Captivity Reduces Hippocampal Volume but not Survival of New Cells in a Food-Storing Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jeremy S.; Ali Imtiaz, Mubdiul; DeVoogd, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    In many naturalistic studies of the hippocampus wild animals are held in captivity. To see if captivity itself affects hippocampal structure, adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) were caught in the fall, injected with bromodeoxyuridine to mark neurogenesis and alternately released back to the wild or held in captivity for 4–6 weeks. Wild birds were recaptured and perfused simultaneously with their captive counterparts. The hippocampus of the captive birds was 23% smaller than the wild birds, with no hemispheric differences in volume within groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the size of the telencephalon between groups, or in the number and density of surviving new cells. Proximate causes of the hippocampal volume change could include stress, lack of exercise, diminished social interaction or limited caching opportunity; a hippocampal-dependent activity. The results suggest the avian hippocampus - a structure essential for rapid, complex relational and spatial learning - is both plastic and sensitive, much as is the case in mammals, including humans. PMID:19813245

  14. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Justine Nienke; van der Werff, Steven J.A.; van den Bulk, Bianca G.; van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents. PMID:24501702

  15. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  16. Reduced energy consumption by massive thermoelectric waste heat recovery in light duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetto, D.; Vidiella, G.

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the EC funded HEATRECAR project is to reduce the energy consumption and curb CO2 emissions of vehicles by massively harvesting electrical energy from the exhaust system and re-use this energy to supply electrical components within the vehicle or to feed the power train of hybrid electrical vehicles. HEATRECAR is targeting light duty trucks and focuses on the development and the optimization of a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) including heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and DC/DC converter. The main objective of the project is to design, optimize and produce a prototype system to be tested on a 2.3l diesel truck. The base case is a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) producing 1 KWel at 130 km/h. We present the system design and estimated output power from benchmark Bi2Te3 modules. We discuss key drivers for the optimization of the thermal-to-electric efficiency, such as materials, thermo-mechanical aspects and integration.

  17. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nicholas; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Young, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of disposable plastic bags is a major environmental problem across the globe. In recent years, numerous jurisdictions have sought to curb disposable bag use by implementing a levy or fee at the point of purchase. These levies are typically small and symbolic (around $0.05 per bag), but serve as a highly-visible and continuous reminder to consumers. As such, they are consistent with nudging policies that seek to encourage broad changes in behaviour through small, non-coercive measures that influence people's thinking about an issue. While existing empirical evidence suggests that nudges are highly effective in reducing disposable bag use, we argue that many of these studies are flawed because they lack adequate temporal and geographic controls. We use longitudinal data from four waves of a major Canadian survey to analyze the effect of a disposable bag levy in the City of Toronto. Controlling for demographics and changes in social norms over time, we find that the levy increased the use of reusable shopping bags by 3.4 percentage points. Moreover, we find that the impact of the policy was highly variable across behavioural and demographic groups. The levy was highly effective in encouraging people who already used reusable bags to use them more frequently, while having no effect on infrequent users. We also find that the effects are limited to households with high socio-economic status (as measured by income, educational attainment, and housing situation). This suggests important limitations for nudging policy more generally, as people with lower socio-economic status appear to have been unaffected by this behavioural prompt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 11, Chapter D, Appendix D4--Chapter D, Appendix D17: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices D4 through D17 which cover the following: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report; ecological monitoring program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; site characterization; regional and site geology and hydrology; general geology; dissolution features; ground water hydrology; typical carbon sorption bed efficiency; VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests; chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; probable maximum precipitation; WHIP supplementary roof support system room 1, panel 1; and corrosion risk assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant ``humid`` test bins.

  19. Reduced-volume antennas with integrated high-impedance electromagnetic surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2006-11-01

    Several antennas with integrated high-impedance surfaces are presented. The high-impedance surface is implemented as a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial fabricated from a periodic structure characterized by a substrate, filled with an array of vertical vias and capped by capacitive patches. Omnidirectional antennas placed in close proximity to the high-impedance surface radiate hemispherically with an increase in boresight far-field pattern gain of up to 10 dB and a front-to-back ratio as high as 13 dB at 2.45 GHz. Several TEM rectangular horn antennas are realized by replacing conductor walls with high-impedance surfaces. The TEM horn antennas are capable of operating below the TE{sub 1,0} cutoff frequency of a standard all-metal horn antenna, enabling a reduction in antenna volume. Above the cutoff frequency the TEM horn antennas function similarly to standard rectangular horn antennas.

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVES TO REDUCE THE VOLUME OF VINASSES FROM THE ALCOHOL INDUSTRY AND ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Alonso Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two technological alternatives were analyzed for the production of ethanol in order to diminish the vinasse volume at the exit of the distilling column. Also environmental effects and energy efficiency of the process were discussed, making a proposal for the treatment of residuals. A simulation model was elaborated in Microsoft Excel using process analysis techniques. By means of mass and energy balances, actual process behavior and its technological changes were simulated. The alternatives proposed of adding a bottom reboiler to the distilling column and to recirculate vinasses to the molasses dilution tank decrease the flow obtained at the bottom of the distilling column, showing the best results when combining the alternatives. The alternatives are economically feasible, they obtain higher IRR (Rate of return on investment than the interest rate used, and the investment is recovered in less than four years, showing liquidity.

  1. Methods to Reduce Forest Residue Volume after Timber Harvesting and Produce Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns. In many cases, fire can be beneficial to site conditions and soil properties, but slash piles, with a large concentration of wood, needles, forest floor, and sometimes mineral soil, can cause long-term damage. We describe several alternative methods for reducing nonmerchantable forest residues that will help remove excess woody biomass, minimize detrimental soil impacts, and create charcoal for improving soil organic matter and carbon sequestration.

  2. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  3. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  4. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  5. Resistance exercise at variable volume does not reduce postprandial lipemia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Bittencourt, Aline; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Gross, Julia Silveira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of resistance exercise sessions (RESs) performed at different levels of high-volume resistance exercise (HVRE) and low-volume resistance exercise (LVRE) on postprandial lipemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-nine healthy unconditioned postmenopausal women (59.5 ± 4.8 years of age, body mass 69.6 ± 9.1 kg, height 157.9 ± 7.2 cm, BMI 27.6 ± 4.1 kg m(-2), waist circumference 76.1 ± 9.7 cm, VO2max 18.7 ± 1.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) were assigned to a LVRE (n = 12), HVRE (n = 14), and control group (CG, n = 13). Experimental groups performed one RES involving eight exercises. The HVRE group performed three sets with a maximum of 15 repetitions, and the LVRE group performed one set with a maximum of 15 repetitions. Approximately 16 h after a RES, all of the groups were given an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). During the RES, we evaluated the energy expenditure (EE) of the resistance session and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); following the RES and the OFTT, we evaluated lipid profiles (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides). While the study groups did not demonstrate significant differences in lipid profiles, the total energy expenditure (EE + EPOC) of the session exercise treatments was significantly higher for HVRE than for LVRE (0.60 ± 0.12 and 0.31 ± 0.11 MJ, respectively, p < 0.001). Different levels of resistance exercise do not lower basal triglyceride concentration and postprandial lipid profile parameters at approximately 16 h following resistance exercise in untrained postmenopausal women.

  6. What economic theory tells us about the impacts of reducing food losses and/or waste: implications for research, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Whereas the prevalence of hunger and food insecurity is often cited as a motivation for reducing losses and waste in agriculture and food systems, the impacts of such reduction on food security and the wider economy have not yet been investigated. This paper gives insights into these

  7. Developing the Librarians' Role in Supporting Grant Applications and Reducing Waste in Research: Outcomes from a Literature Review and Survey in the NIHR Research Design Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds Otter, Mary L.; Wright, Judy M.; King, Natalie V.

    2017-01-01

    Librarians and information specialists' involvement during the development of grant applications for external funding can save researchers' time, provide specialist support, and contribute to reducing avoidable waste in research. This article presents a survey of information specialists working for the National Institute for Health Research's…

  8. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  9. Achievement report in fiscal 1999 on commissioned research project. 'Model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes in Thailand' Project for 1999 Volume 2; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reuse industrial wastes and effectively utilize them as a petroleum replacing energy resource, and attempt to reduce consumption of fossil fuel in Thailand where increase in discharge of industrial wastes is estimated, a model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes has been carried out. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999. Specifically, the project calls for incineration in fluidized bed incinerators of industrial wastes discharged from factories in industrial complexes possessed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), recovery of waste heat from waste heat recovering boilers to generate process steam, which is supplied to the factories in the complexes. The current fiscal year, which is the first current year of the project, has put into order the operations shared by Japan and Thailand, compiled the various procedures and schedules into the form of appendices to the agreement, and executed signing of the agreement. Thereafter, the Japanese side has carried out decision on the specifications of the facilities, the basic designs, the detailed designs of facilities to be arranged by Japan, and the fabrication of some of the devices according to the descriptions of the agreement appendices. The volume 2 summarizes the inspection reports in the referential materials. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1999 report on the results of the contract project 'The model project for facilities for effective utilization of industrial waste at the industrial complex in Thailand.' Separate Volume 4 - FY 1999 project; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by recycling industrial waste for effective use as petroleum substituting energy in Thailand where the amount of industrial waste is expected to increase, a model project on facilities for effective use of industrial waste at the industrial complex was carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. Concretely, the industrial waste generated from each plant at the industrial complex owned by IEAT is to be incinerated in fluidized bed incinerator, and the process steam is to be generated by recovering waste heat by waste heat recovery boiler and to be supplied to plants within the complex. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Thailand, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the following were conducted at the Japan side according to the attachment to the agreement: determination of the basic specifications for facilities, basic design, detailed design, manufacture of a part of the equipment, etc. Separate Volume 4 included the results of the inspection of the tank, pump, blower, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Reducing the volume of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution to less than 2 liters for bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, M; Tajima, T; Suzuki, R; Yamamoto, S; Miyako, H; Hara, T; Morita, M; Makuuchi, H

    2000-04-01

    Smaller volumes of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEG), an oral whole-bowel irrigation solution employed in colorectal preparation, were given to patients to decrease the discomfort associated with pretreatment. Comparison was made between groups receiving standard and modified preparations. A total of 68 patients (gastrointestinal surgery: 55; total colonoscopy: 13) were enrolled in the study. The mean volume of PEG used was significantly smaller in the modified than in the standard preparation (1,694 ml vs. 2,735 ml, p<0.01). In addition, the mean PEG administration period was significantly shorter for the modified preparation (183 min vs. 237 min, p<0.05). However, the mean PEG excretion time and the number of bowel movements were not significantly different between the two groups. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the efficacy, safety, usefulness, or tolerability of the preparations. These results suggest that it is possible to reduce the PEG volume by more than 1 L to alleviate patient discomfort without a significant loss of efficacy. The modified method is useful for preparing the large bowel for either gastrointestinal surgery or total colonoscopy.

  12. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  13. Evaluation of composting as a strategy for managing organic wastes from a municipal market in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas Masó, Montserrat; Bonmatí Blasi, August

    2008-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate alternatives to the solid waste management of a Central American municipal market located in Estelí, Nicaragua. The municipal solid waste from the local market is the second largest contributor to the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. Waste from the market without any previous sorting or treatment is open dumped. The options evaluated in this study were windrow composting, windrow composting with yard waste, bokashi and vermicompost. Significant differences between the properties of composts produced were found; however, all of them reduce the initial waste volume and are potential useful agronomic products for a survival agrarian milieu.

  14. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–gold nanohybrid for potential use in industrial waste-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Prasenjit; Sardar, Samim; Liu, Bo; Sreemany, Monjoy; Lemmens, Peter; Ghosh, Srabanti; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we report a facile approach, by the photochemical reduction technique, for in situ synthesis of Au-reduced graphene oxide (Au-RGO) nanohybrids, which demonstrate excellent adsorption capacities and recyclability for a broad range of dyes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirm the successful synthesis of Au-RGO nanohybrids. The effect of several experimental parameters (temperature and pH) variation can effectively control the dye adsorption capability. Furthermore, kinetic adsorption data reveal that the adsorption process follows a pseudo second-order model. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (ΔG0) confirms spontaneity while the positive enthalpy (ΔH0) indicates the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. Picosecond resolved fluorescence technique unravels the excited state dynamical processes of dye molecules adsorbed on the Au-RGO surface. Time resolved fluorescence quenching of Rh123 after adsorption on Au-RGO nanohybrids indicates efficient energy transfer from Rh123 to Au nanoparticles. A prototype device has been fabricated using Au-RGO nanohybrids on a syringe filter (pore size: 0.220 μm) and the experimental data indicate efficient removal of dyes from waste water with high recyclability. The application of this nanohybrid may lead to the development of an efficient reusable adsorbent in portable water purification. PMID:27877889

  15. Thyroid disruption and reduced mental development in children from an informal e-waste recycling area: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Kun; Zhang, Yuling; Xu, Xijin; Huo, Xia

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of thyroid disruption on the mental development of children. A total of 258 three-year-old children in Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Nanao (reference group), China were examined. FT3, FT4, TSH, lead (BPb) and cadmium (BCd) in blood were determined, and cognitive and language scores of children were assessed based on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Stepwise multiple regression was used to estimate the relationship between heavy metals and cognitive and language scores; mediation analysis was performed to determine whether thyroid disruption was mechanistically involved. Medians of BPb and BCd in Guiyu were higher than that of Nanao (11.30 ± 5.38 vs. 5.77 ± 2.51 μg/dL BPb; 1.22 ± 0.55 vs. 0.72 ± 0.37 μg/L BCd, both p  0.05). In contrast, Cd correlated with neither cognitive nor language scores (both p > 0.05). Results suggest exposure to heavy metal (Pb) reduces cognitive and language skills, and affects thyroid function, but fail to confirm that thyroid disruption is involved in the neurotoxicity induced by PbCd co-exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion of iron steel under sulphate reducing conditions: application to deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, H.; Abdelouas, A.; Grambow, B. [Nantes Univ., SUBATECH, UMR 6457 IN2P3/CNRS-Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: We investigated the corrosion of the steel P235 under disposal conditions of high-level radioactive waste in argillite. The objective was to study the role of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) indigenous to argillite that may develop under excess of hydrogen produced by steel corrosion in groundwater flowing through argillite. Batch and column experiments were conducted in serum bottles/diffusion cells with coupons of P235 steel, argillite and synthetic argillite water. This system provided enough nutrients to grow SRB's within two weeks with corrosion of the steel and formation of iron sulphides as corrosion products. The results of the weight loss method showed that the steel corrosion seems to be faster in the presence of SRB's in comparison to sterilized runs. The mineralogical identification of iron sulphides, observed and analysed with the scanning electron microscope, will be conducted with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion mechanism will be determined by studying steel cross sections and surface observations after removal of corrosion layer. Experiments with diffusion cells are under way and the collected outlet solutions show a decrease of sulphate concentration with production of sulphide ions. The results to be obtained with the steel corroded in the cell will be presented at the end of the run planned for few months.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY THE INTEGRATED STEELWORKS ACTIVITY AND SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara CIOCAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of steel industry is subject to solve major problems arising from industry-nature relationship, strictly targeted on pollution control and protection of natural resources and energy. In this paper we discussed about the management of solid waste generated by an integrated steelwork located near a major urban area and the adopted solutions for the reduction of environmental impact. There are summarized technical solutions that are currently applied and were proposed some solutions that can be applied in accordance with the environmental legislations. The new solutions are proposed for integrated management of solid wastes in accordance with: the exact quantification (quantitative, qualitative and the generation sources of emissions and solid wastes; controlled storage; minimization of the wastes and its harmfulness; transformation of the wastes into valuable by-products used directly by the company in a subsequent process, or by external down-stream user.

  18. Chronic Oral Capsaicin Exposure During Development Leads to Adult Rats with Reduced Taste Bud Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelian, Jacquelyn M.; Samson, Kaeli K.; Sollars, Suzanne I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-sensory interaction between gustatory and trigeminal nerves occurs in the anterior tongue. Surgical manipulations have demonstrated that the strength of this relationship varies across development. Capsaicin is a neurotoxin that affects fibers of the somatosensory lingual nerve surrounding taste buds, but not fibers of the gustatory chorda tympani nerve which synapse with taste receptor cells. Since capsaicin is commonly consumed by many species, including humans, experimental use of this neurotoxin provides a naturalistic perturbation of the lingual trigeminal system. Neonatal or adults rats consumed oral capsaicin for 40 days and we examined the cross-sensory effect on the morphology of taste buds across development. Methods Rats received moderate doses of oral capsaicin, with chronic treatments occurring either before or after taste system maturation. Tongue morphology was examined either 2 or 50 days after treatment cessation. Edema, which has been previously suggested as a cause of changes in capsaicin-related gustatory function, was also assessed. Results Reductions in taste bud volume occurred 50 days, but not 2 days post-treatment for rats treated as neonates. Adult rats at either time post-treatment were unaffected. Edema was not found to occur with the 5 ppm concentration of capsaicin we used. Conclusions Results further elucidate the cooperative relationship between these discrete sensory systems and highlight the developmentally mediated aspect of this interaction. Implications Chronic exposure to even moderate levels of noxious stimuli during development has the ability to impact the orosensory environment, and these changes may not be evident until long after exposure has ceased. PMID:28083080

  19. Pretreatment with intravenous FGF-13 reduces infarct volume and ameliorates neurological deficits following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D L; Masonic, K; Petullo, D; Li, L Y; Lincoln, C; Wibberley, L; Alderson, R F; Antonaccio, M

    1999-02-06

    Fibroblast growth factor-13 (FGF-13), novel member of FGF family has recently been molecularly cloned as a result of high throughput sequencing of a ovarian cancer cell, hippocampal, and kidney cDNA libraries. The human gene encodes for a protein with a molecular weight of 22 kDa that is most homologous to FGF-8 (70% similarity). In the current study, we tested the effects of intravenously administered FGF-13 in a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. FGF-13 or the vehicle was administered systematically via the tail vein 30 min prior, and 30 min and 24 h after the occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAo). Animals were weighed and evaluated behaviorally prior to and at 24 and 48 h after MCAo. The volume of cerebral infarct and swelling were determined using an image analysis system (BioQuant) and cresyl violet stained sequential sections from the forebrain region. Histopathology was evaluated to compare the therapeutic effects. We found a 63% reduction in infarct volume in FGF-13- vs. vehicle-treated animals (infarct volume was 21.9+/-3.8% in vehicle- and 8.1+/-1.6% in FGF-13-treated rats, p=0.0016) and a moderate inhibition of brain swelling by FGF-13. The reduction in infarct volume and brain swelling were associated with improvement of clinical deficits in FGF-13 treated animals (p<0.001). Histopathological examination determined that nervous tissue was better preserved in FGF-13 treated rats than those of controls. These data show that pretreatment with intravenous FGF-13 reduces infarct size and ameliorates neurological deficits following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  1. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Prenatal administration of letrozole reduces SDN and SCN volume and cell number independent of partner preference in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Swaab, Dick F; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2017-03-15

    During development, the exposure to testosterone, and its conversion to estradiol by an enzyme complex termed aromatase, appears to be essential in adult male rats for the expression of typical male sexual behavior and female-sex preference. Some hypothalamic areas are the supposed neural bases of sexual preference/orientation; for example, male-oriented rams have a reduced volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN), while in homosexual men this nucleus does not differ from that of heterosexual men. In contrast, homosexual men showed a larger number of vasopressinergic cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Interestingly, male rats perinatally treated with an aromatase inhibitor, 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), also showed bisexual preference and an increased number of vasopressinergic neurons in the SCN. However, this steroidal aromatase inhibitor has affinity for all three steroid receptors. Recently, we reported that the prenatal administration of the selective aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, produced a subpopulation of males with same-sex preference. The aim of this study was to compare the volume and number of cells of the SDN and SCN (the latter nucleus was immunohistochemically stained for vasopressin) between males treated with letrozole with same-sex preference, males treated with letrozole with female preference and control males with female preference. Results showed that all males prenatally treated with letrozole have a reduced volume and estimated cell number in the SDN and SCN, independent of their partner preference. These results indicate that the changes in these brain areas are not related to sexual preference, but rather to the effects of letrozole. The divergent results may be explained by species differences as well as by the critical windows during which the aromatase inhibitor was administered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 2: Low-level waste strategy and planning, decontamination and decommissioning, compliance monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Nineteen papers are presented in volume 2. The 11 papers in the LLW Strategy and Planning section discuss plans for disposal facilities in Texas, Pennsylvania, Hanford, the Southwest and Southeast Compacts, and others. Three papers discuss decontamination technology and activities. Environmental monitoring requirements and recommendations at LLW facilities are discussed in 5 papers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Kilen

    Full Text Available It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT comprised ∼5 h vs. 1 h and total distance was ∼17 km vs. 35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10×10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 minutes of rest. Performance of 100 m all-out freestyle and 200 m freestyle was similar before and after the intervention in both HIT (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14 and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15. Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14 and CON (3.8±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.7 l O2×min-1; n = 11 group. Oxygen uptake determined at fixed submaximal speed was not significantly affected in either group by the intervention. Body fat % tended to increase (P = 0.09 in the HIT group (15.4±1.6% vs. 16.3±1.6%; P = 0.09; n = 16 and increased (P<0.05 in the CON group (13.9±1.5% vs. 14.9±1.5%; n = 17. A distance reduction of 50% and a more than doubled HIT amount for 12 weeks did neither improve nor compromise performance or physiological capacity in elite swimmers.

  5. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchaim, U; Gelman, A; Braverman, Y

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore, this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat pathogenic bacteria, and in this article, we discuss a combined method of digestion by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria and by flesh flies, as a means of waste treatment. The AMTF process was applied to the wastes on a laboratory scale, and digestion by rearing of flesh fly (Phaenicia sericata) and housefly (Musca domestica) larvae on the untreated raw material was done on a small scale and showed remarkable weight conversion to larvae. The yield from degradation of poultry waste by flesh fly was 22.47% (SD = 3.89) and that from fish waste degradation was 35.34% (SD = 12.42), which is significantly higher than that from rearing houseflies on a regular rearing medium. Bacterial contents before and after thermophilic anaerobic digestion, as well as the changes in the chemical composition of the components during the rearing of larvae, were also examined.

  6. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume...

  7. Removal of 14C from Irradiated Graphite for Graphite Recycle and Waste Volume Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Windes, Will; Marsden, Barry

    2014-06-10

    The aim of the research presented here was to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A greater understanding of the chemical form of this longest-lived isotope in irradiated graphite will inform not only management of legacy waste, but also development of next generation gas-cooled reactors. Approximately 250,000 metric tons of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide, with the largest single quantity originating in the Magnox and AGR reactors of UK. The waste quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation I gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. Of greatest concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 14C, with a half-life of 5730 years.

  8. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

  9. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  10. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Volume 8: Biannual report, August 1989--January 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (MSEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of some of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, August 1989--January 1990. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Short discussions are given relating to the publications reviewed and complete reviews and evaluations are included. Reports of other work are included in the Appendices.

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 14. Repository preconceptual design studies: basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in basalt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/15, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Basalt.''

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 12. Repository preconceptual design studies: shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in shale. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/13, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Shale.''

  13. SPACE-TIME APPROACH TO PERELMAN’S L-GEODESICS AND AN ANALOGY BETWEEN PERELMAN’S REDUCED VOLUME AND HUISKEN’S MONOTONICITY FORMULA

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Sun-Chin

    2008-01-01

    From the viewpoint of space-time geometry and the trick of space-time track, the author would like to investigate the $\\mathcal{L}$-geodesics, Perelman's reduced volume and Huisken's monotonicity formula.

  14. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  15. Development of high-efficiency wastes-burning electric power generating technology. Volume 1. Report for fiscal 1999; Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu 1999 nendo hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements of developing a technology to generate electric power at high efficiency by using a combustion furnace that uses general wastes and combustible industrial wastes as fuel to generate high-temperature and high-pressure steam under a stabilized condition. In the developmental research of the combustion furnace, discussions were given on single-pass and double-pass type stalker furnaces, an internal circulation type fluidized bed furnace, and an external circulation type fluidized bed furnace, whereas technological prospects were established on any of them as the combustion furnace. In developing corrosion resistant super heater materials, demonstration tests were performed by using a pilot plant, corrosion mechanisms were elucidated, amount of corrosion in steam generating tubes was discussed, and corrosion life of super heaters was estimated. In developing a technology to reduce environmental load, developmental researches were carried out on a method to treat waste gases by using pulse plasma to have established nearly completely a waste gas treatment system technology. In the demonstration test using the pilot plant, the operation has started from February 1998, generating stably the steam conditions of 500 degrees C and 9.8 MPa, and the smooth operation has continued. (NEDO)

  16. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  17. Fear of waste- Beginning of wisdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, C. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-01-01

    The problem of wastes is kept by the press in an ecologic fear. Public opinion merges frauds and failures. Industrial wastes are a problem only when the storage is internal, in the factory itself; but enterprises understood it was a benefit for them to give an ecologic image, less pollutant processing is more economic and uses less energy. The real problem is municipal waste because volume is important and the number of disposal is reducing. Nobody wants a disposal in his city. Disposal is getting change in recycling factory but it is necessary to select at the beginning at consumer's home and to reutilize the packing as possibly achievable.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  3. M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report. Second quarter 1995, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site during second quarter 1995. Topics include: changes in sampling, analysis, and reporting; water levels; remedial action of groundwater; and hydrology of the affected aquifer zones.

  4. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  5. Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Graham F; Munk, Marion R; Dotson, Robert S; Walker, Michael G; Devenyi, Robert G

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) treatment for patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Assessments on 42 eyes with dry AMD (age related eye disease study (AREDS) 2-4) were conducted. Multiwavelength light emitting diode (LED) light comprising of yellow (590 nm), red (670 nm) and near-infrared (790 nm) bandwidths was applied to subjects' eyes for a treatment course of 3 weeks. Outcome measures were changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), drusen volume and central drusen thickness. Significant improvement in mean BCVA of 5.90 letters (p < 0.001) was seen on completion of the 3-week treatment and 5.14 letters (p < 0.001) after 3 months. Contrast sensitivity improved significantly (log unit improvement of 0.11 (p = 0.02) at 3 weeks and 3 months (log unit improvement of 0.16 (p = 0.02) at three cycles per degree. Drusen volume decreased by 0.024 mm 3 (p < 0.001) and central drusen thickness was significantly reduced by a mean of 3.78 μm (p < 0.001), while overall central retinal thickness and retinal volume remained stable. This is the first study demonstrating improvements in functional and anatomical outcomes in dry AMD subjects with PBM therapy. These findings corroborate an earlier pilot study that looked at functional outcome measures. The addition of anatomical evidence contributes to the basis for further development of a non-invasive PBM treatment for dry AMD. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, Ali, E-mail: ali.gholipour@childrens.harvard.edu; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K. [Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aganj, Iman [Radiology Department, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sahin, Mustafa [Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  7. Waste to energy--key element for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  9. Solid waste generation and characterization in the University of Lagos for a sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, A E; Nubi, A T; Adelopo, A O

    2017-09-01

    Waste characterization is the first step to any successful waste management policy. In this paper, the characterization and the trend of solid waste generated in University of Lagos, Nigeria was carried out using ASTM D5231-92 and Resource Conservation Reservation Authority RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance methods. The recyclable potential of the waste is very high constituting about 75% of the total waste generated. The estimated average daily solid waste generation in Unilag Akoka campus was estimated to be 32.2tons. The solid waste characterization was found to be: polythene bags 24% (7.73tons/day), paper 15% (4.83tons/day), organic matters 15%, (4.83tons/day), plastic 9% (2.90tons/day), inert materials 8% (2.58tons/day), sanitary 7% (2.25tons/day), textile 7% (2.25tons/day), others 6% (1.93tons/day), leather 4% (1.29tons/day) metals 3% (0.97tons/day), glass 2% (0.64tons/day) and e-waste 0% (0.0tons/day). The volume and distribution of polythene bags generated on campus had a positive significant statistical correlation with the distribution of commercial and academic structures on campus. Waste management options to optimize reuse, recycling and reduce waste generation were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  11. Fast quantitative PCR, locked nucleic acid probes and reduced volume reactions are effective tools for detecting Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Gregory R; Deridder, Benjamin P

    2012-01-24

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis threatens amphibian populations around the world. The ability to detect this pathogen on infected animals and in the environment is critical for understanding and controlling this pandemic. We tested several advances in quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis DNA. We used a fast PCR thermocycler and enzymes that reduced the volume and the duration of the reaction. We also compared a conventional TaqMan minor groove binding (MGB) probe to an identical locked nucleic acid (LNA) counterpart. The fast qPCR reaction had a high degree of sensitivity to B. dendrobatidis DNA. The LNA probe was effective for detecting B. dendrobatidis DNA and produced results -similar to those of the MGB probe. The modifications that we tested can improve the cost, time efficiency and specificity of quantitative PCR as a tool for detecting pathogen DNA.

  12. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max.......05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P ....3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers....

  13. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  14. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Semiannual Corrective Action Report, First and Second Quarter 1998, Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-10-30

    This report addresses groundwater quality and monitoring data during first and second quarter 1998 for the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF). The report fulfills the semiannual reporting requirements of Module III, Section D, of the 1995 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Renewal Permit (South Carolina Hazardous and Mixed Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989), effective October 5, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the RCRA permit), and Section C of the Underground Injection Control Permit Application hereafter referred to as the Section C of the Underground Injection Control Permit Application (hereafter referred to as the UIC permit). The HWMF is described in the Introduction to Module III, Section C, of the RCRA permit.

  15. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third and fourth quarters 1996, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the H-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for various hazardous and radioactive constituents as required by Module III, Section D, of the 1995 Resource Conservation and Recovery ACT (RCRA) Renewal Permit (South Carolina Hazardous and Mixed Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989), effective October 5, 1995. Currently, the H-Area HWMF monitoring network consists of 130 wells of the HSB series and 8 wells of the HSL series screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area HWMF. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program as identified in provision IIIDH.11.c

  16. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Biannual report, February 1989--July 1989: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (IMSE), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, February through July 1989. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Outlines for planned interpretative reports on the topics of aqueous corrosion of copper, mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and internal failure modes of Zircaloy cladding are included. For the publications reviewed during this reporting period, short discussions are given to supplement the completed reviews and evaluations. Included in this report is an overall review of a 1984 report on glass leaching mechanisms, as well as reviews for each of the seven chapters of this report.

  17. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1996. Annual report; Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Larsen, I.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Jastrow, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, T.M.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A data base development program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. During the field testing experiments, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study was designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over an extended period. Those experiments have been shut down and are to be exhumed. This report discusses the plans for removal, sampling, and analysis of waste form and soil cores from the lysimeters. Results of partition coefficient determinations are presented, as well as application of a source term computer code using those coefficients to predict the lysimeter results. A study of radionuclide-containing colloids associated with the leachate waters removed from these lysimeters is described. An update of upward migration of radionuclides in the sand-filled lysimeter at ORNL is included.

  19. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  20. Treatment of severe cholera: a review of strategies to reduce stool output and volumes of rehydration fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium. In actual field trials, antibiotics are given to reduce fluid requirements, but large volumes averaging about 7 liters of i.v. fluid followed by about 14 liters of ORS have been given to adult patients. Disturbing trends during therapy have included overhydration, hyponatremia and polyuria. It is suggested that stool output and fluid requirements could be reduced, if borne out in future research, by avoiding overhydration by restricting ORS intake to match stool output and promoting intestinal reabsorption of luminal fluid by early introduction of glucose without salts into the intestine, more gradual correction of dehydration, giving mineralocorticoid and vasopressin, and infusing glucose or short-chain fatty acids into the proximal colon.

  1. Methods for Reducing Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Dose Reduction or Planning Target Volume Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Vineberg, Karen; Lee, Jae; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Brock, Kristy K., E-mail: kbrock@med.umich.edu

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Strategies to reduce the toxicities of head and neck radiation (ie, dysphagia [difficulty swallowing] and xerostomia [dry mouth]) are currently underway. However, the predicted benefit of dose and planning target volume (PTV) reduction strategies is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for swallowing and salivary structures in standard plans (70 Gy [P70]), dose-reduced plans (60 Gy [P60]), and plans eliminating the PTV margin. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) plans were analyzed. Standard organ-sparing volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (P70) were created and then modified by eliminating the PTVs and treating the clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) only (C70) or maintaining the PTV but reducing the dose to 60 Gy (P60). NTCP dose models for the pharyngeal constrictors, glottis/supraglottic larynx, parotid glands (PGs), and submandibular glands (SMGs) were analyzed. The minimal clinically important benefit was defined as a mean change in NTCP of >5%. The P70 NTCP thresholds and overlap percentages of the organs at risk with the PTVs (56-59 Gy, vPTV{sub 56}) were evaluated to identify the predictors for NTCP improvement. Results: With the P60 plans, only the ipsilateral PG (iPG) benefited (23.9% vs 16.2%; P<.01). With the C70 plans, only the iPG (23.9% vs 17.5%; P<.01) and contralateral SMG (cSMG) (NTCP 32.1% vs 22.9%; P<.01) benefited. An iPG NTCP threshold of 20% and 30% predicted NTCP benefits for the P60 and C70 plans, respectively (P<.001). A cSMG NTCP threshold of 30% predicted for an NTCP benefit with the C70 plans (P<.001). Furthermore, for the iPG, a vPTV{sub 56} >13% predicted benefit with P60 (P<.001) and C70 (P=.002). For the cSMG, a vPTV{sub 56} >22% predicted benefit with C70 (P<.01). Conclusions: PTV elimination and dose-reduction lowered the NTCP of the iPG, and PTV elimination lowered the NTCP of the cSMG. NTCP thresholds and the

  2. Characterization of flue gas, fly ash, aerosol and deposit compositions as a function of waste composition and grate operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    The Danish strategy for waste management is still to increase recycling and on the same time to reduce the volume of land-filled waste, in order to avoid loss of resources, and waste incineration is an important part of this strategy. In 2004, 26 % of the total reported Danish waste production...... metals, was then mixed with the reference fuel in the individual test runs. The dedicated waste fractions comprised NaCl (road salt), batteries, automotive shredder waste, CCA (Copper-Chromate-Arsenate)-impregnated wood, PVC plastics, and (leather) shoes. Test runs with varying operational parameters, e...

  3. Black-blood native T1 mapping: Blood signal suppression for reduced partial voluming in the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Sebastian; Meßner, Nadja M; Zöllner, Frank G; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-08-01

    To study the feasibility of black-blood contrast in native T1 mapping for reduction of partial voluming at the blood-myocardium interface. A saturation pulse prepared heart-rate-independent inversion recovery (SAPPHIRE) T1 mapping sequence was combined with motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) blood suppression for black-blood T1 mapping at 3 Tesla. Phantom scans were performed to assess the T1 time accuracy. In vivo black-blood and conventional SAPPHIRE T1 mapping was performed in eight healthy subjects and analyzed for T1 times, precision, and inter- and intraobserver variability. Furthermore, manually drawn regions of interest (ROIs) in all T1 maps were dilated and eroded to analyze the dependence of septal T1 times on the ROI thickness. Phantom results and in vivo myocardial T1 times show comparable accuracy with black-blood compared to conventional SAPPHIRE (in vivo: black-blood: 1562 ± 56 ms vs. conventional: 1583 ± 58 ms, P = 0.20); Using black-blood SAPPHIRE precision was significantly lower (standard deviation: 133.9 ± 24.6 ms vs. 63.1 ± 6.4 ms, P T1 time measurement was not possible. Significantly increased interobserver interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.996 vs. 0.967, P = 0.011) and similar intraobserver ICC (0.979 vs. 0.939, P = 0.11) was obtained with the black-blood sequence. Conventional SAPPHIRE showed strong dependence on the ROI thickness (R(2) = 0.99). No such trend was observed using the black-blood approach (R(2) = 0.29). Black-blood SAPPHIRE successfully eliminates partial voluming at the blood pool in native myocardial T1 mapping while providing accurate T1 times, albeit at a reduced precision. Magn Reson Med 78:484-493, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Reducing the intensity and volume of interval training diminishes cardiovascular adaptation but not mitochondrial biogenesis in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J Colin; Simpson, Craig A; Jung, Mary E; Gurd, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if the adaptations to high intensity interval training (HIT) are mitigated when both intensity and training volume (i.e. exercise energy expenditure) are reduced. 19 overweight/obese, sedentary males (Age: 22.7±3.9 yrs, Body Mass Index: 31.4±2.6 kg/m(2), Waist Circumference: 106.5±6.6 cm) performed 9 sessions of interval training using a 1-min on, 1-min off protocol on a cycle ergometer over three weeks at either 70% (LO) or 100% (HI) peak work rate. Cytochrome oxidase I protein content, cytochrome oxidase IV protein content, and citrate synthase maximal activity all demonstrated similar increases between groups with a significant effect of training for each. β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity tended to increase with training but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α and silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 protein contents also increased significantly (p = 0.047), while AMP-activated protein kinase protein content decreased following the intervention (p = 0.019). VO2peak increased by 11.0±7.4% and 27.7±4.4% in the LO and HI groups respectively with significant effects of both training (ptraining and a significant difference in the improvement between groups. There were no differences in perceived enjoyment or self-efficacy between groups despite significantly lower affect scores during training in the HI group. While improvements in aerobic capacity and exercise performance were different between groups, changes in oxidative capacity were similar despite reductions in both training intensity and volume.

  5. Generalization techniques to reduce the number of volume elements for terrain effect calculations in fully analytical gravitational modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Judit; Papp, Gábor; Kalmár, János

    2017-10-01

    Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better principle is generally accepted it is basically true only for errorless data. As soon as errors are present any forward gravitational calculation from the model is only a possible realization of the true force field on the significance level determined by the errors. So if one really considers the reliability of input data used in the calculations then sometimes the "less" can be equivalent to the "more" in statistical sense. As a consequence the processing time of the related complex formulae can be significantly reduced by the optimization of the number of volume elements based on the accuracy estimates of the input data. New algorithms are proposed to minimize the number of model elements defined both in local and in global coordinate systems. Common gravity field modelling programs generate optimized models for every computation points (dynamic approach), whereas the static approach provides only one optimized model for all. Based on the static approach two different algorithms were developed. The grid-based algorithm starts with the maximum resolution polyhedral model defined by 3-3 points of each grid cell and generates a new polyhedral surface defined by points selected from the grid. The other algorithm is more general; it works also for irregularly distributed data (scattered points) connected by triangulation. Beyond the description of the optimization schemes some applications of these algorithms in regional and local gravity field modelling are presented too. The efficiency of the static approaches may provide even more than 90% reduction in computation time in favourable

  6. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 1: Licensing strategy and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A. [Morgan, Lewis and Bockius, Washington, DC (United States); Baird, R.D. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  7. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  8. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has

  9. EPA and USDA Join Private Sector, Charitable Organizations to Set Nations First Goals to Reduce Wasted Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced the United States' first-ever national food waste reduction goal, calling for a 50-percent reduction by 2030. As part of the

  10. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  11. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Hanford Mission Plan specifically addresses the tank waste issue and clarifies the link with other initiatives, such as improving management practices and the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE/RL-91-31). This document captures the results of decision making regarding the application of systems engineering at the Hanford Site, external involvement policy, and site end-state goals. Section 3.5 of the Hanford Mission Plan on Decisions and Directives provides an integrating discussion of the actions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE policy, guidance, and decisions associated with binding agreements such as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Two significant components of the Hanford Mission Plan 1994 planning basis are (1) the decisions regarding the disposition of onsite material inventory, and the key programs and interfaces to accomplish this; and (2) the Program Interface Issues section, which identified issues that stretch across program boundaries.

  13. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  14. Food Waste in the Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Energy and Water Footprints of Wasted Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Sarker, T.; Reinhart, D.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of wasted food to the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus is not well conceptualized or quantified, and is thus poorly understood. While improved understanding of water and energy requirements for food production may be applied to estimate costs associated with production of wasted food, the post-disposal costs of food waste to energy and water sectors are unknown. We apply both theoretical methods and direct observation of landfill leachate composition to quantify the net energy and water impact of food waste that is disposed in landfills. We characterize necessary energy inputs and biogas production to compute net impact to the energy sector. With respect to water, we quantify the volumes of water needed to attain permitted discharge concentrations of treated leachate, as well as the gray water footprint necessary for waste assimilation to the ambient regulatory standard. We find that approximately three times the energy produced as biogas (4.6E+8 kWh) is consumed in managing food waste and treating contamination from wasted food (1.3E+9 kWh). This energy requirement represents around 3% of the energy consumed in food production. The water requirement for leachate treatment and assimilation may exceed the amount of water needed to produce food. While not a consumptive use, the existence and replenishment of sufficient quantities of water in the environment for waste assimilation is an ecosystem service of the hydrosphere. This type of analysis may be applied to create water quality-based standards for necessary instream flows to perform the ecosystem service of waste assimilation. Clearer perception of wasted food as a source/sink for energy and water within the FEW nexus could be a powerful approach towards reducing the quantities of wasted food and more efficiently managing food that is wasted. For instance, comparative analysis of FEW impact across waste management strategies (e.g. landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion) may assist local governments

  15. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  16. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Tomoda

    Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  17. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

  18. Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wood industry is known for being among the biggest resource consumers, having a relatively low yield. The wood furniture industry as part of the wood industry also remains a big generator of residues and a big consumer of resources. Diverse solutions and technologies have been developed to deal with the residues generated, but those technologies are mostly applied at the end of the production chain with limited results. Cleaner production represents a program based on continuous strategies applied to a more sustainable use of materials and energy, minimizing waste and pollution. This paper presents a case study of a cleaner production program developed in a small furniture industry in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, applying the concepts of cleaner production with parameters of ecodesign developed for the furniture industry. The object of study was the production of a wooden chair made from eucalyptus wood. The application of the cleaner production program and ecodesign parameters allowed a detailed characterization of the waste, resulting in opportunities for a reduction of the use of raw material by 30%, a reduction in waste by 49% and allowing a reduction in energy by 36% due to simplification of the productive process. Among the strategies applied were reshaping pieces, redesigning, and the substitution of materials. The results suggest that despite the existence of more complex environmental methods and approaches, the application of cleaner production plus ecodesign parameters could be more achievable for micro and small furniture industries.

  19. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  20. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  1. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Volume III. Final report, 1 November 1976-1 November 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanfarmaian, A.

    1980-03-01

    This report is part of a three year research study on the constructive use of electric generating station waste heat in cooling water effluents for fish production. It describes procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant in Trenton, New Jersey. Discharge water from this plant was used in a preliminary assessment of the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio of these species. It was shown that acute or chronic exposure to power plant intake and discharge water; discharge with or without coal particles; and discharge with or without slurry overflow mix does not significantly affect metabolism, short-term survival, growth, or conversion efficiency of shrimp or trout.

  3. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Group 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  4. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrates, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceed the GWPS in the groundwater during the second half of 1995, notably cadmium, lead, radium-226, radium-228, strontium-90, and total alpha-emitting radium. The elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (aquifer zone IIB{sub 2}), however, several other aquifer unit monitoring wells contained elevated levels of constituents. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  5. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 2: Appendices, AAC, BECR, BH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    This report describes the conceptual design of a system the Department of Energy (DOE) may implement for compliance with the requirement to control access to the disposal site. In addition, this report addresses the scheduling process for control of inspection, maintenance, and periodic reporting related to Long Term Monitoring which addresses the monitoring of disposal system performance, environmental monitoring in accordance with the Consultation and Cooperation Agreement between the DOE and the state of New Mexico, and evaluation of testing activities related to the Permanent Marker System design. In addition to access control addressed by this report, the controlling or cleaning up of releases from the site is addressed in the Conceptual Decontamination and Decommissioning Plan. The monitoring of parameters related to disposal system performance is addressed in the Long Term Monitoring Design Concept Description. Together, these three documents address the full range of active institutional controls planned after disposal of the TRU waste in the WIPP repository.

  6. Reducing the volume of antibiotic prescriptions: a peer group intervention among physicians serving a community with special ethnic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Ron, Naama; Ishai, Shlomit; Chory, Hana; Abboud, Louis; Peled, Ronit

    2012-05-01

    Antibiotics are a front-line weapon against many infectious diseases. However, antibiotic overuse is the key driver of drug resistance. Previously published studies have suggested benefits of using peer-to-peer education, working with group leaders to build trust and maintain confidentiality within a quality initiative. We hypothesized that working with physicians as a peer group might be beneficial in influencing antibiotic prescribing patterns. To describe and evaluate a peer group model for an intervention to reduce the volume of antibiotic prescriptions among physicians with above average prescribing rates serving an Arab community in northern Israel. Primary care physicians in a defined geographic area who served Arab communities and had high antibiotic prescribing rates--defined as above average number of antibiotic prescriptions per office visit compared with regional and organizational averages--were recruited for the intervention. All other physicians from the same region served as a comparison group. The intervention was administered during 2007 and was completed in early 2008. Four structured meetings scheduled 2 months apart, in which the group explored the issues related to antibiotic overuse, included the following topics: adherence to clinical guidelines; the special position physicians serving Arab communities hold and the influence it has on their practices; pressure due to consumer demands; and suggestions for possible strategies to face ethnic sensitivity, mainly because of the special ties the physicians have with their communities. T-tests for independent samples were used to perform between-group comparisons for each quarter and year of observation from 2006 through 2010, and t-tests for paired samples were used to compare pre-intervention with post-intervention antibiotic prescribing rates. In the 2006 pre-intervention period, the antibiotic prescribing rates were 0.17 for the peer group (n = 11 physicians) and 0.15 for the comparison group

  7. Reduced expression of glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ and SGK-1: high IL-6 levels are associated with reduced hippocampal volumes in major depressive disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frodl, T

    2012-01-01

    Neuroplasticity may have a core role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), a concept supported by experimental studies that found that excessive cortisol secretion and\\/or excessive production of inflammatory cytokines impairs neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The objective of this study was to examine how changes in the glucocorticoid and inflammatory systems may affect hippocampal volumes in MDD. A multimodal approach with structural neuroimaging of hippocampus and amygdala, measurement of peripheral inflammatory proteins interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression, and expression of glucocorticoid-inducible genes (glucocorticoid-inducible genes Leucin Zipper (GILZ) and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK-1)) was used in 40 patients with MDD and 43 healthy controls (HC). Patients with MDD showed smaller hippocampal volumes and increased inflammatory proteins IL-6 and CRP compared with HC. Childhood maltreatment was associated with increased CRP. Patients with MDD, who had less expression of the glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ or SGK-1 had smaller hippocampal volumes. Regression analysis showed a strong positive effect of GILZ and SGK-1 mRNA expression, and further inverse effects of IL-6 concentration, on hippocampal volumes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment, peripheral inflammatory and glucocorticoid markers and hippocampal volume are interrelated factors in the pathophysiology of MDD. Glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ and SGK-1 might be promising candidate markers for hippocampal volume changes relevant for diseases like MDD. Further studies need to explore the possible clinical usefulness of such a blood biomarker, for example, for diagnosis or prediction of therapy response.

  8. Factors influencing the efficacy of two organophosphate insecticides in controlling California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell). A basis for reducing spray application volume in Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Because society is seeking ways to lessen the environmental impact of agricultural activity, dose adjustment has become a key issue in current plant protection treatments with high spray application volumes, such as on citrus plants. This work investigates, in field conditions, the factors affecting the efficacy of organophosphate insecticides against California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), when the delivery rate is decreased. Insecticide rate changes were induced by modifying the spray application volumes of two commercial organophosphate pesticides based on chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl. Results showed that, with increase in the spray volume, the coverage and the uniformity of deposition on the canopy increased, but final infestation depended neither on the spray application volume nor on the coverage. Furthermore, final infestation significantly depended on the pest pressure in the plot and the spray volume applied per unit volume of canopy (L m(-3) canopy). Moreover, it was found that the final infestation was influenced by the efficiency of deposition in the applications that were carried out against the second-generation of CRS. Because the spray application volume did not affect the final infestation, this research introduces the possibility that reducing the doses of current citrus organophosphate treatments may still allow effective plant protection in Mediterranean conditions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Waste management in the post-accident phase; La gestion des dechets en phase post-accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle-Szeremeta, A.; Bodenez, Ph. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Dir. des Installations de Recherche et des Dechets, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    Post-accidental waste management is an essential step to carry out strategies of reduction of contamination of a contaminated land and to carry out strategies of population protection. Different actions that have to be carried out have been identified: waste collection, waste packaging, waste transport, stabilisation of putrefying waste, treatments to reduce the volume of the wastes, storage and waste disposal. The volumes of post-accidental wastes (mainly very low activity wastes) could be large, for the first scenarios studied by the CODIRPA. The different constraints lead to recommend the building of waste treatment and elimination facilities as near as possible from the places where the wastes are produced. Although wastes will have to be taken care of as soon as the transition phase starts, it will take months to build waste treatment facilities and disposal repositories. Therefore, it seems necessary-to build storage facilities from the beginning of the transition phase. Anyway, in order to manage the wastes as quickly as possible, some actions have to be set up anticipatory. The work of the group will be carried on in 2008 and 2009 to go into detail concerning regulatory, organizational, health, technical and financial aspects related to the different treatment and disposal solutions identified. (authors)

  10. Reconstructing coherent networks from electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography with reduced contamination from volume conduction or magnetic field spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drakesmith

    Full Text Available Volume conduction (VC and magnetic field spread (MFS induce spurious correlations between EEG/MEG sensors, such that the estimation of functional networks from scalp recordings is inaccurate. Imaginary coherency [1] reduces VC/MFS artefacts between sensors by assuming that instantaneous interactions are caused predominantly by VC/MFS and do not contribute to the imaginary part of the cross-spectral densities (CSDs. We propose an adaptation of the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS [2] - a method for reconstructing the CSDs between sources, and subsequently inferring functional connectivity based on coherences between those sources. Firstly, we reformulate the principle of imaginary coherency by performing an eigenvector decomposition of the imaginary part of the CSD to estimate the power that only contributes to the non-zero phase-lagged (NZPL interactions. Secondly, we construct an NZPL-optimised spatial filter with two a priori assumptions: (1 that only NZPL interactions exist at the source level and (2 the NZPL CSD at the sensor level is a good approximation of the projected source NZPL CSDs. We compare the performance of the NZPL method to the standard method by reconstructing a coherent network from simulated EEG/MEG recordings. We demonstrate that, as long as there are phase differences between the sources, the NZPL method reliably detects the underlying networks from EEG and MEG. We show that the method is also robust to very small phase lags, noise from phase jitter, and is less sensitive to regularisation parameters. The method is applied to a human dataset to infer parts of a coherent network underpinning face recognition.

  11. Additional facilities to handle PUREX tank farm vapor wastes. Project CG-719

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, V.W.

    1957-01-07

    The liquid high-level radioactive wastes from the separations plant are stored in large underground tanks where radioactive decay of the fission products in storage gives off heat. In the case of the 241-A underground storage tank farm, for Purex wastes, advantage is taken of this heat to self-concentrate the wastes. The present practice is to permit boiling and concentration in the storage tanks. The vapors given off from the boiling wastes are collected in a vapor header and passed through a deentrainment vessel and on to two contact condensers where the vapors are condensed and intermixed with waste cooling water. Samples taken of the waste vapors have shown a considerable amount of cesium{sup 137} present as well as other types of radioactive material carry over from the waste tanks. For this reason the contact condenser effluent is discharged to an underground crib 216-A-8. Underground disposal of the increasing volume of condenser effluent as larger waste volumes are accumulated in the underground tanks presents a critical problem which is further complicated by the desirability to transfer the condensate waste to new disposal facilities near the 200 West area. The intent of this report is to present the scope of the facilities required to reduce the volume of potentially radioactive condensate waste from the 241-A tank farm and to dispose of this waste through supplemental cribbing. An analysis of the 216-A-8 crib capabilities in relation to the projected flows clearly indicates that if other facilities to reduce the contaminated waste stream volume are not provided, an extensive and costly crib system will be required. The economical solution to the problem is to provide surface condensers to permit segregation of the condensed waste vapors from the cooling water, condensate collection and transfer facilities, and a new condensate disposal crib near the 200 West Area. Data which support this solution are provided in this report.

  12. Osthole, a natural coumarin, improves neurobehavioral functions and reduces infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuexuan; Yin, Wei; Liu, Mengfei; Ye, Minzhong; Liu, Peiqing; Liu, Jianxin; Lian, Qishen; Xu, Suowen; Pi, Rongbiao

    2011-04-18

    Previously we demonstrated that Osthole, a natural coumarin, protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats. In the present study, the effects of Osthole on neurobehavioral functions, infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a rat 2h focal cerebral ischemia model were investigated. Osthole (100mg/kg per dose) was administrated intraperitoneally 30min before ischemic insult and immediately after reperfusion. Osthole treatment significantly reduced neurological deficit score and infarct volume by 38.5% and 33.8%, respectively, as compared with the untreated animals. Osthole reversed ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in MMP-9 protein level/activity as evidenced by Western blotting and gelatin zymography. Taken together, these results for the first time demonstrate that Osthole reduces infarct volume, restores neurobehavioral functions and downregulates MMP-9 protein level/activity in ischemia/reperfused brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Municipal solid waste combustor bottom ash stockpile runoff and dust emissions evaluation: Volume I, Part I & Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes a phase of the stockpile demonstration program concerned with the storage of ash from municipal waste combustion. To implement this program, bottom ash (BA) collected from the 400 ton per day Warren County Resource Recovery Facility (WCRRF), located in Oxford Township Warren County, New Jersey, was in processed to produce a sand-like aggregate product; stored on a specially constructed pad at the Warren County Landfill site; and monitored for approximately 12 months. During this time, the air, stormwater runoff and soil quality in the vicinity of the stockpile were monitored. An electronic weather station was also installed on site to monitor and record meteorological conditions. The data obtained during the monitoring period were then used to develop a bottom ash stockpile source model to project potential air emissions and runoff loadings from the stockpile. Model generated emissions and loadings figures were used to estimate potential acts on air, groundwater, surface water and soil quality in the vicinity of the stockpile.

  14. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  15. Radioactive waste management in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoura, Kazukuni [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1997-02-01

    The joint utilization by the researchers of the universities and others in whole Japan of the reactor facilities in Kyoto University was begun in 1965. The facility for abandoning radioactive waste was constructed in fiscal year 1963, and comprises 500 kg/h vaporization and concentration facility, 2 systems of 5 m{sup 3}/h flocculation, precipitation and filtration facility, and 2 systems of 5 m{sup 3}/h ion exchange facility for liquid waste, 50x10{sup 3} kg pressing capacity, four-column type press for reducing volume of solid waste, and waste store for 400 standard drums. Radioactive Waste Treatment Department was organized, and the stipulations on security and radiation injury prevention were enforced in 1964. Liquid and solid wastes have been accepted since 1964. The radioactivity in discharged water in each year is shown. About 600 m{sup 3} of waste liquid has been accepted in one year since 1980. The trust of solid waste treatment to Japan Radioisotope Association has been carried out 51 times. The radioactive waste which is temporarily stored in the waste store is reported. Hereafter, the construction of the facility for storing large finished equipment and the appearance of waste treatment enterprises are desirable. (K.I.)

  16. Viscosity-based high temperature waste form compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    High-temperature waste forms such as iron-enriched basalt are proposed to immobilize and stabilize a variety of low-level wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The combination of waste and soil anticipated for the waste form results in high SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} producing a viscous melt in an arc furnace. Adding a flux such as CaO to adjust the basicity ratio (the molar ratio of basic to acid oxides) enables tapping the furnace without resorting to extreme temperatures, but adds to the waste volume. Improved characterization of wastes will permit adjusting the basicity ratio to between 0.7 and 1.0 by blending of wastes and/or changing the waste-soil ratio. This minimizes waste form volume. Also, lower pouring temperatures will decrease electrode and refractory attrition, reduce vaporization from the melt, and, with suitable flux, facilitate crystallization. Results of laboratory tests were favorable and pilot-scale melts are planned; however, samples have not yet been subjected to leach testing.

  17. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Volume II contains appendices for the following: (1) remote sensing and surface mapping techniques; (2) subsurface mapping methods for site characterization; (3) gravity technique; (4) audio-frequency magnetotelluric technique; (5) seismic refraction technique; (6) direct-current electrical resistivity method; (7) magnetic technique; (8) seismic reflection technique; (9) seismic crosshole method; (10) mechanical downhole seismic velocity survey method; (11) borehole geophysical logging techniques; (12) drilling and coring methods for precharacterization studies; (13) subsurface drilling methods for site characterization; (14) geomechanical/thermomechanical techniques for precharacterization studies; (15)geomechanical/thermal techniques for site characterization studies; (16) exploratory geochemical techniques for precharacterization studies; (17) geochemical techniques for site characterization; (18) hydrologic techniques for precharacterization studies; (19) hydrologic techniques for site characterization; and (20) seismological techniques.

  18. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  19. Immobilization and volume reduction of heavy metals in municipal solid waste fly ash using nano-size calcium and iron-dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the synthesis and application of novel nano-size calcium/iron-based composite material as an immobilizing and separation treatment of the heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. After grinding with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO₄], approximately 30 wt% and 25 wt% of magnetic fraction fly ash were separated. The highest amount of entrapped heavy metals was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated fly ash fraction (i.e., 91% in 25% of treated fly ash). Heavy metals in the magnetic or nonmagnetic fly ash fractions were about 98% and 100% immobilized, respectively. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) observations indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated fly ash includes Ca/PO₄-associated crystalline complexes. After nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO₄] treatment, the heavy metal concentrations in the fly ash leachate were much lower than the Japan standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. These results appear to be extremely promising. The addition of a nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/PO₄mixture with simple grinding technique is potentially applicable for the remediation and volume reduction of fly ash contaminated by heavy metals. After grinding with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO₄], approximately 30 wt% and 25 wt% of magnetic fraction fly ash were separated. The highest amount of entrapped heavy metals was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated fly ash fraction (i.e., 91% in 25% of treated fly ash), whereas heavy metals either in the magnetic or nonmagnetic fly ash fractions were about 98% and 100% immobilized. These results appear to be very promising, and the addition of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/PO₄mixture with simple grinding technique may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation and volume reduction of contaminated fly ash by heavy metals.

  20. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Shaft Sealing System Compliance Submittal Design Report. Volume 1 and 2: Main report, appendices A, B, C, and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing system design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  2. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes 1 through 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  3. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Sections 4 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  4. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  5. Reduced corpus-callosum volume in posttraumatic stress disorder highlights the importance of interhemispheric connectivity for associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Cohen, Jonathan E; Guez, Jonathan; Gasho, Chris; Shelef, Ilan; Friedman, Alon; Shalev, Hadar

    2014-02-01

    Memory deficits are a common complaint of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite vivid trauma-related memory, previous studies report memory impairment for nontrauma-related stimuli when compared to controls, specifically in associative memory (Guez et al., 2011). Healthy individuals show hemispheric memory asymmetry with left-prefrontal lateralization of encoding and right-prefrontal lateralization of episodic retrieval, suggesting a role for interhemispheric communication in memory-related tasks (Gazzaniga, ; Ringo, Doty, Demeter, & Simard, ). Because brain magnetic resonance imaging (bMRI) studies in PTSD patients report volume changes in various regions, including white matter and corpus callosum (CC), we aimed to test the relationship between memory deficits and CC volume in PTSD patients. We probed for specific alterations in associative memory in PTSD and measured the volume of subportions within the CC employing bMRI. Our main finding was a reduction in CC white-matter volume in PTSD patients, as compared to controls, t(35) = -2.7, p = .010, that was correlated with lower associative performance (r = .76, p = .003). We propose that CC volume reduction is a substrate for the associative memory deficits found in PTSD. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  7. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  9. Reduced cingulate gyrus volume associated with enhanced cortisol awakening response in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Ding, Yuqiang; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between stress-induced increased cortisol levels and atrophy of specific brain regions, however, this association has been less revealed in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and associations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and gray matter volumes in young healthy adults with self-reported childhood trauma exposures. Twenty four healthy adults with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of cortisol awakening response (CAR). The 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted to compare the gray matter volume between two groups. Correlations of gray matter volume changes with severity of childhood trauma and CAR data were further analyzed. Adults with self-reported childhood trauma showed an enhanced CAR and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus. Moreover, a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol secretions after awaking and the right middle cingulate gyrus volume reduction in subjects with childhood trauma. The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels.

  10. Reduced cingulate gyrus volume associated with enhanced cortisol awakening response in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojia Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between stress-induced increased cortisol levels and atrophy of specific brain regions, however, this association has been less revealed in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and associations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and gray matter volumes in young healthy adults with self-reported childhood trauma exposures. METHODS: Twenty four healthy adults with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of cortisol awakening response (CAR. The 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted to compare the gray matter volume between two groups. Correlations of gray matter volume changes with severity of childhood trauma and CAR data were further analyzed. RESULTS: Adults with self-reported childhood trauma showed an enhanced CAR and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus. Moreover, a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol secretions after awaking and the right middle cingulate gyrus volume reduction in subjects with childhood trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels.

  11. Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume II. Final report Jul 74--Oct 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eble, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that all life-cycle stages of the tropical freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, can be cultured successfully using waste-heat effluents of the Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, N.J. Further, high-density culture of the prawn is possible and practical. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) culture has also been successfully demonstrated utilizing the waste-heat discharges of an electric generating station. Efficient systems have been designed for intensive annual two-crop production. Postlarval prawns are grown in indoor heated nurseries in early spring, and placed in outdoor ponds in mid-May at sizes of 5 to 6cm and harvested in late October as 11 to 12cm adults. Experiments culturing the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in waste-heat discharge waters of the generating system have been successful. Presented in Volume 2 is the research work conducted in this study. (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  12. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, D.M.

    2011-01-30

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

  13. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  14. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of