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Sample records for reduce invasive acts

  1. CYR61 downregulation reduces osteosarcoma cell invasion, migration, and metastasis.

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    Fromigue, Olivia; Hamidouche, Zahia; Vaudin, Pascal; Lecanda, Fernando; Patino, Ana; Barbry, Pascal; Mari, Bernard; Marie, Pierre J

    2011-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone. The rapid development of metastatic lesions and resistance to chemotherapy remain major mechanisms responsible for the failure of treatments and the poor survival rate for patients. We showed previously that the HMGCoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitor statin exhibits antitumoral effects on osteosarcoma cells. Here, using microarray analysis, we identify Cyr61 as a new target of statins. Transcriptome and molecular analyses revealed that statins downregulate Cyr61 expression in human and murine osteosarcoma cells. Cyr61 silencing in osteosarcoma cell lines enhanced cell death and reduced cell migration and cell invasion compared with parental cells, whereas Cyr61 overexpression had opposite effects. Cyr61 expression was evaluated in 231 tissue cores from osteosarcoma patients. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that Cyr61 protein expression was higher in human osteosarcoma than in normal bone tissue and was further increased in metastatic tissues. Finally, tumor behavior and metastasis occurrence were analyzed by intramuscular injection of modified osteosarcoma cells into BALB/c mice. Cyr61 overexpression enhanced lung metastasis development, whereas cyr61 silencing strongly reduced lung metastases in mice. The results reveal that cyr61 expression increases with tumor grade in human osteosarcoma and demonstrate that cyr61 silencing inhibits in vitro osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration as well as in vivo lung metastases in mice. These data provide a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in metastatic osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

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    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  3. RECK overexpression reduces invasive ability in ameloblastoma cells.

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    Liang, Qi-xiang; Liang, Yan-can; Xu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Wei-liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Zhang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ameloblastoma is a frequent odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and high risk of recurrence. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of RECK overexpression on invasive potential in ameloblastoma cells. Lentiviral vectors containing human RECK gene were created and subsequently stably transfected into immortalized ameloblastoma cell line hTERT(+) -AM. Functional characteristics of hTERT(+) -AM cells with stable RECK overexpression included proliferation, migration, invasion, and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 measured by zymography or commercially available assays. The stable and higher expression of RECK mRNA and protein (P 0.05). Overexpression of RECK gene significantly inhibited cell invasive ability of hTERT(+) -AM cells, suggesting RECK may be a new target for ameloblastoma treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Baicalein reduces the invasion of glioma cells via reducing the activity of p38 signaling pathway.

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    Zhenni Zhang

    Full Text Available Baicalein, one of the major flavonids in Scutellaria baicalensis, has historically been used in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. However, the anti-metastatic effect and related mechanism(s in glioma are still unclear. In this study, we thus utilized glioma cell lines U87MG and U251MG to explore the effect of baicalein. We found that administration of baicalein significantly inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, after treating with baicalein for 24 h, there was a decrease in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression as well as proteinase activity in glioma cells. Conversely, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, baicalein treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylated level of p38, but not ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and PI3K/Akt. Combined treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580 and baicalein resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and then increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression; and the invasive capabilities of U87MG cells were also inhibited. However, p38 chemical activator (anisomycin could block these effects produced by baicalein, suggesting baicalein directly downregulate the p38 signaling pathway. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits glioma cells invasion and metastasis by reducing cell motility and migration via suppression of p38 signaling pathway, suggesting that baicalein is a potential therapeutic agent for glioma.

  5. Species diversity reduces invasion success in pathogen-regulated communities

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, L. A.; Levine, J.M.; Fergus, A J F; Petermann, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The loss of natural enemies is thought to explain why certain invasive species are so spectacularly successful in their introduced range. However, if losing natural enemies leads to unregulated population growth, this implies that native species are themselves normally subject to natural enemy regulation. One possible widespread mechanism of natural enemy regulation is negative soil feedbacks, in which resident species growing on home soils are disadvantaged because of a build-up of species-s...

  6. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (Paluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimen

  8. Matrine reduces the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells via reducing the activity of p38 signaling pathway.

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    Ren, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuqun; Ma, Hongbing; Wang, Yali; Liu, Di; Wang, Xijing; Wang, Zhongwei

    2014-12-01

    Matrine has been used in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies for a long time. However, the anti-metastatic effect and related mechanism(s) in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the administration of matrine could inhibit the proliferation, motility, and invasion of human CRC cells via regulating p38 signaling pathway. Results showed that matrine inhibited migration and invasion of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, after being treated with matrine for 24 h, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 as well as proteinase activity in CRC cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, matrine reduced the phosphorylation level of p38 obviously. Combined treatment with p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and matrine resulted in a synergistic reduction of invasion as well as MMP-2/-9 expression in CRC cells. It was also found that matrine inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of CRC tumor in vivo. In conclusion, p38 signaling pathway may involve in matrine's inhibitory effects on migration and invasion of CRC cells by reducing the expression of MMP-2/-9, suggesting that matrine may be a potential therapeutic agent for CRC.

  9. NME2 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells to limit metastasis.

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    Yan-fei Liu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2, which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression.

  10. An invasive riparian tree reduces stream ecosystem efficiency via a recalcitrant organic matter subsidy.

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    Mineau, Madeleine M; Baxter, Golden V; Marcarelli, Amy M; Minshall, G Wayne

    2012-07-01

    A disturbance, such as species invasion, can alter the exchange of materials and organisms between ecosystems, with potential consequences for the function of both ecosystems. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is an exotic tree invading riparian corridors in the western United States, and may alter stream organic matter budgets by increasing allochthonous litter and by reducing light via shading, in turn decreasing in-stream primary production. We used a before-after invasion comparison spanning 35 years to show that Russian olive invasion increased allochthonous litter nearly 25-fold to an invaded vs. a control reach of a stream, and we found that this litter decayed more slowly than native willow. Despite a mean 50% increase in canopy cover by Russian olive and associated shading, there were no significant changes in gross primary production. Benthic organic matter storage increased fourfold after Russian olive invasion compared to pre-invasion conditions, but there were no associated changes in stream ecosystem respiration or organic matter export. Thus, estimated stream ecosystem efficiency (ratio of ecosystem respiration to organic matter input) decreased 14%. These findings show that invasions of nonnative plant species in terrestrial habitats can alter resource fluxes to streams with consequences for whole-ecosystem functions.

  11. REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES

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    STEBBING P. D.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  12. Grhl2 reduces invasion and migration through inhibition of TGFβ-induced EMT in gastric cancer

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    Xiang, J; Fu, X; Ran, W; Wang, Z

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is one of the typical features of malignancy that significantly increases cancer-related mortality. Recent studies have shown that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to the invasion and migration of cancer cells. Grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2), a transcription factor, has been reported to be associated with several tumor processes including EMT. In the previous study, we have reported that Grhl2 functioned as a tumor suppressor in proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer. Here we aim to explore the effects of Grhl2 on invasion and migration of gastric cancer and further clarify its possible underlying mechanisms. As a result, in both SGC7901 and MKN45 cells, Grhl2 overexpression significantly inhibited the ability of invasion and migration. In addition, preliminary experiments showed that Grhl2 reduces the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -7 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9). Most importantly, Grhl2 antagonizes transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced EMT, and inhibition of TGFβ signaling pathways can restore Grhl2 expression. Finally, the results of subcutaneous xenograft model indicated that Grhl2 suppresses the growth of gastric cancer and reverses EMT process in vivo. Meanwhile, the metastatic tumor model further confirmed the inhibition of Grhl2 on metastasis of gastric cancer. Taken together, our findings proved that Grhl2, functioned as a tumor suppressor, reduces the invasion and migration through inhibition of TGFβ-induced EMT in gastric cancer. PMID:28067907

  13. Fucoidan reduced the invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and modified their effects to macrophages.

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    Lin, Junda; Wang, Ketao; Wang, Huayang; Shao, Qianqian; Luan, Yijun; Xu, Yan; Song, Xiaobin; Tan, Wanye; Liu, Shaohua; Wei, Fengcai; Qu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Fucoidan is a complex of polysaccharides showing antitumor and immunomodulation properties. Our previous studies found its regulation to myeloid immune cells, including macrophages. Aberrant infiltration and functions of macrophages are commonly found in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we analyzed the effects of fucoidan on invasion of OSCC cells, and their regulation to macrophages, trying to evaluate its role as a potential therapy for OSCC. CAL27 and THP-1-derived macrophages were used as models for OSCC cells and tumor-infiltrated macrophages in the in vitro study, respectively. The effects of fucoidan on invasion of OSCC cells and their recruitment to macrophages were analyzed by transwell assay. KIF4A siRNA transfection was performed to investigate its role in fucoidan-modulated OSCC cells invasion. CCL3-neutralizing antibody was added into the conditioned medium of OSCC cells to evaluate its role in fucoidan-mediated macrophages recruitment and re-education. Fucoidan reduced the invasive potential of CAL27 cells with a decrease of MMP-2 and KIF4A transcription. KIF4A knockdown in CAL27 cells led to decreased invasion and MMP-2 expression. The conditioned medium of fucoidan-treated CAL27 cells promoted recruitment and inflammatory cytokines secretion on THP-1-derived macrophages. Further analysis found that fucoidan increased CCL3 production in CAL27 cells. Blocking CCL3 expression reversed the effects of fucoidan on macrophage recruitment and re-education. Our study found that fucoidan regulated the invasion of OSCC cells and also their recruiting and re-educating effects on macrophages, suggesting it could be a complementary approach in the treatment of OSCC.

  14. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora

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    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels

  15. The rate of invasive testing for trisomy 21 is reduced after implementation of NIPT.

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    Bjerregaard, Louise; Stenbakken, Anne Betsagoo; Andersen, Camilla Skov; Kristensen, Line; Jensen, Cecilie Vibeke; Skovbo, Peter; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard

    2017-04-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) was introduced in the North Denmark Region in March 2013. NIPT is offered as an alternative to invasive tests if the combined first trimester risk of trisomy 21 (T21) is ≥ 1:300. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NIPT implementation among high-risk pregnancies in a region with existing first-trimester combined screening for T21. The primary objective was to examine the effect on the invasive testing rate. This was a retrospective observational study including high-risk singleton pregnancies in the North Denmark Region. The women were included in two periods, i.e. before and after the implementation of NIPT, respectively. Group 1 (before NIPT): n = 253 and Group 2 (after NIPT): n = 302. After NIPT implementation, the invasive testing rate fell from 70% to 48% (p < 0.01), and the number of high-risk women refusing further testing dropped from 26% to 3% (p < 0.01). NIPT successfully detected four cases of T21; however, two out of three sex-chromosomal abnormalities were false positives. No false negative NIPT results were revealed in this study. In the North Denmark Region, the implementation of NIPT in high-risk pregnancies significantly reduced the rate of invasive testing. However, the proportion of high-risk women who opted for prenatal tests increased as the majority of women who previously refused further testing now opted for the NIPT. none. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (No. 2015-104). Articles published in the Danish Medical Journal are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  16. Non invasive fibrosis biomarkers reduce but not substitute the need for liver biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Sebastiani; Alfredo Alberti

    2006-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are very common worldwide,particularly those linked to viral hepatitis and to alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver. Their natural history is variable and long-term evolution differs in individual patients. Optimised clinical management of compensated chronic liver diseases requires precise definition of the stage of liver fibrosis, the main determinant of prognosis and of most therapeutic decisions. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for assessment of hepatic fibrosis.However, it is invasive with possible complications,costly and prone to sampling errors. Many non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis have been recently proposed and assessed in the clinical setting as surrogates of liver biopsy. Direct markers are based on biochemical parameters directly linked to fibrogenesis while indirect markers use simple or more sophisticated parameters that correlate with liver fibrosis stages. Non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis have been tested in different forms of chronic liver disease and showed variable diagnostic performance, but accuracy rarely was above 75%-80%. Better results were obtained when markers were combined. On this line, we have recently proposed a set of algorithms that combine sequentially indirectnon-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, reaching 90%-95%diagnostic accuracy with significant reduction in the need for liver biopsy. Based on available evidence, it can be anticipated that non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis and their combined use will soon become a most useful tool in the clinical management of many forms of chronic liver disease. However, their implementation is expected to reduce, but not to completely eliminate, the need for liver biopsy.

  17. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

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    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  18. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

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    Julian D Olden

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006 in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA. After accounting for structural (e.g., house size, locational (e.g., boat launch, and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price, corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue, justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  19. Downregulated miR-195 detected in preeclamptic placenta affects trophoblast cell invasion via modulating ActRIIA expression.

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    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta.

  20. Invasive fungal infection following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematologic diseases.

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    Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kusumi, Eiji; Matsumura, Tomoko; Hori, Akiko; Murashige, Naoko; Hamaki, Tamae; Yuji, Koichiro; Uchida, Naoyuki; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kami, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yuji; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2007-07-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, we have little information on its clinical features after reduced intensity cord blood transplantation (RICBT) for adults. We reviewed medical records of 128 patients who underwent RICBT at Toranomon Hospital between March 2002 and November 2005. Most of the patients received purine-analogbased preparative regimens. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was a continuous infusion of either tacrolimus 0.03 mg/kg or cyclosporine 3 mg/kg. IFI was diagnosed according to the established EORTC/NIH-MSG criteria. IFI was diagnosed in 14 patients. Thirteen of the 14 had probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and the other had fungemia resulting from Trichosporon spp. Median onset of IFI was day 20 (range: 1-82), and no patients developed IFI after day 100. Three-year cumulative incidence of IA was 10.2%. Four of the 13 patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and their IA was diagnosed before the onset of acute GVHD. The mortality rate of IFI was 86%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the use of prednisolone >0.2 mg/kg (relative risk 7.97, 95% confidence interval 2.24-28.4, P = .0014) was a significant risk factor for IA. This study suggests that IFI is an important cause of deaths after RICBT, and effective strategies are warranted to prevent IFI.

  1. Invasive warm-season grasses reduce mycorrhizal root colonization and biomass production of native prairie grasses.

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    Wilson, Gail W T; Hickman, Karen R; Williamson, Melinda M

    2012-07-01

    Soil organisms play important roles in regulating ecosystem-level processes and the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with a plant species can be a central force shaping plant species' ecology. Understanding how mycorrhizal associations are affected by plant invasions may be a critical aspect of the conservation and restoration of native ecosystems. We examined the competitive ability of old world bluestem, a non-native grass (Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii]), and the influence of B. bladhii competition on AM root colonization of native warm-season prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii or Schizachyrium scoparium), using a substitutive design greenhouse competition experiment. Competition by the non-native resulted in significantly reduced biomass production and AM colonization of the native grasses. To assess plant-soil feedbacks of B. bladhii and Bothriochloa ischaemum, we conducted a second greenhouse study which examined soil alterations indirectly by assessing biomass production and AM colonization of native warm-season grasses planted into soil collected beneath Bothriochloa spp. This study was conducted using soil from four replicate prairie sites throughout Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. Our results indicate that a major mechanism in plant growth suppression following invasion by Bothriochloa spp. is the alteration in soil microbial communities. Plant growth was tightly correlated with AM root colonization demonstrating that mycorrhizae play an important role in the invasion of these systems by Bothriochloa spp. and indicating that the restoration of native AM fungal communities may be a fundamental consideration for the successful establishment of native grasses into invaded sites.

  2. Altering FAK-paxillin interactions reduces adhesion, migration and invasion processes.

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    Thérèse B Deramaudt

    Full Text Available Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors.

  3. Altering FAK-paxillin interactions reduces adhesion, migration and invasion processes.

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    Deramaudt, Thérèse B; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors.

  4. Loxoribine pretreatment reduces Salmonella Enteritidis organ invasion in 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggerty, C L; He, H; Genovese, K J; Duke, S E; Kogut, M H

    2012-04-01

    Young poultry exhibit a transient colonization by some food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella, during the first week of life that stems from immature innate and acquired defense mechanisms. Consequently, modulation of the hosts' natural immune response is emerging as an important area of interest for food animal producers, including the poultry industry. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been shown to boost the innate immune response in young chickens and increase their resistance to colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The objective of the present study was to determine if pretreatment with loxoribine, a TLR7 agonist and immune modulator, protects young chicks from Salmonella Enteritidis organ invasion. Loxoribine (0-100 μg) was administered intra-abdominally to 1-d-old broiler chicks, and 4 h later, the birds were challenged orally with Salmonella Enteritidis. Twenty-four hours postchallenge, birds were euthanized and the liver and spleen aseptically removed and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. This was carried out on 3 separate occasions using 26 to 50 chicks per dose per experiment. Pretreatment of chicks with loxoribine (6.25-25 μg) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced liver and spleen organ invasion by Salmonella Enteritidis. Higher doses (50-100 μg) of loxoribine had no effect. The results obtained in this study indicate that there is a potential application for using loxoribine to increase protection of young chicks when they are most susceptible to infections with Salmonella.

  5. Genetic recapitulation of human pre-eclampsia risk during convergent evolution of reduced placental invasiveness in eutherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Michael G; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-03-05

    The relationship between phenotypic variation arising through individual development and phenotypic variation arising through diversification of species has long been a central question in evolutionary biology. Among humans, reduced placental invasion into endometrial tissues is associated with diseases of pregnancy, especially pre-eclampsia, and reduced placental invasiveness has also evolved, convergently, in at least 10 lineages of eutherian mammals. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic basis underlies both reduced placental invasion arising through a developmental process in human placental disease and reduced placental invasion found as a derived trait in the diversification of Euarchontoglires (rodents, lagomorphs, tree shrews, colugos and primates). Based on whole-genome analyses across 18 taxa, we identified 1254 genes as having evolved adaptively across all three lineages exhibiting independent evolutionary transitions towards reduced placental invasion. These genes showed strong evidence of enrichment for associations with pre-eclampsia, based on genetic-association studies, gene-expression analyses and gene ontology. We further used in silico prediction to identify a subset of 199 genes that are likely targets of natural selection during transitions in placental invasiveness and which are predicted to also underlie human placental disorders. Our results indicate that abnormal ontogenies can recapitulate major phylogenetic shifts in mammalian evolution, identify new candidate genes for involvement in pre-eclampsia, imply that study of species with less-invasive placentation will provide useful insights into the regulation of placental invasion and pre-eclampsia, and recommend a novel comparative functional-evolutionary approach to the study of genetically based human disease and mammalian diversification. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of TRPC6 reduces non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Yan; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Bao, Qing; Doetsch, Paul W.; Deng, Xingming; Thai, Tiffany L.; Alli, Abdel A.; Eaton, Douglas C.; Shen, Bao-Zhong; Ma, He-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channel is highly expressed in several types of cancer cells. However, it remains unclear whether TRPC6 contributes to the malignancy of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We used a human NSCLC A549 cell line as a model and found that pharmacological blockade or molecular knockdown of TRPC6 channel inhibited A549 cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at the S-G2M phase and caused a significant portion of cells detached and rounded-up, but did not induce any types of cell death. Western blot and cell cycle analysis show that the detached round cells at the S-G2M phase expressed more TRPC6 than the still attached polygon cells at the G1 phase. Patch-clamp data also show that TRPC whole-cell currents in the detached cells were significantly higher than in the still attached cells. Inhibition of Ca2+-permeable TRPC6 channels significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ in A549 cells. Interestingly, either blockade or knockdown of TRPC6 strongly reduced the invasion of this NSCLC cell line and decreased the expression of an adherent protein, fibronectin, and a tight junction protein, zonula occluden protein-1 (ZO-1). These data suggest that TRPC6-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca2+ stimulates NSCLC cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression and that inhibition of TRPC6 attenuates cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, further in vivo studies may lead to a consideration of using a specific TRPC6 blocker as a complement to treat NSCLC. PMID:28030826

  7. Rabbit antibodies against Toxoplasma Hsp20 are able to reduce parasite invasion and gliding motility in Toxoplasma gondii and parasite invasion in Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceres, Veronica M; Alonso, Andrés M; Alomar, M Lis; Corvi, María M

    2012-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Hsp20 is a pellicle-associated functional chaperone whose biological role is still unknown. Hsp20 is present in different apicomplexan parasites, showing a high degree of conservation across the phylum, with Neospora caninum Hsp20 presenting an 82% identity to that of T. gondii. Hence rabbit anti-T. gondii Hsp20 serum was able to recognize the N. caninum counterpart. Interestingly, both N. caninum and T. gondii Hsp20 localized to the inner membrane complex and to the plasma membrane. Incubation of T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoites with an anti-TgHsp20 serum reduced parasite invasion at rates of 57.23% and 54.7%, respectively. This anti-serum also reduced T. gondii gliding 48.7%. Together, all this data support a role for Hsp20 in parasite invasion and gliding motility.

  8. The minimally invasive approach is associated with reduced surgical site infections in obese patients undergoing proctectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasam, R T; Esemuede, I O; Lee-Kong, S A; Kiran, R P

    2015-12-01

    While laparoscopic colorectal resection may be underused in technically challenging circumstances, the minimally invasive approach may in fact maximally benefit patients at the greatest risk of complications. Obesity and proctectomy pose particular technical challenges during laparoscopic resection and are also associated with the greatest risks of complications, especially surgical site infections (SSIs). We evaluated the role of laparoscopy in minimizing SSI in such patients. From the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, outcomes for obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)] and non-obese (BMI laparoscopy on SSI for obese patients undergoing proctectomy. OC patients were more likely than OP, LC, and LP, respectively, to undergo emergency operation and have an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of 3-5. Overall SSI rates after OC, OP, LC, and LP were 15.2, 17.6, 8.6, and 10.1 %, respectively (p obese patients, the rates were 18.7, 22.3, 10.7, and 13.3 % (p obesity, proctectomy, younger age, race, steroid use, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, prior wound infection, transfusion history, previous operation within 30 days, coronary artery or vascular disease, ASA class 3-5, tobacco use, resident involvement, male gender, albumin Laparoscopy reduced the risk of SSI by at least 35 % across all BMI classes and procedures, an effect that persisted on multivariate analysis even in obese patients undergoing proctectomy. In colorectal surgery, an already high-risk outlier for SSI, obesity and proctectomy are associated with the highest risk of SSI. Despite the particular technical challenges of laparoscopy in these circumstances, the minimally invasive approach attenuates the risk of SSI in these high-risk patients and thus should be strongly considered during treatment planning.

  9. PreImplantation Factor (PIF*) endogenously prevents preeclampsia: Promotes trophoblast invasion and reduces oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, E R; Vialard, F; Moindjie, H; Ornaghi, S; Dieudonne, M N; Paidas, M J

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a unique pregnancy disorder whose patho-physiology is initiated early in gestation, while clinical manifestations typically occur in mid-to-late pregnancy. Thus, prevention should optimally be initiated in early gestation. The intimate interaction between PIF, secreted early by viable embryos, and its host-mother provides insight into putative mechanisms of preeclampsia prevention. PIF is instrumental at the two critical events underlying preeclampsia. At first, shallow implantation leads to impaired placentation, oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and endothelial dysfunction. Later in gestation, hyper-oxygenation due to overflow of maternally derived oxygenated blood compromises the placenta. The first is likely involved in early preeclampsia occurrence due to reduced effectiveness of trophoblast/uterus interaction. The latter is observed with later-onset preeclampsia, caused by a breakdown in placental blood flow regulation. We reported that 1. PIF promotes implantation, endometrium receptivity, trophoblast invasion and increases pro-tolerance trophoblastic HLA-G expression and, 2. PIF protects against oxidative stress and protein misfolding, interacting with specific targets in embryo, 3. PIF regulates systemic immunity to reduce oxidative stress. Using PIF as an early preventative preeclampsia intervention could ameliorate or even prevent the disease, whose current main solution is early delivery.

  10. Invasive fire ants reduce reproductive success and alter the reproductive strategies of a native vertebrate insectivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A Ligon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Introduced organisms can alter ecosystems by disrupting natural ecological relationships. For example, red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta have disrupted native arthropod communities throughout much of their introduced range. By competing for many of the same food resources as insectivorous vertebrates, fire ants also have the potential to disrupt vertebrate communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore the effects of fire ants on a native insectivorous vertebrate, we compared the reproductive success and strategies of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis inhabiting territories with different abundances of fire ants. We also created experimental dyads of adjacent territories comprised of one territory with artificially reduced fire ant abundance (treated and one territory that was unmanipulated (control. We found that more bluebird young fledged from treated territories than from adjacent control territories. Fire ant abundance also explained significant variation in two measures of reproductive success across the study population: number of fledglings and hatching success of second clutches. Furthermore, the likelihood of bluebird parents re-nesting in the same territory was negatively influenced by the abundance of foraging fire ants, and parents nesting in territories with experimentally reduced abundances of fire ants produced male-biased broods relative to pairs in adjacent control territories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Introduced fire ants altered both the reproductive success (number of fledglings, hatching success and strategies (decision to renest, offspring sex-ratio of eastern bluebirds. These results illustrate the negative effects that invasive species can have on native biota, including species from taxonomically distant groups.

  11. Arsenic trioxide reduces the invasive and metastatic properties of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Du

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is notorious for the metastases, which are in close association with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 has been shown to induce apoptosis and differentiation in NPC xenografts. Then, can it repress the cancer cells' metastasis potential? To elucidate this issue, the present study was performed. LMP1-negative cell line HNE1 and LMP1-positive cell line HNE1-LMP1 were used as in vitro model. Cells (1 x 10(5/mL were cultured with or without 3 µM As2O3 for 48 h. Then the survival cells were collected to investigate their potential of colony formation, attachment, invasion, and migration. Both confocal immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the changes of LMP1 expression. The changes of MMP-9 were examined by RT-PCR assay and Western blot. The results were as follow: i the colony formation inhibition rate (75.41 ± 3.9% in HNE1-LMP1 cells vs 37.89 ± 4.9% in HNE1 cells, the rate of attachment (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 56.40 ± 3.5 vs 65.87 ± 5.9%, the invasion inhibitory rate (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 56.50 ± 3.7 and 27.91 ± 2.1%, and the migration inhibitory rate (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 48.70 ± 3.9 vs 29.19 ± 6.27% were all significantly different between the two cell lines (P < 0.01. ii LMP1 was down-regulated in As2O3-treated HNE1-LMP1 cells. iii The reduction of MMP-9 was found in As2O3-treated groups, more evident in HNE1-LMP1 cells. Thus, we conclude that As2O3 can reduce metastasis potential of NPC cells, involving inhibition of MMP-9 expression. LMP1 were also reduced in this process and seemed to enhance anti-metastasis activity of As2O3.

  12. DDX39 acts as a suppressor of invasion for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Minoru; Wei, Min; Yamano, Shotaro; Kakehashi, Anna; Tamada, Satoshi; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2012-07-01

    The object of the present study was to identify markers for predicting urinary bladder cancer progression by comparative proteome analysis of bladder cancers and paired normal mucosas. We found that DDX39 was overexpressed in four of six bladder cancers examined compared with respective control tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis using 303 bladder cancer specimens revealed that DDX39 was inversely correlated to pT stage and histological grade progression. The incidence of DDX39(high) tumors (positive cells ≥50%) was 68.6%, 43.5%, 20.0%, and 5.3% in pTa, pT1, pTis, and ≥pT2 tumors, respectively, and 65.2%, 60.7%, and 19.6% in G1, G2, and G3 tumors, respectively. The incidence of DDX39(high) tumors was significantly lower in pT1 and ≥pT2 compared to pTa tumors, and also significantly lower in G3 compared to G1 and G2 tumors. Follow-up analysis (n = 105) revealed that DDX39(low) tumors (positive cells <50%) were associated with disease progression (hazard ratio 7.485; P = 0.0083). Furthermore, DDX39-knockdown bladder cancer cells increased their invasion ability compared to negative control cells. These results suggest that DDX39 is a suppressor of invasion and loss of its function predicts disease progression in bladder cancers.

  13. Invasive mycosis due to species of Blastobotrys in immunocompromised patients with reduced susceptibility to antifungals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Babu, R.; Bijulal, S.; Abraham, M.; Sasidharan, P.; Kathuria, S.; Sharma, C.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Chowdhary, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cases of invasive mycosis due to Blastobotrys serpentis and B. proliferans identified by sequencing in a preterm patient and a rhabdomyosarcoma patient, respectively, are reported. Both species revealed elevated fluconazole and echinocandin MICs by the CLSI broth microdilution method. Additionally,

  14. Invasive mycosis due to species of Blastobotrys in immunocompromised patients with reduced susceptibility to antifungals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Babu, R.; Bijulal, S.; Abraham, M.; Sasidharan, P.; Kathuria, S.; Sharma, C.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Chowdhary, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cases of invasive mycosis due to Blastobotrys serpentis and B. proliferans identified by sequencing in a preterm patient and a rhabdomyosarcoma patient, respectively, are reported. Both species revealed elevated fluconazole and echinocandin MICs by the CLSI broth microdilution method. Additionally,

  15. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in healthy humans reduces sympathetic nerve activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, JA; Mary, DA; Witte, KK; Greenwood, JP; Deuchars, SA; Deuchars, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is currently used to treat refractory epilepsy and is being investigated as a potential therapy for a range of conditions, including heart failure, tinnitus, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. However, the invasive nature and expense limits the use of VNS in patient populations and hinders the exploration of the mechanisms involved. Objective: We investigated a non-invasive method of VNS through electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagu...

  16. Reduced expression of the ROCK inhibitor Rnd3 is associated with increased invasiveness and metastatic potential in mesenchymal tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Belgiovine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal and amoeboid movements are two important mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to invade the surrounding environment. Mesenchymal movement depends on extracellular matrix protease activity, amoeboid movement on the RhoA-dependent kinase ROCK. Cancer cells can switch from one mechanism to the other in response to different stimuli, limiting the efficacy of antimetastatic therapies. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the acquisition and molecular regulation of the invasion capacity of neoplastically transformed human fibroblasts, which were able to induce sarcomas and metastases when injected into immunocompromised mice. We found that neoplastic transformation was associated with a change in cell morphology (from fibroblastic to polygonal, a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, a decrease in the expression of several matrix metalloproteases and increases in cell motility and invasiveness. In a three-dimensional environment, sarcomagenic cells showed a spherical morphology with cortical actin rings, suggesting a switch from mesenchymal to amoeboid movement. Accordingly, cell invasion decreased after treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, but not with the matrix protease inhibitor Ro 28-2653. The increased invasiveness of tumorigenic cells was associated with reduced expression of Rnd3 (also known as RhoE, a cellular inhibitor of ROCK. Indeed, ectopic Rnd3 expression reduced their invasive ability in vitro and their metastatic potential in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, during neoplastic transformation, cells of mesenchymal origin can switch from a mesenchymal mode of movement to an amoeboid one. In addition, they point to Rnd3 as a possible regulator of mesenchymal tumor cell invasion and to ROCK as a potential therapeutic target for sarcomas.

  17. Reduced Expression of the ROCK Inhibitor Rnd3 Is Associated with Increased Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential in Mesenchymal Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiovine, Cristina; Frapolli, Roberta; Bonezzi, Katiuscia; Chiodi, Ilaria; Favero, Francesco; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Dei Tos, Angelo P.; Giulotto, Elena; Taraboletti, Giulia; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Mondello, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal and amoeboid movements are two important mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to invade the surrounding environment. Mesenchymal movement depends on extracellular matrix protease activity, amoeboid movement on the RhoA-dependent kinase ROCK. Cancer cells can switch from one mechanism to the other in response to different stimuli, limiting the efficacy of antimetastatic therapies. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the acquisition and molecular regulation of the invasion capacity of neoplastically transformed human fibroblasts, which were able to induce sarcomas and metastases when injected into immunocompromised mice. We found that neoplastic transformation was associated with a change in cell morphology (from fibroblastic to polygonal), a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, a decrease in the expression of several matrix metalloproteases and increases in cell motility and invasiveness. In a three-dimensional environment, sarcomagenic cells showed a spherical morphology with cortical actin rings, suggesting a switch from mesenchymal to amoeboid movement. Accordingly, cell invasion decreased after treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, but not with the matrix protease inhibitor Ro 28-2653. The increased invasiveness of tumorigenic cells was associated with reduced expression of Rnd3 (also known as RhoE), a cellular inhibitor of ROCK. Indeed, ectopic Rnd3 expression reduced their invasive ability in vitro and their metastatic potential in vivo. Conclusions These results indicate that, during neoplastic transformation, cells of mesenchymal origin can switch from a mesenchymal mode of movement to an amoeboid one. In addition, they point to Rnd3 as a possible regulator of mesenchymal tumor cell invasion and to ROCK as a potential therapeutic target for sarcomas. PMID:21209796

  18. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Maria C; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S; Pinto, Joaquim G; Bugalho, Miguel N; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs.

  19. Parasites reduce food web robustness because they are sensitive to secondary extinction as illustrated by an invasive estuarine snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2009-01-01

    A robust food web is one in which few secondary extinctions occur after removing species. We investigated how parasites affected the robustness of the Carpinteria Salt Marsh food web by conducting random species removals and a hypothetical, but plausible, species invasion. Parasites were much more likely than free-living species to suffer secondary extinctions following the removal of a free-living species from the food web. For this reason, the food web was less robust with the inclusion of parasites. Removal of the horn snail, Cerithidea californica, resulted in a disproportionate number of secondary parasite extinctions. The exotic Japanese mud snail, Batillaria attramentaria, is the ecological analogue of the native California horn snail and can completely replace it following invasion. Owing to the similarities between the two snail species, the invasion had no effect on predator–prey interactions. However, because the native snail is host for 17 host-specific parasites, and the invader is host to only one, comparison of a food web that includes parasites showed significant effects of invasion on the native community. The hypothetical invasion also significantly reduced the connectance of the web because the loss of 17 native trematode species eliminated many links.

  20. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Maria C.; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Bugalho, Miguel N.; Werner, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs.

  1. Sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment can act as a barrier to further invasions by parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, Kazutaka

    2013-02-01

    The assumption of a twofold cost of sex not only complicates the maintenance of sex but also sets conditions for sexual conflict: in organisms with the twofold cost, males often sexually harass females. Sexual harassment is detrimental to female fitness and thus might help maintain sexual populations if male harassment inflicts a harsher cost on parthenogens than on sexual females (asymmetric harassment cost). However, the generality of this concept is now considered doubtful because selective harassment of parthenogens results in loss of mating opportunities for males. Using three mathematical models, I show here that sexual harassment still can impose the asymmetric cost on parthenogens. First, I apply the Lotka-Volterra model to show the degree of asymmetric harassment cost that permits sex to be maintained stably in the population. Second, using adaptive dynamics, I examine whether sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment, which occurs only in sexual populations, can promote the asymmetric harassment cost. Finally, an individual-based model, which assumes a spatial structure unlike that in the other two, demonstrates that the asymmetric evolution of harassment cost prevents further invasions of parthenogens from different patches into sexual lineages; these mechanisms may account for allopatric distributions of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages as well as the maintenance of sex.

  2. Characteristics of invasion-reduced hilA gene mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shuang; Si, Wei; Yu, Shenye; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Xiumei; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes huge losses in poultry industry and also food poisoning in humans due to its being a food-borne pathogen. Functions of Invasion-related genes need to be explored, as invasion is a key step for Salmonella infection. In this study, a transposon mutant library of Salmonella Enteritidis isolate SM6 was constructed and screened for the invasion-related genes via incubation with Caco-2 cells. Three stably attenuated mutants were identified for significantly reduced invasion with insertions all in hilA (hyperinvasive locus A) gene. We constructed and evaluated the hilA deletion mutant in vivo and in vitro. SM6△hilA showed significantly reduced ability to invade Caco-2 cells and decreased pathogenicity in chicks. However, the bacterial load and pathological damage in the cecum were significantly higher than those in the SM6 in vivo. Present results provide new evidences for pathogenicity research on Salmonella Enteritidis.

  3. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galapagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

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    Victor Carrion

    Full Text Available Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short

  4. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Julian [University of Florida; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  5. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the communities of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine marsh sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemaneh eZeleke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant invasion on the microorganisms of soil sediments is very important for estuary ecology. The community structures of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB as a function of Spartina alterniflora invasion in Phragmites australis-vegetated sediments of the Dongtan wetland in the Yangtze River estuary, China, were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA and dissimilatory sulfite-reductase (dsrB genes. Sediment samples were collected from two replicate locations, and each location included three sampling stands each covered by monocultures of P. australis, S. alterniflora and both plants (transition stands, respectively. qPCR analysis revealed higher copy numbers of mcrA genes in sediments from S. alterniflora stands than P. australis stands (5- and 7.5-fold more in the spring and summer, respectively, which is consistent with the higher methane flux rates measured in the S. alterniflora stands (up to 8.01 ± 5.61 mg m-2 h-1. Similar trends were observed for SRB, and they were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanogens. Diversity indices indicated a lower diversity of methanogens in the S. alterniflora stands than the P. australis stands. In contrast, insignificant variations were observed in the diversity of SRB with the invasion. Although Methanomicrobiales and Methanococcales, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated in the salt marsh, Methanomicrobiales displayed a slight increase with the invasion and growth of S. alterniflora, whereas the later responded differently. Methanosarcina, the metabolically diverse methanogens, did not vary with the invasion of, but Methanosaeta, the exclusive acetate utilizers, appeared to increase with S. alterniflora invasion. In SRB, sequences closely related to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae dominated in the salt marsh, although they displayed minimal changes with the S

  6. Cancer-associated fibroblasts from human NSCLC survive ablative doses of radiation but their invasive capacity is reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik Turid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs are significant components of solid malignancies and play central roles in cancer sustainability, invasion and metastasis. In this study we have investigated the invasive capacity and matrix remodelling properties of human lung CAFs after exposure to ablative doses of ionizing radiation (AIR, equivalent to single fractions delivered by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SART for medically inoperable stage-I/II non-small-cell lung cancers. Methods CAFs were isolated from lung tumour specimens from 16 donors. Initially, intrinsic radiosensitivity was evaluated by checking viability and extent of DNA-damage response (DDR at different radiation doses. The migrative and invasive capacities of CAFs were thereafter determined after a sub-lethal single radiation dose of 18 Gy. To ascertain the mechanisms behind the altered invasive capacity of cells, expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs were measured in the conditioned media several days post-irradiation, along with expression of cell surface integrins and dynamics of focal contacts by vinculin-staining. Results Exposing CAFs to 1 × 18 Gy resulted in a potent induction of multiple nuclear DDR foci (> 9/cell with little resolution after 120 h, induced premature cellular senescence and inhibition of the proliferative, migrative and invasive capacity. AIR promoted MMP-3 and inhibited MMP-1 appearance to some extent, but did not affect expression of other major MMPs. Furthermore, surface expression of integrins α2, β1 and α5 was consistently enhanced, and a dramatic augmentation and redistribution of focal contacts was observed. Conclusions Our data indicate that ablative doses of radiation exert advantageous inhibitory effects on the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacity of lung CAFs. The reduced motility of irradiated CAFs might be a consequence of stabilized focal contacts via integrins.

  7. Invasive mycosis due to species of Blastobotrys in immunocompromised patients with reduced susceptibility to antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Babu, Rachana; Bijulal, Swapna; Abraham, Mohan; Sasidharan, P; Kathuria, Shallu; Sharma, Cheshta; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2014-11-01

    Cases of invasive mycosis due to Blastobotrys serpentis and B. proliferans identified by sequencing in a preterm patient and a rhabdomyosarcoma patient, respectively, are reported. Both species revealed elevated fluconazole and echinocandin MICs by the CLSI broth microdilution method. Additionally, B. serpentis exhibited high amphotericin B MICs, thus posing serious therapeutic challenges.

  8. ARE INVASIVE RIPARIAN PLANTS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED BIOTIC CONDITION OF FAUNA IN WESTERN US STREAMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yes. Records on the presence or absence of 12 invasive riparian plant taxa and observations on macroinvertebrate and vertebrate communities within streams were collected at over 1000 stream reaches. The sampled reaches were selected on a probability basis to represent the populat...

  9. Interventions for reducing wrong-site surgery and invasive clinical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algie, Catherine M; Mahar, Robert K; Wasiak, Jason; Batty, Lachlan; Gruen, Russell L; Mahar, Patrick D

    2015-03-30

    Specific clinical interventions are needed to reduce wrong-site surgery, which is a rare but potentially disastrous clinical error. Risk factors contributing to wrong-site surgery are variable and complex. The introduction of organisational and professional clinical strategies have a role in minimising wrong-site surgery. To evaluate the effectiveness of organisational and professional interventions for reducing wrong-site surgery (including wrong-side, wrong-procedure and wrong-patient surgery), including non-surgical invasive clinical procedures such as regional blocks, dermatological, obstetric and dental procedures and emergency surgical procedures not undertaken within the operating theatre. For this update, we searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2014), MEDLINE (June 2011 to January 2014), EMBASE (June 2011 to January 2014), CINAHL (June 2011 to January 2014), Dissertations and Theses (June 2011 to January 2014), African Index Medicus, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences database, Virtual Health Library, Pan American Health Organization Database and the World Health Organization Library Information System. Database searches were conducted in January 2014. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies (CBAs) with at least two intervention and control sites, and interrupted-time-series (ITS) studies where the intervention time was clearly defined and there were at least three data points before and three after the intervention. We included two ITS studies that evaluated the effectiveness of organisational and professional interventions for reducing wrong-site surgery, including wrong-side and wrong-procedure surgery. Participants included all healthcare professionals providing care to surgical

  10. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bing; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  11. α-Solanine inhibits human melanoma cell migration and invasion by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Kun; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chang Chien, Tzu-Tsung; Fang, Li-Heng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2010-01-01

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts, was found to possess anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the effect of α-solanine on cancer metastasis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of α-solanine on metastasis in vitro. Data demonstrated that α-solanine inhibited proliferation of human melanoma cell line A2058 in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed. Furthermore, α-solanine reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, which are involved in the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Our biochemical assays indicated that α-solanine potently suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, while it did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, α-solanine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that α-solanine inhibited NF-κB activity. Taken together, the results suggested that α-solanine inhibited migration and invasion of A2058 cells by reducing MMP-2/9 activities. It also inhibited JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for α-solanine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  12. ACT effectiveness in reducing aggressive behavior consent from patients treated with MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosan Bahrami Kohshahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ACT on reducing aggressive behavior and improving the quality of the marital relationship and satisfaction with treatment in patients treated with the MMT. The type of the research was Quasi-experimental with a pre-test - post-test plan with the control group.The study population included all patients treated with MMT, in Tehran who have referred voluntary in 2015 for a period of six months to addiction treatment centers in Tehran and have treated.30 people were selectedamong the target population, by random sampling and then people randomly were replaced in two groups of 15 people, including experimental and control groups. The two groupswere evaluated in two steps of pre-test and post-test by questionnaire of the study, and the experimental group has received the treatment based on acceptance and commitment between two steps.Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results showed that scores on aggressive behavior and satisfaction of patients treated with MMT participating in the training group of ACT, has significant difference compared to the group (0.05> P. Therefore, teaching ACT will help the aggressive behaviors and satisfaction of treating patients with MMT.

  13. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-11-01

    Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of

  14. The Hedgehog Inhibitor Cyclopamine Reduces β-Catenin-Tcf Transcriptional Activity, Induces E-Cadherin Expression, and Reduces Invasion in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualtrough, David, E-mail: david.qualtrough@uwe.ac.uk [Department of Biological, Biomedical & Analytical Sciences, University of the West of England, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom); Rees, Phil; Speight, Beverley; Williams, Ann C.; Paraskeva, Christos [School of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Medical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-17

    Colorectal cancer is a major global health problem resulting in over 600,000 deaths world-wide every year with the majority of these due to metastatic disease. Wnt signalling, and more specifically β-catenin-related transcription, has been shown to drive both tumorigenesis and the metastatic process in colorectal neoplasia, yet its complex interactions with other key signalling pathways, such as hedgehog, remain to be elucidated. We have previously shown that the Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway is active in cells from colorectal tumours, and that inhibition of the pathway with cyclopamine induces apoptosis. We now show that cyclopamine treatment reduces β-catenin related transcription in colorectal cancer cell lines, and that this effect can be reversed by addition of Sonic Hedgehog protein. We also show that cyclopamine concomitantly induces expression of the tumour suppressor and prognostic indicator E-cadherin. Consistent with a role for HH in regulating the invasive potential we show that cyclopamine reduces the expression of transcription factors (Slug, Snail and Twist) associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reduces the invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, these data show that pharmacological inhibition of the hedgehog pathway has therapeutic potential in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  15. The Hedgehog Inhibitor Cyclopamine Reduces β-Catenin-Tcf Transcriptional Activity, Induces E-Cadherin Expression, and Reduces Invasion in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Qualtrough

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a major global health problem resulting in over 600,000 deaths world-wide every year with the majority of these due to metastatic disease. Wnt signalling, and more specifically β-catenin-related transcription, has been shown to drive both tumorigenesis and the metastatic process in colorectal neoplasia, yet its complex interactions with other key signalling pathways, such as hedgehog, remain to be elucidated. We have previously shown that the Hedgehog (HH signalling pathway is active in cells from colorectal tumours, and that inhibition of the pathway with cyclopamine induces apoptosis. We now show that cyclopamine treatment reduces β-catenin related transcription in colorectal cancer cell lines, and that this effect can be reversed by addition of Sonic Hedgehog protein. We also show that cyclopamine concomitantly induces expression of the tumour suppressor and prognostic indicator E-cadherin. Consistent with a role for HH in regulating the invasive potential we show that cyclopamine reduces the expression of transcription factors (Slug, Snail and Twist associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reduces the invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, Cancers 2015, 7 1886 these data show that pharmacological inhibition of the hedgehog pathway has therapeutic potential in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  16. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort.

  17. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Hu, Mengcai

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  18. Daucus carota Pentane/Diethyl Ether Fraction Inhibits Motility and Reduces Invasion of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Perla; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohamad; Nasrallah, Anita; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Daucus carota (DC) is a herb used in folklore medicine in Lebanon to treat numerous diseases including cancer. Recent studies in our laboratory on DC oil and its fractions revealed potent anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the most potent DC fraction, pentane/diethyl ether (50:50), on lung, skin, breast and glioblastoma cancer cell motility and invasion. Upon treatment, a pronounced decrease in cancer cell motility was observed in the 4 cell lines. The treatment also led to a decrease in cancer cell invasion and an increased cell adhesion. Additionally, the DC fraction caused a decrease in the activation of the ρ-GTPases Rac and CDC42, a finding that may partially explain the treatment-induced decrease in cell motility. The current study demonstrates a crucial effect of the DC pentane/diethyl ether fraction on cancer cell motility and metastasis, making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy specifically targeting cancer motility and metastasis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Deletion of a malaria invasion gene reduces death and anemia, in model hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé D Gómez

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites induce complex cellular and clinical phenotypes, including anemia, cerebral malaria and death in a wide range of mammalian hosts. Host genes and parasite 'toxins' have been implicated in malarial disease, but the contribution of parasite genes remains to be fully defined. Here we assess disease in BALB/c mice and Wistar rats infected by the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei with a gene knock out for merozoite surface protein (MSP 7. MSP7 is not essential for infection but in P. falciparum, it enhances erythrocyte invasion by 20%. In vivo, as compared to wild type, the P. berghei Δmsp7 mutant is associated with an abrogation of death and a decrease from 3% to 2% in peak, circulating parasitemia. The Δmsp7 mutant is also associated with less anemia and modest increase in the size of follicles in the spleen. Together these data show that deletion of a single parasite invasion ligand modulates blood stage disease, as measured by death and anemia. This work is the first to assess the contribution of a gene present in all plasmodial species in severe disease.

  20. Extreme Drought Event and Shrub Invasion Reduce Oak Trees Functioning and Resilience on Water-Limited Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, M. C.; Lobo-do-Vale, R.; Lecomte, X.; David, T. S.; Pinto, J. G.; Bugalho, M. N.; Werner, C.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme droughts and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning. Shrub encroachment is increasing in many regions worldwide and extreme events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity, namely in the Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, little is known about how these drivers may interact and affect ecosystem functioning and resilience Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event in a Mediterranean oak woodland, we show that the combination of native shrub invasion and extreme drought reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of the key-stone oak tree species. We established six 25 x 25 m paired plots in a shrub (Cistus ladanifer L.) encroached Mediterranean cork-oak (Quercus suber L.) woodland. We measured sapflow and pre-dawn leaf water potential of trees and shrubs and soil water content in all plots during four years. We determined the resilience of tree transpiration to evaluate to what extent trees recovered from the extreme drought event. From February to November 2011 we conducted baseline measurements for plot comparison. In November 2011 all the shrubs from one of all the paired plots were cut and removed. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub, which further increased after the extreme drought. Simultaneously, tree transpiration in invaded plots declined more sharply (67 ± 13 %) than in plots cleared from shrubs (31 ± 11%) relative to the pre-drought year (2011). Trees in invaded plots were not able to recover in the following wetter year showing lower resilience to the extreme drought event. Our results imply that in Mediterranean-type of climates invasion by water spending species coupled with the projected recurrent extreme droughts will cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of trees to be overcome, thus increasing the probability of tree mortality.

  1. Extreme drought event and shrub invasion combine to reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Maria; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa; Pinto, Joaquim; Bugalho, Miguel; Werner, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning. Shrub encroachment is increasing in many regions worldwide and extreme events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity, namely in the Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, little is known about how these drivers may interact and affect ecosystem functioning and resilience to extreme droughts. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that the native shrub invasion and extreme drought combined to reduce ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of the key-stone oak tree species. We established six 25 x 25 m paired plots in a shrub (Cistus ladanifer L.) encroached Mediterranean cork-oak (Quercus suber L.) woodland. We measured sapflow and pre-dawn leaf water potential of trees and shrubs and soil water content in all plots during three years. We determined the resilience of tree transpiration to evaluate to what extent trees recovered from the extreme drought event. From February to November 2011 we conducted baseline measurements for plot comparison. In November 2011 all the shrubs from one of all the paired plots were cut and removed. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub, which further increased after the extreme drought. Simultaneously, tree transpiration in invaded plots declined much stronger (67 ± 13 %) than in plots cleared from shrubs (31 ± 11%) relative to the pre-drought year. Trees in invaded plots were not able to recover in the following wetter year showing lower resilience to the extreme drought event. Our results imply that in Mediterranean-type of climates invasion by water spending species can combine with projected recurrent extreme droughts causing critical drought tolerance thresholds of trees to be overcome increasing the probability of tree mortality (Caldeira et.al. 2015

  2. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement reduces atelectasis in cardiac intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Gazi, Dunia; Bach, Karen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory failure is a major complication after cardiac surgery. The purpose was to evaluate the impact of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (mini AVR) on the occurrence of left lower lobe atelectasis (LLLA) in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 98...... patients were scheduled to undergo mini AVR. 14 of these patients were converted to a full sternotomy due to technical problems. These patients were compared to a group of 50 patients having planned AVR through a full sternotomy. The incidence of LLLA was evaluated on the first postoperative chest X......-ray in the cardiac ICU. RESULTS: In the group having completed mini AVR 20/84 (24%) had a partial LLLA while in the group having extension to a full sternotomy 9/14 (64%) had LLLA lobe (PAVR through a full sternotomy, 27 patients (54%) had LLLA in the ICU which is also...

  3. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÍSA N. ALLEM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  4. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sarah E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  5. French invasive Asian tiger mosquito populations harbor reduced bacterial microbiota and genetic diversity compared to Vietnamese autochthonous relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, G.; Tran, F. H.; Van, Van Tran; Goubert, C.; Bellet, C.; Lambert, G.; Kim, Khanh Ly Huynh; Thuy, Trang Huynh Thi; Mavingui, P.; Valiente Moro, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the twenty-first century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype) and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding) were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects. PMID:26441903

  6. The minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession for mild to moderate lower eyelid retraction with reduced orbicularis strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donald B; Griffin, Garrett R; Azizzadeh, Babak; Massry, Guy G

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identifying a procedure to address lower eyelid retraction (LER) in the presence of an orbicularis deficit is a useful tool for aesthetic and reconstructive eyelid surgery. OBJECTIVE To describe and evaluate a surgical technique consisting of a closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession to address LER in the setting of orbicularis weakness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical record review of patients who underwent the minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession from January 1, 2010, to October 1, 2012, by one of us (G.G.M.) in an ophthalmic plastic surgical practice. We included 29 patients with reduced orbicularis strength and LER resulting from eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease, surgical trauma (after blepharoplasty), involutional change, or idiopathic causes. INTERVENTIONS Surgical intervention consisting of closed canthal suspension and lower eyelid retractor recession. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Surgical results, complications, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS The 29 patients included 18 women and 11 men. The mean patient age was 52 (range, 6-72) years; mean follow-up, 11 (range, 6-21) months; and mean preoperative orbicularis strength, 2.7 (on a scale of 0-4, where 0 indicates no function and 4, normal function). The causes of orbicularis weakness included eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease (11 patients), surgical trauma (13 patients), involutional change (4 patients), and an isolated idiopathic finding (1 patient). In 12 patients, the eyelid retraction was unilateral; in 17, bilateral. A small tarsorrhaphy was added to the surgery in 6 patients with facial nerve disease. The mean eyelid elevation after surgery was 1.80 mm, with only minor complications. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Recent publications have demonstrated the utility of closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession as separate

  7. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  8. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-08-11

    In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan-both working with Options Consultancy Services-have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from offering services

  9. The Contraceptive CHOICE Project: reducing barriers to long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secura, Gina M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Madden, Tessa; Mullersman, Jennifer L; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2010-08-01

    To introduce and promote the use of long-acting reversible methods of contraception (LARC; intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal implant) by removing financial and knowledge barriers. The Contraceptive CHOICE Project is a prospective cohort study of 10,000 women 14-45 years who want to avoid pregnancy for at least 1 year and are initiating a new form of reversible contraception. Women screened for this study are read a script regarding long-acting reversible methods of contraception to increase awareness of these options. Participants choose their contraceptive method that is provided at no cost. We report the contraceptive choice and baseline characteristics of the first 2500 women enrolled August 2007 through December 2008. Sixty-seven percent of women enrolled (95% confidence interval, 65.3-69.0) chose long-acting methods. Fifty-six percent selected intrauterine contraception and 11% selected the subdermal implant. Once financial barriers were removed and long-acting reversible methods of contraception were introduced to all potential participants as a first-line contraceptive option, two-thirds chose long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs.

  11. RNA interference suppression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) reduces the adhesive and invasive capacity of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tetsuji; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamada, Nobuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2010-05-23

    MUC5AC is a secretory mucin normally expressed in the surface muconous cells of stomach and bronchial tract. It has been known that MUC5AC de novo expression occurred in the invasive ductal carcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm with no detectable expression in normal pancreas, however, its function remains uncertain. Here, we report the impact of MUC5AC on the adhesive and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. We used two MUC5AC expressing cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, SW1990 and BxPC3. Small-interfering (si) RNA directed against MUC5AC were used to assess the effects of MUC5AC on invasion and adhesion of pancreas cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We compared parental cells (SW1990 and BxPC3) with MUC5AC suppressed cells by si RNA (si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3). MUC5AC was found to express in more than 80% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens. Next we observed that both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 showed significantly lower adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix components compared with parental cell lines. Expression of genes associated with adhesion and invasion including several integerins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were down-regulated in both MUC5AC suppressed cells. Furthermore, production of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 were significantly reduced by MUC5AC down regulation. Both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 attenuated activation of Erk1/2. In vivo, si-SW1990 did not establish subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Knockdown of MUC5AC reduced the ability of pancreatic cancer cells to adhesion and invasion, suggesting that MUC5AC might contribute to the invasive motility of pancreatic cancer cells by enhancing the expression of integrins, MMP-3, VEGF and activating Erk pathway.

  12. CK2 abrogates the inhibitory effects of PRH/HHEX on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion and acts through PRH to control cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Y H; Kershaw, R M; Humphreys, E H; Assis Junior, E M; Chaudhri, S; Jayaraman, P-S; Gaston, K

    2017-01-01

    PRH/HHEX (proline-rich homeodomain protein/haematopoietically expressed homeobox protein) is a transcription factor that controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. Our previous work has shown that in haematopoietic cells, Protein Kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation of PRH results in the inhibition of PRH DNA-binding activity, increased cleavage of PRH by the proteasome and the misregulation of PRH target genes. Here we show that PRH and hyper-phosphorylated PRH are present in normal prostate epithelial cells, and that hyper-phosphorylated PRH levels are elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and prostate cancer cell lines. A reduction in PRH protein levels increases the motility of normal prostate epithelial cells and conversely, PRH over-expression inhibits prostate cancer cell migration and blocks the ability of these cells to invade an extracellular matrix. We show that CK2 over-expression blocks the repression of prostate cancer cell migration and invasion by PRH. In addition, we show that PRH knockdown in normal immortalised prostate cells results in an increase in the population of cells capable of colony formation in Matrigel, as well as increased cell invasion and decreased E-cadherin expression. Inhibition of CK2 reduces PRH phosphorylation and reduces prostate cell proliferation but the effects of CK2 inhibition on cell proliferation are abrogated in PRH knockdown cells. These data suggest that the increased phosphorylation of PRH in prostate cancer cells increases both cell proliferation and tumour cell migration/invasion. PMID:28134934

  13. Nanostructured zirconia decorated reduced graphene oxide based efficient biosensing platform for non-invasive oral cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suveen; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Maji, Sagar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2016-04-15

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of a non-invasive, label-free and an efficient biosensing platform for detection of the oral cancer biomarker (CYFRA-21-1). One step hydrothermal process was used for uniform decoration of nanostructured zirconia (average particle size 13 nm) on reduced graphene oxide (ZrO2-RGO) to avoid coagulation of the zirconia nanoparticles and to obtain enhanced electrochemical performance of ZrO2-RGO nanocomposite based biosensor. Further, ZrO2-RGO has been functionalized using 3-aminopropyl triethoxy saline (APTES) and electrophoretically deposited on the indium tin oxide coated glass substrate at a low DC potential.The APTES/ZrO2-RGO/ITO electrode exhibits improved heterogeneous electron transfer (more than two times) with respect to that of the APTES/ZrO2/ITO electrode indicating faster electron transfer kinetics. The -NH2 containing APTES/ZrO2-RGO/ITO platform is further biofunctionalized with anti-CYFRA-21-1. The structural and morphological investigations of the ZrO2-RGO based biosensing platform have been accomplished using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies. This immunosensor exhibits a wider linear detection range (2-22 ng mL(-1)), excellent sensitivity (0.756 µA mL ng(-1)) and a remarkable lower detection limit of 0.122 ng mL(-1). The observed results have been validated via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  14. A cis-acting sequence homologous to the yeast filamentation and invasion response element regulates expression of a pectinase gene from the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Corentin; Jacquet, Christophe; Borel, Charlotte; Esquerre-Tugaye, Marie-Therese; Dumas, Bernard

    2002-08-09

    Phytopathogenic fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes that degrade plant cell walls, notably pectinases. The signaling pathway(s) that control pectinase gene expression are currently unknown in filamentous fungi. Recently, the green fluorescent protein coding sequence was used as a reporter gene to study the expression of CLPG2, a gene encoding an endopolygalacturonase of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. CLPG2 is transcriptionally induced by pectin in the axenic culture of the fungus and during formation of the appressorium, an infection structure specialized in plant tissue penetration. In the present study, promoter deletion and mutagenesis, as well as gel shift mobility assays, allowed for the first time identification of cis-acting elements that bind protein factors and are essential for the regulation of a pectinase gene. We found that two different adjacent DNA motifs are combined to form an active element that shows a strong sequence homology with the yeast filamentation and invasion response element. The same element is required for the transcriptional activation of CLPG2 by pectin and during appressorium development. This study strongly suggests that the control of virulence genes of fungal plant pathogens, such as pectinases, involves the formation of a complex of transcriptional activators similar to those regulating the invasive growth in yeast.

  15. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces astrocytoma cell invasion and constitutive activation of STAT3 predicts poor prognosis in human astrocytoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinchuan Liang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines (U251 and U87, and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.

  16. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C Josh; Campbell, Karl J; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe

    2011-05-11

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being

  17. Drift algae, an invasive snail and elevated temperature reduce ecological performance of a warm-temperate seagrass, through additive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffle, H.; Wernberg, T.; Thomsen, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Seagrasses are under pressure from multiple concurrent threats, including rising temperatures, invasive species and nutrient-driven algal accumulations. We quantified the abundance of drift algae and the invasive snail Batillaria australis in 3 Halophila ovalis seagrass beds in the Swan River...... Estuary (Perth, Western Australia), and tested in an aquarium experiment for interactive effects of temperature (21 vs. 27 degrees C), cover of drift algae Chaetomorpha linum (0 vs. 1.4 kg fresh wt m(-2)) and presence (0 vs. 120 snails m(-2)) of B. australis on the ecological performance of H. ovalis....... The survey showed that drift algae varied considerably between sites and sampling times, and sites experienced average loads of 0.4 to 0.8 kg fresh wt m(-2) and extreme loads up to 2.5 kg fresh wt m(-2). In contrast, invasive snails were constantly abundant at all sites at all collection times (mean...

  18. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  19. DDR2 inhibition reduces migration and invasion of murine metastatic melanoma cells by suppressing MMP2/9 expression through ERK/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Barun; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Dae-Ki

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic melanoma is one of the most deadly and evasive cancers. Collagen I in the extracellular matrix promotes the migration and invasion of tumor cells through the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 is a collagen receptor that is implicated in several cancer types including breast and prostate cancers. However, the role of DDR2 in the migration and invasion of murine melanoma cells is less studied. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of DDR2 in migration and invasion of B16BL6 melanoma cells in response to collagen I. Results demonstrated that DDR2 is expressed and is phosphorylated by collagen I in the cells. Upon down-regulation of DDR2 using small-interfering RNA (siRNA) approach, both of the cell migratory and invasive phenotypes were significantly attenuated when compared with the control cells. This effect was mediated via suppression of MMP2/9 upon DDR2 inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of DDR2 by specific siRNA markedly reduced the activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 and nuclear factor of kappa B (NF-κB) in the cells when compared with the control cells. Overall, these data demonstrated that DDR2 siRNA-mediated suppression of ERK1/2 and NF-κB could down-regulate the expressions of MMP2/9 in response to collagen I to reduce the migratory and invasive phenotypes of the cells.

  20. 长效和短效NO发生剂体内干预疟原虫红内期重要侵袭分子转录水平的观察%Transcription Levels of Important Invasive Molecules after Long-Acting and Short-Acting NO Donor to Interfere Plasmodium during Erythrocytic Stage in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽; 李银燕; 刘军; 潘艳艳; 李莹; 延娟; 曹雅明

    2011-01-01

    为探讨NO对疟原虫红内期侵袭相关分子MSP-1、AMA-1和RhopH complex转录水平的影响.通过雌性BALB/c小鼠腹腔感染1 ×106致死型约氏疟原虫P.yoelii 17XL,体内给予NO长效(NOC18)和短效( NOC5)发生剂进行干预后,纯化疟原虫成熟裂殖体,提取总RNA,通过Real-time PCR相对定量方法检测MSP-1、AMA-1和RhopH complex的转录水平.结果显示和正常感染组相比,NOC5处理后疟原虫侵入的关键分子MSP-1、AMA-1和RhopH complex的转录水平明显下降;而NOC18处理则未见这一现象.本研究结果提示NO抑制疟原虫侵袭关键分子的转录水平,进而可能下调疟原虫相应蛋白的表达,从而影响疟原虫的侵入过程.%The effects of NO on the transcription levels of correlated invasive molecules MSP-1, AMA-1, and RhopH complex during Plasmodium erythrocytic stage were investigated. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 1 x 106 lethal type Plasmodium yoelii 17XL in abdominal cavity, then the mice were treated with long-acting NO (NOC18) and short-acting NO ( N0C5 ) donors in vivo to cany out interference. Mature Plasmodium schizonts were purified and extracted their total RNA. The transcription levels of MSP-1, AMA-1, and RhopH complex were detected by real-time PCR relative quantitative determination. The results showed that the transcription levels of key molecules of MSP-1, AMA-1, and RhopH complex of Plasmodium invasion after treated with NOC5 decreased tangibly as compared with normal infected groups. However, the phenomenon was not seen in the groups treated with NOC18. These result indicated that NO inhibited the transcription levels of Plasmodium invasive key molecules, and proceeded to reduce the expression of Plasmodium corresponding protein, therefore, affected the Plasmodium invasive process.

  1. A novel cantharidin analog N-Benzylcantharidinamide reduces the expression of MMP-9 and invasive potentials of Hep3B via inhibiting cytosolic translocation of HuR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Chung, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hee-Jung [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hyun [Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Taek [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun-Yong [Department of Internal Medicine, Korean Medicine Hospital, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So-Yeon; Han, Chang-Woo [Department of Internal Medicine, Korean Medicine Hospital, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-Sol, E-mail: jhsol33@pusan.ac.kr [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Ki-Tae, E-mail: hagis@pusan.ac.kr [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • We examined the inhibition of N-Benzylcantharidinamide on MMP-9-mediated invasion. • Unlike cantharidin, N-Benzylcantharidinamide has very low toxicity on Hep3B cells. • The reduced MMP-9 expression was due to HuR-mediated decrease of mRNA stability. • We suggest N-Benzylcantharidinamide as a novel inhibitor of MMP-9-related invasion. - Abstract: Invasion and metastasis are major causes of malignant tumor-associated mortality. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular events underlying inhibitory effect of N-Benzylcantharidinamide, a novel synthetic analog of cantharidin, on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-mediated invasion in highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. In this investigation, among six analogs of cantharidin, only N-Benzylcantharidinamide has the inhibitory action on MMP-9 expression at non-toxic dose. The MMP-9 expression and invasion of Hep3B cells were significantly suppressed by treatment of N-Benzylcantharidinamide in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 promoter and nuclear levels of NF-κB and AP-1 as the main transcriptional factors inducing MMP-9 expression were not affected by it although the level of MMP-9 mRNA was reduced by treatment of N-Benzylcantharidinamide. Interestingly, the stability of MMP-9 mRNA was significantly reduced by N-Benzylcantharidinamide-treatment. In addition, the cytosolic translocation of human antigen R (HuR), which results in the increase of MMP-9 mRNA stability through interaction of HuR with 3′-untranslated region of MMP-9 mRNA, was suppressed by treatment of N-Benzylcantharidinamide, in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that N-Benzylcantharidinamide suppresses MMP-9 expression by reducing HuR-mediated MMP-9 mRNA stability for the inhibition of invasive potential in highly metastatic Hep3B cells.

  2. Combined Gravity Gradient and Jitter Accelerations Acting on Liquid-Vapor Interface Oscillations in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids affected by the asymmetric combined gravity gradient and jitter accelerations, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids applicable to a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft dewar tank, have been investigated. Three different cases of accelerations, one gravity gradient-dominated, one equally weighted between gravity gradient and jitter, and the others gravity jitter-dominated are studied. Results of slosh wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface induced by gravity gradient-dominated acceleration indicate that the gravity gradient-dominated acceleration is equivalent to the combined effect of a twisting force and torsional moment acting on the spacecraft. Results of the slosh wave excitation along the liquid vapor interface induced by gravity jitter-dominated acceleration indicate that the gravity jitter-dominated acceleration is equivalent to time-dependent oscillatory forces which push the bubble in the combined directions of down-and-up and sideward -and-middleward as the bubble is rotating with respect to rotating dewar axis. This study discloses the slosh wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface driven by the combined effects of gravity gradient and jitter accelerations which are two major driving forces affecting the stability of the fluid system in microgravity.

  3. Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases described to date. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small (fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglial cells and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. This wide range of actions suggests that fisetin has the ability to reduce the impact of age-related neurological diseases on brain function. PMID:25961687

  4. RNA interference suppression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC reduces the adhesive and invasive capacity of human pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Nobuya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MUC5AC is a secretory mucin normally expressed in the surface muconous cells of stomach and bronchial tract. It has been known that MUC5AC de novo expression occurred in the invasive ductal carcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm with no detectable expression in normal pancreas, however, its function remains uncertain. Here, we report the impact of MUC5AC on the adhesive and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods We used two MUC5AC expressing cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, SW1990 and BxPC3. Small-interfering (si RNA directed against MUC5AC were used to assess the effects of MUC5AC on invasion and adhesion of pancreas cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We compared parental cells (SW1990 and BxPC3 with MUC5AC suppressed cells by si RNA (si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3. Results MUC5AC was found to express in more than 80% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens. Next we observed that both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 showed significantly lower adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix components compared with parental cell lines. Expression of genes associated with adhesion and invasion including several integerins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were down-regulated in both MUC5AC suppressed cells. Furthermore, production of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 were significantly reduced by MUC5AC down regulation. Both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 attenuated activation of Erk1/2. In vivo, si-SW1990 did not establish subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Conclusions Knockdown of MUC5AC reduced the ability of pancreatic cancer cells to adhesion and invasion, suggesting that MUC5AC might contribute to the invasive motility of pancreatic cancer cells by enhancing the expression of integrins, MMP-3, VEGF and activating Erk pathway.

  5. California’s Historic Effort to Reduce the Stigma of Mental Illness: The Mental Health Services Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Wayne; Berry, Sandra H.; Collentine, Ann M.; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort. PMID:23488486

  6. Mini-invasive surgical repair of the Achilles tendon--does it reduce post-operative morbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mayukh; Gerber, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    The surgical benefit of minimally invasive tendo Achilles repair (n = 25) with early weight-bearing mobilisation after rupture of the tendo Achilles was compared with operative treatment using an open technique (n = 34) with full weight-bearing after 8 weeks of surgical repair. The minimally invasive technique provided no evidence of wound problems and a functional benefit from early weight-bearing mobilisation. However, we noted that increased post-operative morbidity in terms of wound infection (n = 7) leading to delayed wound healing and wound pain requiring opiate-based analgesia post-operatively in the open repair group may have an additional impact on the patients and health care providers. This study showed that the mini-invasive open surgical repair of the Achilles tendon with the Achillon instrument and early weight-bearing mobilisation in an orthosis for the accelerated rehabilitation may offer cost-effectiveness and less financial burden on the health care provider in terms of associated nursing and physiotherapy costs.

  7. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL(-1)) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL(-1)) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  9. Changes in Soil Biota Resulting from Growth of the Invasive Weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Compositae), Enhance Its Success and Reduce Growth of Co-Occurring Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-na,XIAO Bo,LIU Wan-xue; WAN Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasion presents a serious threat to native ecosystem structure and function. Little is known about the role of soil microbial communities in facilitating or resisting the spread of invasive plants into native communities. The purpose of this research is to understand how the invasive annual plantAmbrosiaartemisiifoliaL. facilitates its competition capacity through changing the structure and function of soil microbial communities.The soil characteristics of different areas invaded by A. artemisiifolia were examined. Greenhouse experiments were designed to assess the effect ofA. artemisiifolia invasion-induced changes of soil biota on co-occurring plant growth, and on the interactions betweenA. artemisiifoliaand three co-occurring plant species. The results showed that the soil organic C content was the highest in heavily invaded sites, the lowest in native plant sites, and intermediate in newly invaded sites. Soil available N, P and K concentrations in heavily invaded site were 2.4, 1.9 and 1.7 times higher than those in native plant soil, respectively. Soil pH decreased asA. artemisiifoliainvasion intensity increased, and was lower in invaded sites (heavily invaded and newly invaded) than in native plant sites. The soil microbial community structure was clearly separated in the three types of sites, andA. artemisiifoliainvasion increased anaerobe, sulfate-reducing bacteria and actinomycete abundance. Soil biota of invaded sites inhibits growth of co-occurring plants (Galinsoga parvilfora Cav.,Medicago sativaL. andSetaria plicata (Lam.) T. Cooke.) compared to soil biota from un-invaded sites, but facilitates A. artemisiifoliagrowth and competition with co-occurring plants.A. artemisiifolia biomass was 50-130% greater when competing with three co-occurring plants,compared to single-species competition only (invasion byA. artemisiifoliaalone), in heavily invaded soil. Results of the present study indicated thatA. artemisiifolia invasion alters the soil

  10. Overexpression of myeloid zinc finger 1 suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and reduces invasiveness of SiHa human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ju; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2012-08-24

    Myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) gene belongs to the Kruppel family of zinc finger transcription factors. MZF1 has been suggested to play an important role in the tumorigenesis, invasion, and apoptosis of various tumor cells. However, the role of MZF1 in human cervical cancer remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of MZF1 and its functional role in human cervical cancer cell migration and invasion, we experimented on stable SiHa cells overexpressing MZF1. We found that MZF1 overexpression inhibits the migratory and invasive abilities of SiHa cervical cancer cells. In addition, the overexpression of MZF1 significantly reduces MMP-2 protein and mRNA levels. Luciferase and ChIP assays suggested that MZF1 directly binds to MMP-2 gene regulatory sequences in vivo and suppresses MMP-2 promoter activity in vitro. This study shows that MZF-1 represses MMP-2 transcription and suggests that this repression may be linked to inhibition of human cervical cancer cell migration and metastasis.

  11. Hospitalization for transurethral bladder resection reduces quality of life in Danish patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Karin; Christensen, Karl B.; Vrang, Marie-Louise;

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) on patients' quality of life (QoL) and to validate a tool to quantify problems associated with TURBT in a Danish population. Materials and methods A prospective study was carried out using...... a combination of questionnaires and interviews. The study included 165 consecutive patients undergoing a TURBT owing to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) from 1 May 2011 to 30 April 2012. Seven patients were selected for interviews. The Danish translation of the QLQ-NMIBC24 Quality of Life...... Questionnaire for NMIBC, from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), was used. The interviews were semi-structured. The reliability of the subscales quantifying QoL as defined by the EORTC was tested by computing Cronbach's coefficient alpha and confirmatory factor analysis...

  12. miR-564 acts as a dual inhibitor of PI3K and MAPK signaling networks and inhibits proliferation and invasion in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Merve; Saatci, Özge; Ansari, Suhail A.; Yurdusev, Emre; Shehwana, Huma; Konu, Özlen; Raza, Umar; Şahin, Özgür

    2016-09-01

    Dysregulation of PI3K and MAPK pathways promotes uncontrolled cell proliferation, apoptotic inhibition and metastasis. Individual targeting of these pathways using kinase inhibitors has largely been insufficient due to the existence of cross-talks between these parallel cascades. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs targeting several genes simultaneously and controlling cancer-related processes. To identify miRNAs repressing both PI3K and MAPK pathways in breast cancer, we re-analyzed our previous miRNA mimic screen data with reverse phase protein array (RPPA) output, and identified miR-564 inhibiting both PI3K and MAPK pathways causing markedly decreased cell proliferation through G1 arrest. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-564 blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduces migration and invasion of aggressive breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, miR-564 directly targets a network of genes comprising AKT2, GNA12, GYS1 and SRF, thereby facilitating simultaneous repression of PI3K and MAPK pathways. Notably, combinatorial knockdown of these target genes using a cocktail of siRNAs mimics the phenotypes exerted upon miR-564 expression. Importantly, high miR-564 expression or low expression of target genes in combination is significantly correlated with better distant relapse-free survival of patients. Overall, miR-564 is a potential dual inhibitor of PI3K and MAPK pathways, and may be an attractive target and prognostic marker for breast cancer.

  13. Combined zoledronic acid and meloxicam reduced bone loss and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model of bone-invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Dirksen, W P; Carlton, M M; Lanigan, L G; Pillai, S P; Werbeck, J L; Simmons, J K; Hildreth, B E; London, C A; Toribio, R E; Rosol, T J

    2015-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is common in cats and humans and invades oral bone. We hypothesized that the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), would inhibit tumour growth, osteolysis and invasion in feline OSCC xenografts in mice. Human and feline OSCC cell lines expressed COX-1 and COX-2 and the SCCF2 cells had increased COX-2 mRNA expression with bone conditioned medium. Luciferase-expressing feline SCCF2Luc cells were injected beneath the perimaxillary gingiva and mice were treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) ZOL twice weekly, 0.3 mg kg(-1) meloxicam daily, combined ZOL and meloxicam, or vehicle. ZOL inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption at the tumour-bone interface. Meloxicam was more effective than ZOL at reducing xenograft growth but did not affect osteoclastic bone resorption. Although a synergistic effect of combined ZOL and meloxicam was not observed, combination therapy was well-tolerated and may be useful in the clinical management of bone-invasive feline OSCC.

  14. Inhibition of CD147 expression by RNA interference reduces proliferation, invasion and increases chemosensitivity in cancer stem cell-like HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Liu, Xian; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Cho, William C; Wang, Shukui

    2015-10-01

    The association between CD147 and cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides a new angle for cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of CD147 in colorectal CSCs. The Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector was used to isolate CSCs and pYr-mir30-shRNA was used to generate short hairpin RNA (shRNA) specifically for CD147. After RNA interference (RNAi), CD147 was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, and its biological functions were assessed by MTT and invasion assays. The results showed that the differentiation of isolated CSC-like HT-29 cells was blocked and these cells were highly positive for CD44 and CD147. RNAi-mediated CD147 silencing reduced the expression of CD147 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the activities of proliferation and invasion were decreased obviously in CSCs. Knockdown of CD147 increased the chemosensitivity of CSC-like cells to gemcitabine, cisplatin, docetaxel at 0.1, 1 and 10 µM respectively, however, there was no significant difference among the three groups to paclitaxel at 10 µM. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD147 plays an important role in colorectal CSCs and might be regarded as a novel CSC-specific targeted strategy against colorectal cancer.

  15. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The shipping ballast water is defined as water taken on board a ship to control trim, cargo, draught, stability and stress of the ship. Alien bio-organisms in ballast water have a range of ecological impacts, for instance reducing native bio-diversity, altering habitat and potentially the overall...... for them. In addition, future changes of temperature, storm patterns and sea-currents may also change shipping routes and ballast water management practices. Based on methods like stock taking, trend tracking and scenario modeling the paper aims to evaluate possible ecological and economic impacts...

  16. The Long-Term Effects of Reduced Competitive Ability on Foraging Success of an Invasive Pest Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian Ludwig; Bell, Vaughn Antony; Suckling, David Maxwell; Lester, Philip John

    2016-08-01

    Ant species like Pheidole megacephala (F.), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), and the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have repeatedly been reported to be strongly associated with honeydew-producing arthropods like aphids, scale insects, and mealybugs, effectively protecting them from biological control agents like parasitoids. Here we report the results of a successful trial using pheromone dispensers to suppress Argentine ant activity over large sections in a commercial vineyard over a period of two months and preventing ant access into and foraging within the vine canopy. We found Argentine ant activity to be significantly reduced in pheromone-treated plots for the duration of the trial period compared with control plots. Our results showed a significant reduction in the numbers of Argentine ant workers recruited to randomly placed food resources within treated plots compared with untreated plots. Furthermore, spatial distribution of Argentine ants alongside transects in untreated plots remained relatively continuous, while increasing sharply beyond the borders of treated plots. Lastly, we measured the body fat content of workers and found a significant reduction in fat among workers from treated plots compared with untreated plots, suggesting an adverse effects on nest fitness. Additionally, we provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of the presented approach. Our results showed that it is possible to control Argentine ant, preventing them access to and foraging within the vine canopy, thereby reducing Argentine ants' access to honeydew. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Superiority of Minimally Invasive Oesophagectomy in Reducing In-Hospital Mortality of Patients with Resectable Oesophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    Full Text Available Compared with open oesophagectomy (OE, minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO proves to have benefits in reducing the risk of pulmonary complications for patients with resectable oesophageal cancer. However, it is unknown whether MIO has superiority in reducing the occurrence of in-hospital mortality (IHM.The objective of this meta-analysis was to explore the effect of MIO vs. OE on the occurrence of in-hospital mortality (IHM.Sources such as Medline (through December 31, 2014, Embase (through December 31, 2014, Wiley Online Library (through December 31, 2014, and the Cochrane Library (through December 31, 2014 were searched.Data of randomized and non-randomized clinical trials related to MIO versus OE were included.Eligible studies were those that reported patients who underwent MIO procedure. The control group included patients undergoing conventional OE.Fixed or random -effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios (ORs or relative risks (RRs for quantification of associations. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics.A total of 48 studies involving 14,311 cases of resectable oesophageal cancer were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to patients undergoing OE, patients undergoing MIO had statistically reduced occurrence of IHM (OR=0.69, 95%CI =0.55 -0.86. Patients undergoing MIO also had significantly reduced incidence of pulmonary complications (PCs (RR=0.73, 95%CI = 0.63-0.86, pulmonary embolism (PE (OR=0.71, 95%CI= 0.51-0.99 and arrhythmia (OR=0.79, 95%CI = 0.68-0.92. Non-significant reductions were observed among the included studies in the occurrence of anastomotic leak (AL (OR=0.93, 95%CI =0.78-1.11, or Gastric Tip Necrosis (GTN (OR=0.89, 95%CI =0.54-1.49.Most of the included studies were non-randomized case-control studies, with a diversity of study designs, demographics of participants and surgical intervention.Minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO has superiority over open

  18. Long-term efficacy of a mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques in invasive cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie; Empen, K.; Hummel, A.; Doerr, M.; Reffelmann, T.; Felix, S.B. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin B; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. fuer Versorgungsmedizin; Staudt, A. [Helios Kliniken, Schwerin (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To validate the long-term efficacy of a 90-min. educational mini-course in less-irradiating cardiac interventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Before, two months after, and two years after the mini-course (periods I, II, and III), we analyzed the following radiation dose parameters for ten coronary angiographies (CA), performed by each of 7 cardiologists: total dose-area product (DAP), radiographic and fluoroscopic DAP fractions, number of radiographic frames and runs, and fluoroscopy time. Results: The median patient DAP for periods I, II and III was 31.4, 15.8 and 8.5 Gy x cm{sup 2}, respectively. The long-term effect was related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 172, and 120 s), shorter (57, 52, and 45) and fewer (12, 12, and 10) radiographic runs, consistent collimation and restriction to an adequate image quality. Both radiographic DAP/frame (28.7, 17.0, and 18.4 mGy x cm{sup 2}) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (45.7, 24.2, and 10.0 mGy x cm{sup 2}) decreased significantly. The multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the increasing efficacy of the mini-course itself (-44.6 and -60.7 %), and revealed a decreasing influence of the interventionalist's experience (-8.6 % and -4.9 % per 1,000 CAs, lifelong performed until the mini-course). The number of CAs performed after the mini-course did not influence the long-term DAP results. Conclusion: The presented educational mini-course allows a significant, long-lasting, and apparently ongoing reduction of patient radiation exposure due to CA. A self-surveillant documentation of relevant radiation parameters is well suited to monitor and improve each operator's individual long-term radiation-reducing efforts. (orig.)

  19. R132H mutation in IDH1 gene reduces proliferation, cell survival and invasion of human glioma by downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daming; Ren, Jie; Shi, Jinlong; Feng, Lijing; Wang, Ke; Zeng, Tao; Jin, Yi; Gao, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene commonly occur in gliomas. Remarkably, the R132H mutation in IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) is associated with better prognosis and increased survival than patients lacking this mutation. The molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated potential cross-talk between IDH1-R132H and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in regulating the cellular properties of human glioma. Although aberrant nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is linked to the malignant progression of gliomas, its association with IDH1 remains unknown. We identified an inverse correlation between IDH1-R132H and the expression and activity of β-catenin in human gliomas. In addition, overexpression of IDH1-R132H in glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U251 led to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, accompanied by increased apoptosis. At the molecular level, we detected a significant reduction in the expression, nuclear accumulation and activity of β-catenin following overexpression of IDH1-R132H. A microarray-based comparison of gene expression indicated that several mediators, effectors and targets of Wnt/β-catenin signaling are downregulated, while negative regulators are upregulated in IDH1-R132H gliomas. Further, overexpression of β-catenin in IDH1-R132H glioma cells restored the cellular phenotype induced by this mutation. Specifically, β-catenin abrogated the decrease in proliferation, invasion and migration, and the increase in apoptosis, triggered by overexpression of IDH1-R132H. Finally, we demonstrate that xenografts of IDH1-R132H overexpressing U87 cells can significantly decrease the growth of tumors in vivo. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that the R132H mutation in IDH1 serves a tumor suppressor function in human glioma by negatively regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  20. TALEN-induced disruption of Nanog expression results in reduced proliferation, invasiveness and migration, increased chemosensitivity and reversal of EMT in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ai Qing; Ding, Yan; Li, Cheng Lin; Yang, Yi; Yan, Shi Rong; Li, Dong Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Nanog plays a central role in modulating the biological behaviors of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we employed transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) to disrupt Nanog expression in HepG2 cells and obtained subcloned cells with diallelic Nanog mutations. Significantly, we found that the expression of pluripotency factors Sox2, Oct4 and Klf4, as well as expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133, in the Nanog-targeted HepG2 cells was markedly downregulated. This finding suggests that Nanog may play an important role in maintaining the pluripotency and malignancy of HepG2 cells. We also revealed that Nanog regulated cell proliferation by modulating the expression of cyclin D1/D3/E1 and CDK2, respectively. Additionally, the disruption of Nanog resulted in the downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators Snail and Twist, which contributed to the elevated level of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and to the decreased level of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin in the HepG2 cells. In addition, the Nanog-targeted HepG2 cells exhibited reduced ability of invasion, migration and chemoresistance in vitro. In conclusion, the disruption of Nanog expression results in less proliferation, invasiveness, migration, more chemosensitivity and reversal of EMT in HepG2 cells, by which Nanog plays crucial roles in influencing the malignant phenotype of HepG2 cells.

  1. Investigating Invasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  2. Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    and DoD focus in managing the spread of invasive species. American Society of Agronomy , 1-5 November, 2009, Pittsburgh, PA. Howard, H, Balbach H, Rew...LJ, Ayers P and Anderson AB (2009) Tracking Military vehicles to better understand invasive species spread. American Society of Agronomy , Pittsburgh

  3. Patella Eversion Reduces Early Knee Range of Motion and Muscle Torque Recovery after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparison between Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty and Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokifumi Majima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that patella eversion during total knee arthroplasty (TKA reduces early return of active knee extension and flexion, quadriceps muscle strength, and postoperative pain. In 100 conventional TKA knees and 100 minimally invasive TKA (MIS TKA knees, we compared knee range of motion (ROM, postoperative pain, and quadriceps muscle strength at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. The differences of surgical approach between MIS TKA and conventional TKA of this study are length of skin incision with subcutaneal flap and patella eversion. In MIS TKA, skin incision is shorter than conventional TKA. Furthermore, patella is not everted in MIS TKA procedure. There were no significant differences in preoperative factors. Postoperative improvement of ROM, postoperative muscle strength recovery, and postoperative improvement of visual analog scale were faster in patients with MIS TKA when compared to that in patients with conventional TKA. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in complication, 5-year clinical results of subjective knee function score, and the postoperative component angle and lower leg alignment. These results indicate that patella eversion may affect muscle strength recovery and postoperative pain.

  4. MicroRNA-125a reduces proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting estrogen-related receptor α: implications for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ankana; Shivananda, Swamy; Gopinath, Kodaganur S; Kumar, Arun

    2014-11-14

    Estrogen-related receptor α (ESRRA) functions as a transcription factor and regulates the expression of several genes, such as WNT11 and OPN. Up-regulation of ESRRA has been reported in several cancers. However, the mechanism underlying its up-regulation is unclear. Furthermore, the reports regarding the role and regulation of ESRRA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are completely lacking. Here, we show that tumor suppressor miR-125a directly binds to the 3'UTR of ESRRA and represses its expression. Overexpression of miR-125a in OSCC cells drastically reduced the level of ESRRA, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conversely, the delivery of an miR-125a inhibitor to these cells drastically increased the level of ESRRA, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptosis. miR-125a-mediated down-regulation of ESRRA impaired anchorage-independent colony formation and invasion of OSCC cells. Reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of OSCC cells were dependent on the presence of the 3'UTR in ESRRA. The delivery of an miR-125a mimic to OSCC cells resulted in marked regression of xenografts in nude mice, whereas the delivery of an miR-125a inhibitor to OSCC cells resulted in a significant increase of xenografts and abrogated the tumor suppressor function of miR-125a. We observed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of miR-125a and ESRRA in OSCC samples. In summary, up-regulation of ESRRA due to down-regulation of miR-125a is not only a novel mechanism for its up-regulation in OSCC, but decreasing the level of ESRRA by using a synthetic miR-125a mimic may have an important role in therapeutic intervention of OSCC and other cancers.

  5. CTHRC1 Acts as a Prognostic Factor and Promotes Invasiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by Activating Wnt/PCP-Rho Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ze Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1 in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis.

  6. Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) acts via ERK-dependent induction of MMP9 to promote invasion of colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Yong Sung; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Kwoneel; Oh, Sang-Seok; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Seon-Jin; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Kwang Dong; Lee, Hee Gu

    2014-01-30

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is known to be aberrantly upregulated in most human solid tumors, although the functional roles of CTHRC1 in colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CTHRC1 upregulation and its role in vivo and in vitro. The expression profile and clinical importance of CTHRC1 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses in normal and tumor patient samples. CTHRC1 was detectable in normal tissues, but also was highly expressed in tumor specimens. CTHRC1 upregulation was significantly associated with demethylation of the CTHRC1 promoter in colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Clinicopathologic analyses showed that nodal status and expression of CTHRC1 (95% CI 0.999-3.984, p=0.05) were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. Promoter CpG methylation and hypermethylation status were measured by bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing analysis. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of CTHRC1 in the SW480 and HT-29 cell lines increased invasiveness, an effect mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Consistent with this, we found that knockdown of CTHRC1 attenuated ERK activation and cancer cell invasivity. These results demonstrate that CTHRC1 expression is elevated in human colon cancer cell lines and clinical specimens, and promotes cancer cell invasivity through ERK-dependent induction of MMP9 expression. Our results further suggest that high levels of CTHRC1 expression are associated with poor clinical outcomes.

  7. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  8. Archipelago-Wide Island Restoration in the Galápagos Islands: Reducing Costs of Invasive Mammal Eradication Programs and Reinvasion Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Carrion; C. Josh Donlan; Karl J Campbell; Christian Lavoie; Felipe Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and ...

  9. The Potential Utility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Reducing Stress and Improving Wellbeing in Cancer Patients in Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arunima; Aditya, Chandana; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2016-12-01

    As soon as a patient comes to know that he/she has cancer, the stress starts and psychological intervention is required. The authors assessed how well a cancer patient can manage stress over the course of the psychological intervention. Data was collected among 107 patients during pre and post intervention and at 2 months follow-up. Intervention was required to measures include acceptance of the disease, managing stress, well -being, and meaning of life. Finally, effects of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) were defined in acceptance measured in terms of a significant difference between pre and post intervention scores in the meaning of life and the acceptance level. This acceptance and commitment therapy can be an effective intervention approach for cancer patients that increases acceptance regarding disease and simultaneously leads to improvement in the meaning of life.

  10. Improving Access to Long-Acting Contraceptive Methods and Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Among Women with Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kirsten I; Day, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women. A small number of studies that focused on improving access to contraception, especially LARC, via integrated contraception services predominantly provided in drug treatment programs were identified. However, a number of barriers remain, highlighting that much more research is needed in this area.

  11. Directly acting spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measure; Direkt wirkende, federbelastete Sicherheitsventile als Druckstossreduzierende Massnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismaier, A.; Schluecker, E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Prozessmaschinen und Anlagentechnik (IPAT)

    2010-05-15

    Hydraulic shocks as induced by fast closure of armatures or by sudden pump failures are massive impacts in piping systems and require extensive measures to absorb the generated load. Basically the avoidance of water hammers are preferable but in case of emergency shutdowns unavoidable hydraulic shocks have to be reduced by appropriate measures. The authors describe experiments with spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measures. It was shown that the vale dimensions is essential for the efficacy. A realistic modeling is possible using the one-dimensional fluid mechanics code ROLAST.

  12. Accreta complicating complete placenta previa is characterized by reduced systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the invasive trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrum, Mark J; Buhimschi, Irina A; Salafia, Carolyn; Thung, Stephen; Bahtiyar, Mert O; Werner, Erica F; Campbell, Katherine H; Laky, Christine; Sfakianaki, Anna K; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2011-05-01

    We sought to characterize serum angiogenic factor profile of women with complete placenta previa and determine if invasive trophoblast differentiation characteristic of accreta, increta, or percreta shares features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We analyzed gestational age-matched serum samples from 90 pregnant women with either complete placenta previa (n = 45) or uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 45). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and soluble form of fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1 were immunoassayed. VEGF and phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity was surveyed in histological specimens relative to expression of vimentin and cytokeratin-7. Women with previa and invasive placentation (accreta, n = 5; increta, n = 6; percreta, n = 2) had lower systemic VEGF (invasive previa: median 0.8 [0.02-3.4] vs control 6.5 [2.7-10.5] pg/mL, P = .02). VEGF and phosphotyrosine immunostaining predominated in the invasive extravillous trophoblasts that coexpressed vimentin and cytokeratin-7, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition feature and tumorlike cell phenotype. Lower systemic free VEGF and a switch of the interstitial extravillous trophoblasts to a metastable cell phenotype characterize placenta previa with excessive myometrial invasion. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  13. ACCRETA COMPLICATING COMPLETE PLACENTA PREVIA IS CHARACTERIZED BY REDUCED SYSTEMIC LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AND EPITHELIAL-TO-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION OF THE INVASIVE TROPHOBLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrum, Mark J.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Salafia, Carolyn; Thung, Stephen; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Werner, Erica F.; Campbell, Katherine H.; Laky, Christine; Sfakianaki, Anna K.; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize serum angiogenic factor profile of women with complete placenta previa and determine if invasive trophoblast differentiation characteristic of accreta, increta or percreta shares features of epitehelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). STUDY DESIGN We analyzed gestational age matched serum samples from 90 pregnant women with either complete placenta previa (n=45) or uncomplicated pregnancies (n=45). Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF), placental-growth-factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were immunoassayed. VEGF and phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) immunoreactivity was surveyed in histological specimens relative to expression of vimentin and cytokeratin-7. RESULTS Women with previa and invasive placentation [accreta (n=5); increta (n=6); percreta (n=2)] had lower systemic VEGF (invasive previa: median [IQR]: 0.8[0.02–3.4] vs. control: 6.5[2.7–10.5] pg/mL, P=0.02). VEGF and P-Tyr immunostaining predominated in the invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) which co-expressed vimentin and cytokeratin-7, a EMT feature and tumor-like cell phenotype. CONCLUSIONS Lower systemic free VEGF and a switch of the interstitial EVT to a metastable cell phenotype characterize placenta previa with excessive myometrial invasion. PMID:21316642

  14. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species...

  15. Induction of Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 correlates with invasive breast cancer oncogenesis and reduced type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Innate and type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity function as important extracellular control mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is an important cytokine that links innate immunity with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity. We recently observed in vitro that tumor-derived Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 (WISP1) exerts paracrine action to suppress IL12 signaling. The objective of this retrospective study was three fold: 1) to determine whether a gene signature associated with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with overall survival, 2) to determine whether WISP1 expression is increased in invasive breast cancer, and 3) to determine whether a gene signature consistent with inhibition of IL12 signaling correlates with WISP1 expression. Clinical information and mRNA expression for genes associated with anti-tumor immunity were obtained from the invasive breast cancer arm of the Cancer Genome Atlas study. Patient cohorts were identified using hierarchical clustering. The immune signatures associated with the patient cohorts were interpreted using model-based inference of immune polarization. Reverse phase protein array, tissue microarray, and quantitative flow cytometry in breast cancer cell lines were used to validate observed differences in gene expression. We found that type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with increased survival in patients with invasive breast cancer, especially in patients with invasive triple negative breast cancer. Oncogenic transformation in invasive breast cancer was associated with an increase in WISP1. The gene expression signature in invasive breast cancer was consistent with WISP1 as a paracrine inhibitor of type 1 cell-mediated immunity through inhibiting IL12 signaling and promoting type 2 immunity. Moreover, model-based inference helped identify appropriate immune signatures that can be used as design constraints in genetically engineering better pre

  16. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia: establishing the baseline for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim; Munk, Christian; Oddsson, Kristján; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hortlund, Maria; Liaw, Kai-Li; Dasbach, Erik J; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias was obtained from high-quality national population-based registries. A literature review was conducted to define the fraction of these lesions attributable to HPV16/18, i.e., those that could be prevented by HPV vaccination. Among the four countries, the age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer ranged from 8.4-13.8, 1.3-3.1 and 0.2-0.6, respectively. The risk for cervical cancer was highest in women aged 30-39, while vulvar and vaginal cancers were most common in women aged 70+. Age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia ranged between 138.8-183.2, 2.5-8.8 and 0.5-1.3, respectively. Women aged 20-29 had the highest risk for cervical pre-invasive neoplasia, while vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia peaked in women aged 40-49 and 60-69, respectively. Over 50% of the observed 47,820 incident invasive and pre-invasive cancer cases in 2004-2006 can be attributed to HPV16/18. In the four countries, vaccination against HPV 16/18 could prevent approximately 8500 cases of gynecological cancer and pre-cancer annually. Population-based cancer

  17. The use of a short-acting benzodiazepine to reduce the risk of syncopal episodes during upright stereotactic breast biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jjames3@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Wilson, A.R.M. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Evans, A.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Burrell, H. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Cornford, E.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Hamilton, L.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The use of sublingual lorazepam provides a safe and effective means of reducing the risk of syncopal episodes during upright stereotactic breast biopsy. Sublingual lorazepam, 2-4 mg, was received by 19 women undergoing a total of 20 stereotactic procedures. Of 14 women who had previously fainted during upright stereotactic biopsy, 13 had a successful repeat biopsy following administration of sublingual lorazepam. All 4 women who received lorazepam for significant anxiety had successful biopsies. Stereotactic guided wire localization also was performed in 2 cases.

  18. Nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, abnormal cannabidiol and canabigerol-dimethyl heptyl, act at novel cannabinoid receptors to reduce intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesniak, Anna-Maria; Maor, Yehoshua; Robertson, Harold; Hung, Orlando; Kelly, Melanie E M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the pharmacology of the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering actions of the behaviorally inactive cannabinoids, abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD), and a cannabigerol analog, cannabigerol-dimethyl heptyl (CBG-DMH), in comparison to that of the nonselective cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB(1)R) and CB(2)R agonist, WIN55,212-2, in Brown Norway rats. The IOP was measured noninvasively using a hand-held tonometer in nonanesthetized animals. The IOP measurements were taken every 15 min for a period of 2 h after drug administration. All drugs were administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections, and abn-CBD and CBG-DMH were also given topically. Both abn-CBD and CBG-DMH reduced IOP when administrated i.p. at doses of ≥2.5 mg/kg or topically at concentrations of 1%-2%. The IOP-lowering effects of abn-CBD and CBG-DMH were reduced by i.p. administration of O-1918 (2.5 mg/kg), a selective antagonist of the abn-CBD-sensitive cannabinoid-related receptor (CBx), but were unaffected by the CB(1)R antagonist, AM251 (2.5 mg/kg), or the CB(2)R antagonist, AM630 (2.5 mg/kg). In contrast, the IOP-lowering action of WIN55,212-2 was completely blocked by the CB(1)R-selective antagonist, AM251, and was unaffected by the CBx receptor antagonist, O-1918. However, similar to the nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, the ocular hypotensive actions of WIN55,212-2 were also insensitive to block by the CB(2)R antagonist, AM630. Consistent with this, the selective CB(2)R agonist, HU-308 (2 mg/kg) failed to reduce IOP in Brown Norway rats. Concurrent application of a dose of WIN55,212-2 that was subthreshold to reduce IOP (0.25 mg/kg), together with a topical dose of either abn-CBD (0.5%) or CBG-DMH (0.25%), respectively, potentiated the ocular hypotensive effect of either compound applied alone. This study demonstrates that the atypical cannabinoid, abn-CBD, and the cannabigerol analog, CBG-DMH, decrease IOP in the normotensive Brown Norway rat eye independent of CB

  19. Knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells reduces migration in vitro and invasion in vivo and impairs their ability to form tumor spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esencay Mine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and malignant primary intracranial human neoplasm. GBMs are characterized by the presence of extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia. Hypoxia and its master regulator, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 play a key role in glioma invasion. Results To further elucidate the functional role of HIF-1α in glioma cell migration in vitro and in invasion in vivo, we used a shRNA approach to knock down HIF-1α expression complemented with genome-wide expression profiling, performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells significantly impairs their migration in vitro as well as their ability to invade into the brain parenchyma in vivo. Next, we assessed the role that HIF-1α plays in maintaining the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs. By using the tumor sphere forming assay, we demonstrate that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs. Finally, expression profiling experiments in glioma cells provided detailed insight into a broad range of specific biological pathways and processes downstream of HIF-1α. We discuss the role of these processes in the migratory and invasive properties, as well as the stem cell biology of glioblastomas Conclusions Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in human and murine glioma cells impairs their migration in vitro and their invasion in vivo. In addition, our data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs and identify genes that might further elucidate the role of HIF-1α in tumor migration, invasion and stem cell biology.

  20. Long-acting insulin analog detemir displays reduced effects on adipocyte differentiation of human subcutaneous and visceral adipose stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarelli, A; Perrini, S; Nigro, P; Ficarella, R; Barbaro, M; Peschechera, A; Porro, S; Natalicchio, A; Laviola, L; Puglisi, F; Giorgino, F

    2016-04-01

    Since treatment with insulin detemir results in a lower weight gain compared to human insulin, we investigated whether detemir is associated with lower ability to promote adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis in human adipose stem cells (ASC). Human ASC isolated from both the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were differentiated for 30 days in the presence of human insulin or insulin detemir. Nile Red and Oil-Red-O staining were used to quantify the rate of ASC conversion to adipocytes and lipid accumulation, respectively. mRNA expression levels of early genes, including Fos and Cebpb, as well as of lipogenic and adipogenic genes, were measured at various phases of differentiation by qRT-PCR. Activation of insulin signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. ASC isolated from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were less differentiated when exposed to insulin detemir compared to human insulin, showing lower rates of adipocyte conversion, reduced triglyceride accumulation, and impaired expression of late-phase adipocyte marker genes, such as Pparg2, Slc2a4, Adipoq, and Cidec. However, no differences in activation of insulin receptor, Akt and Erk and induction of the early genes Fos and Cebpb were observed between insulin detemir and human insulin. Insulin detemir displays reduced induction of the Pparg2 adipocyte master gene and diminished effects on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in human subcutaneous and visceral ASC, in spite of normal activation of proximal insulin signaling reactions. These characteristics of insulin detemir may be of potential relevance to its weight-sparing effects observed in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jadav, Rathan S.; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi?R.; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. H...

  2. Spontaneous reversion of Mycobacterium abscessus from a smooth to a rough morphotype is associated with reduced expression of glycopeptidolipid and reacquisition of an invasive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Susan T; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Recht, Judith; Pang, Xiuhua; Alsup, Anny; Kolter, Roberto; Lyons, C Rick; Byrd, Thomas F

    2006-06-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is an increasingly important cause of human disease; however, virulence determinants are largely uncharacterized. Previously, it was demonstrated that a rough, wild-type human clinical isolate (390R) causes persistent, invasive infection, while a smooth isogenic mutant (390S) has lost this capability. During serial passage of 390S, a spontaneous rough revertant was obtained, which was named 390V. This revertant regained the ability to cause persistent, invasive infection in human monocytes and the lungs of mice. Glycopeptidolipid (GPL), which plays a role in environmental colonization, was present in abundance in the cell wall of 390S, and was associated with sliding motility and biofilm formation. In contrast, a marked reduction in the amount of GPL in the cell wall of 390R and 390V was correlated with cord formation, a property associated with mycobacterial virulence. These results indicate that the ability to switch between smooth and rough morphologies may allow M. abscessus to transition between a colonizing phenotype and a more virulent, invasive form.

  3. Use of a Short-Acting β1 Blocker During Endotoxemia May Reduce Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation if Hemodynamics are Depressed by a Decrease in Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Shingo; Morita, Koji; Nakajima, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    A decrease in heart rate (HR) using a short-acting β blocker has potential benefits in sepsis; however, depression of hemodynamics and reduction of cerebral oxygenation may also occur in endotoxemia. Seventeen swine were allocated to landiolol or control groups. In the landiolol group, the dose was sequentially changed from 0 to 40 to 200 μg kg min, and stopped. Hemodynamics, blood variables, and the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were recorded by near infrared spectroscopy at each dose. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was then administered continuously at 1 μg kg h after a 100 μg bolus administration. After 30 and 150 min, as two severity stages of endotoxemia (endotoxemia 1 and 2), landiolol was administered as above and measurements were made. In the control group, landiolol was not administered, but measurements were made. LPS increased HR and landiolol decreased HR, with similar effects in each endotoxemia stage. In endotoxemia 1, LPS decreased stroke volume (SV), but landiolol restored SV to a value similar to that before endotoxemia, and did not decrease cardiac output (CO), even at 200 μg kg min. In contrast, landiolol did not restore SV in endotoxemia 2, resulting in a decrease in CO and mean arterial pressure, accompanied with a dose-dependent decrease in TOI. A short-acting β blocker has various hemodynamic effects in endotoxemia. Use of a short-acting β blocker during endotoxemia may reduce cerebral tissue oxygenation if hemodynamics are depressed by a decrease in HR.

  4. Use of a Short-Acting β1 Blocker During Endotoxemia May Reduce Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation if Haemodynamics are Depressed by a Decrease in Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Shingo; Morita, Koji; Nakajima, Yoshiki

    2016-11-15

    A decrease in heart rate (HR) using a short-acting β blocker has potential benefits in sepsis; however, depression of haemodynamics and reduction of cerebral oxygenation may also occur in endotoxemia. Seventeen swine were allocated to landiolol or control groups. In the landiolol group, the dose was sequentially changed from 0 to 40 to 200 μg kg min, and stopped. Haemodynamics, blood variables and the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were recorded by near infrared spectroscopy at each dose. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was then administered continuously at 1 μg kg h after a 100 μg bolus administration. After 30 and 150 min, as two severity stages of endotoxemia (endotoxemia 1 and 2), landiolol was administered as above and measurements were made. In the control group, landiolol was not administered, but measurements were made. LPS increased HR and landiolol decreased HR, with similar effects in each endotoxemia stage. In endotoxemia 1, LPS decreased stroke volume (SV), but landiolol restored SV to a value similar to that before endotoxemia, and did not decrease cardiac output (CO), even at 200 μg kg min. In contrast, landiolol did not restore SV in endotoxemia 2, resulting in a decrease in CO and mean arterial pressure (MAP), accompanied with a dose-dependent decrease in TOI. A short-acting β blocker has various haemodynamic effects in endotoxemia. Use of a short-acting β blocker during endotoxemia may reduce cerebral tissue oxygenation if haemodynamics are depressed by a decrease in HR.

  5. A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The above article from European Journal of Neuroscience, published online on 5 March 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.12162/full), has been retracted by agreement between the Editors-in-Chief, Paul Bolam and John Foxe, the authors and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Dr Phillip Barber has informed the publisher that he had seen neither the original data nor any version of the manuscript, and had not been involved in the work reported. A subsequent Institutional investigation found evidence of misconduct on the part of the submitting author. Reference Wang, L.-M., Wang, Y.-J., Cui, M., Luo, W.-J., Wang, X.-J., Barber, P.A. & Chen, Z.-Y. (2013) A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

  6. The novel long noncoding RNA RP11–357H14.17 acts as an oncogene by promoting cell proliferation and invasion in diffuse-type gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biao Yang,1,* Tianhang Luo,1,* Meijing Zhang,2,* Zhengmao Lu,1 Xuchao Xue,1 Guoen Fang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Oncology, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Current evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play pivotal roles in human cancers. The present study aims to assess differentially expressed lncRNAs related to diffuse-type gastric carcinoma (DGC. Next-generation RNA sequencing was carried out to detect aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in DGC. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed to evaluate RP11–357H14.17 gene expression levels in DGC cell lines/tissues comparatively with normal gastric epithelial cell lines and adjacent normal tissues. The associations of RP11–357H14.17 expression levels with the clinicopathological features were also analyzed. The regulatory effects of RP11–357H14.17 on the biological behaviors of DGC cells were evaluated by MTT, colony formation assays, flow cytometry for apoptosis, wound healing assay, and transwell migration and invasion assays. RP11–357H14.17 expression was remarkably increased in DGC tissues and cell lines compared with normal gastric epithelial cells and adjacent normal tissues. High levels of RP11–357H14.17 were associated with increased tumor size, deeper depth of invasion, lymphatic metastasis, and advanced pathological stage. Further experiments demonstrated that the DGC cells MGC-803 transfected with si-RP11–357H14.17 showed reduced cell proliferation, migration, invasion, enhanced G1 phase arrest and cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that the novel lncRNA RP11–357H14.17 is associated with poor prognosis, and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and target for new antineoplastic therapies in human DGC. Keywords: long noncoding RNA, RP11–357H14.17, diffuse-type gastric cancer,

  7. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  8. Initial single-port thoracoscopy to reduce surgical trauma during open en bloc chest wall and pulmonary resection for locally invasive cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri, Clara I.; de Guevara, Antonio Cueto Ladron; Martin-Ucar, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES En bloc pulmonary and chest wall resection is the preferred method of treatment for locally invasive lung carcinoma. However, it carries major trauma to the chest wall, especially in cases with chest wall involvement distant to the potential location of ‘traditional’ thoracotomies. We describe an alternative method of estimating the boundaries of chest wall resection employing video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and hypodermic needles. METHODS VATS delineation of boundaries of chest wall involvement by lung cancer has been performed in six patients who gave written consent. In one case the single–port thoracoscopic examination revealed unexpected distant pleural metastases thus preventing from resection. The other 5 patients, three males and two females [median age of 60.5 (range 39 to 75) years] underwent en bloc anatomical lung resection in addition to chest wall excision and reconstruction for T3N0 lung cancer. RESULTS In these five cases the chest wall opening was restricted to the extent of the rib excision, and the pulmonary resection was performed via the existing chest wall opening without requiring extension of the thoracotomy or any rib spreading. DISCUSSION Minimally invasive techniques aid to delineate the boundaries of chest wall involvement of lung cancer and intraoperative staging. This helped tailoring the surgical approach and location of the thoracotomy, and prevented rib-spreading or additional thoracotomies in our cases. PMID:23592724

  9. Leptin acts on neoplastic behavior and expression levels of genes related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho Santos, Eliane Macedo; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Cangussu, Lilian Mendes Borborema; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudio Marcelo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2017-05-01

    Leptin, one of the main hormones controlling energy homeostasis, has been associated with different cancer types. In oral cancer, its effect is not well understood. We investigated, through in vitro and in vivo assays, whether leptin can affect the neoplastic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of genes possibly linked to the leptin pathway was assessed in leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and also in tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral mucosa, including leptin, leptin receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Col1A1, Ki67, and mir-210. Leptin treatment favored higher rates of cell proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells show decreased messenger RNA caspase-3 expression, and increased levels of E-cadherin, Col1A1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and mir-210. In tissue samples, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha messenger RNA and protein expression of leptin and leptin receptor were high in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Serum leptin levels were increased in first clinical stages of the disease. In animal model, oral squamous cell carcinoma-induced mice show higher leptin receptor expression, and serum leptin level was increased in dysplasia group. Our findings suggest that leptin seems to exert an effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells behavior and also on molecular markers related to cell proliferation, migration, and tumor angiogenesis.

  10. 320-row CT coronary angiography predicts freedom from revascularisation and acts as a gatekeeper to defer invasive angiography in stable coronary artery disease: a fractional flow reserve-correlated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Brian S.; Wong, Dennis T.L.; Cameron, James D.; Leung, Michael; Meredith, Ian T.; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Antonis, Paul; Harper, Richard; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Seneviratne, Sujith K. [Southern Health and Monash University, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Department of Medicine Monash Medical Centre (MMC), Melbourne (Australia); Leong, Darryl P. [University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia); Crossett, Marcus; Troupis, John [Southern Health and Monash University, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Department of Medicine Monash Medical Centre (MMC), Melbourne (Australia); Southern Health and Monash University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, MMC, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the accuracy of 320-row multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (M320-CCTA) to detect functional stenoses using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard and to predict revascularisation in stable coronary artery disease. One hundred and fifteen patients (230 vessels) underwent M320-CCTA and FFR assessment and were followed for 18 months. Diameter stenosis on invasive angiography (ICA) and M320-CCTA were assessed by consensus by two observers and significant stenosis was defined as ≥50 %. FFR ≤0.8 indicated functionally significant stenoses. M320-CCTA had 94 % sensitivity and 94 % negative predictive value (NPV) for FFR ≤0.8. Overall accuracy was 70 %, specificity 54 % and positive predictive value 65 %. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for CCTA to predict FFR ≤0.8 was 0.74 which was comparable with ICA. The absence of a significant stenosis on M320-CCTA was associated with a 6 % revascularisation rate. M320-CCTA predicted revascularisation with an AUC of 0.71 which was comparable with ICA. M320-CCTA has excellent sensitivity and NPV for functional stenoses and therefore may act as an effective gatekeeper to defer ICA and revascularisation. Like ICA, M320-CCTA lacks specificity for functional stenoses and only has moderate accuracy to predict the need for revascularisation. (orig.)

  11. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddart, Robert A., E-mail: robert.huddart@icr.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden NHSFT (National Health Service Foundation Trust) (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); Hussain, Syed A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Peter [Gloucestershire Hospitals NHSFT (United Kingdom); Rawlings, Christine [South Devon Healthcare NHSFT (United Kingdom); Tremlett, Jean [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals (United Kingdom); Crundwell, Malcolm [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Adab, Fawzi A. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Sheehan, Denise [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Syndikus, Isabel [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHSFT (United Kingdom); Hendron, Carey [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); James, Nicholas D. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT − sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval −7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (−12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  12. A Cationic [60] Fullerene Derivative Reduces Invasion and Migration of HT-29 CRC Cells in Vitro at Dose Free of Significant Effects on Cell Survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianna Lucafo; Chiara Pelillo; Marco Carini; Tatiana Da Ros; Maurizio Prato; Gianni Sava

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials with unique characteristics exhibit favorable therapeutic and diagnostic properties, implying their enormous potential as biomedical candidates. C60 has been used in gene- and drug-delivery, as imaging agents, and as photosensitizers in cancer therapy. In this study, the influences of a cationic function-alized fullerene on cellular behavior of human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) were investigated. Results indicated that HT-29 treated with the studied compound showed a lower sensitivity but a significant impair-ment in migration and invasion by interfering with the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9). The presence of fullerene also altered the capacity of adhesion-related proteins to perform their activity, thereby inducing dramatically adverse effects on the cell physiological functions such as cell adhesion. Thus, our study suggests that this compound is a new potential anti-metastatic effector and a therapeutic component for malignant colorectal cancer.

  13. Role of Tiotropium in Reducing Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease When Combined With Long-Acting β2 -Agonists and Inhaled Corticosteroids: The OUTPUL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Eliana; Belleudi, Valeria; Cascini, Silvia; Di Martino, Mirko; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Pistelli, Riccardo; Patorno, Elisabetta; Formoso, Giulio; Fusco, Danilo; Perucci, Carlo A; Davoli, Marina; Agabiti, Nera

    2016-11-01

    Combined inhaled therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly used, but its benefits remain controversial. We assessed the effect of tiotropium in reducing COPD exacerbations when combined with long-acting β2 agonists (LABA) and/or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). This new-user cohort study is based on administrative data from 3 Italian regions. We identified adults hospitalized for COPD from 2006 to 2009 who were newly prescribed a fixed LABA/ICS combination (double therapy). We classified patients according to whether tiotropium was also prescribed (triple therapy), using both intention-to-treat and as-treated approaches, and followed them for 1 year. COPD exacerbations were measured as outcomes. Multivariate and propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs, 95%CI) were calculated with Cox regression models. We identified 5717 new users of LABA/ICS of which 31.9% initiated triple therapy. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the multivariate adjusted HR for moderate, severe, and any exacerbations were 1.02 (95%CI 0.89-1.16), 0.92 (95%CI 0.76-1.12), and 1.08 (95%CI 0.91-1.28), respectively. The propensity score adjustment produced similar results. In the subcohort of patients with previous exacerbations, triple therapy was significantly associated with reduced risk of moderate exacerbations, compared to double therapy (HR 0.68, 95%CI 0.48-0.98 in intention-to-treat approach). In conclusion, the addition of tiotropium to LABA/ICS did not reduce COPD exacerbations compared to LABA/ICS alone. A protective role for moderate exacerbations was found in patients at risk of frequent exacerbations. Given the impact of exacerbations on health status and prognosis, it is crucial to target COPD patients for optimal treatment.

  14. A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Gitlin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura N Gitlin1, Laraine Winter1, Marie P Dennis1, Walter W Hauck21Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health (CARAH, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Formely Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Currently Sycamore Consulting, LLC New Hope, PA, USA; 3Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Nursing Research (Grant # R01 AG22254. Clinical trial registration #NCT00259480.Abstract: Project ACT is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological home-based intervention to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and caregiver distress. The study targets 272 stressed racially diverse family caregivers providing in-home care to persons with moderate stage dementia with one or more behavioral disturbances. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 4-months (main trial endpoint, and 6-months (maintenance. The four-month intervention involves up to 13 visits from an occupational therapist who works with families to problem-solve potential triggers (communication style, environmental clutter contributing to behaviors, and instruct in strategies to reduce caregiver stress and manage targeted behaviors. To rule out infection or other potential medical contributors to behaviors, a nurse obtains blood and urine samples from the dementia patient, and conducts a medication review. Participants in the no-treatment control group are offered the nurse arm and one in-home session following trial completion at 6-months. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of this multi-component, targeted psycho-social treatment approach, and the measures used to evaluate quality of life improvements for persons with dementia and their families.Keywords: family caregiving, environmental modification, home care, occupational

  15. Discriminating the drivers of edge effects on nest predation: forest edges reduce capture rates of ship rats (Rattus rattus, a globally invasive nest predator, by altering vegetation structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ruffell

    Full Text Available Forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. There is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. In this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within forest fragments in a pastoral landscape in New Zealand. We hypothesised that forest edges would affect capture rates by altering vegetation structure within fragments, and that the strength of edge effects would depend on whether fragments were grazed by livestock. We measured vegetation structure and rat capture rates at 488 locations ranging from 0-212 m from the forest edge in 15 forest fragments, seven of which were grazed. Contrary to the vast majority of previous studies of edge effects on nest predation, ship rat capture rates increased with increasing distance from the forest edge. For grazed fragments, capture rates were estimated to be 78% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior (the farthest distance for grazed fragments. This relationship was similar for ungrazed fragments, with capture rates estimated to be 51% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior. A subsequent path analysis suggested that these 'reverse' edge effects were largely or entirely mediated by changes in vegetation structure, implying that edge effects on ship rats can be predicted from the response of vegetation structure to forest edges. We suggest the occurrence, strength, and direction of edge effects on nest predation rates may depend on edge-driven changes in local habitat when the dominant predator is primarily restricted to forest patches.

  16. Discriminating the drivers of edge effects on nest predation: forest edges reduce capture rates of ship rats (Rattus rattus), a globally invasive nest predator, by altering vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Jay; Didham, Raphael K; Barrett, Paul; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Hickey-Elliott, Andrée; Sievwright, Karin; Armstrong, Doug P

    2014-01-01

    Forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. There is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. In this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within forest fragments in a pastoral landscape in New Zealand. We hypothesised that forest edges would affect capture rates by altering vegetation structure within fragments, and that the strength of edge effects would depend on whether fragments were grazed by livestock. We measured vegetation structure and rat capture rates at 488 locations ranging from 0-212 m from the forest edge in 15 forest fragments, seven of which were grazed. Contrary to the vast majority of previous studies of edge effects on nest predation, ship rat capture rates increased with increasing distance from the forest edge. For grazed fragments, capture rates were estimated to be 78% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior (the farthest distance for grazed fragments). This relationship was similar for ungrazed fragments, with capture rates estimated to be 51% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior. A subsequent path analysis suggested that these 'reverse' edge effects were largely or entirely mediated by changes in vegetation structure, implying that edge effects on ship rats can be predicted from the response of vegetation structure to forest edges. We suggest the occurrence, strength, and direction of edge effects on nest predation rates may depend on edge-driven changes in local habitat when the dominant predator is primarily restricted to forest patches.

  17. Fusicoccin A, a Phytotoxic Carbotricyclic Diterpene Glucoside of Fungal Origin, Reduces Proliferation and Invasion of Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Multiple Tyrosine Kinases1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Marina; Andolfi, Anna; Rogister, Bernard; Cimmino, Alessio; Mégalizzi, Véronique; Mathieu, Véronique; Feron, Olivier; Evidente, Antonio; Kiss, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly cancer that possesses an intrinsic resistance to pro-apoptotic insults, such as conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and diffusely invades the brain parenchyma, which renders it elusive to total surgical resection. We found that fusicoccin A, a fungal metabolite from Fusicoccum amygdali, decreased the proliferation and migration of human GBM cell lines in vitro, including several cell lines that exhibit varying degrees of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli. The data demonstrate that fusicoccin A inhibits GBM cell proliferation by decreasing growth rates and increasing the duration of cell division and also decreases two-dimensional (measured by quantitative video microscopy) and three-dimensional (measured by Boyden chamber assays) migration. These effects of fusicoccin A treatment translated into structural changes in actin cytoskeletal organization and a loss of GBM cell adhesion. Therefore, fusicoccin A exerts cytostatic effects but low cytotoxic effects (as demonstrated by flow cytometry). These cytostatic effects can partly be explained by the fact that fusicoccin inhibits the activities of a dozen kinases, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), that have been implicated in cell proliferation and migration. Overexpression of FAK, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, directly correlates with the invasive phenotype of aggressive human gliomas because FAK promotes cell proliferation and migration. Fusicoccin A led to the down-regulation of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation, which occurred in both normoxic and hypoxic GBM cell culture conditions. In conclusion, the current study identifies a novel compound that could be used as a chemical template for generating cytostatic compounds designed to combat GBM. PMID:23544164

  18. Fusicoccin a, a phytotoxic carbotricyclic diterpene glucoside of fungal origin, reduces proliferation and invasion of glioblastoma cells by targeting multiple tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Marina; Andolfi, Anna; Rogister, Bernard; Cimmino, Alessio; Mégalizzi, Véronique; Mathieu, Véronique; Feron, Olivier; Evidente, Antonio; Kiss, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly cancer that possesses an intrinsic resistance to pro-apoptotic insults, such as conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and diffusely invades the brain parenchyma, which renders it elusive to total surgical resection. We found that fusicoccin A, a fungal metabolite from Fusicoccum amygdali, decreased the proliferation and migration of human GBM cell lines in vitro, including several cell lines that exhibit varying degrees of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli. The data demonstrate that fusicoccin A inhibits GBM cell proliferation by decreasing growth rates and increasing the duration of cell division and also decreases two-dimensional (measured by quantitative video microscopy) and three-dimensional (measured by Boyden chamber assays) migration. These effects of fusicoccin A treatment translated into structural changes in actin cytoskeletal organization and a loss of GBM cell adhesion. Therefore, fusicoccin A exerts cytostatic effects but low cytotoxic effects (as demonstrated by flow cytometry). These cytostatic effects can partly be explained by the fact that fusicoccin inhibits the activities of a dozen kinases, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), that have been implicated in cell proliferation and migration. Overexpression of FAK, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, directly correlates with the invasive phenotype of aggressive human gliomas because FAK promotes cell proliferation and migration. Fusicoccin A led to the down-regulation of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation, which occurred in both normoxic and hypoxic GBM cell culture conditions. In conclusion, the current study identifies a novel compound that could be used as a chemical template for generating cytostatic compounds designed to combat GBM.

  19. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  20. Reducing recurrence in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-transurethral resection of the bladder chemoprophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Malene Risager; Nielsen, Tommy Kjaergaard; Ebbensgaard, Nanna Andersen;

    2015-01-01

    : Fluorescence cystoscopy using hexyl-aminolevulinate and post-TURB chemoprophylaxis using mitomycin C were simultaneously introduced in an effort to reduce the recurrence of NMIBC. In total, 190 consecutive patients were enrolled over a 2 year period and followed as the intervention group; 216 patients treated...

  1. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  2. Lipid-Core Nanocapsules Act as a Drug Shuttle Through the Blood Brain Barrier and Reduce Glioblastoma After Intravenous or Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Fiel, Luana A; Shimada, Ana L; Pereira, Natalia R; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) are formed by an organogel surrounded by poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and stabilized by polysorbate 80. LNCs increase the concentration of drugs in the brain after oral or intravenous administration. We proposed to determine whether the drug is released from the LNC to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) or the drug-loaded LNCs can cross the BBB to release the drug. We synthesized a Rhodamine B-polymer conjugate to prepare a fluorescent-labeled LNC formulation, and intravital microscopy was used to determine the ability of the LNCs to cross the brain barrier using different administration routes in C57BI/6 mice. A glioblastoma model was used to determine the impact of the LNC as a shuttle for treatment. After pial vessel exposure, intense fluorescence was detected inside the vessels 10 min after intravenous or 20 min after intraperitoneal injections of fluorescent-labeled LNC. The fluorescence was observed in the perivascular tissue after 30 and 60 min, respectively. Increased tissue fluorescence was detected 240 min after oral administration. The integrity of the barrier was determined during the experiments. Normal leukocyte and platelet adhesion to the vessel wall indicated that Rhodamine B-labeled LNC did not cause pial vessel alterations. After intravenous or oral administration, Rhodamine B-labeled LNC-containing co-encapsulated indomethacin and indomethacin ethyl ester exhibited similar behavior in pial vessels, being more efficient in the treatment of mice with glioblastoma than indomethacin in solution. Therefore, we demonstrated that LNCs act as drug shuttles through the BBB, delivering drugs in brain tissue with high efficiency and reducing glioblastoma after intravenous or oral administration.

  3. Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume’s 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomp...

  4. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  5. Survival Benefits of Invasive Versus Conservative Strategies in Heart Failure in Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction and Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Georg; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Andreotti, Felicita; Kołodziejczak, Michalina; Jung, Christian; Scicchitano, Pietro; Devito, Fiorella; Zito, Annapaola; Occhipinti, Michele; Castiglioni, Battistina; Calveri, Giuseppe; Maisano, Francesco; Ciccone, Marco M; De Servi, Stefano; Navarese, Eliano P

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction caused by ischemic heart disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether revascularization by either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) carries benefits or risks in this group of stable patients compared with medical treatment. We performed a meta-analysis of available studies comparing different methods of revascularization (PCI or CABG) against each other or medical treatment in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; myocardial infarction, revascularization, and stroke were also analyzed. Twenty-one studies involving a total of 16 191 patients were included. Compared with medical treatment, there was a significant mortality reduction with CABG (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.72; P<0.001) and PCI (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.85; P<0.001). When compared with PCI, CABG still showed a survival benefit (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.90; P<0.001). The present meta-analysis indicates that revascularization strategies are superior to medical treatment in improving survival in patients with ischemic heart disease and reduced ejection fraction. Between the 2 revascularization strategies, CABG seems more favorable compared with PCI in this particular clinical setting. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Report: EPA Office of Inspector General’s Report on Reducing Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in the Small Business Innovative Research Program, as Required by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Pub. L. 112-81 (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    September 28, 2012. The EPA OIG is required by Section 5143 of the NDA Act for Fiscal Year 201 2, Pub. L. No. 112-81 (2012), to report on reducing vulnerability to fraud, waste and abuse in the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program.

  7. Giant invasive prolactinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.Y.; Vesely, D.L.; Jordan, R.M.; Flanigan, S.; Kohler, P.O.

    1987-11-01

    Two of the largest prolactinomas ever documented that have been followed for nine and 10 years, respectively, demonstrate how aggressive prolactinomas may become and how difficult invasive prolactinomas are to treat. One of these prolactinomas invaded both internal auditory canals and simultaneously grew inferiorly, reducing the bony support of the skull and necessitating the patient to utilize both hands to hold his head up. The second patient's prolactinoma invaded the sphenoidal, ethmoidal, and cavernous sinuses. Both of these patients had neurosurgical debulking of their tumors followed by radiation therapy. Neither patient's prolactin levels decreased significantly during their first five years post-surgically, at which time bromocriptine was added. Since then, there has been a gradual lowering of serum prolactin levels and a decrease in the size of these tumors. These cases demonstrate that prolonged treatment and very large doses of bromocriptine may be necessary for tumor reduction in patients with invasive prolactinomas.

  8. Physical activity reduces the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in general and in abdominally lean and obese men and women: the EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekelund, U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We examined the independent and combined associations of physical activity and obesity with incident type 2 diabetes in men and women. Methods The InterAct case–cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a randomly selected subcohort of 16,154 individuals,

  9. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  10. Fire management and invasive plants- A handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Lusk, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fire management can help maintain natural habitats, increase forage for wildlife, reduce fuel loads that might otherwise lead to catastrophic wildfire, and maintain natural succession. Today, there is an emerging challenge that fire managers need to be aware of: invasive plants. Fire management activities can create ideal opportunities for invasions by nonnative plants, potentially undermining the benefits of fire management actions. This manual provides practical guidelines that fire managers should consider with respect to invasive plants.

  11. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  12. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  13. Less invasive surgical treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Less invasive surgical treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. In this thesis various strategies were employed to evaluate the posibilities of reducing the invasiveness of the surgical treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. A systematic review of the literature suggested that adequ

  14. Reducing Ex-offender Health Disparities through the Affordable Care Act: Fostering Improved Health Care Access and Linkages to Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacreisha Ejike-King

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.

  15. Modelling species invasions using thermal and trophic niche dynamics under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eLibralato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changing marine temperatures modify the distributional ranges of natural populations, but the success of invasion of new areas depends on local physical and ecological conditions. We explore the invasion by thermophilic species and their ecosystem effects by simulating a sea surface temperature increase using a trophodynamic model for the northern Adriatic Sea (NAS, in which thermal and trophic niches are explicitly represented for each thermophilic non-indigenous species and native species. The NAS acts as a cul-de-sac for local species, preventing a further poleward migration as a response to temperature rise. In this situation, model results showed that effects of warming and invasion produced complex, non-linear changes on biomasses but never resulted in a complete overturn of a group of native species and/or a bloom of invasive ones. Despite this, the diversity index stabilizes at increased values after simulating invasion, possibly indicating that in such enclosed systems the establishment of invasive species could represent enrichment in ecosystem structure. In addition, the absence of complete species substitution clearly showed the contribution of resident species towards increasing the resilience, i.e. the capability of the system to cope with invasion without changing substantially. Contrasting scenarios highlighted that changes in ecosystem primary production and species adaptation had secondary effects in ecosystem structure, while results for scenarios with different exploitation levels indicated that fishing can destabilize community structure in these change contexts, e.g. reducing community resilience. The results confirmed the importance of an ecological niche approach to analyze possible effects of invasion and highlighted the complexity of dynamics linked to temperature-driven species invasion’, in terms of both the predicted strength of impacts and the direction of biomass change.

  16. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  17. Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Identification of a Potent and Centrally Acting μ Opioid Analgesic with Reduced Abuse Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Riley, Andrew P; Sherwood, Alexander M; Groer, Chad E; Shivaperumal, Nirajmohan; Biscaia, Miguel; Paton, Kelly; Schneider, Sebastian; Provasi, Davide; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Filizola, Marta; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2016-12-22

    Opioids are widely used to treat millions suffering from pain, but their analgesic utility is limited due to associated side effects. Herein we report the development and evaluation of a chemical probe exhibiting analgesia and reduced opioid-induced side effects. This compound, kurkinorin (5), is a potent and selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist (EC50 = 1.2 nM, >8000 μ/κ selectivity). 5 is a biased activator of MOR-induced G-protein signaling over β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Metadynamics simulations of 5's binding to a MOR crystal structure suggest energetically preferred binding modes that differ from crystallographic ligands. In vivo studies with 5 demonstrate centrally mediated antinociception, significantly reduced rewarding effects, tolerance, and sedation. We propose that this novel MOR agonist may represent a valuable tool in distinguishing the pathways involved in MOR-induced analgesia from its side effects.

  18. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes migration and invasion by acting as a ceRNA of miR-335-5p in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-05-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) have been the focus of increasing attention due to the role they play in many diseases, including osteosarcoma. The function of taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) and its mechanism in osteosarcoma remain unclear. In our research, we found that TUG1 was elevated and correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. In addition, the following functional experiment showed that decreased TUG1 could remarkably inhibit osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion, indicating that TUG1 functioned as an oncogene in osteosarcoma. Moreover, we revealed that TUG1 and Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), a metastasis-related gene targeted by microRNA-335-5p (miR-335-5p), had the same miR-335-5p combining site. The subsequent luciferase assay verified TUG1 was a target of miR-335-5p. Furthermore, the results of a real-time quantitative PCR showed that TUG1 and miR-335-5p could affect each other's expression. respectively. Finally, we affirmed that TUG1 affected ROCK1 expression and ROCK1-mediated migration/invasion by working as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) via miR-335-5p. In summary, the findings of this study, based on ceRNA theory, combining the research foundation of miR-335-5p and ROCK1, and taking TUG1 as a new study point, provide new insight into molecular-level reversing migration and invasion of osteosarcoma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Hudson

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings.

  20. Requirement of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandins for human prostate cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithipatikom, Kasem; Isbell, Marilyn A; Lindholm, Paul F; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kaul, Sushma; Campell, William B

    2002-01-01

    The PC-3 Low Invasive cells and the PC-3 High Invasive cells were used to investigate the correlation of the COX-2 expression and its arachidonic acid metabolites, prostaglandins, with their invasiveness through Matrigel using a Boyden chamber assay. The COX-2 expression in PC-3 High Invasive cells was approximately 3-fold higher than in PC-3 Low Invasive cells while the COX-1 expression was similar in both cell sublines. When incubated with arachidonic acid, PGE2 was the major prostaglandin produced by these cells. PC-3 High Invasive cells produced PGE2 approximately 2.5-fold higher than PC-3 Low Invasive cells. PGD2 was the second most abundant prostaglandin produced by these cells. Both indomethacin (a nonspecific COX inhibitor) and NS-398 (a specific COX-2 inhibitor) inhibited the production of prostaglandins and the cell invasion. PGE2 alone did not induce the cell invasion of PC-3 Low Invasive cells. However, PGE2 reversed the inhibition of cell invasion by NS-398 and enhanced the cell invasion of the PC-3 High Invasive cells. In contrast, PGD2 slightly inhibited the cell invasion. These results suggest that in the PC-3 Low Invasive cells, COX-2-derived PGE2 may not be sufficient to induce cell invasion while in the PC-3 High Invasive cells, PGE2 may be sufficient to act as an enhancer for the cell invasion. Further, PGD2 may represent a weak inhibitor and counteracts the effect of PGE2 in the cell invasion.

  1. Everolimus and long acting octreotide as a volume reducing treatment of polycystic livers (ELATE: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispijn Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic liver disease (PLD is defined as having more than 20 liver cysts and can present as a severe and disabling condition. Most symptoms are caused by the mass effect of the liver size and include abdominal pain and distension. The somatostatin analogues octreotide and lanreotide have proven to reduce polycystic liver volume. mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus inhibit cell proliferation and might thereby reduce growth of liver cysts. This trial aims to assess the benefit of combination therapy of everolimus and octreotide compared to octreotide monotherapy. In this study we present the structure of the trial and the characteristics of the included patients. Methods/design This is a randomized open-label clinical trial comparing the effect of 12 months of everolimus and octreotide to octreotide monotherapy in PLD patients. Primary outcome is change in liver volume determined by CT-volumetry. Secondary outcomes are changes in abdominal symptoms and quality of life. Moreover, safety and tolerability of the drugs will be assessed. Discussion This trial will compare the relative efficacy of combination therapy with octreotide and everolimus to octreotide monotherapy. Since they apply to different pathways of cystogenesis we expect that combining octreotide and everolimus will result in a cumulative reduction of polycystic liver volume. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01157858

  2. Poor Invasion of Trophoblastic Cells but Normal Plaque Formation in Fibroblastic Cells despite actA Deletion in a Group of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Persisting in Some Food Processing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holch, Anne; Gottlieb, Caroline Trebbien; Larsen, Marianne Halberg

    2010-01-01

    L. monocytogenes strains, including clinical strains, and they carry a premature stop codon in inlA. Eight of 15 strains, including the RAPD 9 and maternofetal strains, had a 105-nucleotide deletion in actA that did not affect cell-to-cell spread in mouse fibroblasts. The RAPD 9 strains may still...

  3. Human SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 Proteins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reduce Proliferation of Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, E N; Shulepko, M A; Bychkov, M L; Shenkarev, Z O; Paramonov, A S; Chugunov, A O; Arseniev, A S; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2014-10-01

    Human secreted Ly-6/uPAR related proteins (SLURP-1 and SLURP-2) are produced by various cells, including the epithelium and immune system. These proteins act as autocrine/paracrine hormones regulating the growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and are also involved in the control of inflammation and malignant cell transformation. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the interactions of SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 with the α7 and α3β2 subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), respectively. Available knowledge about the molecular mechanism underling the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects is very limited. SLURP-2 remains one of the most poorly studied proteins of the Ly-6/uPAR family. In this study, we designed for the first time a bacterial system for SLURP-2 expression and a protocol for refolding of the protein from cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Milligram quantities of recombinant SLURP-2 and its 13C-15N-labeled analog were obtained. The recombinant protein was characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and a structural model was developed. A comparative study of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects on the epithelial cell growth was conducted using human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, which express only α7-nAChRs. A pronounced antiproliferative effect of both proteins was observed. Incubation of cells with 1 μM SLURP-1 and 1 μM SLURP-2 during 48 h led to a reduction in the cell number down to ~ 54 and 63% relative to the control, respectively. Fluorescent microscopy did not reveal either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. An analysis of the dose-response curve revealed the concentration-dependent mode of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 action with EC50 ~ 0.1 and 0.2 nM, respectively. These findings suggest that the α7-nAChR is the main receptor responsible for the antiproliferative effect of SLURP proteins in epithelial cells.

  4. Invasive cancer incidence - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple; King, Jessica; Wilson, Reda; Ryerson, Blythe

    2014-03-28

    Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System. In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009. Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act, which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV.

  5. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  6. Activity of a Long-Acting Echinocandin (CD101) and Seven Comparator Antifungal Agents Tested against a Global Collection of Contemporary Invasive Fungal Isolates in the SENTRY 2014 Antifungal Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activity of CD101 and comparator antifungal agents against 606 invasive fungal isolates collected worldwide during 2014 was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method. All Candida albicans (n = 251), Candida tropicalis (n = 51), Candida krusei (n = 16), and Candida dubliniensis (n = 11) isolates were inhibited by ≤0.12 μg/ml of CD101 and were susceptible or showed wild-type susceptibility to the other echinocandins tested. Five C. glabrata isolates (n = 100) displayed CD101 MIC values of 1 to 4 μg/ml, had elevated MICs of caspofungin (2 to >8 μg/ml), anidulafungin (2 to 4 μg/ml), and micafungin (2 to 4 μg/ml), and carried mutations on fks1 and fks2. Candida parapsilosis (n = 92) and Candida orthopsilosis (n = 10) displayed higher CD101 MIC values (ranges, 0.5 to 4 μg/ml and 0.12 to 2 μg/ml, respectively), and similar results were observed for the other echinocandins tested. Fluconazole resistance was noted among 11.0% of Candida glabrata isolates, 4.3% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 2.0% of C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates. The activity of CD101 against Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 56) was similar to that of micafungin and 2-fold greater than that of caspofungin but less than that of anidulafungin. These isolates had wild-type susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. The echinocandins had limited activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 19). CD101 was as active as the other echinocandins against common fungal organisms recovered from patients with invasive fungal infections. The long half-life profile is very desirable for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections, especially in patients who can then be discharged from the hospital to complete antifungal therapy on an outpatient basis. PMID:28052853

  7. Molecular Insights on the Transition of Non-invasive DCIS to Invasive ductal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dihua YU

    2009-01-01

    @@ More than 90% of breast cancer-related deaths are caused by metastasis not primary tumor. To effectively reduce cancer mortality, it is extremely im-portant to predict the risk of, and to intervene in, the critical transition from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to life-threatening invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

  8. Alvimopan, a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist, is associated with reduced costs after radical cystectomy: economic analysis of a phase 4 randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauf, Teresa L; Svatek, Robert S; Amiel, Gilad; Beard, Timothy L; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Koch, Michael; O'Hara, Jerome; Lee, Cheryl T; Sexton, Wade J; Slaton, Joel W; Steinberg, Gary D; Wilson, Shandra S; Techner, Lee; Martin, Carolyn; Moreno, Jessica; Kamat, Ashish M

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of alvimopan treatment vs placebo on health care utilization and costs related to gastrointestinal recovery in patients treated with radical cystectomy in a randomized, phase 4 clinical trial. Resource utilization data were prospectively collected and evaluated by cost consequence analysis. Hospital costs were estimated from 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates and medication wholesale acquisition costs. Differences in base case mean costs between the study cohorts for total postoperative ileus related costs (hospital days, study drug, nasogastric tubes, postoperative ileus related concomitant medication and postoperative ileus related readmissions) and total combined costs (postoperative ileus related, laboratory, electrocardiograms, nonpostoperative ileus related concomitant medication and nonpostoperative ileus related readmission) were evaluated by probabilistic sensitivity analysis using a bootstrap approach. Mean hospital stay was 2.63 days shorter for alvimopan than placebo (mean±SD 8.44±3.05 vs 11.07±8.23 days, p=0.005). Use of medications or interventions likely intended to diagnose or manage postoperative ileus was lower for alvimopan than for placebo, eg total parenteral nutrition 10% vs 25% (p=0.001). Postoperative ileus related health care costs were $2,340 lower for alvimopan and mean total combined costs were decreased by $2,640 per patient for alvimopan vs placebo. Analysis using a 10,000-iteration bootstrap approach showed that the mean difference in postoperative ileus related costs (p=0.04) but not total combined costs (p=0.068) was significantly lower for alvimopan than for placebo. In patients treated with radical cystectomy alvimopan decreased hospitalization cost by reducing the health care services associated with postoperative ileus and decreasing the hospital stay. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying barriers to effective management of widespread invasive alien trees: Prosopis species (mesquite) in South Africa as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, RT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major driver of ecological and social change globally. The negative effects of these invasions have led to the initiation of programs to manage these invasions across the world. Management aims to reduce impacts...

  10. Contemporary review of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G

    2016-12-27

    To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. Minimally invasive approaches to PD show

  11. Reducing invasiveness, duration, and cost of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis by omitting intravenous contrast injection -- Does it change the assessment of inflammatory and destructive joint changes by the OMERACT RAMRIS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides highly sensitive assessment of inflammatory and destructive changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints, but intravenous (IV) Gd injection prolongs examination time and increases cost, invasiveness, and patient discomfo......: Omitting IV contrast injection did not change scores of bone erosions and bone edema, but decreased the reliability of synovitis scores. However, this disadvantage may for some purposes be outweighed by the possibility to assess more joints and/or greater feasibility....

  12. Invasive mole presenting as pain abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN are proliferative as well as degenerative disorders of placental elements and include complete or partial mole (90%, invasive mole (5.8%, choriocarcinoma (1-2% and placental site tumor (1-2%. 15% of complete mole can develop into invasive mole. Very rarely (2-4% partial mole can develop into invasive one presenting with features of incomplete abortion, mixed abortion and sometimes as obstetric emergencies like intraperitoneal hemorrhage. So, proper diagnosis and timely intervention can prevent mortality and reduce the morbidity of the patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 480-481

  13. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR‑21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  14. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith S. WEIS

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews biological invasions in which predation (or its absence) plays a major role in the success of the invader.Examples are described in which the invader out-competes native species for the same food,and cases in which the invader consumes valued native species.In many instances,better predator avoidance by the invasive species or the absence of predators in the new habitat contributes to the success of the invaders; in other cases native or introduced predators appear to be able to keep the invasive species in check.A relatively new management approach in the US is the idea of adding another trophic level-to have humans act as the predators and consume the invasive species.This approach is being utilized in Florida and throughout the Caribbean against the lionfish,but could be extended to other fishes,as well as to various invasive crustaceans and mollusks.This idea is controversial,and current regulations prohibiting the possession of individuals of the invasive species (e.g.,mitten crabs or snakefish) would preclude the development of a fishery for them [Current Zoology 57 (5):613-624,2011].

  15. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-03-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability.

  16. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  17. [Invasive and minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.

  18. Temperature-specific competition between invasive mosquitofish and an endangered cyprinodontid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Carmona-Catot

    Full Text Available Condition-specific competition is widespread in nature. Species inhabiting heterogeneous environments tend to differ in competitive abilities depending on environmental stressors. Interactions between these factors can allow coexistence of competing species, which may be particularly important between invasive and native species. Here, we examine the effects of temperature on competitive interactions between invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and an endemic Iberian toothcarp, Aphanius iberus. We compare the tendency to approach heterospecifics and food capture rates between these two species, and examine differences between sexes and species in aggressive interactions, at three different temperatures (19, 24 and 29°C in three laboratory experiments. Mosquitofish exhibit much more aggression than toothcarp. We show that mosquitofish have the capacity to competitively displace toothcarp through interference competition and this outcome is more likely at higher temperatures. We also show a reversal in the competitive hierarchy through reduced food capture rate by mosquitofish at lower temperatures and suggest that these two types of competition may act synergistically to deprive toothcarp of food at higher temperatures. Males of both species carry out more overtly aggressive acts than females, which is probably related to the marked sexual dimorphism and associated mating systems of these two species. Mosquitofish may thus impact heavily on toothcarp, and competition from mosquitofish, especially in warmer summer months, may lead to changes in abundance of the native species and displacement to non-preferred habitats. Globally increasing temperatures mean that highly invasive, warm-water mosquitofish may be able to colonize environments from which they are currently excluded through reduced physiological tolerance to low temperatures. Research into the effects of temperature on interactions between native and invasive species is thus of

  19. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  20. Gallium(III), cobalt(III) and copper(II) protoporphyrin IX exhibit antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis by reducing planktonic and biofilm growth and invasion of host epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Teresa; Maszczak-Seneczko, Dorota; Smalley, John W; Olczak, Mariusz

    2012-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis acquires heme for growth, and initiation and progression of periodontal diseases. One of its heme acquisition systems consists of the HmuR and HmuY proteins. This study analyzed the antimicrobial activity of non-iron metalloporphyrins against P. gingivalis during planktonic growth, biofilm formation, epithelial cell adhesion and invasion, and employed hmuY, hmuR and hmuY-hmuR mutants to assess the involvement of HmuY and HmuR proteins in the acquisition of metalloporphyrins. Iron(III) mesoporphyrin IX (mesoheme) and iron(III) deuteroporphyrin IX (deuteroheme) supported planktonic growth of P. gingivalis cells, biofilm accumulation, as well as survival, adhesion and invasion of HeLa cells in a way analogous to protoheme. In contrast, cobalt(III), gallium(III) and copper(II) protoporphyrin IX exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis, and thus represent potentially useful antibacterial compounds with which to target P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis hmuY, hmuR and hmuY-hmuR mutants showed decreased growth and infection of epithelial cells in the presence of all metalloporphyrins examined. In conclusion, the HmuY protein may not be directly involved in transport of free metalloporphyrins into the bacterial cell, but it may also play a protective role against metalloporphyrin toxicity by binding an excess of these compounds.

  1. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007415.htm Prostate resection - minimally invasive To use ... into your bladder instead of out through the urethra ( retrograde ... on New Developments in Prostate Cancer and Prostate Diseases. Evaluation and treatment of lower ...

  2. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation.

  3. MicroRNA-127-3p inhibits proliferation and invasion by targeting SETD8 in human osteosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Hou, Wengen; Chai, Mingxiang; Zhao, Hongxing; Jia, Jinling; Sun, Xiaohui; Zhao, Bin [Second Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of XinXiang Medical College, XinXiang 453100 (China); Wang, Ran, E-mail: wangranfire@sohu.com [Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, ZhengZhou University, ZhengZhou 450000 (China)

    2016-01-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in cancer development. Several studies have indicated that miRNAs mediate tumorigenesis processes, such as, inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. In the present study, we focused on the influence of the miR-127-3p on the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma (OS). MiR-127-3p was found at reduced levels in OS tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-127-3p in the OS cell lines significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration and invasion; however, inhibition of miR-127-3p increased the proliferation, migration and invasion of OS in vitro. SETD8 was identified as a direct target of miR-127-3p, and SETD8 expression decreased post miR-127-3p overexpression, while SETD8 overexpression could reverse the potential influence of miR-127-3p on the migration and invasion of OS cells. MiR-127-3p is suggested to act mainly via the suppression of SETD8 expression. Overall, the results revealed that miR-127-3p acts as a tumor suppressor and that its down-regulation in cancer may contribute to OS progression and metastasis, suggesting that miR-127-3p could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of OS. - Highlights: • MiR-127-3p is decreased in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. • MiR-127-3p overexpression suppresses cell migration and invasion in MG63 and U2OS. • SETD8 overexpression abolishes the roles of miR-127-3p in osteosarcoma.

  4. Neonatal invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronati, M; Decembrino, L

    2006-12-01

    Over the last two decades, systemic fungal infections have emerged to play a primary role in hospital-acquired infections. C. albicans is involved in 75% of neonatal candidiasis; however, the incidence of infection from C. parapsilosis is also increasing significantly. The higher incidence observed in the high-risk group of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is linked to their special physical characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures they undergo. Colonization is a relevant risk factor depending on the colonized site , the fungal species and the type of colonization. Serological tests have a low specificity and sensitivity; in many cases, they do not distinguish between colonization and infection. Blood culture, although the best diagnostic test for determining systemic infection, can result negative, even in cases of deep organ involvement. In addition, fungi grow more slowly than bacteria in cultures. So, the difficulty in diagnosing systemic candidiasis and its aspecific clinical features may make empirical therapy appropriate. Amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined with 5-fluorocytosine remains the drug of choice. Fluconazole represents a valid alternative. Recently developed new formulations of amphotericin incapsulated in liposomes can avoid possible adverse effects. Prognosis depends on the specific micro-organism involved; mortality is higher in the presence of C. albicans. As prognosis is associated with high mortality, prevention measures to reduce risk factors are of critical importance.

  5. Invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD is a major public health and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. Serotype C is the most frequent in Brazil. The clinical spectrum of IMD is broad (meningitis, meningococcemia or both and the clinical evolution may be unpredictable. Main features associated with mortality are: age higher than 50 years old, seizures, shock, and meningococcemia without meningitis. Blood cultures should be obtained immediately. Lumbar puncture can be performed without previous computed tomography scan (CT in most cases. Clinical features can be useful to predic patients where an abnormal CT scan is likely. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture and Gram stain should always be required. Latex agglutination sensitivity is highly variable. Polymerase chain reaction is specially useful when other methods are negative or delayed. Usually ceftriaxone should not be delayed while awaiting CSF study or CT. Dexamethasone can be used in meningococcal meningitis. Early suspicion of IMD and antibiotic in primary care before hospitalization, rapid transportation to a hospital, and stabilization in an intensive-care unit has substantially reduced the case-fatality rate. Vaccines against serotypes A, C, W-135, and Y are available while vaccines against serotype B are expected.

  6. How to manage biological invasions under globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Touza, Julia; Williamson, Mark

    2005-05-01

    Protecting national borders against biological invasions is becoming increasingly difficult because those whose actions result in invasions seldom bear legal responsibility for those actions. Invasion costs are often an externality (an unintended side effect) of international trade. Externalities are best dealt with by internalizing them; that is, by getting those who harm society to meet the cost. This is the 'polluter pays principle', which, under current trade rules, is difficult to implement. Tariffs could, however, be used to confront exporters with the costs of their actions, and the right to do this should be embedded in trade agreements. At the same time, international aid could be used to protect donor societies against the inability of some other countries to take appropriate biosecurity measures. The impact of invasions can thus be reduced by tackling their economic externalities.

  7. The invasion of non-native grasses into California grasslands has caused a shift in energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux, reduced albedo and higher surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteen, L. E.; Harte, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    In California, native grasses have been largely displaced across millions of acres of grassland habitat by the invasion of non-native grasses from Mediterranean Europe. Although seemingly subtle, this shift in grass species composition has altered the water and energy cycles in these ecosystems due to a shift in life cycle strategy. Native California grasses are perennial and long-lived. To survive California's long summer drought, they possess deep roots to harvest moisture along the full depth of the soil profile. Aboveground, most California perennial grasses are bunchy and dense, covering the ground and restricting soil evaporation. Their growing season extends over most of the year, thus maintaining an unbroken interaction along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and enabling the plants to draw water from deep soil layers well into the dry summer. In contrast, the now-dominant non-native grasses are annuals. They grow from seed each year when Autumn rains begin, and die with the onset of summer drought. Aboveground, non-native annuals are sparse relative to native perennials, and possess a shallow root system with the large majority of root biomass above 20 cm depth. To determine the impact of this land cover shift on ecosystem water and energy cycles, we measured the components of the surface energy balance at a grassland site in northern coastal California where remnant perennial grasses are found growing alongside regions that have undergone non-native invasion. Specifically, in locations dominated by each grass type, we measured net radiation and ground and canopy heat flux through the surface renewal method. We also measured midday PAR albedo to determine the impact of grassland invasion on energy capture. In three years of measurements, corresponding to average, wet and dry years, we found that energy partitioning during the growing season is similar between grass types. However, once non-native annual grasses senesce in mid to late spring, the ratio

  8. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  9. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate noninva...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD. • Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity. • CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe. • DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low...

  10. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  11. Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'.

  12. Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811

  13. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N

    2013-05-31

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant.

  14. A novel combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) reduces risk of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus and of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; de Vos, Christa; Fourie, Josephus J; Beugnet, Frederic

    2015-11-19

    The ability of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, a topical ectoparasiticide containing fipronil and permethrin for dogs, to prevent the transmission of Babesia canis as well as Ehrlichia canis was evaluated by infesting dogs with infected vector ticks. For the Babesia canis study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated on day 0 with a topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76 % w/v fipronil plus 50.48 % w/v permethrin and eight dogs served as the untreated control group. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, with a B. canis infection rate ranging between 2 and 10 %, were placed onto dogs on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. In situ tick counts were performed on Days 9, 16 and 23. Ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. Infection of the dogs with B. canis was monitored by rectal temperature readings, clinical examinations and blood smears as well as PCR and IFA (indirect fluorescent antibody assay). For the Ehrlichia canis study, another 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the fipronil and permethrin combination on days 0 and 28 and eight dogs served as untreated controls. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, carrying an infection rate of 13 % for E. canis, were released in the sleeping kennels of the dogs on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. Ticks were counted in situ on the dogs on a weekly basis. All ticks were removed and counted on the final assessment day 58. Infection of the dogs with E. canis was monitored by rectal temperature, clinical examinations, and testing of blood samples by PCR, IFA and platelet counts. B. canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs and to one treated dog, which was confirmed by blood smears, PCR and IFA. E.canis was transmitted by R. sanguineus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs. Two of the dogs in the treated group were found positive based on PCR and/or IFA. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® significantly lowered the risk for dogs to

  15. Parasites and marine invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  16. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J

    2017-02-20

    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  17. Minimal Invasive Urologic Surgery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus (POI is the most common cause of prolonged length of hospital stays (LOS and associated healthcare costs. The advent of minimal invasive technique was a major breakthrough in the urologic landscape with great potential to progress in the future. In the field of gastrointestinal surgery, several studies had reported lower incidence rates for POI following minimal invasive surgery compared to conventional open procedures. In contrast, little is known about the effect of minimal invasive approach on the recovery of bowel motility after urologic surgery. We performed an overview of the potential benefit of minimal invasive approach on POI for urologic procedures. The mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the onset of POI are discussed with emphasis on the advantages of minimal invasive approach. In the urologic field, POI is the main complication following radical cystectomy but it is rarely of clinical significance for other minimal invasive interventions. Laparoscopy or robotic assisted laparoscopic techniques when studied individually may reduce to their own the duration and prevent the onset of POI in a subset of procedures. The potential influence of age and urinary diversion type on postoperative ileus is contradictory in the literature. There is some evidence suggesting that BMI, blood loss, urinary extravasation, existence of a major complication, bowel resection, operative time and transperitoneal approach are independent risk factors for POI. Treatment of POI remains elusive. One of the most important and effective management strategies for patients undergoing radical cystectomy has been the development and use of enhanced recovery programs. An optimal rational strategy to shorten the duration of POI should incorporate minimal invasive approach when appropriate into multimodal fast track programs designed to reduce POI and shorten LOS.

  18. Minimally invasive medicine:a new theoretical system of medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永光; 裘法祖; 何兴图

    2004-01-01

    @@ For many diseases and surgical procedures, the method of choice has shifted from traditional means, or open surgery, to the use of less invasive means in the last few decades. These minimally invasive alternatives, such as laparoscopic, endoscopic, and interventional ultrasound procedures, usually result in less pain, scarring, recovery time and complication, as well as shorter hospitalization and reduced health-care costs. The trend is predicted to continue with these minimally invasive alternatives being used in clinics widely. In addition, these less invasive means will become one of the most important areas in the future of 21st century medicine.

  19. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  20. Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2013-01-01

    1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation

  1. Gastropod seed dispersal: an invasive slug destroys far more seeds in its gut than native gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Tamara; Boch, Steffen; Türke, Manfred; Knop, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is one of the most important mechanisms shaping biodiversity, and animals are one of the key dispersal vectors. Animal seed dispersal can directly or indirectly be altered by invasive organisms through the establishment of new or the disruption of existing seed dispersal interactions. So far it is known for a few gastropod species that they ingest and defecate viable plant seeds and consequently act as seed dispersers, referred to as gastropodochory. In a multi-species experiment, consisting of five different plant species and four different gastropod species, we tested with a fully crossed design whether gastropodochory is a general mechanism across native gastropod species, and whether it is altered by the invasive alien slug species Arion lusitanicus. Specifically, we hypothesized that a) native gastropod species consume the seeds from all tested plant species in equal numbers (have no preference), b) the voracious invasive alien slug A. lusitanicus--similarly to its herbivore behaviour--consumes a higher amount of seeds than native gastropods, and that c) seed viability is equal among different gastropod species after gut passage. As expected all tested gastropod species consumed all tested plant species. Against our expectation there was a difference in the amount of consumed seeds, with the largest and native mollusk Helix pomatia consuming most seeds, followed by the invasive slug and the other gastropods. Seed damage and germination rates did not differ after gut passage through different native species, but seed damage was significantly higher after gut passage through the invasive slug A. lusitanicus, and their germination rates were significantly reduced.

  2. Optimising invasive fish management in the context of invasive species legislation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Woodford, Darragh J.; Phillip Ivey; Jordaan, Martine S.; Peter K. Kimberg; Tsungai Zengeya; Olaf L.F. Weyl

    2017-01-01

    Background: South Africa hosts a large number of non-native freshwater fishes that were introduced for various industries. Many of these species are now listed under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA) Alien and Invasive Species (A&IS) lists and regulations, though the practical options available to conservation agencies to effectively manage these fishes vary greatly among species and regions. Objectives & methods: We assessed the history and status of na...

  3. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...

  4. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and reduce the accumulation of recently documented...

  5. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  6. The physical interaction of p53 and plakoglobin is necessary for their synergistic inhibition of migration and invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Vahedah; Churchill, Lucas; Pasdar, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Plakoglobin (PG) is a paralog of β-catenin with similar adhesive, but contrasting signalling functions. Although β-catenin has well-known oncogenic function, PG generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor by mechanisms that are just beginning to be deciphered. Previously, we showed that PG interacted with wild type (WT) and a number of mutant p53s, and that its tumor/metastasis suppressor activity may be mediated, at least partially, by this interaction. Here, carcinoma cell lines deficient in both p53 and PG (H1299), or expressing mutant p53 in the absence of PG (SCC9), were transfected with expression constructs encoding WT and different fragments and deletions of p53 and PG, individually or in pairs. Transfectants were characterized for their in vitro growth, migratory and invasive properties and for mapping the interacting domain of p53 and PG. We showed that when coexpressed, p53-WT and PG-WT cooperated to decrease growth, and acted synergistically to significantly reduce cell migration and invasion. The DNA-binding domain of p53 and C-terminal domain of PG mediated p53/PG interaction, and furthermore, the C-terminus of PG played a central role in the inhibition of invasion in association with p53. PMID:27058623

  7. 无创正压通气减少儿童心内直视术后再次插管%Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation reduces the rate of re-intubation in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海红; 谈林华; 张彩云; 何小军; 杜立中

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨鼻(面)罩双水平无创正压通气(bilevel positive airway pressure,BiPAP)应用于儿童心内直视术后呼吸功能不全的呼吸支持,减少再次插管的疗效.方法 将2007年1月至2007年12月在浙江大学医学院附属儿章医院行先天性心脏病(先心病)体外循环心内直视术后在拔除气管插管后表现呼吸费力、呼吸功能不全经常规治疗无效,已符合二次插管机械通气指征的25例患者进行前瞻性研究,记录无创BiPAP通气应用前后临床和动脉血气等指标的变化并进行单因素方差分析,同时分析患者的转1月.结果 (1)25例患者共30例次接受无创鼻(面)罩BiPAP.其中25例次患者(25/30,83.3%)在应用无创BiPAP通气后成功地避免了再次插管.4例患者共5例次接受无创鼻(面)罩BiPAP呼吸衰竭无法改善予气管捕管.(2)该组患者平均在撤离有创通气后9.4 h(0-72)h应用无创BiPAP治疗,BiPAP应用时间1.96 d(0.03-12)d,并发症少而轻微.(3)应用无创BiPAP治疗1 h后患者心率、呼吸频率及心率收缩压乘积显著降低(P2 and PaO2/FiO2 were increased significantly and A-aDO2 was decreased significantly (P < 0.05 all). The PaCO2, was decreased significantly four hours after BiPAP (P < 0.05). Conclusions Non-invasive nasal mask BiPAP can be used safely and effectively in children after cardiac surgery to improve oxygenation/ventilation, decreasing the work of breathing. It may be particularly useful in patients with high risk of re-intubation.

  8. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

  9. Intertwining of Activin A and TGFβ Signaling: Dual Roles in Cancer Progression and Cancer Cell Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomans, Holli A. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Andl, Claudia D., E-mail: claudia.andl@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Digestive Disease Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in cancer. Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFβ and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion.

  10. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  11. Do native parasitic plants cause more damage to exotic invasive hosts than native non-invasive hosts? An implication for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community.

  12. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  13. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  14. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-08-23

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion.

  15. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  16. Minimally invasive surgical therapies for benign prostatic hypertrophy: The rise in minimally invasive surgical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Daniel; McGrath, Shannon; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) causing bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms increases with our ageing population. Treatment of BPH traditionally begins with medical therapy and surgical intervention is then considered for those whose symptoms progress despite treatment. Minimally invasive surgical therapies have been developed as an intermediary in the treatment of BPH with the aim of decreasing the invasiveness of interventions. These therapies also aim to reduce morbidity and dysfunction related to invasive surgical procedures. Multiple treatment options exist in this group including mechanical and thermo-ablative strategies. Emerging therapies utilizing differing technologies range from the established to the experimental. We review the current literature related to these minimally invasive therapies and the evidence of their effectiveness in treating BPH. The role of minimally invasive surgical therapies in the treatment of BPH is still yet to be strongly defined. Given the experimental nature of many of the modalities, further study is required prior to their recommendation as alternatives to invasive surgical therapy. More mature evidence is required for the analysis of durability of effect of these therapies to make robust conclusions of their effectiveness.

  17. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ping; Xu, Tian-Min; Kan, Mu-Jie; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Cui, Man-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings.

  18. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  19. HIPK2 downregulates vimentin and inhibits breast cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodale, Cristina; Sheffer, Michal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Folgiero, Valentina; Falcioni, Rita; Aiello, Aurora; Garufi, Alessia; Rechavi, Gideon; Givol, David; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2012-02-15

    Vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, is frequently overexpressed in epithelial carcinomas undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a condition correlated with invasiveness and poor prognosis. Therefore, vimentin is a potential molecular target for anticancer therapy. Emerging studies in experimental models underscore the functions of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as potential oncosuppressor by acting as transcriptional corepressor or catalytic activator of molecules involved in apoptosis and response to antitumor drugs. However, an involvement of HIPK2 in limiting tumor invasion remains to be elucidated. This study, by starting with a microarray analysis, demonstrates that HIPK2 downregulates vimentin expression in invasive, vimentin-positive, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and in the non-invasive MCF7 breast cancer cells subjected to chemical hypoxia, a drive for mesenchymal shift and tumor invasion. At functional level, vimentin downregulation by HIPK2 correlates with inhibition of breast tumor cell invasion. Together, these data show that vimentin is a novel target for HIPK2 repressor function and that HIPK2-mediated vimentin downregulation can contribute to inhibition of breast cancer cells invasion that might be applied in clinical therapy.

  20. Neuropeptides of the VIP family inhibit glioblastoma cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochaud, Stéphanie; Meunier, Annie-Claire; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc; Chadéneau, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are neuropeptides acting through VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptors (referred here as the VIP-receptor system). In the central nervous system, VIP and PACAP are involved in neurogenesis, cell differentiation and migration, suggesting that they could be implicated in the development of glioblastoma (GBM). The infiltrative nature of GBM remains a major problem for the therapy of these tumors. We previously demonstrated that the VIP-receptor system regulated cell migration of the human cell lines M059J and M059K, derived from a single human GBM. Here, we evaluated the involvement of the VIP-receptor system in GBM cell invasion. In Matrigel invasion assays, M059K cells that express more the VIP-receptor system than M059J cells were less invasive. Invasion assays performed in the presence of agonists, antagonists or anti-PACAP antibodies as well as experiments with transfected M059J cells overexpressing the VPAC1 receptor indicated that the more the VIP-receptor system was expressed and activated, the less the cells were able to invade. Western immunoblotting experiments revealed that the VIP-receptor system inactivated the signaling protein AKT. Invasion assays carried out in the presence of an AKT inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of this signaling kinase in the regulation of cell invasion by the VIP-receptor system in M059K cells. The inhibition by VIP of invasion and AKT was also observed in U87 cells. In conclusion, VIP and PACAP act as anti-invasive factors in different GBM cell lines, a function mediated by VPAC1 inhibition of AKT signaling in M059K cells.

  1. Animal ecosystem engineers modulate the diversity-invasibility relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasions of natural communities by non-indigenous species are currently rated as one of the most important global-scale threats to biodiversity. Biodiversity itself is known to reduce invasions and increase stability. Disturbances by ecosystem engineers affect the distribution, establishment, and abundance of species but this has been ignored in studies on diversity-invasibility relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined natural plant invasion into 46 plots varying in the number of plant species (1, 4, and 16 and plant functional groups (1, 2, 3, and 4 for three years beginning two years after the establishment of the Jena Experiment. We sampled subplots where earthworms were artificially added and others where earthworm abundance was reduced. We also performed a seed-dummy experiment to investigate the role of earthworms as secondary seed dispersers along a plant diversity gradient. Horizontal dispersal and burial of seed dummies were significantly reduced in subplots where earthworms were reduced in abundance. Seed dispersal by earthworms decreased with increasing plant species richness and presence of grasses but increased in presence of small herbs. These results suggest that dense vegetation inhibits the surface activity of earthworms. Further, there was a positive relationship between the number of earthworms and the number and diversity of invasive plants. Hence, earthworms decreased the stability of grassland communities against plant invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Invasibility decreased and stability increased with increasing plant diversity and, most remarkably, earthworms modulated the diversity-invasibility relationship. While the impacts of earthworms were unimportant in low diverse (low earthworm densities and high diverse (high floral structural complexity plant communities, earthworms decreased the stability of intermediate diverse plant communities against plant invasion. Overall, the results

  2. Deeply invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H; Bennett, John; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2002-12-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis is on the rise because of increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts and more invasive medical technology. Recovery of Candida spp from several body sites in a critically ill or immunocompromised patient should raise the question of disseminated disease. Although identification to the species level and antifungal susceptibility testing should guide therapy, at this time amphotericin B preparations are the usual initial therapy for severe life-threatening disease. Azole therapy has an expanding body of evidence that proves it is as effective as and safer than amphotericin B therapy. Some forms of candidiasis (e.g., those with ocular, bone, or heart involvement) require a combined medical and surgical approach.

  3. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.

    The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of Mediterranean climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.

  4. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  5. Inbreeding depression is purged in the invasive insect Harmonia axyridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Benoît; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Tayeh, Ashraf; Loiseau, Anne; Lombaert, Eric; Vitalis, Renaud; Guillemaud, Thomas; Lundgren, Jonathan G; Estoup, Arnaud

    2011-03-08

    Bottlenecks in population size reduce genetic diversity and increase inbreeding, which can lead to inbreeding depression. It is thus puzzling how introduced species, which typically pass through bottlenecks, become such successful invaders. However, under certain theoretical conditions, bottlenecks of intermediate size can actually purge the alleles that cause inbreeding depression. Although this process has been confirmed in model laboratory systems, it has yet to be observed in natural invasive populations. We evaluate whether such purging could facilitate biological invasions by using the world-wide invasion of the ladybird (or ladybug) Harmonia axyridis. We first show that invasive populations endured a bottleneck of intermediate intensity. We then demonstrate that replicate introduced populations experience almost none of the inbreeding depression suffered by native populations. Thus, rather than posing a barrier to invasion as often assumed, bottlenecks, by purging deleterious alleles, can enable the evolution of invaders that maintain high fitness even when inbred. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous & Mini Invasive Achilles tendon repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmont Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a considerable cause of morbidity with reduced function following injury. Recent studies have shown little difference in outcome between the techniques of open and non-operative treatment using an early active rehabilitation programme. Meta-analyses have shown that non-operative management has increased risk of re-rupture whereas surgical intervention has risks of complications related to the wound and iatrogenic nerve injury. Minimally invasive surgery has been adopted as a way of reducing infections rates and wound breakdown however avoiding iatrogenic nerve injury must be considered. We discuss the techniques and outcomes of percutaneous and minimally invasive repairs of the Achilles tendon.

  7. Mangiferin inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cellular invasion by suppressing nuclear factor-κB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Kang, Chang-Hee; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effects of mangiferin on the expression and activity of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and the invasion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that mangiferin significantly reversed TNF-α-induced mRNA and protein expression of MMP-9 expression. Zymography data confirmed that stimulation of cells with TNF-α significantly increased MMP-9 activity. However, mangiferin substantially reduced the TNF-α-induced activity of MMP-9. Additionally, a matrigel invasion assay showed that mangiferin significantly reduced TNF-α-induced invasion of LNCaP cells. Compared to untreated controls, TNF-α-stimulated LNCaP cells showed a significant increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase activity. However, mangiferin treatment markedly decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB luciferase activity. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50. Collectively, our results indicate that mangiferin is a potential anti-invasive agent that acts by suppressing NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression.

  8. Risedronate inhibits human osteosarcoma cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sung

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor and is the most commonly encountered malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Furthermore, significant numbers of patients eventually develop pulmonary metastases and succumb to the disease even after conventional multi-agent chemotherapy and surgical excision. Several solid tumors display enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, and recently clinical trials have been initiated on MMP-inhibitors. On the other hand, bisphosphonates (BPs, which have a profound effect on bone resorption, are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. BPs are also known to inhibit tumor growths and metastases in some tumors such as breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer. Methods Two osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS-2 and U2OS were treated with risedronate (0, 0.1, 1, 10 μM for 48 hours. Cell viabilities were determined using MTT assay, the mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the amount of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein were analyzed by Westernblot, the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were observed by Gelatin zymography, and Matrigel invasion assays were used to investigate the invasive potential of osteosarcoma cell lines before and after risedronate treatment. Results The invasiveness of osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS-2, U2OS were reduced in a dose dependent manner follow 48 hour treatment of up to 10 μM of the risedronate at which concentration no cytotoxicity occurred. Furthermore, the gelatinolytic activities and protein and mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also suppressed by increasing risedronate concentrations. Conclusion Given that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are instrumental in tumor cell invasion, our results suggest the risedronate could reduce osteosarcoma cell invasion.

  9. Does cryptic microbiota mitigate pine resistance to an invasive beetle-fungus complex? Implications for invasion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chihang; Xu, Letian; Xu, Dandan; Lou, Qiaozhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-09-13

    Microbial symbionts are known to assist exotic pests in their colonization of new host plants. However, there has been little evidence linking symbiotic invasion success to mechanisms for mitigation of native plant resistance. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) was introduced with a fungus, Leptographium procerum, to China from the United States and became a destructively invasive symbiotic complex in natural Pinus tabuliformis forests. Here, we report that three Chinese-resident fungi, newly acquired by RTB in China, induce high levels of a phenolic defensive chemical, naringenin, in pines. This invasive beetle-fungus complex is suppressed by elevated levels of naringenin. However, cryptic microbiotas in RTB galleries strongly degrade naringenin, and pinitol, the main soluble carbohydrate of P. tabuliformis, is retained in L. procerum-infected phloem and facilitate naringenin biodegradation by the microbiotas. These results demonstrate that cryptic microbiota mitigates native host plant phenolic resistance to an invasive symbiotic complex, suggesting a putative mechanism for reduced biotic resistance to symbiotic invasion.

  10. Epigenetic signatures of invasive status in populations of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Zaiko, Anastasija; Morán, Paloma; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-02-01

    Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) recent invasion in Europe (two-year old), while in older introductions such epigenetic signature of invasion was progressively reduced. Decreased methylation was interpreted as a rapid way of increasing phenotypic plasticity that would help invasive populations to thrive. This epigenetic signature of early invasion was stronger than the expected environmental signature of environmental stress in younger populations sampled from ports, otherwise detected in a much older population (>90 year old) of the also invasive tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus established in similar locations. Higher epigenetic than genetic diversity found in X. securis was confirmed from F. enigmaticus samples. As reported for introduced plants and vertebrates, epigenetic variation could compensate for relatively lower genetic variation caused by founder effects. These phenomena were compared with epigenetic mechanisms involved in metastasis, as parallel processes of community (biological invasion) and organism (cancer) invasions.

  11. Epigenetic signatures of invasive status in populations of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Zaiko, Anastasija; Morán, Paloma; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) recent invasion in Europe (two-year old), while in older introductions such epigenetic signature of invasion was progressively reduced. Decreased methylation was interpreted as a rapid way of increasing phenotypic plasticity that would help invasive populations to thrive. This epigenetic signature of early invasion was stronger than the expected environmental signature of environmental stress in younger populations sampled from ports, otherwise detected in a much older population (>90 year old) of the also invasive tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus established in similar locations. Higher epigenetic than genetic diversity found in X. securis was confirmed from F. enigmaticus samples. As reported for introduced plants and vertebrates, epigenetic variation could compensate for relatively lower genetic variation caused by founder effects. These phenomena were compared with epigenetic mechanisms involved in metastasis, as parallel processes of community (biological invasion) and organism (cancer) invasions. PMID:28205577

  12. Above-belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon...... understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its...... former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears...

  13. Bridgehead effect in the worldwide invasion of the biocontrol harlequin ladybird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lombaert

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the routes of worldwide introductions of alien organisms suggest that many widespread invasions could have stemmed not from the native range, but from a particularly successful invasive population, which serves as the source of colonists for remote new territories. We call here this phenomenon the invasive bridgehead effect. Evaluating the likelihood of such a scenario is heuristically challenging. We solved this problem by using approximate Bayesian computation methods to quantitatively compare complex invasion scenarios based on the analysis of population genetics (microsatellite variation and historical (first observation dates data. We applied this approach to the Harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (HA, a coccinellid native to Asia that was repeatedly introduced as a biocontrol agent without becoming established for decades. We show that the recent burst of worldwide invasions of HA followed a bridgehead scenario, in which an invasive population in eastern North America acted as the source of the colonists that invaded the European, South American and African continents, with some admixture with a biocontrol strain in Europe. This demonstration of a mechanism of invasion via a bridgehead has important implications both for invasion theory (i.e., a single evolutionary shift in the bridgehead population versus multiple changes in case of introduced populations becoming invasive independently and for ongoing efforts to manage invasions by alien organisms (i.e., heightened vigilance against invasive bridgeheads.

  14. Mutualism between co-introduced species facilitates invasion and alters plant community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M.; Robinson, Jennifer M.; Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A.; Frederickson, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized mutualisms are often predicted to be resilient to changes in partner identity. Variation in mutualism-related traits between native and invasive species however, can exacerbate the spread of invasive species (‘invasional meltdown’) if invasive partners strongly interact. Here we show how invasion by a seed-dispersing ant (Myrmica rubra) promotes recruitment of a co-introduced invasive over native ant-dispersed (myrmecochorous) plants. We created experimental communities of invasive (M. rubra) or native ants (Aphaenogaster rudis) and invasive and native plants and measured seed dispersal and plant recruitment. In our mesocosms, and in laboratory and field trials, M. rubra acted as a superior seed disperser relative to the native ant. By contrast, previous studies have found that invasive ants are often poor seed dispersers compared with native ants. Despite belonging to the same behavioural guild, seed-dispersing ants were not functionally redundant. Instead, native and invasive ants had strongly divergent effects on plant communities: the invasive plant dominated in the presence of the invasive ant and the native plants dominated in the presence of the native ant. Community changes were not due to preferences for coevolved partners: variation in functional traits of linked partners drove differences. Here, we show that strongly interacting introduced mutualists can be major drivers of ecological change. PMID:25540283

  15. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  16. Modelling Interactions between forest pest invasions and human decisions regarding firewood transport restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Barlow

    Full Text Available The invasion of nonnative, wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis and the emerald ash borer (A. planipennis is a serious ecological and economic threat to Canadian deciduous and mixed-wood forests. Humans act as a major vector for the spread of these pests via firewood transport, although existing models do not explicitly capture human decision-making regarding firewood transport. In this paper we present a two-patch coupled human-environment system model that includes social influence and long-distance firewood transport and examines potential strategies for mitigating pest spread. We found that increasing concern regarding infestations (f significantly reduced infestation. Additionally it resulted in multiple thresholds at which the intensity of infestation in a patch was decreased. It was also found that a decrease in the cost of firewood purchased in the area where it is supposed to be burned (Cl resulted in an increased proportion of local-firewood strategists, and a 67% decrease in Cl from $6.75 to $4.50 was sufficient to eliminate crosspatch infestation. These effects are synergistic: increasing concern through awareness and education campaigns acts together with reduced firewood costs, thereby reducing the required threshold of both awareness and economic incentives. Our results indicate that the best management strategy includes a combination of public education paired with firewood subsidization.

  17. Minimally Invasive Transaortic Mitral Decalcification During Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsugawa, Toshinori; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Hiraoka, Arudo; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Hirai, Yuki; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Mitral annular calcification accompanied by aortic stenosis is hazardous for both double-valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Less invasive mitral procedure is required in this condition, and minimally invasive approach may further reduce the operative risk in high-risk patients. Here, we report minimally invasive transaortic mitral decalcification during aortic valve replacement through minithoracotomy. We believe that this option is feasible in patients who are at prohibitive risk for double-valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation because of severe mitral annular calcification.

  18. Surveillance of viral contamination of invasive medical instruments in dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lin-fu; ZHU Hai-hong; LIN Jun; HU Min-jun; CHEN Feng; CHEN Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the viral contamination of invasive medical instruments in dentistry and to provide health administrative institutions with surveillance data. Methods: Sterilized samples were randomly collected from the department of dentistry to detect HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA, HIV-RNA and HBsAg. Results: Of the invasive medical instruments that were sterilized with 2% glutaraldehyde, one of the samples was positive for HBV-DNA, and another sample was positive for HBsAg.Conclusion: Though massive virus contamination of invasive medical instruments in dentistry has been reduced to a low level, the occurrence of contamination still remains.

  19. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  20. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-02-17

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species.

  1. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  2. Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Ahdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolipoprotein (Apo E4)) are markedly increased; 3) Chrysotile Asbestos is increased; 4) Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is moderately increased; 5) Al is moderately increased; 6) Hg is moderately increased; 7) Dopamine, Serotonin & GABA are significantly reduced (up to about 1/10 of normal); 8) Often viral infections (such as CMV, HHV-6, HPV-16, HPV-18, etc.), and Bacterial infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium TB, Borrelia Burgdorferi, etc.) coexist. Research by others on Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows that it is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, with about 70% of ASD patients also suffering from gastro-intestinal problems. While Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by formation of 1) Amyloid plaques, 2) Neurofibrillary tangles inside of neurons, and 3) Loss of connections between neurons. More than 90% of AD develops in people over the age of 65. These 3 characteristics often progressively worsen over time. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer's disease are completely different diseases they have some similar biochemical changes. Eight examples of such measurement & analysis are shown for comparison. Most of Autism patients improved significantly by removing the source or preventing intake of Asbestos, TiO2, Al & Hg or enhancing urinary output

  3. Fungi and invasions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fungi are a major component of the functioning of all terrestrial ecosystems. Objectives: To increase awareness of fungi as drivers of ecosystem processes, including invasion biology. Method: Here, I reviewed the information available regarding fungal invasions of native ecosystems in South Africa in the context of the National Status Report on Biological Invasions. Results: Only seven fungal species are regulated as invaders (all category 1b under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA A&IS regulations. Four of these species are not yet known to occur in South Africa. Similarly, under the NEM:BA A&IS regulations, two of the four species listed as prohibited (i.e. not present in the country but which would pose a threat if introduced are already present in the country. The actual number of alien fungi in South Africa is much greater. A preliminary listing of alien fungal species is made, with a total of 9 pathogenic species known to attack indigenous plants, 11 saprotrophic species, 1 fish pathogen, 23 host-specific pathogens of listed alien terrestrial plants, 61 ectomycorrhizal species and 7 host-specific pathogens deliberately introduced as biological control agents. The majority of fungal species were introduced to South Africa most likely via the introduction of crop plants as passengers, although there are as yet very little details available on pathways of introduction into South Africa. Conclusion: For almost all aspects considered, it is concluded that there is simply not sufficient data to begin to understand the role and impact of fungal invasions in South Africa.

  4. Boundary effect on liquid invasion in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid invasion is an important transport phenomenon in many geophysical and environmental applications. A new capillary model considering boundary effect is proposed to reveal its mechanism. The boundary fluid layer not only reduces the effective flow radius, but also changes the viscosity of fluid. Thus the capillary force and viscosity resistance increases, however, the increase of capillary force is faster than that of viscosity resistance, therefore the invasion front arrives at the critical distance earlier.

  5. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean; Rosendahl, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge)-but no...... plant provenance.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 14 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.41....

  6. Non-invasive prediction of oesophageal varices in cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sambit Sen; William JH Griffiths

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive predictors of varices in cirrhosis would reduce the need for screening endoscopies. Platelet count and spleen size have been shown to be useful parameters, in mixed groups of cirrhotics with different aetiologies. We evaluated this in two homogeneous groups with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and alcohol.Non-invasive predictors appear promising in the former group, but less so in the latter group.

  7. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  8. Intensive care unit audit: invasive procedure surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariama Amaral Michels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objective: currently, Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs constitute a serious public health problem. It is estimated that for every ten hospitalized patients, one will have infection after admission, generating high costs resulting from increased length of hospitalization, additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The intensive care unit (ICU, due to its characteristics, is one of the most complex units of the hospital environment, a result of the equipment, the available technology, the severity of inpatients and the invasive procedures the latter are submitted to. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence to specifi c HAI prevention measures in invasive ICU procedures. Methods: This study had a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory approach. Among the risk factors for HAIs are the presence of central venous access, indwelling vesical catheter and mechanical ventilation, and, therefore, the indicators were calculated for patients undergoing these invasive procedures, through a questionnaire standardized by the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC. Results: For every 1,000 patients, 15 had catheter-related bloodstream infection, 6.85 had urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheter in the fi rst half of 2010. Conclusion: most HAIs cannot be prevented, for reasons inherent to invasive procedures and the patients. However, their incidence can be reduced and controlled. The implementation of preventive measures based on scientifi c evidence can reduce HAIs signifi cantly and sustainably, resulting in safer health care services and reduced costs. The main means of prevention include the cleaning of hands, use of epidemiological block measures, when necessary, and specifi c care for each infection site. KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection. Intensive care units.

  9. Optimising invasive fish management in the context of invasive species legislation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darragh J. Woodford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa hosts a large number of non-native freshwater fishes that were introduced for various industries. Many of these species are now listed under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA Alien and Invasive Species (A&IS lists and regulations, though the practical options available to conservation agencies to effectively manage these fishes vary greatly among species and regions. Objectives & methods: We assessed the history and status of national legislation pertaining to invasive freshwater fishes, and the practical implications of the legislation for managing different species with contrasting distributions, impacts and utilisation value. Results: The smallmouth bass, despite being a potential conflict-generating species, is fairly straightforward to manage based on current legislation. Two species of trout, which remain absent from the NEM:BA A&IS lists because of ongoing consultation with stakeholders, continue to be managed in regions like the Western Cape province using existing provincial legislation. To maximise the limited capacity for management within conservation agencies, we proposed a decision-support tool that prioritises invasive fish populations that represent high environmental risk and low potential for conflict with stakeholders. Using three case studies, we demonstrated how the tool can be used to set management goals of ‘eradicate’, ‘manage against impacts and further spread’ and ‘continue to monitor population’ as the most pragmatic solutions given the state of an invasion, its socio-economic impact and the capacity of the responsible agency to act. Conclusion: By choosing a pragmatic management strategy, conservation agencies can maximise the effective deployment of limited resources, while minimising avoidable conflicts with stakeholders.

  10. Invasive cervical resorption: treatment challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption. It is characterized by invasion of cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue derived from the periodontal ligament. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption occurring in maxillary lateral incisor, following damage in cervical cementum from avulsion and intracoronal bleaching procedure. Flap reflection, debridement and restoration with glass ionomer cement were performed in an attempt to...

  11. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  12. Minimally invasive surgical techniques in periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2012-09-01

    A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.

  13. Invasive and minimally invasive surgical techniques for back pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, William; Carl, Allen; Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers

    2007-12-01

    This article summarizes current issues related to invasive and minimally invasive surgical techniques for back pain conditions. It describes pain generators and explains theories about how discs fail. The article discusses techniques for treating painful sciatica, painful motion segments, and spinal stenosis. Problems related to current imaging are also presented. The article concludes with a discussion about physical therapy.

  14. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  15. FHL2 silencing reduces Wnt signaling and osteosarcoma tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.

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    Julia Brun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms that are involved in the growth and invasiveness of osteosarcoma, an aggressive and invasive primary bone tumor, are not fully understood. The transcriptional co-factor FHL2 (four and a half LIM domains protein 2 acts as an oncoprotein or as a tumor suppressor depending on the tissue context. In this study, we investigated the role of FHL2 in tumorigenesis in osteosarcoma model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blot analyses showed that FHL2 is expressed above normal in most human and murine osteosarcoma cells. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that FHL2 protein expression is high in human osteosarcoma and correlates with osteosarcoma aggressiveness. In murine osteosarcoma cells, FHL2 silencing using shRNA decreased canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduced the expression of Wnt responsive genes as well as of the key Wnt molecules Wnt5a and Wnt10b. This effect resulted in inhibition of osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Using xenograft experiments, we showed that FHL2 silencing markedly reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis occurence in mice. The anti-oncogenic effect of FHL2 silencing in vivo was associated with reduced cell proliferation and decreased Wnt signaling in the tumors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that FHL2 acts as an oncogene in osteosarcoma cells and contributes to tumorigenesis through Wnt signaling. More importantly, FHL2 depletion greatly reduces tumor cell growth and metastasis, which raises the potential therapeutic interest of targeting FHL2 to efficiently impact primary bone tumors.

  16. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  17. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  18. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  19. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: A remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive pl...

  1. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  2. Earthworm invasions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Ching Yu Huang; Xiaoming Zou; Carlos Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with aboveground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration...

  3. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have consid

  4. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, P.G.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In

  5. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  6. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  7. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  8. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms.

  9. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    ) (10/2004) and Conservation of Agricultural Resource Act (CARA) were consulted to confirm the invaders status. Only eight plants (60%) are regulated by CARA (10/2004). Of 10 IAPs, 80% (8 species) are listed in both NEMBA and CARA legislation. Only 20% (2 species) are listed in NEMBA alone. Invasive alien plants are utilized by communities to combat various ailments in humans and these plants can help to reduce pressure on heavily harvested indigenous plant.

  10. The biological invasion in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania, whose territory comprises many types of habitats and is characterized by a rich biological diversity, is particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by alien invasive species. The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex and far-reaching challenges that threaten both the natural biological riches of the earth and the well-being of our people. While the problem is global, the nature and severity of the impacts on society, economic life, health, and natural heritage are distributed unevenly across nations and regions. Some aspects of the global invasive alien species (IAS problem require solutions tailored to the specific values, needs, and priorities of nations while others call for consolidated action by the larger world community. Preventing the international movement of invasive alien species and coordinating a timely and effective response to invasions requires cooperation and collaboration among governments, economic sectors, non-governmental organizations, and international treaty organizations. Many features have been attributed to invasive species and invaded ecosystems, but none are universal and invasive species tend to have a suite of traits rather than all of themThe large numbers of alien organisms introduced into Albania do not generally endanger the biodiversity on a large scale.

  11. Contrasting effects of invasive plants in plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartomeus, Ignasi; Vilà, Montserrat; Santamaría, Luís

    2008-04-01

    The structural organization of mutualism networks, typified by interspecific positive interactions, is important to maintain community diversity. However, there is little information available about the effect of introduced species on the structure of such networks. We compared uninvaded and invaded ecological communities, to examine how two species of invasive plants with large and showy flowers (Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis and Opuntia stricta) affect the structure of Mediterranean plant-pollinator networks. To attribute differences in pollination to the direct presence of the invasive species, areas were surveyed that contained similar native plant species cover, diversity and floral composition, with or without the invaders. Both invasive plant species received significantly more pollinator visits than any native species and invaders interacted strongly with pollinators. Overall, the pollinator community richness was similar in invaded and uninvaded plots, and only a few generalist pollinators visited invasive species exclusively. Invasive plants acted as pollination super generalists. The two species studied were visited by 43% and 31% of the total insect taxa in the community, respectively, suggesting they play a central role in the plant-pollinator networks. Carpobrotus and Opuntia had contrasting effects on pollinator visitation rates to native plants: Carpobrotus facilitated the visit of pollinators to native species, whereas Opuntia competed for pollinators with native species, increasing the nestedness of the plant-pollinator network. These results indicate that the introduction of a new species to a community can have important consequences for the structure of the plant-pollinator network.

  12. Deciphering interplay between Salmonella invasion effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Cain

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens have evolved a specialized type III secretion system (T3SS to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic target cells. Salmonellae deploy effectors that trigger localized actin reorganization to force their own entry into non-phagocytic host cells. Six effectors (SipC, SipA, SopE/2, SopB, SptP can individually manipulate actin dynamics at the plasma membrane, which acts as a 'signaling hub' during Salmonella invasion. The extent of crosstalk between these spatially coincident effectors remains unknown. Here we describe trans and cisbinary entry effector interplay (BENEFIT screens that systematically examine functional associations between effectors following their delivery into the host cell. The results reveal extensive ordered synergistic and antagonistic relationships and their relative potency, and illuminate an unexpectedly sophisticated signaling network evolved through longstanding pathogen-host interaction.

  13. Minimally invasive procedures for nasal aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Redaelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients.

  14. Esophageal surgery in minimally invasive era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The widespread popularity of new surgical technologiessuch as laparoscopy, thoracoscopy and robotics has ledmany surgeons to treat esophageal diseases with thesemethods. The expected benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) mainly include reductions of postoperativecomplications, length of hospital stay, and pain andbetter cosmetic results. All of these benefits couldpotentially be of great interest when dealing with theesophagus due to the potentially severe complicationsthat can occur after conventional surgery. Moreover,robotic platforms are expected to reduce many of thedifficulties encountered during advanced laparoscopicand thoracoscopic procedures such as anastomoticreconstructions,accurate lymphadenectomies, andvascular sutures. Almost all esophageal diseases areapproachable in a minimally invasive way, includingdiverticula, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, achalasia,perforations and cancer. Nevertheless, while the limitsof MIS for benign esophageal diseases are mainlytechnical issues and costs, oncologic outcomes remainthe cornerstone of any procedure to cure malignancies,for which the long-term results are critical. Furthermore,many of the minimally invasive esophageal operationsshould be compared to pharmacologic interventionsand advanced pure endoscopic procedures; such acomparison requires a difficult literature analysis andleads to some confounding results of clinical trials. Thisreview aims to examine the evidence for the use of MISin both malignancies and more common benign diseaseof the esophagus, with a particular emphasis on futuredevelopments and ongoing areas of research.

  15. Minimally invasive procedures for nasal aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Alessio; Limardo, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA) and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients.

  16. Parasites and marine invasions: Ecological and evolutionary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedknegt, M. Anouk; Feis, Marieke E.; Wegner, K. Mathias; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Buschbaum, Christian; Camphuysen, Kees (C. J.); van der Meer, Jaap; Thieltges, David W.

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marine and coastal ecosystems are heavily invaded by introduced species and the potential role of parasites in the success and impact of marine invasions has been increasingly recognized. In this review, we link recent theoretical developments in invasion ecology with empirical studies from marine ecosystems in order to provide a conceptual framework for studying the role of parasites and their hosts in marine invasions. Based on an extensive literature search, we identified six mechanisms in which invaders directly or indirectly affect parasite and host populations and communities: I) invaders can lose some or all of their parasites during the invasion process (parasite release or reduction), often causing a competitive advantage over native species; II) invaders can also act as a host for native parasites, which may indirectly amplify the parasite load of native hosts (parasite spillback); III) invaders can also be parasites themselves and be introduced without needing co-introduction of the host (introduction of free-living infective stages); IV) alternatively, parasites may be introduced together with their hosts (parasite co-introduction with host); V) consequently, these co-introduced parasites can sometimes also infect native hosts (parasite spillover); and VI) invasive species may be neither a host nor a parasite, but nevertheless affect native parasite host interactions by interfering with parasite transmission (transmission interference). We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of each of these mechanisms and generally note several substantial effects on natural communities and ecosystems via i) mass mortalities of native populations creating strong selection gradients, ii) indirect changes in species interactions within communities and iii) trophic cascading and knock-on effects in food webs that may affect ecosystem function and services. Our review demonstrates a wide range of ecological and evolutionary implications of

  17. Bradykinin promotes migration and invasion of human immortalized trophoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisboa Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Having demonstrated that the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R is expressed in cells that participate in trophoblast invasion in humans and guinea-pigs, we investigated the role of bradykinin (BK on cell migration and invasion in the HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line using wound healing and invasion assays. First, we documented that HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed kallikrein, B2R, B1R, MMP-2 and MMP-9 using immunocytochemistry. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L for 18 hours increased the migration index 3-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist HOE-140. BK (10.0 microMol/L incubation yielded a similar number of proliferating and viable cells as controls, therefore the enhanced closure of the wound cannot be attributed to proliferating cells. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L for 18 hours increased the invasion index 2-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the antagonist of the B2R. Neither the B1R ligand Lys-des-Arg9 BK, nor its antagonist Lys-(des-Arg9-Leu8, modified migration and invasion. Further support for the stimulatory effect of B2R activation on migration and invasion is provided by the 3-fold increase in the number of filopodia per cell versus controls or cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist. Bradykinin had no effect on the cellular protein content of the B2R, nor the MMP-9 and MMP-2 gelatinase activity in the culture media varied after incubation with BK. This study adds bradykinin-acting on the B2R-to the stimuli of trophoblast migration and invasion, an effect that should be integrated to other modifications of the kallikrein-kinin system in normal and pathological pregnancies.

  18. Chick heart invasion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture.

  19. Updated scar management practical guidelines: non-invasive and invasive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstrey, Stan; Middelkoop, Esther; Vranckx, Jan Jeroen; Bassetto, Franco; Ziegler, Ulrich E; Meaume, Sylvie; Téot, Luc

    2014-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids was developed by an international group of 24 experts from a wide range of specialities. An initial set of strategies to minimize the risk of scar formation is applicable to all types of scars and is indicated before, during and immediately after surgery. In addition to optimal surgical management, this includes measures to reduce skin tension, and to provide taping, hydration and ultraviolet (UV) protection of the early scar tissue. Silicone sheeting or gel is universally considered as the first-line prophylactic and treatment option for hypertrophic scars and keloids. The efficacy and safety of this gold-standard, non-invasive therapy has been demonstrated in many clinical studies. Other (more specialized) scar treatment options are available for high-risk patients and/or scars. Pressure garments may be indicated for more widespread scarring, especially after burns. At a later stage, more invasive or surgical procedures may be necessary for the correction of permanent unaesthetic scars and can be combined with adjuvant measures to achieve optimal outcomes. The choice of scar management measures for a particular patient should be based on the newly updated evidence-based recommendations taking individual patient and wound characteristics into consideration.

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Invasion-Resistant Cells Identifies Laminin α2 as a Host Factor for Bacterial Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Xander M.; Döhrmann, Simon; Hallström, Björn M.; Li, Shangzhong; Voldborg, Bjørn G.; Meng, Brandon X.; McKee, Karen K.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nizet, Victor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When these mutants were compared to the pgsA745 cell line, a CHO xylosyltransferase mutant generated previously using chemical mutagenesis, an unexpected result was obtained. Bacterial invasion of pgsA745 cells by group B Streptococcus (GBS), group A Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus was markedly reduced compared to the invasion of wild-type cells, but newly generated CRISPR-cas9 mutants were only resistant to GBS. Invasion of pgsA745 cells was not restored by transfection with xylosyltransferase, suggesting that an additional mutation conferring panresistance to multiple bacteria was present in pgsA745 cells. Whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) uncovered a deletion in the gene encoding the laminin subunit α2 (Lama2) that eliminated much of domain L4a. Silencing of the long Lama2 isoform in wild-type cells strongly reduced bacterial invasion, whereas transfection with human LAMA2 cDNA significantly enhanced invasion in pgsA745 cells. The addition of exogenous laminin-α2β1γ1/laminin-α2β2γ1 strongly increased bacterial invasion in CHO cells, as well as in human alveolar basal epithelial and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, the L4a domain in laminin α2 is important for cellular invasion by a number of bacterial pathogens. PMID:28074024

  1. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  2. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  3. Development and testing of a compact endoscope manipulator for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelman, Peter; Cinquin, Philippe; Boidard, Eric; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Létoublon, Christian; Long, Jean-Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of a novel compact surgical assistant robot to control the orientation and insertion depth of a laparoscopic endoscope during minimally invasive abdominal surgery. In contrast to typical endoscope manipulators, the described robot is particularly compact and lightweight, is simple to set up and use, occupies no floor or operating table space, and does not limit access to the patient in any way. The sterilizable endoscope manipulator is sufficiently small and lightweight at 625 g and 110 mm in diameter that it can be placed directly on the abdomen of the patient without interfering with other handheld instruments during minimally invasive surgery. It consists of an annular base, a clamp to hold an endoscope trocar, and two joints which enable azimuth rotation and inclination of the endoscope about a pivot point at the incision. The endoscope insertion depth is controlled by a cable winding acting against a compression spring on the endoscope shaft. Voice recognition and miniature keypad user command interfaces are provided, and the manipulator motors are backdriveable for manual repositioning. Endoscope camera trajectory-following accuracy and response-time results were measured using an optical localizer. Experimental results are given comparing the current prototype with the previous cable-driven prototype. The endoscope manipulator and its user interface were tested and evaluated by several surgeons during a series of minimally invasive surgical training procedures on cadavers and animals. The endoscope manipulator described has been shown to be a viable, practical device with performance and functionality equivalent to those of commercially available models, yet with greatly reduced size, weight, and cost.

  4. Schisandrin B attenuates cancer invasion and metastasis via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the major cause of cancer related death and targeting the process of metastasis has been proposed as a strategy to combat cancer. Therefore, to develop candidate drugs that target the process of metastasis is very important. In the preliminary studies, we found that schisandrin B (Sch B, a naturally-occurring dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan with very low toxicity, could suppress cancer metastasis. METHODOLOGY: BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously or injected via tail vein with murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. Mice were divided into Sch B-treated and control groups. The primary tumor growth, local invasion, lung and bone metastasis, and survival time were monitored. Tumor biopsies were examined immuno- and histo-pathologically. The inhibitory activity of Sch B on TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of 4T1 and primary human breast cancer cells was assayed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sch B significantly suppressed the spontaneous lung and bone metastasis of 4T1 cells inoculated s.c. without significant effect on primary tumor growth and significantly extended the survival time of these mice. Sch B did not inhibit lung metastasis of 4T1 cells that were injected via tail vein. Delayed start of treatment with Sch B in mice with pre-existing tumors did not reduce lung metastasis. These results suggested that Sch B acted at the step of local invasion. Histopathological evidences demonstrated that the primary tumors in Sch B group were significantly less locally invasive than control tumors. In vitro assays demonstrated that Sch B could inhibit TGF-β induced EMT of 4T1 cells and of primary human breast cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sch B significantly suppresses the lung and bone metastasis of 4T1 cells via inhibiting EMT, suggesting its potential application in targeting the process of cancer metastasis.

  5. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  6. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam; Koob, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  7. An invasive plant alters pollinator-mediated phenotypic selection on a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    • Recent studies suggest that invasive plants compete reproductively with native plants by reducing the quantity or quality of pollinator visits. Although these studies have revealed ecological consequences of pollinator-mediated competition between invasive and native plants, the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions remain largely unexplored.• We studied the ecological and evolutionary impact of pollinator-mediated competition with an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a co-occurring native congener, I. capensis. Using a pollinator choice experiment, a hand pollination experiment, and a selection analysis, we addressed the following questions: (1) Do native pollinators show preference for the invasive or native jewelweed, and do they move between the two species? (2) Does invasive jewelweed pollen inhibit seed production in the native plant? (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the native plant's floral traits?• The pollinator choice experiment showed that pollinators strongly preferred the invasive jewelweed. The hand pollination experiment demonstrated that invasive pollen inhibited seed production in the native plant. The selection analysis showed that the presence of the invasive jewelweed altered phenotypic selection on corolla height in the native plant.• Invasive plants have the potential to alter phenotypic selection on floral traits in native plant populations. If native plants can evolve in response to this altered selection pressure, the evolution of floral traits may play an important role in permitting long-term coexistence of native and invasive plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Macrophage invasion does not contribute to muscle membrane injury during inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidball, J. G.; Berchenko, E.; Frenette, J.

    1999-01-01

    Previous observations have shown that neutrophil invasion precedes macrophage invasion during muscle inflammation and that peak muscle injury is observed at the peak of ED1+ macrophage invasion. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophil invasion causes subsequent invasion by ED1+ macrophages and that ED1+ macrophages then contribute significantly to muscle membrane injury during modified muscle use. Rat hindlimbs were unloaded for 10 days followed by reloading by normal ambulation to induce inflammation. Membrane injury was measured by assaying Evans blue-bound serum protein influx through membrane lesions. Muscle neutrophil populations increased significantly during the first 2 h of reloading but ED1+ macrophages did not increase until 24 h. Neutrophil invasion was uncoupled from subsequent macrophage invasion by reloading rat hindlimbs for 2 h to cause neutrophil invasion, followed by resuspension for hours 2-24. This produced similar increases in neutrophil concentration as measured in muscles continuously reloaded for 24 h without causing an increase in macrophages. However, resuspension did not reduce the extent of muscle damage compared with that occurring in muscles that were reloaded continuously for 24 h. Thus, muscle invasion by neutrophils is not sufficient to cause invasion by ED1+ macrophages. In addition, muscle membrane injury that occurs during reloading is independent of invasion by ED1+ macrophages.

  9. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Vorsino

    Full Text Available Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75 as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1. This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  10. Minimal Invasive Surgery for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.Hoelscher; Ch.Gutschow

    2004-01-01

    Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is only established in some centers and affords a cervical anastomosis because intrathoracic anastomosis as a routine is technically too difficult. Laparoscopic mobilisation of the stomach (gastrolysis) is an important contribution for minimal invasive surgery of esophageal cancer.This procedure reduces the stress of the two cavity operation for the patient and allows the construction of a comparable gastric conduit like by open surgery. The technique of laparoscopic gastrolysis as preparation for transthoracic en bloc esophagectomy is described in detail and preliminary results are briefly mentioned.

  11. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  12. Ridgefield - Invasive Plant Focused Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed project is a part of the Refuge invasive species management program and willhelp achieve goals and protect priority habitats identified in the Refuge...

  13. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  14. Chronic pain and invasive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rocco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The chronic pain “three-step” OMS ladder is likely to be revised, in order to introduce a “fourth step” including clinical indications for the invasive analgesic procedures. The number of patients who undergo such procedures is likely to increase, as well as modern oncology and palliative medicine development. Most of invasive approaches include central (spinal neuromodulation and peripheral (gangliar neurolysis, percutaneous vertebral reduction techniques, as well as pharmacological (opioids and adiuvants, chemical (alcohol and physical (electrical stimulation, thermic neurolysis means. Rarely effective as unique therapies, invasive procedures have to be accurately patient-selected and considered supplementary to conservative approaches, in order to minimize the adverse events deriving from a long term opioid therapy. In the near future, the development of both pain science and biomedical technology will probably be accompanied by the improvement of the knowledge regarding the recourse to invasive analgesic procedures.

  15. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  16. Bufalin inhibits migration and invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells through the inhibitions of NF-kB and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9-signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis plays an important role in mortality of cancer patients. Migration and invasion are the major characteristics of tumor metastasis. The induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-2 and -9 are particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Bufalin, a class of toxic steroids, was purified from the skin glands of Bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanostictus; it is known to inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antiinvasive mechanisms of bufalin in the human hepatocellular cancer cell line SK-Hep1. Bufalin significantly reduced serum-induced cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, bufalin markedly inhibited MMP-2 and -9 activity, mRNA expression and protein levels in SK-Hep1 cells. Bufalin attenuated phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of AKT which was associated with reduced levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Bufalin also suppressed protein levels of FAK and Rho A, VEGF, MEKK3, MKK7, and uPA and it diminished NF-κB translocation. Based on these observations, we propose that bufalin is acts as an antiinvasive agent by inhibiting MMP-2 and -9 and involving PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways. Bufalin is a potential therapeutic agent that may have efficacy in preventing the invasion and metastasis of malignant liver tumors.

  17. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introdu...

  18. Survey protocol for invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Menza, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This protocol was developed by the Biogeography Branch of NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment to support invasive species research by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The protocol’s objective is to detect Carijoa riisei and Hypnea musciformis in deepwater habitats using visual surveys by technical divers. Note: This protocol is designed to detect the presence or absence of invasive species. A distinct protocol is required to collect information on abundance ...

  19. The biological invasion in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; LIRIKA KUPE; ALFRED MULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Albania, whose territory comprises many types of habitats and is characterized by a rich biological diversity, is particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by alien invasive species. The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex and far-reaching challenges that threaten both the natural biological riches of the earth and the well-being of our people. While the problem is global, the nature and severity of the impacts on society, economic life, health, and natural heritage are di...

  20. The dermatology acting internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  1. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna.

  2. Common invasive fungal diseases: an overview of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedel, Yvonne; Zimmerli, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and Pneumocystis infect an estimated two million individuals worldwide. Most are immunocompromised or critically ill. Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of the critically ill and of recipients of transplanted abdominal organs. In high-risk haemato-oncological patients, in contrast, the introduction of antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole and later with mould-active posaconazole has led to a remarkable reduction of invasive candidiasis and is likely to have a similar effect on invasive aspergillosis. Invasive aspergillosis remains the dominant invasive fungal disease (IFD) of haemato-oncological patients and solid-organ transplant recipients and is increasingly found in individuals with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on corticosteroids. In the developed world, owing to antiretroviral therapy Pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcosis have become rare in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are mainly found in solid-organ transplant recipients or immunocompromised patients. In the developing world, cryptococcosis remains a common and highly lethal disease of HIV positive individuals. With invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis, timely diagnosis is the principal challenge. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and current diagnostic tests lack sensitivity and specificity. The combination of several tests improves sensitivity, but not specificity. Standardised polymerase chain-reaction-based assays may be promising tools for more rapid and specific diagnosis of candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Nevertheless, initiation of treatment is often based solely on clinical suspicion. Empirical therapy, however, may lead to over-treatment of patients without IFD or it may miss its target in the case of resistance. Despite the success of antifungal prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of IFDs in haemato-oncological patients, there are a considerable number of

  3. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some dual-acting amino-alcohol ester derivatives of flurbiprofen and 2-[1,1'-biphenyl-4-yl]acetic acid: a potential approach to reduce local gastrointestinal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halen, Parmeshwari Kuldeep Kumar; Chagti, Kewal Krishna; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2006-11-01

    The search for safer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) continues with the failure of anticipated 'ideal' anti-inflammatory agents, the coxibs, on long-term usage. Increased gastric motility and acidity due to the free carboxy group are involved in the etiology of gastric toxicity, common to conventional NSAIDs. Keeping this fact in mind, it was planned to modify some of the conventional NSAIDs to amino-alcohol ester derivatives, which satisfied the structural requirements for these compounds to possess anticholinergic activity in the intact form. Besides blocking the acidic carboxylic group, incorporation of anticholinergic acivity in these molecules was expected to reduce the gastric toxicity by decreasing gastric acid secretion and motility. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of six different N,N-disubstituted amino-ethyl ester derivatives, structurally resembling the amino-alcohol ester class of anticholinergic agents, each for [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-acetic acid (3) and flurbiprofen (10), have been reported as potential substitutes for these NSAIDs, with improved therapeutic profile. All the ester derivatives were found to have sufficient chemical stability in buffers (pH 2.0 and 7.4), ensuring them to be absorbed as intact moieties from the gastrointestinal tract. A significant reduction in ulcerogenic potency in comparison to the parent drugs with a slightly higher anti-inflammatory potency suggests that the majority of these candidates have an improved therapeutic profile over their parent drugs. Hence, a promising novel approach, different from the conventional prodrug concept, has been successfully worked out to overcome the local gastric toxicity, yielding therapeutically better compounds for long-term oral anti-inflammatory therapy.

  4. Invasive and non-invasive methods for cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavdaniti M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic status monitoring of high-risk surgical patients and critically ill patients inIntensive Care Units is one of the main objectives of their therapeutic management. Cardiac output is one of the mostimportant parameters for cardiac function monitoring, providing an estimate of whole body perfusion oxygen deliveryand allowing for an understanding of the causes of high blood pressure. The purpose of the present review is thedescription of cardiac output measurement methods as presented in the international literature. The articles documentthat there are many methods of monitoring the hemodynamic status of patients, both invasive and non-invasive, themost popular of which is thermodilution. The invasive methods are the Fick method and thermodilution, whereasthe non-invasive methods are oeshophaegeal Doppler, transoesophageal echocardiography, lithium dilution, pulsecontour, partial CO2 rebreathing and thoracic electrical bioimpedance. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages,but thermodilution is the golden standard for critical patients, although it does entail many risks. The idealsystem for cardiac output monitoring would be non-invasive, easy to use, reliable and compatible in patients. A numberof research studies have been carried out in clinical care settings, by nurses as well as other health professionals, for thepurpose of finding a method of measurement that would have the least disadvantages. Nevertheless, the thermodilutiontechnique remains the most common approach in use today.

  5. Minimally invasive maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation using brushite based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Bassett, David C; Habibovic, Pamela; Luceron, Elena; Barralet, Jake E

    2009-01-01

    An ideal material for maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation procedures should not only be osteoconductive, biocompatible and mechanically strong, but should also be applied using minimally invasive procedures and remain stable with respect to the original bone surfaces. This way, implant exposure and infection might be reduced and good mechanical stability may be achieved. Calcium phosphate cements are proven biocompatible and osteoconductive materials that can be injected using minimally invasive procedures. Among these cements, brushite based cements have the added advantage of being biodegradable in vivo. Therefore, this material has the potential for use in the aforementioned procedures. An in vivo study was performed in rabbits to evaluate the potential use of brushite cements in minimally invasive maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation procedures. In this study, we injected self-setting brushite cements on the subperiosteal bone surface using a minimally invasive tunnelling technique. The cement pastes were stable on the bone surface and hardened soon after they were injected thereby negating the need for additional supports such as membranes or meshes. The animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after the intervention and histological observations revealed signs of successful vertical bone augmentation. Therefore, we have demonstrated a minimally invasive vertical bone augmentation procedure that is an attractive alternative to current surgical procedures in terms of increased simplicity, reduced trauma, and lower cost of surgery.

  6. Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  7. When to declare successful eradication of an invasive predator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rout, T.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; McCarthy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Imperfect detection methods make it difficult to tell whether an invasive species has been successfully eradicated. However, management cannot continue indefinitely when individuals are no longer detected – at some point, efforts must be reduced or ceased entirely. The risks of mistakenly inferring

  8. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.A.M

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  9. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Riksta

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  10. Learning from our mistakes: minimizing problems with invasive biofuel plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Economic driving forces are crucial. Important lessons to be learnt from forestry for reducing problems with invasiveness of alien species for biofuel production include: the use of global databases and screening tools for identifying high-risk species...

  11. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Riksta

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  12. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.A.M

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  13. Invasive EEG explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, D; Montavont, A; Isnard, J

    2015-03-01

    The Wada test was adapted from the procedure described by Wada in 1964. It still has a role in the prognostic evaluation of memory disorders after mesial temporal lobectomy. The test consists of injecting a short-acting anesthetic into one hemisphere, under continuous EEG monitoring and during carotid catheterization, to verify the function of contralateral structures. Intracranial EEG recordings deliver signals with few artifacts, and which are quite specific of the zone explored. Three types of electrodes are in common use: (a) foramen ovale (FO) electrodes: electrodes can be inserted directly, without any stereotactic procedure, to provide easy and comparative EEG recordings of the lower and middle portions of the temporal lobe close to the hippocampus. These allow validation of the temporal lobe origin of seizures using FO electrodes recording coupled with scalp EEG; (b): subdural strip or grip electrodes. This relatively aggressive technique carries infectious and hemorrhagic risks and does not allow the exploration of deep cortical structures. However, it permits precise functional cortical mapping via electrical stimulation because of dense and regular positioning of electrodes over the cortical convexity; (c) stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography [SEEG]). Electrodes are individually planned and inserted within the brain parenchyma through small burr holes. This technique is less aggressive than subdural grid exploration. However it offers relatively limited spatial sampling that may be less well adapted to precise functional evaluation. It allows recording from deep cortical structures and can be argued to be the gold standard of presurgical EEG exploration.

  14. Invasive knotweed affects native plants through allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Craig; Gerber, Esther; Krebs, Christine; Parepa, Madalin; Schaffner, Urs; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many plant invaders interfere with native plants through allelopathy. This allelopathic interference may be a key mechanism of plant invasiveness. One of the most aggressive current plant invaders is the clonal knotweed hybrid Fallopia × bohemica, which often forms monocultures in its introduced range. Preliminary results from laboratory studies suggest that allelopathy could play a role in this invasion. We grew experimental communities of European plants together with F. × bohemica. We used activated carbon to test for allelopathic effects, and we combined this with single or repeated removal of Fallopia shoots to examine how mechanical control can reduce the species' impact. Addition of activated carbon to the soil significantly reduced the suppressive effect of undamaged F. × bohemica on native forbs. The magnitude of this effect was similar to that of regular cutting of Fallopia shoots. Regular cutting of Fallopia shoots efficiently inhibited the growth of rhizomes, together with their apparent allelopathic effects. The ecological impact of F. × bohemica on native forbs is not just a result of competition for shared resources, but it also appears to have a large allelopathic component. Still, regular mechnical control successfully eliminated allelopathic effects. Therefore, allelopathy will create an additional challenge to knotweed management and ecological restoration only if the allelochemicals are found to persist in the soil. More research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying Fallopia allelopathy, and the long-term effects of soil residues.

  15. Passive Immunotherapy Protects against Enteric Invasion and Lethal Sepsis in a Murine Model of Gastrointestinal Anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bruce; Xie, Tao; Rotstein, David; Fang, Hui; Frucht, David M

    2015-09-29

    The principal portal for anthrax infection in natural animal outbreaks is the digestive tract. Enteric exposure to anthrax, which is difficult to detect or prevent in a timely manner, could be exploited as an act of terror through contamination of human or animal food. Our group has developed a novel animal model of gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax for evaluation of disease pathogenesis and experimental therapeutics, utilizing vegetative Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) administered to A/J mice (a complement-deficient strain) by oral gavage. We hypothesized that a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) * that neutralizes the protective antigen (PA) component of B. anthracis lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) could be an effective treatment. Although the efficacy of this anti-anthrax PA mAb has been shown in animal models of inhalational anthrax, its activity in GI infection had not yet been ascertained. We hereby demonstrate that passive immunotherapy with anti-anthrax PA mAb, administered at the same time as gastrointestinal exposure to B. anthracis, prevents lethal sepsis in nearly all cases (>90%), while a delay of up to forty-eight hours in treatment still greatly reduces mortality following exposure (65%). Moreover, passive immunotherapy protects against enteric invasion, associated mucosal injury and subsequent dissemination by gastrointestinal B. anthracis, indicating that it acts to prevent the initial stages of infection. * Expired raxibacumab being cycled off the Strategic National Stockpile; biological activity confirmed by in vitro assay.

  16. Invasive termites in a changing climate: A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bertelsmeier, Cleo

    2017-02-01

    Termites are ubiquitous insects in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions and play an important role in ecosystems. Several termite species are also significant economic pests, mainly in urban areas where they attack human-made structures, but also in natural forest habitats. Worldwide, approximately 28 termite species are considered invasive and have spread beyond their native ranges, often with significant economic consequences. We used predictive climate modeling to provide the first global risk assessment for 13 of the world's most invasive termites. We modeled the future distribution of 13 of the most serious invasive termite species, using two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, and two projection years (2050 and 2070). Our results show that all but one termite species are expected to significantly increase in their global distribution, irrespective of the climatic scenario and year. The range shifts by species (shift vectors) revealed a complex pattern of distributional changes across latitudes rather than simple poleward expansion. Mapping of potential invasion hotspots in 2050 under the RCP 4.5 scenario revealed that the most suitable areas are located in the tropics. Substantial parts of all continents had suitable environmental conditions for more than four species simultaneously. Mapping of changes in the number of species revealed that areas that lose many species (e.g., parts of South America) are those that were previously very species-rich, contrary to regions such as Europe that were overall not among the most important invasion hotspots, but that showed a great increase in the number of potential invaders. The substantial economic and ecological damage caused by invasive termites is likely to increase in response to climate change, increased urbanization, and accelerating economic globalization, acting singly or interactively.

  17. The Genetic Paradox of Invasions revisited: the potential role of inbreeding × environment interactions in invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieber, Karin; Lachmuth, Susanne

    2017-05-01

    Invasive species that successfully establish, persist, and expand within an area of introduction, in spite of demographic bottlenecks that reduce their genetic diversity, represent a paradox. Bottlenecks should inhibit population growth and invasive expansion, as a decrease in genetic diversity should result in inbreeding depression, increased fixation of deleterious mutations by genetic drift (drift load), and reduced evolutionary potential to respond to novel selection pressures. Here, we focus on the problems of inbreeding depression and drift load in introduced populations as key components of the Genetic Paradox of Invasions (GPI). We briefly review published explanations for the GPI, which are based on various mechanisms (invasion history events, reproductive traits, genetic characteristics) that mediate the avoidance of inbreeding depression and drift load. We find that there is still a substantial lack of explanation and empirical evidence for explaining the GPI for strongly bottlenecked invasions, or for during critical invasion phases (e.g. initial colonization, leading edges of range expansion) where strong genetic depletion, inbreeding depression and drift load occurs. Accordingly, we suggest that discussion of the GPI should be revived to find additional mechanisms applicable to explaining invasion success for such species and invasion phases. Based on a synthesis of the literature on the population genetics of invaders and the ecology of invaded habitats, we propose that inbreeding × environment (I × E) interactions are one such mechanism that may have strong explanatory power to address the GPI. Specifically, we suggest that a temporary or permanent release from stress in invaded habitats may alleviate the negative effects of genetic depletion on fitness via I × E interactions, and present published empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. We additionally discuss that I × E interactions can result in rapid evolutionary changes, and may even

  18. Propagule pressure-invasibility relationships: testing the influence of soil fertility and disturbance with Lespedeza cuneata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, Gregory R; Foster, Bryan L; Brassil, Chad E

    2014-02-01

    Although invasion risk is expected to increase with propagule pressure (PP), it is unclear whether PP-invasibility relationships follow an asymptotic or some other non-linear form and whether such relationships vary with underlying environmental conditions. Using manipulations of PP, soil fertility and disturbance, we tested how each influence PP-invasibility relationships for Lespedeza cuneata in a Kansas grassland and use recruitment curve models to determine how safe sites may contribute to plant invasions. After three growing seasons, we found that the PP-invasibility relationships best fit an asymptotic model of invasion reflecting a combination of density-independent and density-dependent processes and that seeds were aggregated within the plant community despite efforts to uniformly sow seeds. Consistent with some models, community invasibility decreased with enhanced soil fertility or reduced levels of disturbance in response to changes in the fraction of safe sites. Our results illustrate that disturbance and soil fertility can be a useful organizing principle for predicting community invasibility, asymptotic models are a reasonable starting point for modeling invasion, and new modeling techniques—coupled with classic experimental approaches—can enhance our understanding of the invasion process.

  19. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion.

  20. Double acting bit holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.

  1. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery with Intraoperative Image-Guided Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence T. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy.

  2. Pinus contorta invasions increase wildfire fuel loads and may create a positive feedback with fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberley T; Maxwell, Bruce D; McWethy, David B; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñez, Martín A; Whitlock, Cathy

    2016-12-09

    Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory. We found that fuel loads and soil heating during simulated fire increase with increasing P. contorta invasion age or density at all sites. However, P. contorta density did not always increase post-fire. In the largest fire, P. contorta density only increased significantly post-fire where the pre-fire P. contorta density was above an invasion threshold. Below this threshold, P. contorta did not dominate after fire and plant communities responded to fire in a similar manner as uninvaded communities. The positive feedback observed at high densities is caused by the accumulation of fuel that in turn results in greater soil heating during fires and high P. contorta density post-fire. Therefore, a positive feedback may form between P. contorta invasions and fire, but only above an invasion density threshold. These results suggest that management of pine invasions before they reach the invasion density threshold is important for reducing fire risk and preventing a transition to an alternate ecosystem state dominated by pines and novel understory plant communities.

  3. [Immunopathogenesis of invasive mould infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert Lletí, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections caused by filamentous fungi are devastating diseases that occur in patients with a variety of immunosuppressive conditions. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of the most important invasive mycosis in the human being caused by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scedosporium and mucorales. The first contact between the mould and the patient, the host defense to different fungi, including the role of mucosa in the innate immune system, the whole innate immune recognition receptors, and the pathways connecting innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the virulence factors of fungi, are discussed in this paper.

  4. ACT Verbal Prep Course

    CERN Document Server

    Standridge, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for ACT Verbal. Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the verbal sections of the ACT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. The verbal sections are not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to "beat" the ACT, but it is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your score will improve-significantly. The ACT cannot be "beaten." But it can be mastered-through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the exercises in this book are design

  5. Minimally invasive oesophagectomy: preliminary results after introduction of an intrathoracic anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Workum, F. van; Wildenberg, F.J. van den; Polat, F.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Rosman, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrathoracic anastomosis after oesophagectomy has recently been associated with reduced functional morbidity compared to a cervical anastomosis. METHODS: From January 2011 until August 2012, all operable patients were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIE) with int

  6. Quantum measurement act as a "speech act"

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J

    2005-01-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a ``speech act'' in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjectice -- or better a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the ``Mind-Body problem''.

  7. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Invasion-Resistant Cells Identifies Laminin α2 as a Host Factor for Bacterial Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wijk, Xander M.; Döhrmann, Simon; Hallstrom, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When...... cells. Whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) uncovered a deletion in the gene encoding the laminin subunit α2 (Lama2) that eliminated much of domain L4a. Silencing of the long Lama2 isoform in wild-type cells strongly reduced bacterial invasion, whereas transfection with human...

  8. Genetic mixture of multiple source populations accelerates invasive range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Natalie K; Ochocki, Brad M; Crawford, Kerri M; Compagnoni, Aldo; Miller, Tom E X

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of population genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbour greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and/or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis). If driven by evolution, positive effects of source population mixture should increase through time, as selection sculpts genetic variation. If driven by heterosis, effects of mixture should peak following first reproductive contact and then dissipate. Using a laboratory model system (beetles spreading through artificial landscapes), we quantified the velocity of range expansion for invasions initiated with one, two, four or six genetic sources over six generations. Our experiment was designed to test predictions corresponding to the evolutionary and heterosis mechanisms, asking whether any effects of genetic mixture occurred in early or later generations of range expansion. We also quantified demography and dispersal for each experimental treatment, since any effects of mixture should be manifest in one or both of these traits. Over six generations, invasions with any amount of genetic mixture (two, four and six sources) spread farther than single-source invasions. Our data suggest that heterosis provided a 'catapult effect', leaving a lasting signature on range expansion even though the benefits of outcrossing were transient. Individual-level trait data indicated that genetic mixture had positive effects on local demography (reduced extinction risk and enhanced

  9. Machine learning techniques in dialogue act recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fišel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This report addresses dialogue acts, their existing applications and techniques of automatically recognizing them, in Estonia as well as elsewhere. Three main applications are described: in dialogue systems to determine the intention of the speaker, in dialogue systems with machine translation to resolve ambiguities in the possible translation variants and in speech recognition to reduce word recognition error rate. Several recognition techniques are described on the surface level: how they work and how they are trained. A summary of the corresponding representation methods is provided for each technique. The paper also includes examples of applying the techniques to dialogue act recognition.The author comes to the conclusion that using the current evaluation metric it is impossible to compare dialogue act recognition techniques when these are applied to different dialogue act tag sets. Dialogue acts remain an open research area, with space and need for developing new recognition techniques and methods of evaluation.

  10. Invasive Plants Rapidly Reshape Soil Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sean M; Lekberg, Ylva; Mummey, Daniel L; Sangwan, Naseer; Ramsey, Philip W; Gilbert, Jack A

    2017-01-01

    Plant invasions often reduce native plant diversity and increase net primary productivity. Invaded soils appear to differ from surrounding soils in ways that impede restoration of diverse native plant communities. We hypothesize that invader-mediated shifts in edaphic properties reproducibly alter soil microbial community structure and function. Here, we take a holistic approach, characterizing plant, prokaryotic, and fungal communities and soil physicochemical properties in field sites, invasion gradients, and experimental plots for three invasive plant species that cooccur in the Rocky Mountain West. Each invader had a unique impact on soil physicochemical properties. We found that invasions drove shifts in the abundances of specific microbial taxa, while overall belowground community structure and functional potential were fairly constant. Forb invaders were generally enriched in copiotrophic bacteria with higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and showed greater microbial carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic potential. Older invasions had stronger effects on abiotic soil properties, indicative of multiyear successions. Overall, we show that plant invasions are idiosyncratic in their impact on soils and are directly responsible for driving reproducible shifts in the soil environment over multiyear time scales. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show how invasive plant species drive rapid shifts in the soil environment from surrounding native communities. Each of the three plant invaders had different but consistent effects on soils. Thus, there does not appear to be a one-size-fits-all strategy for how plant invaders alter grassland soil environments. This work represents a crucial step toward understanding how invaders might be able to prevent or impair native reestablishment by changing soil biotic and abiotic properties.

  11. Invasive Infections with Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Barbara E; Fields, Patricia I

    2016-06-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections in Africa cause an enormous burden of illness. These infections are often devastating, with mortality estimated at 20%, even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Two major groups-young children and HIV-infected adults-suffer the great majority of these infections. In children, younger age itself, as well as malaria, malnutrition, and HIV infection, are prominent risk factors. In adults, HIV infection is by far the most important risk factor. The most common serotypes in invasive infections are Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. In recent years, a specific strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, multilocus sequence type 313, has caused epidemics of invasive disease. Little is known about risk factors for exposure to NTS, making the design of rational interventions to decrease exposure difficult. Antimicrobial therapy is critically important for treatment of invasive NTS infections. Thus, the emergence and spread of resistance to agents commonly used for treatment of invasive NTS infection, now including third-generation cephalosporins, is an ominous development. Already, many invasive NTS infections are essentially untreatable in many health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Several candidate vaccines are in early development and, if safe and effective, could be promising. Interventions to prevent exposure to NTS (e.g., improved sanitation), to prevent the occurrence of disease if exposure does occur (e.g., vaccination, malaria control), and to prevent severe disease and death in those who become ill (e.g., preserving antimicrobial effectiveness) are all important in reducing the toll of invasive NTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  13. Minimally invasive surgical treatment of valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Andrew B; Joseph Woo, Y

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is in the midst of a practice revolution. Traditionally, surgery for valvular heart disease consisted of valve replacement via conventional sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass. However, over the past 20 years, the increasing popularity of less-invasive procedures, accompanied by advancements in imaging, surgical instrumentation, and robotic technology, has motivated and enabled surgeons to develop and perform complex cardiac surgical procedures through small incisions, often eliminating the need for sternotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass. In addition to the benefits of improved cosmesis, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery was pioneered with the intent of reducing morbidity, postoperative pain, blood loss, hospital length of stay, and time to return to normal activity. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art of minimally invasive approaches to the surgical treatment of valvular heart disease.

  14. Recent advances on micro-invasive glaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zuo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second major causes of blindness after cataract. The conventional trabeculectomy and shunt implantation is still the most common surgical procedure in treatment of glaucoma. However, the limitations of the treatments are the security and failure rate. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery(MIGSis an emerging category which shares the following five characteristics compared with traditional glaucoma surgery:(1an interno microincision,(2micro-invasion,(3definite curative effect,(4high safety, and(5rapid recovery. moreover, it can also reduce the use of glaucoma medication after operation. This kind of surgery can be conducted in three different space, such as Schlemm canal, the suprachoroidal space, and the subconjunctival space. This article reviews briefly the new techniques of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery.

  15. Nanomimics of host cell membranes block invasion and expose invasive malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Bieri, Andrej; Brand, Françoise; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2014-12-23

    The fight against most infectious diseases, including malaria, is often hampered by the emergence of drug resistance and lack or limited efficacies of vaccines. Therefore, new drugs, vaccines, or other strategies to control these diseases are needed. Here, we present an innovative nanotechnological strategy in which the nanostructure itself represents the active substance with no necessity to release compounds to attain therapeutic effect and which might act in a drug- and vaccine-like dual function. Invasion of Plasmodium falciparum parasites into red blood cells was selected as a biological model for the initial validation of this approach. Stable nanomimics-polymersomes presenting receptors required for parasite attachment to host cells-were designed to efficiently interrupt the life cycle of the parasite by inhibiting invasion. A simple way to build nanomimics without postformation modifications was established. First, a block copolymer of the receptor with a hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and then mixed with a polymersome-forming block copolymer. The resulting nanomimics bound parasite-derived ligands involved in the initial attachment to host cells and they efficiently blocked reinvasion of malaria parasites after their egress from host cells in vitro. They exhibited efficacies of more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than the soluble form of the receptor, which can be explained by multivalent interactions of several receptors on one nanomimic with multiple ligands on the infective parasite. In the future, our strategy might offer interesting treatment options for severe malaria or a way to modulate the immune response.

  16. The Apocryphal Acts Of Andrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    2000-01-01

    Following the first three volumes of the new series on the Acts of John (1995), the Acts of Paul and Thecla (1996) and the Acts of Peter (1998), this new volume is devoted to the Acts of Andrew. After a study of the relationship between the Acts of Andrew and the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, the maj

  17. Reducing Prescriptions of Long-acting Benzodiazepine Drugs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Sophie Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BZD) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone; altogether Z drugs) is related to potential physiological and psychological dependence along with other adverse effects. This study aimed to analyse the prescribing of long...

  18. Effect of 7-hydroxystaurosporine on glioblastoma cell invasion and migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hui MENG; Li-xin ZHOU; Jia-lin LUO; Jian-ping CAO; Jian TONG; Sai-jun FAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), a selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, on cell growth, migration, and invasion in inva sive human glioblastoma U-87MG cells. Methods: PKC activity was determined based on the PKC-catalyzed transfer of the 32p-phosphate group from [g-32p]ATP into a PKC-specific peptide substrate. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay.Cell invasion and migration were evaluated by a Boyden chamber assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. Protein expression was analyzed using Western blot assay. The formation of 3-dimensional cellular aggregates was examined by a cell-cell aggregation assay. Results: UCN-01 treatment resulted in concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of U-87MG cell growth at higher doses (> 100 nmol/L), and reduced cell invasion and migration capability at less cytotoxic doses (<100 nmol/L). UCN-01 significantly repressed PKC activity. Consistent with this result, UCN-01 blocked cell invasion stimulated by phorbel 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) and ethanol (EtOH), 2 PKC activators. Enforced expression of the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and PTEN increased the anti-invasion potential of UCN-01. Exposure to UCN-01 caused a dose-dependent increase in cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The effect of UCN-01 on the formation of cell-cell aggregation was significantly reduced by the addition of an anti-E-cadherin antibody. Conclusion: UCN-01 inhibits the invasion and migration of human glioma cells. Accordingly, UCN-01 can have potential clinical applications for the treatment of human glioma metastasis.

  19. Cryptic microsporidian parasites differentially affect invasive and native Artemia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Nicolas O; Lievens, Eva J P; Segard, Adeline; Flaven, Elodie; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Lenormand, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the host specificity of two cryptic microsporidian species (Anostracospora rigaudi and Enterocytospora artemiae) infecting invasive (Artemia franciscana) and native (Artemia parthenogenetica) hosts in sympatry. Anostracospora rigaudi was on average four times more prevalent in the native host, whereas E. artemiae was three times more prevalent in the invasive host. Infection with An. rigaudi strongly reduced female reproduction in both host species, whereas infection with E. artemiae had weaker effects on female reproduction. We contrasted microsporidian prevalence in native A. franciscana populations (New World) and in both invaded and non-invaded Artemia populations (Old World). At a community level, microsporidian prevalence was twice as high in native compared with invasive hosts, due to the contrasting host-specificity of An. rigaudi and E. artemiae. At a higher biogeographical level, microsporidian prevalence in A. franciscana did not differ between the invaded populations and the native populations used for the introduction. Although E. artemiae was the only species found both in New and Old World populations, no evidence of its co-introduction with the invasive host was found in our experimental and phylogeographic tests. These results suggest that the success of A. franciscana invasion is probably due to a lower susceptibility to virulent microsporidian parasites rather than to decreased microsporidian prevalence compared with A. parthenogenetica or to lower microsporidian virulence in introduced areas.

  20. Inhibitory effects of kaempferol on the invasion of human breast carcinoma cells by downregulating the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglin; Zhao, Yuanwei; Yang, Dan; Yu, Yanyan; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Ziming; Zhang, Bei; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been regarded as major critical molecules assisting tumor cells during metastasis, for excessive ECM (ECM) degradation, and cancer cell invasion. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo assays were employed to examine the inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a natural polyphenol of flavonoid family, on tumor metastasis. Data showed that kaempferol could inhibit adhesion, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, kaempferol led to the reduced activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were detected by gelatin zymography, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis, respectively. Further elucidation of the mechanism revealed that kaempferol treatment inhibited the activation of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, kaempferol repressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-9 expression and activity through suppressing the translocation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and MAPK signaling pathway. Our results also indicated that kaempferol could block the lung metastasis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells as well as the expression of MMP-9 in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that kaempferol could inhibit cancer cell invasion through blocking the PKCδ/MAPK/AP-1 cascade and subsequent MMP-9 expression and its activity. Therefore, kaempferol might act as a therapeutic potential candidate for cancer metastasis.

  1. miR-495 and miR-551a inhibit the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells by directly interacting with PRL-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengrong; Cao, Yi; Jie, Zhigang; Liu, Yi; Li, Yingliang; Li, Junhe; Zhu, Guoming; Liu, Zhengren; Tu, Yi; Peng, Gen; Lee, Dong-woo; Park, Sung-soo

    2012-10-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) gene is associated with metastasis in gastric cancer, and is believed to play a causative role by promoting tumor cell motility, invasion, and metastasis, but little is known of the mechanisms involved. We previously reported that PRL-3 expression is significantly higher in the tissues of primary gastric carcinomas with peritoneal metastasis. In the present study, we found that two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-495 and miR-551a, predicted to target PRL-3, are downregulated in gastric carcinoma samples. The validation of this interaction between those two miRNAs and PRL-3 was confirmed by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in GC cell lines transfected with miR-495 and miR-551a mimics. Furthermore, the migration and invasion of GC cells were significantly inhibited by transfection with miR-495 or -551a mimics, and the mRNA and protein levels of PRL-3 were reduced in cells overexpressing miR-495 or -551a. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-495 and miR-551a both act as tumor suppressors by targeting the PRL-3 oncogene and inhibiting gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. The findings of this study contribute to current understanding of the functions of miRNA mimics in GC gene therapy.

  2. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  3. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  4. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  5. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  6. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  7. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  8. Implications of minimally invasive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.; Schersten, T.; Jonsson, E.

    1993-01-01

    The field of minimally invasive therapy (MIT) raises many important issues for the future of health care. It seems inevitable that MIT will replace much conventional surgery. This trend is good for society and good for patients. The health care system, however, may find the change disruptive. The

  9. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  10. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importan...

  11. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  12. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... have sustained ecological damage over many decades from the presence of invasive mice. Eradicating... adjacent productive marine environment make the Farallon Islands an ideal breeding and resting location for... pesticides and the minimum requirements analysis process under the Wilderness Act. Three alternatives are...

  13. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-15

    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  14. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Klonner

    Full Text Available The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value, habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt, and propagule pressure (frequency were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  15. The progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Ana S; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A; Richardson, David M; Schindler, Stefan; Muñoz-Pajares, A Jesús; Vicente, Joana R; Martins, João; Hui, Cang; Kühn, Ingolf; Honrado, João P

    2017-02-01

    Interdisciplinarity is needed to gain knowledge of the ecology of invasive species and invaded ecosystems, and of the human dimensions of biological invasions. We combine a quantitative literature review with a qualitative historical narrative to document the progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science since 1950. Our review shows that 92.4% of interdisciplinary publications (out of 9192) focus on ecological questions, 4.4% on social ones, and 3.2% on social-ecological ones. The emergence of invasion science out of ecology might explain why interdisciplinarity has remained mostly within the natural sciences. Nevertheless, invasion science is attracting social-ecological collaborations to understand ecological challenges, and to develop novel approaches to address new ideas, concepts, and invasion-related questions between scholars and stakeholders. We discuss ways to reframe invasion science as a field centred on interlinked social-ecological dynamics to bring science, governance and society together in a common effort to deal with invasions.

  16. US Forest Service Current Invasive Plants Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the most recent measurement of Invasive Plant Infestation polygons collected by the National Invasive Plant Inventory Protocol....

  17. CotH3 mediates fungal invasion of host cells during mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Liu, Mingfu; Luo, Guanpingsheng; Bruno, Vincent; Phan, Quynh T; Waring, Alan J; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Yeaman, Michael R; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2014-01-01

    Angioinvasion is a hallmark of mucormycosis. Previously, we identified endothelial cell glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as a receptor for Mucorales that mediates host cell invasion. Here we determined that spore coat protein homologs (CotH) of Mucorales act as fungal ligands for GRP78. CotH proteins were widely present in Mucorales and absent from noninvasive pathogens. Heterologous expression of CotH3 and CotH2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae conferred the ability to invade host cells via binding to GRP78. Homology modeling and computational docking studies indicated structurally compatible interactions between GRP78 and both CotH3 and CotH2. A mutant of Rhizopus oryzae, the most common cause of mucormycosis, with reduced CotH expression was impaired for invading and damaging endothelial cells and CHO cells overexpressing GRP78. This strain also exhibited reduced virulence in a diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) mouse model of mucormycosis. Treatment with anti-CotH Abs abolished the ability of R. oryzae to invade host cells and protected DKA mice from mucormycosis. The presence of CotH in Mucorales explained the specific susceptibility of DKA patients, who have increased GRP78 levels, to mucormycosis. Together, these data indicate that CotH3 and CotH2 function as invasins that interact with host cell GRP78 to mediate pathogenic host-cell interactions and identify CotH as a promising therapeutic target for mucormycosis.

  18. Extracellular protonation modulates cell-cell interaction mechanics and tissue invasion in human melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofschröer, Verena; Koch, Kevin Alexander; Ludwig, Florian Timo; Friedl, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Stock, Christian; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement. Adhesive interaction strength between individual MV3 cells was quantified using atomic force microscopy and validated by multicellular aggregation assays. Extracellular acidification from pHe7.4 to 6.4 decreases cell migration and invasion but increases single cell detachment from the spheroids. Acidification and NHE1 overexpression both reduce cell-cell adhesion strength, indicated by reduced maximum pulling forces and adhesion energies. Multicellular aggregation and spheroid formation are strongly impaired under acidification or NHE1 overexpression. We show a clear dependence of melanoma cell-cell adhesion on pHe and NHE1 as a modulator. These effects are opposite to cell-matrix interactions that are strengthened by protons extruded via NHE1. We conclude that these opposite effects of NHE1 act synergistically during the metastatic cascade. PMID:28205573

  19. Consumer depletion alters seagrass resistance to an invasive macroalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Sarah; Calabretti, Chiara; Delaria, Maria Anna; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Navone, Augusto; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Few field studies have investigated how changes at one trophic level can affect the invasibility of other trophic levels. We examined the hypothesis that the spread of an introduced alga in disturbed seagrass beds with degraded canopies depends on the depletion of large consumers. We mimicked the degradation of seagrass canopies by clipping shoot density and reducing leaf length, simulating natural and anthropogenic stressors such as fish overgrazing and water quality. Caulerpa racemosa was transplanted into each plot and large consumers were excluded from half of them using cages. Potential cage artifacts were assessed by measuring irradiance, scouring by leaf movement, water flow, and sedimentation. Algal invasion of the seagrass bed differed based on the size of consumers. The alga had higher cover and size under the cages, where the seagrass was characterized by reduced shoot density and canopy height. Furthermore, canopy height had a significant effect depending on canopy density. The alteration of seagrass canopies increased the spread of C. racemosa only when large consumers were absent. Our results suggest that protecting declining habitats and/or restoring fish populations will limit the expansion of C. racemosa. Because MPAs also enhance the abundance and size of fish consuming seagrass they can indirectly promote algal invasion. The effects of MPAs on invasive species are context dependent and require balancing opposing forces, such as the conservation of seagrass canopy structure and the protection of fish grazing the seagrass.

  20. Invasive versus non-invasive diagnosis of renal bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, A; Oprisiu, R; Said, S; Sechet, A; Ghazali, A; Marié, A; el Esper, I; Brazier, M; Achard, J M; Morinière, P

    1997-07-01

    At present, bone histomorphometry remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the various types of renal bone disease. In the search for a non-invasive method of diagnosis, biochemical serum markers of bone remodelling, in addition to serum intact parathyroid hormone and aluminium determinations, have been proposed as the most reliable tools and are at present widely used in clinical practice. Their respective diagnostic values, as separate items and in combined analysis, are thoroughly discussed in the present review.

  1. Robotic-assisted minimally invasive liver resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ming Wu

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Robotic assistance increased the percentage of minimally invasive liver resections and the percentage of major minimally invasive liver resections with comparable perioperative results. Robotic-assisted minimally invasive liver resection is feasible, but its role needs more accumulated experience to clarify.

  2. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Doc No: 2010-28653] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory...

  3. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28743] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory...

  4. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2017-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...

  5. Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted versus Minimally Invasive Nonendoscopic Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Fík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient’s comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques.

  6. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  7. Geographic variation in apparent competition between native and invasive Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P; Meyerson, Laura A; Cronin, James T

    2017-02-01

    Apparent competition, the negative interaction between species mediated by shared natural enemies, is thought to play an important role in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. However, its importance in driving species invasions, and whether the strength of this indirect interaction varies across the latitudinal range of the invasion, has not been fully explored. We performed replicated field experiments at four sites spanning 900 km along the Atlantic Coast of the United States to assess the presence and strength of apparent competition between sympatric native and invasive lineages of Phragmites australis. Four herbivore guilds were considered: stem-feeders, leaf-miners, leaf-chewers and aphids. We also tested the hypothesis that the strength of this interaction declines with increasing latitude. Within each site, native and invasive plants of P. australis were cross-transplanted between co-occurring native and invasive patches in the same marsh habitat and herbivore damage was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Apparent competition was evident for both lineages and involved all but the leaf-chewer guild. For native plants, total aphids per plant was 296% higher and the incidence of stem-feeding and leaf-mining herbivores was 34% and 221% higher, respectively, when transplanted into invasive than native patches. These data suggest that invasive P. australis has a negative effect on native P. australis via apparent competition. Averaged among herbivore types, the indirect effects of the invasive lineage on the native lineage was 57% higher than the reverse situation, suggesting that apparent competition was asymmetric. We also found that the strength of apparent competition acting against the native lineage was comparable to the benefits to the invasive lineage from enemy release (i.e., proportionately lower mean herbivory of the invasive relative to the native taxa). Finally, we found the first evidence that the strength of

  8. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  9. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul W; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Barralet, Jenny; Coleman, David; Sweeny, Amy; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke; Brown, Mitchell; Gilbert, Lyn; Hogg, Geoff; Murphy, Denise

    2008-03-01

    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2006 with comprehensive comparative data available since 2002. There were 1,445 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2006; a notification rate of 7 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (30.8 cases per 100,000 population) and in children aged one year (26.5 cases per 100,000 population). There were 130 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 9%. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 4.3 times the rate in non-indigenous Australians. The rate of IPD in the under two years population continued to fall in 2006, but the rate in Indigenous children (73 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (21 cases per 100,000 population). The rates of disease caused by serotypes in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) decreased between 2002 and 2006 by 78% in children aged under two years as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. Rates of disease caused by non-7vPCV in the same periods were little changed. Serotypes were identified in 94% of all notified cases, with 43% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 85% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remains low and reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins is rare.

  10. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  11. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...

  12. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  13. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  14. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  15. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  16. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  17. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  19. Human mobility and epidemic invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-03-01

    The current H1N1 influenza pandemic is just the latest example of how human mobility helps drive infectious diseases. Travel has grown explosively in the last decades, contributing to an emerging complex pattern of traffic flows that unfolds at different scales, shaping the spread of epidemics. Restrictions on people's mobility are thus investigated to design possible containment measures. By considering a theoretical framework in terms of reaction-diffusion processes, it is possible to study the invasion dynamics of epidemics in a metapopulation system with heterogeneous mobility patterns. The system is found to exhibit a global invasion threshold that sets the critical mobility rate below which the epidemic is contained. The results provide a general framework for the understanding of the numerical evidence from detailed data-driven simulations that show the limited benefit provided by travel flows reduction in slowing down or containing an emerging epidemic.

  20. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible.

  1. MicroRNA-338 inhibits growth, invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by targeting NRP1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    Full Text Available NRP1 as multifunctional non-tyrosine-kinase receptors play critical roles in tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are an important class of pervasive genes that are involved in a variety of biological functions, particularly cancer. It remains unclear whether miRNAs can regulate the expression of NRP1. The goal of this study was to identify miRNAs that could inhibit the growth, invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by targeting NRP1 expression. We found that miR-338 expression was reduced in gastric cancer cell lines and in gastric cancer tissues. Moreover, we found that miR-338 inhibited gastric cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and promoted apoptosis by targeting NRP1 expression. As an upstream regulator of NRP1, miR-338 directly targets NRP1. The forced expression of miR-338 inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, P38 MAPK and Akt; however, the expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2, P38 MAPK and Akt was restored by the overexpression of NRP1. In AGS cells infected with miR-338 or transfected with SiNRP1, the protein levels of fibronectin, vimentin, N-cadherin and SNAIL were decreased, but the expression of E-cadherin was increased. The expression of mesenchymal markers in miR-338-expressing cells was restored to normal levels by the restoration of NRP1 expression. In vivo, miR-338 also decreased tumor growth and suppressed D-MVA by targeting NRP1. Therefore, we conclude that miR-338 acts as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. miR-338 can decrease migratory, invasive, proliferative and apoptotic behaviors, as well as gastric cancer EMT, by attenuating the expression of NRP1.

  2. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  3. Minimally invasive PCNL-MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Stefano Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Gallioli, Andrea; Talso, Michele; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) has increased in popularity in recent years and is now widely used to overcome the therapeutic gap between conventional PCNL and less-invasive procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of renal stones. However, despite its minimally invasive nature, the superiority in terms of safety, as well as the similar efficacy of mini-PCNL compared to conventional procedures, is still under debate. The aim of this chapter is to present one of the most recent advancements in terms of mini-PCNL: the Karl Storz "minimally invasive PCNL" (MIP). A literature search for original and review articles either published or e-published up to December 2016 was performed using Google and the PubMed database. Keywords included: minimally invasive PCNL; MIP. The retrieved articles were gathered and examined. The complete MIP set is composed of different sized rigid metallic fiber-optic nephroscopes and different sized metallic operating sheaths, according to which the MIP is categorized into extra-small (XS), small (S), medium (M) and large (L). Dilation can be performed either in one-step or with a progressive technique, as needed. The reusable devices of the MIP and vacuum cleaner efect make PCNL with this set a cheap procedure. The possibility to shift from a small to a larger instrument within the same set (Matrioska technique) makes MIP a very versatile technique suitable for the treatment of almost any stone. Studies in the literature have shown that MIP is equally effective, with comparable rates of post-operative complications, as conventional PCNL, independently from stone size. MIP does not represent a new technique, but rather a combination of the last ten years of PCNL improvements in a single system that can transversally cover all available techniques in the panorama of percutaneous stone treatment.

  4. Role of isavuconazole in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dustin T; Dimondi, V Paul; Johnson, Steven W; Jones, Travis M; Drew, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both diagnosis and prevention, the incidence of invasive fungal infections continues to rise. Available antifungal agents to treat invasive fungal infections include polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins. Unfortunately, individual agents within each class may be limited by spectrum of activity, resistance, lack of oral formulations, significant adverse event profiles, substantial drug–drug interactions, and/or variable pharmacokinetic profiles. Isavuconazole, a second-generation triazole, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2015 and the European Medicines Agency in July 2015 for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis (IA) or mucormycosis. Similar to amphotericin B and posaconazole, isavuconazole exhibits a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against yeasts, dimorphic fungi, and molds. Isavuconazole is available in both oral and intravenous formulations, exhibits a favorable safety profile (notably the absence of QTc prolongation), and reduced drug–drug interactions (relative to voriconazole). Phase 3 studies have evaluated the efficacy of isavuconazole in the management of IA, mucormycosis, and invasive candidiasis. Based on the results of these studies, isavuconazole appears to be a viable treatment option for patients with IA as well as those patients with mucormycosis who are not able to tolerate or fail amphotericin B or posaconazole therapy. In contrast, evidence of isavuconazole for invasive candidiasis (relative to comparator agents such as echinocandins) is not as robust. Therefore, isavuconazole use for invasive candidiasis may initially be reserved as a step-down oral option in those patients who cannot receive other azoles due to tolerability or spectrum of activity limitations. Post-marketing surveillance of isavuconazole will be important to better understand the safety and efficacy of this agent, as well as to better define the need for isavuconazole serum concentration monitoring

  5. Reversing invasion in bistable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ebraheem O; Davidson, Fordyce A; Dodds, Niall

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss a class of bistable reaction-diffusion systems used to model the competitive interaction of two species. The interactions are assumed to be of classic "Lotka-Volterra" type and we will consider a particular problem with relevance to applications in population dynamics: essentially, we study under what conditions the interplay of relative motility (diffusion) and competitive strength can cause waves of invasion to be halted and reversed. By establishing rigorous results concerning related degenerate and near-degenerate systems, we build a picture of the dependence of the wave speed on system parameters. Our results lead us to conjecture that this class of competition model has three "zones of response". In the central zone, varying the motility can slow, halt and reverse invasion. However, in the two outer zones, the direction of invasion is independent of the relative motility and is entirely determined by the relative competitive strengths. Furthermore, we conjecture that for a large class of competition models of the type studied here, the wave speed is an increasing function of the relative motility.

  6. Critic’s Choice: Invasive Plants Versus Oklahoma’s Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick A. Cox

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available E. O. Wilson stated that invasive species are second only to habitat loss for reducing biodiversity, and that threat to biodiversity by invasive plants is the subject of this report. For that purpose, the standard definition of invasive species as one that causes harm to humans or other species when introduced to an ecosystem is too broad to be helpful. Under that definition, several native species are classified as invasive because they grow in cultivated fields, but biodiversity does not exist there. Even so, for this purpose, control of invasive plants in agriculture and less so at recreational sites, consumes an estimated $34.5 billion per year in the United States; whereas in natural systems only about $160 million is spent (Pimentel 2002. Herein, we are concerned with the displacement of the species in natural ecosystems.

  7. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  8. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, C.; Thuiller, W.; Leroy, B.; Genovesi, P.; Bakkenes, M.; Courchamp, F.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the “100 of the world’s worst invasive species” defined by the IUCN, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  9. Biology of cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareel, M M; Crombez, R

    1992-01-01

    Current concepts of invasion eventually leading to metastasis are discussed and exemplified by cancers of the head and neck mucosa. Invasion occurs at a number of steps, each step making an ecosystem comprising not only the neoplastic cells but also their normal counterparts, a variety of host cells and the extracellular matrix. The ecosystem concept may explain aspects of metastasis such as site-dependence and organ-specificity of cancer metastasis as well as invasiveness of normal leucocytes. Genes implicated in invasion and metastasis are actively searched for. Recently, the epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been identified as an i- (invasion suppressor) gene product, i.e. a molecule the expression of which counterbalances i+ (invasion promotor) gene activity. Downregulation of E-cadherin in human head and neck cancers may account for their invasive and metastatic behaviour.

  10. Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Rawlings, Timothy A.; Sierwald, Petra; Collins, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    , such new arrivals in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary are of concern. Growing evidence indicates that artificial reefs can act as permanent way-stations for arriving non-natives, providing nurseries within which populations may grow in an environment with reduced competition compared to native habitats. Consequently, artificial reefs can act as sentinels for the appearance of new species. Ongoing monitoring of the developing molluscan fauna on the artificial reefs of the Florida Keys is necessary to recognize new invasions and identify potential eradication targets, thereby assuring the health of the nearby natural barrier reef. PMID:28392984

  11. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung Hsiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs. Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these

  12. Costs and clinical outcomes for non-invasive versus invasive diagnostic approaches to patients with suspected in-stent restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James K; Hasegawa, James T; Machacz, Susanne F; O'Day, Ken

    2016-02-01

    This study compared costs and clinical outcomes of invasive versus non-invasive diagnostic evaluations for patients with suspected in-stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention. We developed a decision model to compare 2 year diagnosis-related costs for patients who presented with suspected ISR and were evaluated by: (1) invasive coronary angiography (ICA); (2) non-invasive stress testing strategy of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with referral to ICA based on MPI; (3) coronary CT angiography-based testing strategy with referral to ICA based on CCTA. Costs were modeled from the payer's perspective using 2014 Medicare rates. 56 % of patients underwent follow-up diagnostic testing over 2 years. Compared to ICA, MPI (98.6 %) and CCTA (98.1 %) exhibited lower rates of correct diagnoses. Non-invasive strategies were associated with reduced referrals to ICA and costs compared to an ICA-based strategy, with diagnostic costs lower for CCTA than MPI. Overall 2-year costs were highest for ICA for both metallic as well as BVS stents ($1656 and $1656, respectively) when compared to MPI ($1444 and $1411) and CCTA. CCTA costs differed based upon stent size and type, and were highest for metallic stents >3.0 mm followed by metallic stents 3.0 mm ($1466 vs. $1242 vs. $855 vs. $490, respectively). MPI for suspected ISR results in lower costs and rates of complications than invasive strategies using ICA while maintaining high diagnostic performance. Depending upon stent size and type, CCTA results in lower costs than MPI.

  13. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  14. The peripheral cannulation technique in minimally invasive congenital cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Putzu, Alessandro; Tiberio, Ivo; Guariento, Alvise; Gallo, Michele; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-08-19

    Congenital minimally invasive cardiac surgery has gained wide acceptance thanks to its favorable outcomes. The introduction of peripheral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass further reduces surgical trauma by decreasing surgical access and allowing the spectrum of surgical access for the correction of simple congenital heart defects to be widened. Right internal jugular vein percutaneous cannulation, together with the direct surgical cannulation of femoral vessels, proves to be a safe and effective tool in patients with body weight above 15 kg.

  15. Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C; González-Moreno, Pablo; Pergl, Jan; Pizarro, Manuel; Pyšek, Petr; Thuiller, Wilfried; Yesson, Christopher; Vilà, Montserrat

    2017-07-31

    Protected areas (PAs) are intended to provide native biodiversity and habitats with a refuge against the impacts of global change, particularly acting as natural filters against biological invasions. In practice, however, it is unknown how effective PAs will be in shielding native species from invasions under projected climate change. Here, we investigate the current and future potential distributions of 100 of the most invasive terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species in Europe. We use this information to evaluate the combined threat posed by climate change and invasions to existing PAs and the most susceptible species they shelter. We found that only a quarter of Europe's marine and terrestrial areas protected over the last 100 years have been colonized by any of the invaders investigated, despite offering climatically suitable conditions for invasion. In addition, hotspots of invasive species and the most susceptible native species to their establishment do not match at large continental scales. Furthermore, the predicted richness of invaders is 11%-18% significantly lower inside PAs than outside them. Invasive species are rare in long-established national parks and nature reserves, which are actively protected and often located in remote and pristine regions with very low human density. In contrast, the richness of invasive species is high in the more recently designated Natura 2000 sites, which are subject to high human accessibility. This situation may change in the future, since our models anticipate important shifts in species ranges toward the north and east of Europe at unprecedented rates of 14-55 km/decade, depending on taxonomic group and scenario. This may seriously compromise the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the resistance that PAs provide against biological invasions and climate change on a continental scale and illustrates their strategic value in safeguarding native

  16. Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanfeng; Xie, Huijun; Qiao, Yudan; Wang, Jianmei; Zhu, Xiling; He, Guoyang; Li, Yuling; Ren, Xiaoli; Wang, Feifei; Liang, Li; Ding, Yanqing

    2015-10-01

    Formin-like2 (FMNL2) is a member of the diaphanous-related formins family, which act as effectors and upstream modulators of Rho GTPases signaling and control the actin-dependent processes, such as cell motility or invasion. FMNL2 has been identified as promoting the motility and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, whether FMNL2 regulates Rho signaling to promote cancer cell invasion remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated an essential role for FMNL2 in the activations of Rho/ROCK pathway, SRF transcription or actin assembly, and subsequent CRC cell invasion. FMNL2 could activate Rho/ROCK pathway, and required ROCK to promote CRC cell invasion. Moreover, FMNL2 promoted the formation of filopodia and stress fiber, and activated the SRF transcription in a Rho-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that FMNL2 was necessary for LPA-induced invasion, RhoA/ROCK activation, actin assembly and SRF activation. FMNL2 was an essential component of LPA signal transduction toward RhoA by directly interacting with LARG. LARG silence inhibited RhoA/ROCK pathway and CRC cell invasion. Collectively, these data indicate that FMNL2, acting as upstream of RhoA by interacting with LARG, can promote actin assembly and CRC cell invasion through a Rho/ROCK-dependent mechanism.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS UPON ASSIMILATED ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Although the classic administrative courts know as object the acts against classic administrative acts, it should not be lost sight of the assimilated administrative acts, which also may be subject to acts in this litigation. Taking in consideration this category of acts, this study will examine the documents falling into this category and the impact that such acts have on public authorities. Given the significant increase of administrative cases that have as object assimilated administrative...

  18. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  19. Post-translational Modifications of OLIG2 Regulate Glioma Invasion through the TGF-β Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv K; Fiorelli, Roberto; Kupp, Robert; Rajan, Sindhu; Szeto, Emily; Lo Cascio, Costanza; Maire, Cecile L; Sun, Yu; Alberta, John A; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Ligon, Keith L; Berens, Michael E; Sanai, Nader; Mehta, Shwetal

    2016-07-26

    In glioblastoma, invasion and proliferation are presumed to be mutually exclusive events; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this switch at the cellular level remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that phospho-OLIG2, a central-nervous-system-specific transcription factor, is essential for tumor growth and proliferation. Here, we show that the modulation of OLIG2 phosphorylation can trigger a switch between proliferation and invasion. Glioma cells with unphosphorylated OLIG2(S10, S13, S14) are highly migratory and invasive, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, unphosphorylated OLIG2 induces TGF-β2 expression and promotes invasive mesenchymal properties in glioma cells. Inhibition of the TGF-β2 pathway blocks this OLIG2-dependent invasion. Furthermore, ectopic expression of phosphomimetic Olig2 is sufficient to block TGF-β2-mediated invasion and reduce expression of invasion genes (ZEB1 and CD44). Our results not only provide a mechanistic insight into how cells switch from proliferation to invasion but also offer therapeutic opportunities for inhibiting dissemination of gliomas.

  20. Post-translational Modifications of OLIG2 Regulate Glioma Invasion through the TGF-β Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv K. Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In glioblastoma, invasion and proliferation are presumed to be mutually exclusive events; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this switch at the cellular level remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that phospho-OLIG2, a central-nervous-system-specific transcription factor, is essential for tumor growth and proliferation. Here, we show that the modulation of OLIG2 phosphorylation can trigger a switch between proliferation and invasion. Glioma cells with unphosphorylated OLIG2S10, S13, S14 are highly migratory and invasive, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, unphosphorylated OLIG2 induces TGF-β2 expression and promotes invasive mesenchymal properties in glioma cells. Inhibition of the TGF-β2 pathway blocks this OLIG2-dependent invasion. Furthermore, ectopic expression of phosphomimetic Olig2 is sufficient to block TGF-β2-mediated invasion and reduce expression of invasion genes (ZEB1 and CD44. Our results not only provide a mechanistic insight into how cells switch from proliferation to invasion but also offer therapeutic opportunities for inhibiting dissemination of gliomas.

  1. Anti-invasive adjuvant therapy with imipramine blue enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy against glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Jennifer M; Fried, Levi; Rowson, Sydney A; Bonner, Michael Y; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Diaz, Begoña; Courtneidge, Sara A; Knaus, Ulla G; Brat, Daniel J; Arbiser, Jack L; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2012-03-28

    The invasive nature of glioblastoma (GBM) represents a major clinical challenge contributing to poor outcomes. Invasion of GBM into healthy tissue restricts chemotherapeutic access and complicates surgical resection. Here, we test the hypothesis that an effective anti-invasive agent can "contain" GBM and increase the efficacy of chemotherapy. We report a new anti-invasive small molecule, Imipramine Blue (IB), which inhibits invasion of glioma in vitro when tested against several models. IB inhibits NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and alters expression of actin regulatory elements. In vivo, liposomal IB (nano-IB) halts invasion of glioma, leading to a more compact tumor in an aggressively invasive RT2 syngeneic astrocytoma rodent model. When nano-IB therapy was followed by liposomal doxorubicin (nano-DXR) chemotherapy, the combination therapy prolonged survival compared to nano-IB or nano-DXR alone. Our data demonstrate that nano-IB-mediated containment of diffuse glioma enhanced the efficacy of nano-DXR chemotherapy, demonstrating the promise of an anti-invasive compound as an adjuvant treatment for glioma.

  2. Differential effectiveness of novel and old legume-rhizobia mutualisms: implications for invasion by exotic legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Fajardo, Susana; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    The degree of specialization in the legume-rhizobium mutualism and the variation in the response to different potential symbionts are crucial factors for understanding the process of invasion by exotic legumes and the consequences for the native resident plants and bacteria. The enhanced novel mutualism hypothesis predicts that exotic invasive legumes would take advantage of native rhizobia present in the invaded soils. However, recent studies have shown that exotic legumes might become invasive by using exotic introduced microsymbionts, and that they could be a source of exotic bacteria for native legumes. To unravel the role of novel and old symbioses in the progress of invasion, nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness were analyzed for exotic invasive plants and native co-occurring legumes in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Although most of the studied species nodulated with bacteria from distant origins these novel mutualisms were less effective in terms of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth than the interactions of plants and bacteria from the same origin. The relative effect of exotic bradyrhizobia was strongly positive for exotic invasive legumes and detrimental for native shrubs. We conclude that (1) the studied invasive legumes do not rely on novel mutualisms but rather need the co-introduction of compatible symbionts, and (2) since exotic rhizobia colonize native legumes in invaded areas, the lack of effectiveness of these novel symbiosis demonstrated here suggests that invasion can disrupt native belowground mutualisms and reduce native legumes fitness.

  3. Assessing the Invasion Risk of Eucalyptus in the United States Using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R. Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many agricultural species have undergone selection for traits that are consistent with those that increase the probability that a species will become invasive. However, the risk of invasion may be accurately predicted for the majority of plant species tested using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment (WRA. This system has been tested in multiple climates and geographies and, on average, correctly identifies 90% of the major plant invaders as having high invasion risk, and 70% of the noninvaders as having low risk. We used this tool to evaluate the invasion risk of 38 Eucalyptus taxa currently being tested and cultivated in the USA for pulp, biofuel, and other purposes. We predict 15 taxa to have low risk of invasion, 14 taxa to have high risk, and 9 taxa to require further information. In addition to a history of naturalization and invasiveness elsewhere, the traits that significantly contribute to a high invasion risk conclusion include having prolific seed production and a short generation time. Selection against these traits should reduce the probability that eucalypts cultivated in the USA will become invasive threats to natural areas and agricultural systems.

  4. Effect of Two Different Habitats on Ragweed Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Tao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the sensitive habitats with high invasibility is critical for management of biological invasion. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia Linn. has been identified as one of the most dangerous invasive exotic species in many countries throughout the world. The experiment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats. Compared with bare plots, the biomass, plant height, survival rate, and community dominance of ragweed were reduced by 590 g·m-2, 43.7 cm, 21.4% and 0.695 respectively when they invaded communities with four resident species richness (species richness level: 1, 4, 9, 16. The results suggested that the presence of native species had strong negative effects on the performance of the invader species. The presence of native species occupied the niche space and left few empty niches for the colonization of the invaders. The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities with high diversity, was effective strategies to control the invasion of exotic species.

  5. RPM peptide conjugated bioreducible polyethylenimine targeting invasive colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Mi; Lee, Duhwan; Kim, Jihoon; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-05-10

    CPIEDRPMC (RPM) peptide is a peptide that specifically targets invasive colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In this study, we exploited RPM peptide as a targeting ligand to produce a novel and efficient gene delivery system that could potentially be used to treat invasive colon cancer. In order to achieve enhanced specificity to colon cancer cells, the RPM peptide was conjugated to a bioreducible gene carrier consisting of a reducible moiety of disulfide-crosslinked low molecular weight polyethylenimine, IR820 dye, and polyethylene glycol. Here, we examined the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, in vitro transfection efficiency, and in vivo biodistribution of the RPM-conjugated polyplex. Our results showed that the RPM-conjugated gene carrier formed a compact polyplex with pDNA that had low toxicity. Furthermore, the RPM-conjugated polymer not only had higher cellular uptake in invasive colon cancer than the non-targeted polymer, but also showed enhanced transfection efficiency in invasive colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

  6. The control of invasive species on private property with neighbor-to-neighbor spillovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Richards, Timothy J; Shanafelt, David W

    2014-10-01

    Invasive pests cross property boundaries. Property managers may have private incentives to control invasive species despite not having sufficient incentive to fully internalize the external costs of their role in spreading the invasion. Each property manager has a right to future use of his own property, but his property may abut others' properties enabling spread of an invasive species. The incentives for a foresighted property manager to control invasive species have received little attention. We consider the efforts of a foresighted property manager who has rights to future use of a property and has the ability to engage in repeated, discrete control activities. We find that higher rates of dispersal, associated with proximity to neighboring properties, reduce the private incentives for control. Controlling species at one location provides incentives to control at a neighboring location. Control at neighboring locations are strategic complements and coupled with spatial heterogeneity lead to a weaker-link public good problem, in which each property owner is unable to fully appropriate the benefits of his own control activity. Future-use rights and private costs suggest that there is scope for a series of Coase-like exchanges to internalize much of the costs associated with species invasion. Pigouvian taxes on invasive species potentially have qualitatively perverse behavioral effects. A tax with a strong income effect (e.g, failure of effective revenue recycling) can reduce the value of property assets and diminish the incentive to manage insects on one's own property.

  7. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  8. Appendicitis/diverticulitis: minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, D; Marescaux, J

    2013-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections such as acute appendicitis and complicated diverticulitis represent both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Both diseases, although different in many ways, are caused by the obstruction of a blind pouch leading to inflammation, abscesses, and perforation of surrounding tissues. For many decades, acute appendicitis was managed through a conventional surgical incision in the right iliac fossa. As for other diseases, there is a significant tendency to propose less invasive treatments. For many teams, laparoscopy, which leads to less postoperative pain, a shorter hospital stay, and a quicker recovery, represents the standard of care for appendectomy. For selected cases, a medical approach can be proposed with satisfactory outcomes. Additionally, the management of complicated diverticulitis is also quickly moving towards less invasive procedures than the deleterious '3-phase surgery', which is Hartmann's procedure, followed by reversal protected with a stoma, and finally stoma closure. Benefiting from the evolution of antimicrobial therapy and interventional radiology, many complicated cases classified as Hinchey stage I and Hinchey stage II complicated diverticulitis are now treated medically. CT images allow the identification of patients requiring radiological drainage of localized abscesses or collections over 5 cm in size. Patients with Hinchey stage III sigmoiditis may benefit from an initial laparoscopic exploration allowing, in some cases, a conservative nonresective approach that will prevent laparotomy and stoma. Major resection leading to temporary or definitive stoma is usually indicated for stage IV complications and is required only in exceptional cases. Although a surgical intervention can be the definitive treatment for complicated intra-abdominal infections, multidisciplinary management including radiology, medical treatment, and laparoscopic surgery may limit the severe consequences of an acute surgical

  9. Genomic loss of tumor suppressor miRNA-204 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by activating AKT/mTOR/Rac1 signaling and actin reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Saadi Imam

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that chromosomal regions containing microRNAs are functionally important in cancers. Here, we show that genomic loci encoding miR-204 are frequently lost in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancers, pediatric renal tumors, and breast cancers. MiR-204 shows drastically reduced expression in several cancers and acts as a potent tumor suppressor, inhibiting tumor metastasis in vivo when systemically delivered. We demonstrated that miR-204 exerts its function by targeting genes involved in tumorigenesis including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin family member which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Analysis of primary tumors shows that increased expression of BDNF or its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB parallel a markedly reduced expression of miR-204. Our results reveal that loss of miR-204 results in BDNF overexpression and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and actin reorganization through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway leading to cancer cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that microdeletion of genomic loci containing miR-204 is directly linked with the deregulation of key oncogenic pathways that provide crucial stimulus for tumor growth and metastasis. Our findings provide a strong rationale for manipulating miR-204 levels therapeutically to suppress tumor metastasis.

  10. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  11. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-06-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  12. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  13. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  14. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  15. Effects of chitosan nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference on invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jian

    2016-08-01

    To observe the changes in invasion capacity of gastric cancer BGC823 cells after being treated with chitosan-encapsulated BRAF siRNA nanoparticles, and to evaluate the effects of the nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference on cell invasion and metastasis, BRAF siRNA was encapsulated with chitosan into nanoparticles sized 350 nm to treat gastric cancer cells. Silencing of BRAF was detected by Western blot and PCR, and cell invasion was observed by the Transwell assay. The nanoparticles significantly downregulated BRAF expression in BGC823 cells (P Chitosan nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference evidently reduced the invasion capacity of gastric cancers.

  16. MicroRNA-494 is a master epigenetic regulator of multiple invasion-suppressor microRNAs by targeting ten eleven translocation 1 in invasive human hepatocellular carcinoma tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuang-Hsiang; Whitney-Miller, Christa L; Chu, Chin-Yi; Zhou, Zhongren; Dokus, M Katherine; Schmit, Shannon; Barry, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Vascular invasion provides a direct route for tumor metastasis. The degree to which microRNA (miRNA) expression plays a role in tumor vascular invasion is unclear. Here, we report that miR-494 is up-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors with vascular invasion and can promote HCC cell invasiveness by gene inactivation of multiple invasion-suppressor miRNAs. Our results show that ten eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase, predominantly TET1 in HCC cells, is a direct target of miR-494. The reduced 5′-hydroxymethylcytosine levels observed in the proximal cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) regions of multiple invasion-suppressor miRNA genes are strongly associated with their transcriptional repression upon miR-494 overexpression, whereas enforced DNA demethylation can abolish the repression. Furthermore, TET1 knockdown shows a similar effect as miR-494 overexpression. Conversely, miR-494 inhibition or enforced TET1 expression is able to restore invasion-suppressor miRNAs and inhibit miR-494-mediated HCC cell invasion. Conclusions: miR-494 can trigger gene silencing of multiple invasion-suppressor miRNAs by inhibiting genomic DNA demethylation by direct targeting of TET1, thereby leading to tumor vascular invasion. (Hepatology 2015;62:466–480 PMID:25820676

  17. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies.

  18. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K Rungmei S K; Gurjar, Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies.

  19. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  20. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Barbui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper diagnostic strategy of invasive fungal infections (IFI is a very important component in the management of infectious complications in hematological patients. A good diagnostic approach should be adapted to the patient in relation to the underlying disease, stage of disease, localization of infection and immune status. None of the diagnostic markers can be entirely adopted for medical decision making, and sometimes it’s useful to use the combination of several microbiological tests.The diagnosis of IFI must therefore have a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical suspicion, microbiological results and radiological evidence.

  1. Epidemiological and molecular analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates causing invasive disease in Spain (1998-2009): comparison with non-invasive isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, M; Ardanuy, C; Tamayo, E; Domènech, A; Liñares, J; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2011-10-01

    The incidence, clinical manifestations, and circulating clones involved in Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease was analyzed in two regions of Spain between 1998 and 2009. The annual average incidence of invasive disease was 2 episodes per 100,000 inhabitants (3.1 for children and 1.9 for adults). The most frequent clinical manifestations were cellulitis (41.3%), bacteremia without focus (19.0%), streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (12.6%), and pneumonia (7.7%). Among 247 invasive isolates analyzed, the most prevalent clones were emm1/ST28 (27.9%), emm3/ST15-406 (9.8%), and emm4/ST39 (6.5%). The emm1/ST28 clone was the only clone detected each year throughout the study period and was associated with more than one third of all fatal outcomes. When invasive isolates were compared with 1,189 non-invasive isolates, the emm1/ST28 clone was significantly associated with invasive disease. The speA and ssa genes were more frequent among invasive emm1 and emm4 isolates, respectively. Forty-two (17%) invasive isolates were resistant to erythromycin (21 harbored the mef gene and 21 the ermB or ermA genes). Twenty-two (8.9%) isolates had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 2-8 μg/mL) and 32 (13%) were tetracycline-resistant (tetM or tetO gene). In conclusion, the emm1 type was overrepresented among invasive cases and was associated with high mortality rates.

  2. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  3. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement – pros and cons of keyhole aortic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Szałański, Przemysław; Zembala, Michał; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Garbacz, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Kwiecień, Anna; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has evolved into a safe, well-tolerated and efficient surgical treatment option for aortic valve disease. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity, providing faster recovery and rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results compared with conventional surgery. A variety of minimally invasive accesses have been developed and utilized to date. This concise review demonstrates and discus...

  4. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Jacob N.; Tekiela, Daniel R.; Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia; Dimarco, Romina D.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Leipzig-Scott, Peter; Nuñez, Martin A.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial invasive plants are a global problem and are becoming ubiquitous components of most ecosystems. They are implicated in altering disturbance regimes, reducing biodiversity, and changing ecosystem function, sometimes in profound and irreversible ways. However, the ecological impacts of most invasive plants have not been studied experimentally, and most research to date focuses on few types of impacts, which can vary greatly among studies. Thus, our knowledge of existing ecological i...

  5. Mathematical modelling of the influence of heat shock proteins on cancer invasion of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Zuzanna; Urbański, Jakub; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Tumour cell invasion is crucial for cancer metastasis, which is the main cause of cancer mortality. An important group of proteins involved in cancer invasion are the Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs). According to experimental data, inhibition of one of these proteins, Hsp90, slows down cancer cells while they are invading tissue, but does not affect the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9), which are very important for cancer metastasis, acting as extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes. To test different biological hypotheses regarding how precisely Hsp90 influences tumour invasion, in this paper we use a model of solid tumour growth which accounts for the interactions between Hsp90 dynamics and the migration of cancer cells and, alternatively, between Hsp90 dynamics and the synthesis of matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs). The model consists of a system of reaction-diffusion-taxis partial differential equations describing interactions between cancer cells, MDE, and the host tissue (ECM). Using numerical simulations we investigate the effects of the administration of Hsp90 inhibitors on the dynamics of tumour invasion. Alternative mechanisms of reduction of cancer invasiveness result in different simulated patterns of the invading tumour cells. Therefore, predictions of the model suggest experiments which might be performed to develop a deeper understanding of the tumour invasion process.

  6. [Interactions between invasive plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan-fang; Guo, Shao-xia; Li, Min

    2011-09-01

    The invasion of invasive plants changes the biological community structure in their invaded lands, leading to the biodiversity loss. As an important component of soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystem, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect the growth performance of invasive plants. This kind of specific relations between AM fungi and invasive plants also implies that AM fungi can affect plant invasion. On the other hand, the invasion of invasive plants can affect the community structure and function of AM fungi. This paper summarized the species and harms of invasive plants in China, and discussed the relationships between AM fungi and invasive plants invasion, including the roles of AM fungi in the processes of invasive plants invasion, the effects of the invasion on AM fungi, and the interactive mechanisms between the invasion and AM fungi.

  7. Protein kinase VRK-1 regulates cell invasion and EGL-17/FGF signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerkx, Elke P F; Alarcón, Pilar; Waters, Katherine; Reinke, Valerie; Sternberg, Paul W; Askjaer, Peter

    2009-11-01

    The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the first investigation of the developmental role of VRKs by means of a novel C. elegans vrk-1 mutant allele. We found that VRK-1 is essential in hermaphrodites for formation of the vulva, uterus, and utse and for development and maintenance of the somatic gonad and thus the germ line. VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. VRK-1 is also required for proper specification and proliferation of uterine cells and sex myoblasts. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least partially through activation of FGF signaling. Expression of a translational VRK-1Colon, two colonsGFP fusion protein in the ventral nerve cord and vulva precursor cells restores vulva and uterus formation, suggesting both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles of VRK-1.

  8. Endoglin-mediated suppression of prostate cancer invasion is regulated by activin and bone morphogenetic protein type II receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Breen

    Full Text Available Mortality from prostate cancer (PCa is due to the formation of metastatic disease. Understanding how that process is regulated is therefore critical. We previously demonstrated that endoglin, a type III transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily receptor, suppresses human PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion was also shown by us to be dependent upon the type I TGFβ receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2, and the downstream effector, Smad1. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that two type II TGFβ receptors are required for endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion: activin A receptor type IIA (ActRIIA and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII. Downstream signaling through these receptors is predominantly mediated by Smad1. ActRIIA stimulates Smad1 activation in a kinase-dependent manner, and this is required for suppression of invasion. In contrast BMPRII regulates Smad1 in a biphasic manner, promoting Smad1 signaling through its kinase domain but suppressing it through its cytoplasmic tail. BMPRII's Smad1-regulatory effects are dependent upon its expression level. Further, its ability to suppress invasion is independent of either kinase function or tail domain. We demonstrate that ActRIIA and BMPRII physically interact, and that each also interacts with endoglin. The current findings demonstrate that both BMPRII and ActRIIA are necessary for endoglin-mediated suppression of human PCa cell invasion, that they have differential effects on Smad1 signaling, that they make separate contributions to regulation of invasion, and that they functionally and physically interact.

  9. Acting like a Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marlon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Saturday morning acting class in the Pearson Hall auditorium at Miles College boasts the school's highest attendance all year. The teacher, actress Robin Givens, was a lure few students--and others from surrounding areas--could resist. Some came to learn about their prospective field from a professional. Others were there for pointers to…

  10. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    and the United States signed an act on July 19, 1862, wherein the U.S. Navy agreed to unload “all negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade.” Yet, despite the two countries’ mutual interests in employing “laborers of African Extraction...

  11. ST–ACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    various geo–statistical data sources and intuitive principles, models the so far neglected aspects. ST–ACTS considers that (1) objects (representing mobile users) move from one spatio–temporal location to another with the objective of performing a certain activity at the latter location; (2) not all users...

  12. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...

  13. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  14. Acting like a Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marlon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Saturday morning acting class in the Pearson Hall auditorium at Miles College boasts the school's highest attendance all year. The teacher, actress Robin Givens, was a lure few students--and others from surrounding areas--could resist. Some came to learn about their prospective field from a professional. Others were there for pointers to…

  15. Non-invasive light observer

    CERN Document Server

    Morichetti, Francesco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Photonic technologies lack non-invasive monitoring tools to inspect the light inside optical waveguides. This is one of the main barriers to large scale of integration, even though photonic platforms are potentially ready to host several thousands of elements on a single chip. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive light observation in silicon photonics devices by exploiting photon interaction with intra-gap energy states localized at the waveguide surface. Light intensity is measured through a ContactLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP) that introduces no measurable extra-photon absorption and a phase perturbation as low as 0.2 mrad, comparable to thermal fluctuations of less than 3 mK. Multipoint light monitoring is demonstrated with a sensitivity of -30 dBm and a dynamic range of 40 dB. CLIPP technology is simple, inherently CMOS compatible, and scalable to hundreds of probing points per chip. This concept provides a viable way to real-time conditioning and feedback control of densely-integrated photonic syst...

  16. Assessment and Management of Invasive Alien Predators

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsty Park

    2004-01-01

    Although invasive alien species have been identified as the second greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss, characterizing and quantifying their impacts on native species and habitats remains a fundamental problem in conservation biology. Here, I review the techniques that are currently used to assess the impact of invasive alien species on biodiversity, highlighting both their uses in invasive species ecology and their limitations in establishing a causal relationship. Adopting a ...

  17. Biological Invasion and Coexistence in Intraguild Predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Wang

    2013-01-01

    the intraguild prey (IGprey, they invade and spread through patchy invasion which corresponds to the invasion at the edge of extinction. Increase of the IGprey's dispersal rate and decrease of the IGpredator's may make the IGprey invade. But the interactions of the postinvasion web will change from IGP to competition, which is absolutely different from the first case. Finally, the common existence of IGP was explored once again from the perspective of biological invasion.

  18. Colorectal cancer screening: the time to act is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Stock, Christian; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2015-10-13

    microsimulation models should help to tailor their implementation. The strong evidence for the large potential of CRC screening in reducing the burden of CRC calls for timely implementation of organized screening programmes where they are not in place yet, and for continuous improvement of existing ones. This should be considered an obligation that is not to be postponed: the time to act is now.

  19. The ACTS Center for Software Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Drummond-Lewis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marques, Osni A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This report covers the activities carried out by the project The ACTS Center for Software Sustainability, whose proposal was submitted to ASCR in 2007. These activities have their roots in the project Advanced Computational Testing Software (ACTS) Toolkit, which was part of the DOE2000 Program. Driven by the state of the software, the technology and the nature of the tools in the Toolkit, the project was reformulated in a project that better represented the goals and activities within ACTS, An Expanded Framework for the Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS) Collection. At the heart of this project was the consolidation of lessons learned and demands from the computational science community that guided us to the creation of the now well-known DOE ACTS Collection. The goal of the project was to increase the pay-off of DOE ASCR investment in the development of the general purpose tools in the DOE ACTS Collection, reduce the duplication of efforts, and minimize the development time of high-end computer applications while maximizing the life of the codes.

  20. Cell: sporozoite interactions and invasion by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, P C

    2001-01-01

    The site specificity that avian Eimeria sporozoites and, to a more limited degree, other apicomplexan parasites exhibit for invasion in vivo suggests that specific interactions between the sporozoites and the target host cells may mediate the invasion process. Although sporozoite motility and structural and secreted antigens appear to provide the mechanisms for propelling the sporozoite into the host cell,there is a growing body of evidence that the host cell provides characteristics by which the sporozoites recognise and interact with the host cell as a prelude to invasion. Molecules on the surface of cells in the intestinal epithelium, that act as receptor or recognition sites for sporozoite invasion, may be included among these characteristics. The existence of receptor molecules for invasion by apicomplexan parasites was suggested by in vitro studies in which parasite invasion was inhibited in cultured cells that were treated with a variety of substances designed to selectively alter the host cell membrane. These substance included cationic compounds or molecules, enzymes that cleave specific linkages, protease inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, etc. More specific evidence for the presence of receptors was provided by the binding of parasite antigens to specific host cell surface molecules. Analyses of host cells have implicated 22, 31, and 37 kDa antigens, surface membrane glycoconjugates,conserved epitopes of host cells and sporozoites, etc., but no treatment that perturbs these putative receptors has completely inhibited invasion of the cells by parasites. Regardless of the mechanism,sporozoites of the avian Eimeria also invade the same specific sites in foreign host birds that they invade in the natural host. Thus, site specificity for invasion may be a response to characteristics of the intestine that are shared by a number of hosts rather than to a unique trait of the natural host. Protective immunity elicited against avian Eimeria species is not

  1. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  2. Do invasive alien plants benefit more from global environmental change than native plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Oduor, Ayub M O; Zhang, Zhen; Manea, Anthony; Tooth, Ifeanna M; Leishman, Michelle R; Xu, Xingliang; van Kleunen, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually, these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to assess whether there is a general pattern of differences in invasive and native plant performance under each component of global environmental change. We compiled a database of studies that reported performance measures for 74 invasive alien plant species and 117 native plant species in response to one of the above-mentioned global environmental change components. We found that elevated temperature and CO2 enrichment increased the performance of invasive alien plants more strongly than was the case for native plants. Invasive alien plants tended to also have a slightly stronger positive response to increased N deposition and increased precipitation than native plants, but these differences were not significant (N deposition: P = 0.051; increased precipitation: P = 0.679). Invasive alien plants tended to have a slightly stronger negative response to decreased precipitation than native plants, although this difference was also not significant (P = 0.060). So while drought could potentially reduce plant invasion, increases in the four other components of global environmental change considered, particularly global warming and atmospheric CO2 enrichment, may further increase the spread of invasive plants in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interactive effects of herbivory and competition intensity determine invasive plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing; Siemann, Evan

    2012-10-01

    Herbivory can reduce plant fitness, and its effects can be increased by competition. Though numerous studies have examined the joint effects of herbivores and competitors on plant performance, these interactive effects are seldom considered in the context of plant invasions. Here, we examined variation in plant performance within a competitive environment in response to both specialist and generalist herbivores using Chinese tallow as a model species. We combined tallow plants from native and invasive populations to form all possible pairwise combinations, and designated invasive populations as stronger neighbours and native populations as weaker neighbours. We found that when no herbivory was imposed, invasive populations always had higher total biomass than natives, regardless of their neighbours, which is consistent with our assumption of increased competitive ability. Defoliation by either generalist or specialist herbivores suppressed plant growth but the effects of specialists were generally stronger for invasive populations. Invasive populations had their lowest biomass when fed upon by specialists while simultaneously competing with stronger neighbours. The root/shoot ratios of invasive populations were lower than those of native populations under almost all conditions, and invasive plants were taller than native plants overall, especially when herbivores were present, suggesting that invasive populations may adopt an "aboveground first" strategy to cope with herbivory and competition. These results suggest that release from herbivores, especially specialists, improves an invader's performance and helps to increase its competitive ability. Therefore, increasing interspecific competition intensity by planting a stronger neighbour while simultaneously releasing a specialist herbivore may be an especially effective method of managing invasive plants.

  4. Identification of pancreatic cancer invasion-related proteins by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clynes Martin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of pancreatic cancer invasion were investigated in two clonal populations of the cell line, MiaPaCa-2, Clone #3 (high invasion and Clone #8 (low invasion using proteomic profiling of an in vitro model of pancreatic cancer. Materials and methods Using 2D-DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF MS, two clonal sub-populations of the pancreatic cancer cell line, MiaPaCa-2 with high and low invasive capacities were incubated on matrigel 24 hours prior to analysis to stimulate cell-ECM contact and mimic in vivo interaction with the basement membrane. Results Sixty proteins were identified as being differentially expressed (> 1.2 fold change and p ≤ 0.05 between Clone #3 and Clone #8. Proteins found to have higher abundance levels in the highly invasive Clone #3 compared to the low invasive Clone #8 include members of the chaperone activity proteins and cytoskeleton constituents whereas metabolism-associated and catalytic proteins had lower abundance levels. Differential protein expression levels of ALDH1A1, VIM, STIP1 and KRT18 and GAPDH were confirmed by immunoblot. Using RNAi technology, STIP1 knockdown significantly reduced invasion and proliferation of the highly invasive Clone #3. Knockdown of another target, VIM by siRNA in Clone #3 cells also resulted in decreased invasion abilities of Clone #3. Elevated expression of STIP1 was observed in pancreatic tumour tissue compared to normal pancreas, whereas ALDH1A1 stained at lower levels in pancreatic tumours, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Identification of targets which play a role in the highly invasive phenotype of pancreatic cancer may help to understand the biological behaviour, the rapid progression of this cancer and may be of importance in the development of new therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  5. Fibronectin matrix-mediated cohesion suppresses invasion of prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Dongxuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion is an important early step in the metastatic cascade and is the primary cause of death of prostate cancer patients. In order to invade, cells must detach from the primary tumor. Cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are important regulators of cohesion - a property previously demonstrated to mediate cell detachment and invasion. The studies reported here propose a novel role for α5β1 integrin - the principle mediator of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA - as an invasion suppressor of prostate cancer cells. Methods Using a combination of biophysical and cell biological methods, and well-characterized prostate cancer cell lines of varying invasiveness, we explore the relationship between cohesion, invasiveness, and FNMA. Results We show that cohesion is inversely proportional to invasive capacity. We also show that more invasive cells express lower levels of α5β1 integrin and lack the capacity for FNMA. Cells were generated to over-express either wild-type α5 integrin or an integrin in which the cytoplasmic domain of α5 was replaced with that of α2. The α2 construct does not promote FNMA. We show that only wild-type α5 integrin promotes aggregate compaction, increases cohesion, and reduces invasion of the more aggressive cells, and that these effects can be blocked by the 70-kDa fibronectin fragment. Conclusions We propose that restoring capacity for FNMA in deficient cells can increase tumor intercellular cohesion to a point that significantly reduces cell detachment and subsequent invasion. In prostate cancer, this could be of therapeutic benefit by blocking an early key step in the metastatic cascade.

  6. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    in response to growth temperature. Populations of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum from New Zealand, where the species is introduced and invasive, and from Denmark, where the species is native and non-invasive, were grown in a common garden setup at temperatures of 12, 18, 25 and 35 ◦C. We...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1......High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...

  7. Impacts of invasive plants on carbon pools depend on both species' traits and local climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Bullock, James M

    2017-04-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem properties, leading to changes in the ecosystem services on which humans depend. However, generalizing about these effects is difficult because invasive plants represent a wide range of life forms, and invaded ecosystems differ in their plant communities and abiotic conditions. We hypothesize that differences in traits between the invader and native species can be used to predict impacts and so aid generalization. We further hypothesize that environmental conditions at invaded sites modify the effect of trait differences and so combine with traits to predict invasion impacts. To test these hypotheses, we used systematic review to compile data on changes in aboveground and soil carbon pools following non-native plant invasion from studies across the World. Maximum potential height (Hmax ) of each species was drawn from trait databases and other sources. We used meta-regression to assess which of invasive species' Hmax , differences in this height trait between native and invasive plants, and climatic water deficit, a measure of water stress, were good predictors of changes in carbon pools following invasion. We found that aboveground biomass in invaded ecosystems relative to uninvaded ones increased as the value of Hmax of invasive relative to native species increased, but that this effect was reduced in more water stressed ecosystems. Changes in soil carbon pools were also positively correlated with the relative Hmax of invasive species, but were not altered by water stress. This study is one of the first to show quantitatively that the impact of invasive species on an ecosystem may depend on differences in invasive and native species' traits, rather than solely the traits of invasive species. Our study is also the first to show that the influence of trait differences can be altered by climate. Further developing our understanding of the impacts of invasive species using this framework could help researchers to identify not only

  8. The integrin inhibitor cilengitide affects meningioma cell motility and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilisch-Neumann, Annette; Kliese, Nadine; Pachow, Doreen; Schneider, Thomas; Warnke, Jan-Peter; Braunsdorf, Werner Ek; Böhmer, Frank-Dietmar; Hass, Peter; Pasemann, Diana; Helbing, Cornelia; Kirches, Elmar; Mawrin, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Meningiomas are frequent intracranial or spinal neoplasms, which recur frequently and can show aggressive clinical behaviour. We elucidated the impact of the integrin inhibitor cilengitide on migration, proliferation, and radiosensitization of meningioma cells. We analyzed integrin expression in tissue microarrays of human meningiomas and the antimeningioma properties of cilengitide in cell cultures, subcutaneous and intracranial nude mouse models by measuring tumor volumes and survival times. αvβ5 was the predominantly expressed integrin heterodimer in meningiomas, whereas αvβ3 was mainly detected in tumor blood vessels. Application of up to 100 μg/mL cilengitide resulted in only mildly reduced proliferation/survival of meningioma cell lines. Effects on cell survival could be enhanced by irradiation. One μg/mL cilengitide was sufficient to significantly inhibit meningioma cell migration and invasion in vitro. A daily dosage of 75 mg/kg did neither affect tumor volumes nor overall survival (P = 0.813, log-rank test), but suppressed brain invasion in a significant fraction of treated animals. A combination of 75 mg/kg cilengitide daily and irradiation (2 × 5 Gy) led to a 67% reduction of MRI-estimated tumor volumes in the intracranial model (P meningiomas, although brain invasion may be reduced because of the strong antimigratory properties of the drug. The combination with radiotherapy warrants further attention. ©2013 AACR.

  9. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Bartlett, Mark; Coleman, David; Davis, Craig; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke

    2007-03-01

    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2005 with comparative data available since 2001. There were 1,680 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2005; a notification rate of 8.3 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (41 cases per 100,000 population) and in 1-year-old children (36.5 cases per 100,000 population). Enhanced data provided additional information on 1,015 (60%) of all notified cases. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 8.6 times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians. There were 126 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 7.5%. While the rate of IPD in the Indigenous under 2-year-old population decreased from 219 cases per 100,000 population since targeted introduction of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) in 2001, the rate in 2005 (94 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (20.4 cases per 100,000 population). Rates of disease in all children aged less than 2 years, caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV decreased by 75% between 2004 and 2005 as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. There is no evidence of replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. Serotypes were identified in 90% of all notified cases, with 61% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 88% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). Reduced penicillin susceptibility

  10. Synergistic impacts by an invasive amphipod and an invasive fish explain native gammarid extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Beggel, S.; Brandner, J.; Cerwenka, A. F.; Geist, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide freshwater ecosystems are increasingly affected by invasive alien species. In particular, Ponto-Caspian gobiid fishes and amphipods are suspected to have pronounced effects on aquatic food webs. However, there is a lack of systematic studies mechanistically testing the potential synergistic effects of invasive species on native fauna. In this study we investigated the interrelations between the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and the invasive fish species Neogob...

  11. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception.

  12. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara Brooks

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…

  13. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  14. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  15. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade.

  16. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    individuals in Denmark conduct and experience walking, and the ‘rationalities’ (Giddens 1984) that lie behind their choice of mobility. It provides insight into how different lifestyles perceive and act walking in their everyday life. Kaufmann (2002) describes how the individual mobility is influenced......’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual...... by individual strategies, values, perceptions and habits, and how appropriation of mobility is constructed through the internalization of standards and values. The act of walking could thus be understood as the result of dynamic internal negotiation of individual, everyday mobility strategies (Lassen 2005...

  17. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    The term ‘knowledge society’ is used to refer to the increasing relevance of nonmanual knowledge-producing labour in current post-industrial economies. Contemporary art, especially since 1989, has not been left out of this trend, to the extent that today it is not rare to see artists and curators...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...

  18. RECOGNISING SPEECH ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Kaburise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech Act Theory (SAT, a theory in pragmatics, is an attempt to describe what happens during linguistic interactions. Inherent within SAT is the idea that language forms and intentions are relatively formulaic and that there is a direct correspondence between sentence forms (for example, in terms of structure and lexicon and the function or meaning of an utterance. The contention offered in this paper is that when such a correspondence does not exist, as in indirect speech utterances, this creates challenges for English second language speakers and may result in miscommunication. This arises because indirect speech acts allow speakers to employ various pragmatic devices such as inference, implicature, presuppositions and context clues to transmit their messages. Such devices, operating within the non-literal level of language competence, may pose challenges for ESL learners.

  19. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We......Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  20. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  1. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  2. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  3. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  4. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  5. REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA CLAUDIA CLIZA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the revocation is totally specific for administrative law principles, I chose to talk about in this study and its impact on the cancellation of administrative acts. Revocation will be explored, in terms of the authorities which it may provide but also of the effects caused.It also would examine if revocation has a legal basis, as well as real cases to provide the impact of this principle in administrative law.

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. NHERF-1: Modulator of Glioblastoma Cell Migration and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri L. Kislin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The invasive nature of malignant gliomas is a clinical problem rendering tumors incurable by conventional treatment modalities such as surgery, ionizing radiation, and temozolomide. Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein, recruiting cytoplasmic signaling proteins and membrane receptors/transporters into functional complexes. This study revealed that NHERF-1 expression is increased in highly invasive cells that reside in the rim of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumors and that NHERF-1 sustains glioma migration and invasion. Gene expression profiles were evaluated from laser capture-microdissected human GBM cells isolated from patient tumor cores and corresponding invaded white matter regions. The role of NHERF-1 in the migration and dispersion of GBM cell lines was examined by reducing its expression with small-interfering RNA followed by radial migration, three-dimensional collagen dispersion, immunofluorescence, and survival assays. The in situ expression of NHERF-1 protein was restricted to glioma cells and the vascular endothelium, with minimal to no detection in adjacent normal brain tissue. Depletion of NHERF-1 arrested migration and dispersion of glioma cell lines and caused an increase in cell-cell cohesiveness. Glioblastoma multiforme cells with depleted NHERF-1 evidenced a marked decrease in stress fibers, a larger cell size, and a more rounded shape with fewer cellular processes. When NHERF-1 expression was reduced, glioma cells became sensitized to temozolomide treatment resulting in increased apoptosis. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence for NHERF-1 as a participant in the highly invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas and implicate NHERF-1 as a possible therapeutic target for treatment of GBM.

  8. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  9. Values, Norms, and Intrinsic Motivation to Act Proenvironmentally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people more consistently engage in proenvironmental actions. In this article, I discuss factors that motivate or inhibit individuals to act proenvironmentally. Many people are intrinsically motivated to engage in proenvironmental actions, because protecting t

  10. Why the act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, N B

    1995-07-01

    All of the 4000 infants who die daily in India have been bottle fed. Most of these infants die from infections which are typically caused by bottle feeding. Considerable research has shown that human breast milk ideally suits babies' needs. Human breast milk protects infants from several infections and allergies, such that the breastfed infant is 25 times less likely than the bottle fed infant to die due to diarrhea and pneumonia. Comparative studies have even found breastfed babies to have higher IQs than bottle fed ones. Detrimental maternity home practices, adverse social factors, and the unethical and aggressive marketing strategy adopted by the manufacturers of infant milk substitutes and feeding bottles are the major factors responsible for the erosion of the practice of breastfeeding. These factors are discussed. The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles, and Infant Foods Act prohibits the advertisement and promotion of feeding bottles and infant milk substitutes by unethical marketing strategies. Violations of the act are punishable by imprisonment and a heavy fine. The act and the need for its passage are discussed.

  11. Potential geographic distribution of brown marmorated stink bug invasion (Halyomorpha halys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengping Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species with a rapidly expanding range in North America and Europe. In the US, it is a household pest and also caused unprecedented damage to agriculture crops. Exploring its climatic limits and estimating its potential geographic distribution can provide critical information for management strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS: We used direct climate comparisons to explore the climatic niche occupied by native and invasive populations of BMSB. Ecological niche modelings based on the native range were used to anticipate the potential distribution of BMSB worldwide. Conversely, niche models based on the introduced range were used to locate the original invasive propagates in Asia. Areas with high invasion potential were identified by two niche modeling algorithms (i.e., Maxent and GARP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced dimensionality of environmental space improves native model transferability in the invade area. Projecting models from invasive population back to native distributional areas offers valuable information on the potential source regions of the invasive populations. Our models anticipated successfully the current disjunct distribution of BMSB in the US. The original propagates are hypothesized to have come from northern Japan or western Korea. High climate suitable areas at risk of invasion include latitudes between 30°-50° including northern Europe, northeastern North America, southern Australia and the North Island of New Zealand. Angola in Africa and Uruguay in South America also showed high climate suitability.

  12. CNK1 promotes invasion of cancer cells through NF-kappaB-dependent signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rafael D; Radziwill, Gerald

    2010-03-01

    Hallmarks of cancer cells are uncontrolled proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis, which are driven by oncogenic activation of signaling pathways. Herein, we identify the scaffold protein CNK1 as a mediator of oncogenic signaling that promotes invasion in human breast cancer and cervical cancer cells. Downregulation of CNK1 diminishes the invasiveness of cancer cells and correlates with reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP). Ectopic expression of CNK1 elevates MT1-MMP promoter activity in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Moreover, CNK1 cooperates with the NF-kappaB pathway, but not with the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, to promote cell invasion. Mechanistically, CNK1 regulates the alternative branch of the NF-kappaB pathway because knockdown of CNK1 interferes with processing of NF-kappaB2 p100 to p52 and its localization to the nucleus. In agreement with this, the invasion of CNK1-depleted cells is less sensitive to RelB downregulation compared with the invasion of control cells. Moreover, CNK1-dependent MT1-MMP promoter activation is blocked by RelB siRNA. Thus, CNK1 is an essential mediator of an oncogenic pathway involved in invasion of breast and cervical cancer cells and is therefore a putative target for cancer therapy.

  13. Microbial communities in marine sediments modify success of an invasive macrophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribben, Paul E; Nielsen, Shaun; Seymour, Justin R; Bradley, Daniel J; West, Matthew N; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-08-29

    Invasive plants have extensive impacts on ecosystem function and biodiversity globally. Our inability to manage invasive species stems in part from a lack of understanding of the processes that control their successful establishment and spread. To date, studies have largely considered how above-ground processes control native/invasive plant interactions. Emerging research from terrestrial and wetland ecosystems demonstrates that below-ground processes under microbial control can determine the outcome of interactions between native and invasive plants. Whether sediment microbes modify the success of invasive macrophytes in marine ecosystems is untested, despite marine sediment microbes controlling many ecological processes (e.g. nutrient cycling) comparable to those in terrestrial ecosystems. We first show that sediment bacterial communities differ between the native seagrass Zostera capricorni and the invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia and that those differences relate to functional changes in sulfur cycling between the macrophytes. Second, by experimentally manipulating the microbial communities we show that intact microbial communities in Z. capricorni sediments provide biotic resistance by reducing C. taxifolia fragment growth 119% compared to when they are inactive, and intact microbial communities in C. taxifolia sediments have positive feedbacks by increasing fragment growth 200%. Thus, similar to terrestrial ecosystems, microorganisms appear to indirectly control the success of invasive macrophytes in marine ecosystems.

  14. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  15. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its ra...

  16. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  17. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving ass

  18. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  19. Dispersal of invasive species by drifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riel, van M.C.; Velde, van der G.; Vaate, bij de A.

    2011-01-01

    Drifting can be an effective way for aquatic organisms to disperse and colonise new areas. Increasing connectivity between European large rivers facilitates invasion by drifting aquatic macroinvertebrates. The present study shows that high abundances of invasive species drift in the headstream of

  20. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  1. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  2. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving ass

  3. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  4. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion...... in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve......; and 4) in one case a tumor spread along the inner limiting membrane to the optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa. Invasion of the optic nerve had no impact on all-cause mortality or melanoma-related mortality in multivariate analyses. The majority of melanomas invading the optic nerve are large...

  5. Invasive mucormycosis in benign gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rikabi, A C; Al-Dohayan, A D; Al-Boukai, A A

    2000-03-01

    Fungal elements are frequently noted overlying the base of chronic peptic ulcers of the stomach and it has been suggested that the fungi enhance the degree of necrosis and that these cases have protracted disease and deeper ulcers with more perforations. It has also been postulated that the number of fungal elements might be increased in the stomach of patients who are receiving potent medications such as H2-receptor antagonists to reduce gastric acidity, but there have not been adequate control studies, and the deleterious effects from the presence of the fungi in these cases have not been substantiated. We present a very rare case of invasive mucormycosis (phycomycosis) occurring in the base of a chronic gastric ulcer in a 55 years old diabetic male. This case was clinically and radiologically been mistaken for a gastric carcinoma. In addition, the ulcer was complicated by perforation and fungal septicemia with subsequent fatal outcome. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are described together with a literature review of other reported fungal gastric ulcers.

  6. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery and transesophageal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved cosmetic appearance, reduced pain and duration of post-operative stay have intensified the popularity of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS; however, the increased risk of stroke remains a concern. In conventional cardiac surgery, surgeons can visualize and feel the cardiac structures directly, which is not possible with MICS. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is essential during MICS in detecting problems that require immediate correction. Comprehensive evaluation of the cardiac structures and function helps in the confirmation of not only the definitive diagnosis, but also the success of surgical treatment. Venous and aortic cannulations are not under the direct vision of the surgeon and appropriate positioning of the cannulae is not possible during MICS without the aid of TEE. Intra-operative TEE helps in the navigation of the guide wire and correct placement of the cannulae and allows real-time assessment of valvular pathologies, ventricular filling, ventricular function, intracardiac air, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and adequacy of the surgical procedure. Early detection of perioperative complications by TEE potentially enhances the post-operative outcome of patients managed with MICS.

  7. Emerging robotic platforms for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Valentina; Lee, Su-Lin; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances in surgery have resulted in the development of a range of new techniques that have reduced patient trauma, shortened hospitalization, and improved diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. Despite the many appreciated benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) compared to traditional approaches, there are still significant drawbacks associated with conventional MIS including poor instrument control and ergonomics caused by rigid instrumentation and its associated fulcrum effect. The use of robot assistance has helped to realize the full potential of MIS with improved consistency, safety and accuracy. The development of articulated, precision tools to enhance the surgeon's dexterity has evolved in parallel with advances in imaging and human-robot interaction. This has improved hand-eye coordination and manual precision down to micron scales, with the capability of navigating through complex anatomical pathways. In this review paper, clinical requirements and technical challenges related to the design of robotic platforms for flexible access surgery are discussed. Allied technical approaches and engineering challenges related to instrument design, intraoperative guidance, and intelligent human-robot interaction are reviewed. We also highlight emerging designs and research opportunities in the field by assessing the current limitations and open technical challenges for the wider clinical uptake of robotic platforms in MIS.

  8. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2011-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant and often lethal problem in transplant patients. Infections caused by geographically limited endemic fungi are infrequent, and Aspergillus species, Mucorales species, Candida species, and Cryptococcus neoformans are the opportunistic fungi responsible for most such infections. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are nonspecific, particularly in their early stages. The high rates of mortality and graft loss owing to fungal infections render early diagnosis and treatment imperative in immunosuppressed patients. Current methods for the diagnosis of systemic fungal infections include imaging procedures, endoscopic methods and biopsies, microscopic and culture techniques, antibody and antigen-based serologic testing, and the detection (via polymerase chain reaction) of fungal deoxyribonucleic acid in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the careful analysis of signs and symptoms. Antifungal therapy should be initiated early in patients with a suspected fungal infection (even before laboratory findings have confirmed that diagnosis) and should be administered with appropriate adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens. To manage fungal infections in patients with renal failure, optimizing the pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs to reduce the risk of nephrotoxicity is crucial.

  9. ILEOCYSTOPLASTY IN INVASIVE URINARY BLADDER CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with the intestinal urinary bladder, to characterize its early and late postoperative complications, and to develop their correction tactics.  Subjects and methods. The results of treatment in 198 patients who had undergone ileocystoplasty were analyzed.  Results. The developed diagnostic approach and the determined examination periods could reduce the number of late postoperative complications of ileocystoplasty: acute and chronic pyelonephritis from 19.4 to 7.6%, urolithiasis from 17.2 to 1.9%, bladder dysfunction from 25.8 to 7.6%, and metabolic acidosis from 4.3 to 1.9%, and prevent the development of ureterovesical anastomosis stricture.  Conclusion. Radical cystectomy with the ileoplasty using an isolated segment of the ileum in patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma has been the operation of choice no longer; it has become an essential surgical adjunct. This method permits overall 5-year survival to be achieved in 69.7% of patients.  

  10. Invasive Fungal Infections Secondary to Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kronen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations. Risk factors differ between these cohorts but include specific injury patterns and comorbidities. Diagnosis of post-traumatic IFI typically follows positive laboratory results in the appropriate clinical context. The gold standard of treatment is surgical debridement in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Patients with post-traumatic IFI may be at greater risk of amputation, delays in wound healing, hospital complications, and death as compared to trauma patients who do not develop IFI. More research is needed to understand the factors surrounding the development and management of post-traumatic IFI to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  11. MicroRNA-320a acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting BCR/ABL oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xishan, Zhu; Ziying, Lin; Jing, Du; Gang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with tumorigenesis, tumor progression, metastasis and relapse in cancers, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We found that miR-320a expression was reduced in K562 and in CML cancer stem cells. Moreover, we found that miR-320a inhibited K562 cell migration, invasion, proliferation and promoted apoptosis by targeting BCR/ABL oncogene. As an upstream regulator of BCR/ABL, miR-320a directly targets BCR/ABL. The enhanced expression of miR-320a inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and NF-κB; however, the expression of phosphorylated PI3K, AKT and NF-κB were restored by the overexpression of BCR/ABL. In K562, infected with miR-320a or transfected with SiBCR/ABL, the protein levels of fibronectin, vimentin, and N-cadherin were decreased, but the expression of E-cadherin was increased. The expression of mesenchymal markers in miR-320a-expressing cells was restored to normal levels by the restoration of BCR/ABL expression. Generally speaking, miR-320a acts as a novel tumor suppressor gene in CML and miR-320a can decrease migratory, invasive, proliferative and apoptotic behaviors, as well as CML EMT, by attenuating the expression of BCR/ABL oncogene.

  12. Survivin promotes the invasion of human colon carcinoma cells by regulating the expression of MMP‑7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yuqin; Yang, Feng; Wang, Peng; Wang, Wenjun; Su, Yan; Luo, Weiren

    2014-03-01

    Increased expression levels of survivin are crucial for invasion activity in several types of human cancer, including colon carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby survivin regulates cancer invasion have not been completely elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the role of matrix metalloprotease‑7 (MMP‑7) in cell invasion that is induced by survivin by using in vitro assays, including western blot, immunofluorescence and qPCR analyses. The results demonstrated that the ectopic expression of survivin significantly promoted the invasive activity of colon carcinoma cells (SW620 and HCT‑116) and resulted in increased levels of MMP‑7 activation. By contrast, the small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑based knockdown of survivin markedly reduced cell migration and led to a dose‑dependent decrease in MMP‑7 expression levels. Compared with the controls, knockdown of MMP‑7 by siRNA in colon carcinoma cells led to reduced invasion ability, whereas no obvious changes were observed when MMP‑7 expression was silenced in survivin‑overexpressing colon carcinoma cells. These findings demonstrate that MMP‑7 is crucial for survivin‑mediated invasiveness, suggesting that the survivin‑mediated MMP‑7 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colon carcinoma.

  13. The role of CVS (and FIA) data and genetic tests in assessing species vulnerability to invasive pests and changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; H.E. Lintz

    2017-01-01

    United States tree species and their associated ecosystems, managed forests, and urban plantings are increasingly vulnerable to non-native invasive pathogens and insects as well as effects associated with a changing climate. Some species, such as whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), have been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. To...

  14. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che K

    2017-02-01

    .001. Similarly, the OS of patients with single cell invasion and large cell invasion was reduced (single cell invasion, HR: 3.553, P<0.001; large cell invasion, HR: 2.466, P<0.001. Following multivariate analysis, tumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (P<0.05. According to the Lauren classification, patients with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma had better outcomes than those with diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (HR: 2.563, P<0.001.Conclusion: Tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Keywords: invasion type, pathology, gastric carcinoma, prognosis, metastasis

  15. Androgen receptor non-nuclear regulation of prostate cancer cell invasion mediated by Src and matriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarif, Jelani C; Lamb, Laura E; Schulz, Veronique V; Nollet, Eric A; Miranti, Cindy K

    2015-03-30

    Castration-resistant prostate cancers still depend on nuclear androgen receptor (AR) function despite their lack of dependence on exogenous androgen. Second generation anti-androgen therapies are more efficient at blocking nuclear AR; however resistant tumors still develop. Recent studies indicate Src is highly active in these resistant tumors. By manipulating AR activity in several different prostate cancer cell lines through RNAi, drug treatment, and the use of a nuclear-deficient AR mutant, we demonstrate that androgen acting on cytoplasmic AR rapidly stimulates Src tyrosine kinase via a non-genomic mechanism. Cytoplasmic AR, acting through Src enhances laminin integrin-dependent invasion. Active Matriptase, which cleaves laminin, is elevated within minutes after androgen stimulation, and is subsequently shed into the medium. Matriptase activation and shedding induced by cytoplasmic AR is dependent on Src. Concomitantly, CDCP1/gp140, a Matriptase and Src substrate that controls integrin-based migration, is activated. However, only inhibition of Matriptase, but not CDCP1, suppresses the AR/Src-dependent increase in invasion. Matriptase, present in conditioned medium from AR-stimulated cells, is sufficient to enhance invasion in the absence of androgen. Thus, invasion is stimulated by a rapid but sustained increase in Src activity, mediated non-genomically by cytoplasmic AR, leading to rapid activation and shedding of the laminin protease Matriptase.

  16. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings...... is unknown. Objective: To investigate adverse cardiovascular outcomes of an early versus conservative invasive strategy in a national cohort of patients with ACSs. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Administrative health care data on hospitalizations, procedures, and outcomes abstracted from...... the Danish national registries and covering all acute invasive procedures in patients presenting with an ACS. Patients: 19 704 propensity score-matched patients hospitalized with a first ACS between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011. Measurements: Risk for cardiac death or rehospitalization for MI within...

  17. Accuracy and consequences of same-day, invasive lung cancer workup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Riis; Høegholm, Asbjørn; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    pulmonary disease. Tumour located in right upper lobe was associated with need for resampling. DISCUSSION: Our retrospective study suggests that same-day, invasive workup for lung cancer is safe, accurate, and efficacious in reducing time to therapy, even in patients with small lesions and low tumour burden.......BACKGROUND: Though widely used, little is known about accuracy and efficacy of same-day, invasive workup of suspected lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of same-day, invasive lung cancer workup (diagnosis and mediastinal staging), and to identify differences between...... patients without (Group A) or with (Group B) need for resampling. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on all consecutive patients referred for surgical treatment for localised lung cancer after invasive diagnostic and staging workup at our unit. Data were extracted from electronic medical files...

  18. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  19. Minimally invasive percutaneous posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Larry T; Palmer, Sylvain; Laich, Daniel T; Fessler, Richard G

    2002-11-01

    any of the patients. All screw and graft placements were confirmed. A complete PLIF procedure can be safely and effectively performed using minimally invasive techniques, thereby potentially reducing the pain and morbidity associated with standard open surgery. Prospective, randomized outcome studies will be required to validate the efficacy of this exciting new surgical technique.

  20. Few effects of invasive plants Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea on soil physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Nobis, Marcin; Zubek, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are an important problem of human-induced changes at a global scale. Invasive plants can modify soil nutrient pools and element cycling, creating feedbacks that potentially stabilize current or accelerate further invasion, and prevent re-establishment of native species. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea, invading non-forest areas located within or outside river valleys, on soil physical and chemical parameters, including soil moisture, element concentrations, organic matter content and pH. Additionally, invasion effects on plant species number and total plant cover were assessed. The concentrations of elements in shoots and roots of invasive and native plants were also measured. Split-plot ANOVA revealed that the invasions significantly reduced plant species number, but did not affect most soil physical and chemical properties. The invasions decreased total P concentration and increased N-NO3 concentration in soil in comparison to native vegetation, though the latter only in the case of R. japonica. The influence of invasion on soil properties did not depend on location (within- or outside valleys). The lack of invasion effects on most soil properties does not necessarily imply the lack of influence of invasive plants, but may suggest that the direction of the changes varies among replicate sites and there are no general patterns of invasion-induced alterations for these parameters. Tissue element concentrations, with the exception of Mg, did not differ between invasive and native plants, and were not related to soil element concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.