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Sample records for redox-based protein quality

  1. Role of a redox-based methylation switch in mRNA life cycle ( pre- & post- transcriptional maturation and protein turnover : Implications in neurological disorders

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    MALAV SUCHIN TRIVEDI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic synaptic scaling in response to neuronal stimulus or activation, as well as due to changes in cellular niche, is an important phenomenon for memory consolidation, retrieval, and other similar cognitive functions. Neurological disorders and cognitive disabilities in autism, Rett syndrome, schizophrenia, dementia etc., are strongly correlated to alterations in protein expression (both synaptic and cytoplasmic. This correlation suggests that efficient temporal regulation of synaptic protein expression is important for synaptic plasticity. In addition, equilibrium between mRNA processing, protein translation and protein turnover is a critical sensor/trigger for recording synaptic information, normal cognition and behavior. Thus a regulatory switch, controlling the lifespan, maturation and processing of mRNA, might influence cognition and adaptive behavior. Here, we propose a two part novel hypothesis that methylation might act as this suggested coordinating switch to critically regulate mRNA maturation at 1.The pre-transcription level, by regulating precursor-RNA (pre-RNA processing into mRNA, via other non-coding RNAs and their influence on splicing phenomenon, and 2. the post-transcription level by modulating the regulatory functions of ribonucleoproteins (RNP and RNA binding proteins (RNABP in mRNA translation, dendritic translocation as well as protein synthesis and synaptic turnover. DNA methylation changes are well recognized and highly correlated to gene expression levels as well as, learning and memory; however, RNA methylation changes are recently characterized and yet their functional implications are not established. This review article provides some insight on the intriguing consequences of changes in methylation levels on mRNA life-cycle. We also suggest that, since methylation is under the control of glutathione antioxidant levels, the redox status of neurons might be the central regulatory switch for methylation

  2. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  3. Proteins: Chemistry, Characterization, and Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sforza, S.; Tedeschi, T.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are one of the major macronutrients in food, and several traditional food commodities are good sources of proteins (meat, egg, milk and dairy products, fish, and soya). Proteins are polymers made by 20 different amino acids. They might undergo desired or undesired chemical or enzymatic

  4. Protein quality and growth in malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manary, Mark; Callaghan, Meghan; Singh, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein quality refers to the amounts and ratios of essential amino acids in a food. Two methods most commonly used for determining protein quality are the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the digestible indispensible amino acid score (DIAAS). OBJECTIVE...... in children with SAM and acute infection, and these data were reviewed with respect to protein synthesis. Eleven published treatment trials for SAM with different therapeutic foods were analyzed to examine the relationship between protein quality scores with weight gain (g/kg/d). Protein scores were...... calculated with the PDCAAS and DIAAS amino acid reference patterns. A DIAAS score adjusted for the higher weight gain expected in malnourished children was also used. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to examine this relationship. RESULTS: The protein kinetic data supported the hypothesis...

  5. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

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    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  6. Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Mistry, Anahita M; Lapsley, Karen; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2005-09-01

    Three marketing varieties of almonds; Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil; were analyzed for proximate composition and protein nutritive quality. Moisture, lipids, protein, ash, sugars, and tannins ranges were 3.05-4.33%, 43.37-47.50%, 20.68-23.30%, 3.74-4.56%, 5.35-7.45%, and 0.12-0.18%, respectively. No detectable hemagglutinating and trypsin inhibitory activities were present in Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil almonds. Amino acid analyses indicated the sulfur amino acids (methionine + cysteine), lysine, and threonine to be the first, second, and third limiting amino acids in almonds when compared to the recommended amino acid pattern for children 2-5-year old. However, compared to the recommended amino acid pattern for adults, sulfur amino acids were the only limiting amino acids in almonds tested. True Protein Digestibility (% TPD) values for Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil were 88.55 +/- 1.26, 92.25 +/- 1.05, and 82.62 +/- 1.47, respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scoring (PDCAAS) values suggested almond proteins to be of poor nutritional quality.

  7. Evaluation of the protein quality of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.

    1984-01-01

    Protein content, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein in several varieties of barley, wheat and rice were determined in nitrogen-balance trials with rats. It appeared that protein quality varied significantly between these three cereal grains, with the lowest values for wheat. However, the protein content was markedly higher in wheat; consequently, utilizable protein was highest in this cereal grain. The different varieties within barley, wheat and rice varied considerably in protein quality. This demonstrates a large variation in the potential for protein synthesis. The main problem with rice and barley is the low protein concentration, whereas with wheat the biggest problem seems to be the quality of the protein. As the lysine level in all cereal grains, expressed in percentage of the protein, cannot meet the requirements for either man or domestic animals efforts should be made to increase the lysine concentration in these food sources. (author)

  8. Glycaemic Response to Quality Protein Maize Grits

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    Leonora N. Panlasigui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrates have varied rates of digestion and absorption that induces different hormonal and metabolic responses in the body. Given the abundance of carbohydrate sources in the Philippines, the determination of the glycaemic index (GI of local foods may prove beneficial in promoting health and decreasing the risk of diabetes in the country. Methods. The GI of Quality Protein Maize (QPM grits, milled rice, and the mixture of these two food items were determined in ten female subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control bread and three test foods were given on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick at time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and analyzed for glucose concentrations. Results. The computed incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC varies significantly across test foods (P<.0379 with the pure QPM grits yielding the lowest IAUC relative to the control by 46.38. Resulting GI values of the test foods (bootstrapped were 80.36 (SEM 14.24, 119.78 (SEM 18.81, and 93.17 (SEM 27.27 for pure QPM grits, milled rice, and rice-QPM grits mixture, respectively. Conclusion. Pure QPM corn grits has a lower glycaemic response compared to milled rice and the rice-corn grits mixture, which may be related in part to differences in their dietary fibre composition and physicochemical characteristics. Pure QPM corn grits may be a more health beneficial food for diabetic and hyperlipidemic individuals.

  9. potential for quality protein maize for reducing protein- energy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    social systems hampering QPM promotion and adoption and to identify ... affects growth and development. Protein- energy ... to purchase QPM seed leading to PEU reduction. Education ..... decision support framework “targetCSA”. Agricultural ...

  10. Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this present study, the effect of various common processing methods on the ... The rats fed with the experimental diet containing autoclaved SB seeds as a ... Moreover, the protein quality parameters such as true digestibility, biological value, ...

  11. Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) were evaluated on research stations and in farmers\\' fields in Ghana from 1995 to 1996.

  12. Ubiquitin in signaling and protein quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Saoudi, Sofie Vincents

    is related to the cancer-predisposition disease, Lynch syndrome. Of 24 different MSH2 variants, some of which have been linked to Lynch syndrome, we show that there is a strong correlation between the predicted structural stability and the protein half-life. We show that a predicted destabilization of 3 kcal....../mol is sufficient to cause proteasomal degradation of MSH2 variants. Importantly our calculations can, in addition to protein turnover, also predict pathogenicity of MSH2 variants, suggesting that this approach can be applied for Lynch syndrome diagnosis, and perhaps for other hereditary diseases....

  13. Broiler meat quality: Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue are important meat quality parameters. They contribute substantially to the nutritional characteristics of meat. A number of studies has been conducted on the effect of different factors on the protein and lipid content of broiler meat. Given the above, the subject matter of the present paper ...

  14. Assessment of the protein quality of twenty nine grain amaranth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sum of essential amino acids ranged from 31.22 to 44.88 g/100 g and 60.87 g/100 g total protein in amaranth and soybean, respectively; limited only in tryptophan and leucine for amaranth, and methionine for soybean. Amaranth is a good source of high quality protein and may serve as a nutritive substitute for some ...

  15. Protein array staining methods for undefined protein content, manufacturing quality control, and performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabacker, Daniel S; Stefanovska, Ivana; Gavin, Igor; Pedrak, Casandra; Chandler, Darrell P

    2006-12-01

    Methods to assess the quality and performance of protein microarrays fabricated from undefined protein content are required to elucidate slide-to-slide variability and interpolate resulting signal intensity values after an interaction assay. We therefore developed several simple total- and posttranslational modification-specific, on-chip staining methods to quantitatively assess the quality of gel element protein arrays manufactured with whole-cell lysate in vitro protein fractions derived from two-dimensional liquid-phase fractionation (PF2D) technology. A linear dynamic range of at least 3 logs was observed for protein stains and immobilized protein content, with a lower limit of detection at 8 pg of protein per gel element with Deep Purple protein stain and a field-portable microarray imager. Data demonstrate the successful isolation, separation, transfer, and immobilization of putative transmembrane proteins from Yersinia pestis KIM D27 with the combined PF2D and gel element array method. Internal bovine serum albumin standard curves provided a method to assess on-chip PF2D transfer and quantify total protein immobilized per gel element. The basic PF2D array fabrication and quality assurance/quality control methods described here therefore provide a standard operating procedure and basis for developing whole-proteome arrays for interrogating host-pathogen interactions, independent of sequenced genomes, affinity tags, or a priori knowledge of target cell composition.

  16. Investigation of the connection between the quality of protein, protein level and endogenous N excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, R.; Gebhardt, G.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of various protein qualities as well as of different levels of protein on the amount of endogenous N excretion, metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and endogenous urinary N (EUN) was determined in growing albino rats. The test rations were labelled with admixtures of 15 N-DL-methionine and 15 N-DL-lysine, respectively, or contained feed protein enriched with 15 N. EUN and MFN and their sum (the N maintenance requirement) showed the influence of the respective protein source and its dependence on the protein level. The endogenous N excretions showed an opposite tendency to the N balance; for high-quality protein feedstuffs with a high N balance (e.g. dried eggs) they are lower than for protein sources of inferior quality, with a low N-balance only (e.g. wheat gluten). Presumably this interaction of retention and maintenance is due to the complementary effect of exogenous and endogenous amino acids in the N and amino acid pool, respectively. Provided that the N dose and the live weight of the animals are comparable, the N balance appears to be more suitable as parameter for the description of the protein quality and the calculation of the protein utilisation than N retention, as the sum of N balance and the values of MFN and EUN (depending on the feedstuffs and the N level). (author)

  17. Protein quality control in organelles - AAA/FtsH story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janska, Hanna; Kwasniak, Malgorzata; Szczepanowska, Joanna

    2013-02-01

    This review focuses on organellar AAA/FtsH proteases, whose proteolytic and chaperone-like activity is a crucial component of the protein quality control systems of mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes. We compare the AAA/FtsH proteases from yeast, mammals and plants. The nature of the complexes formed by AAA/FtsH proteases and the current view on their involvement in degradation of non-native organellar proteins or assembly of membrane complexes are discussed. Additional functions of AAA proteases not directly connected with protein quality control found in yeast and mammals but not yet in plants are also described shortly. Following an overview of the molecular functions of the AAA/FtsH proteases we discuss physiological consequences of their inactivation in yeast, mammals and plants. The molecular basis of phenotypes associated with inactivation of the AAA/FtsH proteases is not fully understood yet, with the notable exception of those observed in m-AAA protease-deficient yeast cells, which are caused by impaired maturation of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. Finally, examples of cytosolic events affecting protein quality control in mitochondria and chloroplasts are given. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein Solubility as Quality Index for Processed Soybean

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    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein quality of soybean meal (SBM is linked to both the reduction of antinutritional factors (ANFs, and the optimization of protein digestibility. Both insufficient- and over-heating result in poor quality SBM. Inadequate heating fails to completely destroy the ANFs, which may have a detrimental impact on animal performance, while excessive heating reduces the availability of lysine via the Maillard reaction and possibly, to a lesser extent, of other amino acids. The objective of our study was to compare some biochemical laboratory procedures for assessing quality of SBM: urease index (UI, protein dispersibility index (PDI, KOH protein solubility (PS, and nitrogen solubility index (NSI. The experimental data reveal that UI is not useful to determine excessive heat treatment since additional heating has no effect on the urease index. KOH protein solubility remains high, during initial heat treatment. In marked contrast, the PDI and NSI decreased incrementally from 78% to 20% and from 97% to 60%, respectively, when heating 0 to 30 minutes. Combing the PDI test with the urease test could be useful to monitor soybean quality. SBM containing low UI (0.3 or below and high PDI (40 to 45% may indicate that the sample is definitely high quality because it has been adequately heat processed, but not overprocessed.

  19. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

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    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  20. Use of wheat and maize protein mutants in breeding for improved protein quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denic, M.; Dumanovic, J.; Misevic, D.; Konstantinov, K.; Fidler, D.; Stojanovic, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Selected offspring progenies (50 mutant lines) originating from mutation experiments with hexaploid wheat (cv. Bezostaya 1) were analysed for induced heritable variation in protein content, lysine content, grain yield and protein and lysine yields. Ten of these mutant lines were crossed with 11 local varieties. The protein and lysine contents were measured in the progenies of these crossings. The data showed better correlations of grain yield with protein and lysine yields than the protein and lysine contents with their corresponding yields. F 1 seeds showed higher lysine and protein contents than local varieties. Data with maize showed that: (1) the total endosperm protein content of modified opaque-2 types increases with an increase in the degree of normalization; (2) the lysine content in dry matter and protein in normalized o 2 kernels usually decreases with the increasing degree of normalization; (3) the lysine content in protein of modified o 2 kernels, is, in general, satisfactory up to the normalization of about 50% of endosperm. A desirable modification of o 2 endosperm within line A632o 2 was selected and crossed with o 2 lines. Most of the tested hybrids had a good protein quality, but endosperm modification was not evident in all hybrids. The o 2 gene was incorporated into high protein backgrounds. Besides a high protein content and quality, some of the hybrids tested had a comparable or higher yield than the o 2 check. (author)

  1. Quality control mechanisms of protein biogenesis: proteostasis dies hard

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    Timothy Jan Bergmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of proteins entails a complex series of chemical reactions that transform the information stored in the nucleic acid sequence into a polypeptide chain that needs to properly fold and reach its functional location in or outside the cell. It is of no surprise that errors might occur that alter the polypeptide sequence leading to a non-functional proteins or that impede delivery of proteins at the appropriate site of activity. In order to minimize such mistakes and guarantee the synthesis of the correct amount and quality of the proteome, cells have developed folding, quality control, degradation and transport mechanisms that ensure and tightly regulate protein biogenesis. Genetic mutations, harsh environmental conditions or attack by pathogens can subvert the cellular quality control machineries and perturb cellular proteostasis leading to pathological conditions. This review summarizes basic concepts of the flow of information from DNA to folded and active proteins and to the variable fidelity (from incredibly high to quite sloppy characterizing these processes. We will give particular emphasis on events that maintain or recover the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, a major site of proteins synthesis and folding in eukaryotic cells. Finally, we will report on how cells can adapt to stressful conditions, how perturbation of ER homeostasis may result in diseases and how these can be treated.

  2. Effect of dietary protein source on piglet meat quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements.          No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.

  3. Structural Elements Regulating AAA+ Protein Quality Control Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Wen; Lee, Sukyeong; Tsai, Francis T F

    2017-01-01

    Members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+) superfamily participate in essential and diverse cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life by harnessing the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive their biological functions. Although most AAA+ proteins share a ring-shaped architecture, AAA+ proteins have evolved distinct structural elements that are fine-tuned to their specific functions. A central question in the field is how ATP binding and hydrolysis are coupled to substrate translocation through the central channel of ring-forming AAA+ proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss structural elements present in AAA+ proteins involved in protein quality control, drawing similarities to their known role in substrate interaction by AAA+ proteins involved in DNA translocation. Elements to be discussed include the pore loop-1, the Inter-Subunit Signaling (ISS) motif, and the Pre-Sensor I insert (PS-I) motif. Lastly, we will summarize our current understanding on the inter-relationship of those structural elements and propose a model how ATP binding and hydrolysis might be coupled to polypeptide translocation in protein quality control machines.

  4. Proteomics in quality control: Whey protein-based supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Bruno Carius; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Lourenço, Daniela C; Fasciotti, Maíra

    2016-09-16

    The growing consumption of nutritional supplements might represent a problem, given the concern about the quality of these supplements. One of the most used supplements is whey protein (WP); because of its popularity, it has been a target of adulteration with substitute products, such as cheaper proteins with lower biological value. To investigate this type of adulteration, this study used shotgun proteomics analyses by MS(E) (multiplexed, low- and high-collision energy, data-independent acquisition) of WP-based supplements. Seventeen WP-based supplement samples were evaluated. Chicken, maize, rice, potato, soybean, and wheat proteins were considered as probable sources of bovine whey adulteration. Collectively, 523 proteins were identified across all 16 samples and replicates, with 94% of peptides inside a normal distribution within 10ppm of maximum error. In 10 of the 16 samples analyzed, only proteins from bovine whey could be detected, while in the other samples several other protein sources were detected in high concentrations, especially soybean, wheat, and rice. These results point out a probable adulteration and/or sample contamination during manufacturing that could only be detected using this proteomic approach. The present work shows how shotgun proteomics can be used to provide reliable answers in quality control matters, especially focusing on Whey Protein nutritional supplements which are a very popular subject in food and nutrition. In order to achieve an appropriate methodology, careful evaluation was performed applying extremely rigorous quality criteria, established for the proteomic analysis. These criteria and the methodological approach used in this work might serve as a guide for other authors seeking to use proteomics in quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Indian and exotic quality protein maize (QPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphism analysis and genetic diversity of normal maize and quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds among locally well adapted germplasm is a prerequisite for hybrid maize breeding program. The diversity analyses of 48 maize accessions including Indian and exotic germplasm using 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) ...

  6. On protein quality control, myofibrillar myopathies, and neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meister, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Eiwitten zijn bouwstenen van de cel en het is noodzakelijk dat zij in specifieke -vooraf bepaalde – 3-dimensionale vormen ‘gevouwen’ worden om hun functies binnen de cel te kunnen vervullen. De cel heeft een speciaal netwerk (Protein Quality Control [PQC] netwerk) die de kwaliteit van dergelijke

  7. Evaluation of quality protein maize hybrids for yield, association of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was initiated with the objectives to evaluate quality protein maize pipeline varieties in terms of yield and yield related traits, and to investigate association of yield with its components and other desirable traits at Bako. Eighteen genotypes were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications.

  8. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and

  9. Quality control methodology for high-throughput protein-protein interaction screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alexei; Rual, Jean-François; Venkatesan, Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key to many aspects of the cell, including its cytoskeletal structure, the signaling processes in which it is involved, or its metabolism. Failure to form protein complexes or signaling cascades may sometimes translate into pathologic conditions such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. The set of all protein interactions between the proteins encoded by an organism constitutes its protein interaction network, representing a scaffold for biological function. Knowing the protein interaction network of an organism, combined with other sources of biological information, can unravel fundamental biological circuits and may help better understand the molecular basics of human diseases. The protein interaction network of an organism can be mapped by combining data obtained from both low-throughput screens, i.e., "one gene at a time" experiments and high-throughput screens, i.e., screens designed to interrogate large sets of proteins at once. In either case, quality controls are required to deal with the inherent imperfect nature of experimental assays. In this chapter, we discuss experimental and statistical methodologies to quantify error rates in high-throughput protein-protein interactions screens.

  10. Correlation between protein sequence similarity and x-ray diffraction quality in the protein data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Meng; Yin, Da-Chuan; Ye, Ya-Jing; Luo, Hui-Min; Geng, Li-Qiang; Li, Hai-Sheng; Guo, Wei-Hong; Shang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    As the most widely utilized technique to determine the 3-dimensional structure of protein molecules, X-ray crystallography can provide structure of the highest resolution among the developed techniques. The resolution obtained via X-ray crystallography is known to be influenced by many factors, such as the crystal quality, diffraction techniques, and X-ray sources, etc. In this paper, the authors found that the protein sequence could also be one of the factors. We extracted information of the resolution and the sequence of proteins from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), classified the proteins into different clusters according to the sequence similarity, and statistically analyzed the relationship between the sequence similarity and the best resolution obtained. The results showed that there was a pronounced correlation between the sequence similarity and the obtained resolution. These results indicate that protein structure itself is one variable that may affect resolution when X-ray crystallography is used.

  11. Rehosting of Bacterial Chaperones for High-Quality Protein Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Noad, Rob; Unzueta, Ugutz; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Roy, Polly; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Coproduction of DnaK/DnaJ in Escherichia coli enhances solubility but promotes proteolytic degradation of their substrates, minimizing the yield of unstable polypeptides. Higher eukaryotes have orthologs of DnaK/DnaJ but lack the linked bacterial proteolytic system. By coexpression of DnaK and DnaJ in insect cells with inherently misfolding-prone recombinant proteins, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement of soluble protein yield and quality and proteolytic stability. Thus, undesired side effects of bacterial folding modulators can be avoided by appropriate rehosting in heterologous cell expression systems. PMID:19820142

  12. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Basu

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50 and iRMS (<3.0Å. This is also the reason why the so called CAPRI criteria for assessing the quality of docking models is defined by applying various ad-hoc cutoffs on these measures to classify a docking model into the four classes: Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium, or High quality. This classification has been useful in CAPRI, but since models are grouped in only four bins it is also rather limiting, making it difficult to rank models, correlate with scoring functions or use it as target function in machine learning algorithms. Here, we present DockQ, a continuous protein-protein docking model quality measure derived by combining Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for

  13. Studies on protein biosynthesis during grain development in relation to protein quality using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.L.; Lodha, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The amino acid imbalance of storage proteins in grains is mainly due to the synthesis of nutritionally poor quality proteins during late maturation stage. In maize, zein fraction which is extremely deficient in lysine but rich in leucine accumulates during late maturation. Opqaue-2 mutant of maize is characterised by an increase in lysine and a decrease in leucine in the endospem protein which is a result of suppression of zein synthesis. In the investigation carried out using H 3 -UTP, it was found that the opaque-2 gene exerts a regulatory central on MRNA synthesis required for zein formation at early stages of maturation. (M.G.B.)

  14. Dual Role of Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1 (AUP1) in Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Protein Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Elizabeth J.; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involves the identification and engagement of misfolded proteins, dislocation of the misfolded protein across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, and ubiquitin-mediated targeting to the proteasome for degradation. Ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) physically associates with the mammalian HRD1-SEL1L complex, and AUP1 depletion impairs degradation of misfolded ER proteins. One of the functions of AUP1 in ER quality control is to recruit t...

  15. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å) might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50) and iRMS (iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for protein structure prediction, and DockQ should be useful in a similar development in the protein docking field. DockQ is available at http://github.com/bjornwallner/DockQ/ PMID:27560519

  16. Periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhi Xin; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are integral membrane proteins that reside in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and perform a diverse range of biological functions. Synthesized in the cytoplasm, OMPs must be transported across the inner membrane and through the periplasmic space before they are assembled in the outer membrane. In Escherichia coli, Skp, SurA and DegP are the most prominent factors identified to guide OMPs across the periplasm and to play the role of quality control. Although extensive genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed many basic functions of these periplasmic proteins, the mechanism of their collaboration in assisting the folding and insertion of OMPs is much less understood. Recently, biophysical approaches have shed light on the identification of the intricate network. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in the characterization of these key factors, with a special emphasis on the multifunctional protein DegP. In addition, we present our proposed model on the periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of OMPs.

  17. Relations between protein production, protein quality and environmental factors in Pisum mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.; Mueller, H.P.; Wolff, G.

    1975-01-01

    The seed protein content of 138 radiation-induced Pisum mutants was determined. The variability of this genetically well-defined material agrees approximately with that of the world collection of Pisum sativum. Some environmental factors to a great extent influence the protein production of the mutants and the initial line. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the relations between the genetically controlled protein production and its dependence upon the environmental factors. This is especially evident if the protein situation of the same genotypes cultivated under the moderate climatic conditions of middle Europe is compared with the subtropical conditions of India. A generally firm correlation between seed size and protein content could not be found in material regarding 148 different mutants of our assortment. Therefore, the selection of small-grained mutants does not result in a selection of protein-rich genotypes in Pisum sativum. Considering all the criteria positively and negatively influencing the protein production, a positive situation could be found in some mutants, especially in the fasciated ones. Furthermore, an improvement of the protein quality could be reached by a genetically conditioned alteration of the globulin-albumin ratio leading to an increase of some essential amino acids such as methionine and lysine. The combined action of mutant genes results in unexpected changes of the protein quantity as well as the quality of the recombinants in relation to their parental mutants. The comparison of some essential amino acids of our useful mutants with those of the varieties of other genera of the Leguminosae shows certain trends of biochemical alterations realized during evolutionary development of the family. (author)

  18. The Role of the Multifunctional BAG3 Protein in Cellular Protein Quality Control and in Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürner, Elisabeth; Behl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In neurons, but also in all other cells the complex proteostasis network is monitored and tightly regulated by the cellular protein quality control (PQC) system. Beyond folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and their refolding upon misfolding the PQC also manages the disposal of aberrant proteins either by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery or by the autophagic-lysosomal system. Aggregated proteins are primarily degraded by a process termed selective macroautophagy (or aggrephagy). One such recently discovered selective macroautophagy pathway is mediated by the multifunctional HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 ( BCL-2-associated athanogene 3 ). Under acute stress and during cellular aging, BAG3 in concert with the molecular chaperones HSP70 and HSPB8 as well as the ubiquitin receptor p62/SQSTM1 specifically targets aggregation-prone proteins to autophagic degradation. Thereby, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy represents a pivotal adaptive safeguarding and emergency system of the PQC which is activated under pathophysiological conditions to ensure cellular proteostasis. Interestingly, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy is also involved in the clearance of aggregated proteins associated with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's disease (tau-protein), Huntington's disease (mutated huntingtin/polyQ proteins), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated SOD1). In addition, based on its initial description BAG3 is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays a decisive role in other widespread diseases, including cancer and myopathies. Therefore, in the search for novel therapeutic intervention avenues in neurodegeneration, myopathies and cancer BAG3 is a promising candidate.

  19. DeepQA: Improving the estimation of single protein model quality with deep belief networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Renzhi; Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Hou, Jie; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein quality assessment (QA) useful for ranking and selecting protein models has long been viewed as one of the major challenges for protein tertiary structure prediction. Especially, estimating the quality of a single protein model, which is important for selecting a few good models out of a large model pool consisting of mostly low-quality models, is still a largely unsolved problem. Results We introduce a novel single-model quality assessment method DeepQA based on deep belie...

  20. Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue serum protein, erythrocyte fragility and bone mineral content. ... The 20% protein diet was a commercial diet better in nutrient composition and quality than the diet containing 17 and 15% protein formulated in our laboratory. At the end of 21 days, kidney, testes, ...

  1. Network Compression as a Quality Measure for Protein Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Stewart, A. Francis; Schroeder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients. PMID:22719828

  2. The Effects of Silk Protein Solution on Quality of Mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadvibulya, Valailak; Sudatis, Boonya; Panyarum, Kanyarat; Junsaithong, Mayuree; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Sericin silk protein solution prepared from irradiated silk waste was applied as a wax coating on mangosteen fruits but was found not appropriate. Nonetheless, when the solution was sprayed onto fruits from the setting stage till maturity, it enhanced the fruit quality. Fruits showed a bigger stalk and greener, thicker and larger-angled calyx than untreated ones. They were edible after being kept at 25 C for 3 to 4 weeks. Fruits sprayed with the silk protein solution and untreated fruits were separately harvested and packed for export. A half of them were irradiated with gamma radiation for insect eradication and then kept at 10 C with 80 percents relative humidity. The unirradiated half was stored similarly. Results showed that rind color of irradiated fruits changed slower than unirradiated ones. However, silk protein solution spraying and irradiation did not affect fruit firmness and total soluble solids of mangosteen flesh. For sensory evaluation, it was found that sprayed and irradiated fruits showed no differences from the untreated ones in their physical properties, color, taste and odor. Fruits sprayed with the silk protein solution without irradiation had the longest shelf life of 6 weeks

  3. The Effects of Silk Protein Solution on Quality of Mangosteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadvibulya, Valailak; Sudatis, Boonya; Panyarum, Kanyarat; Junsaithong, Mayuree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Nakhon Nayok, (Thailand); Kerdchoechuen, Orapin [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkuts University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-06-15

    Full text: Sericin silk protein solution prepared from irradiated silk waste was applied as a wax coating on mangosteen fruits but was found not appropriate. Nonetheless, when the solution was sprayed onto fruits from the setting stage till maturity, it enhanced the fruit quality. Fruits showed a bigger stalk and greener, thicker and larger-angled calyx than untreated ones. They were edible after being kept at 25{sup C} for 3 to 4 weeks. Fruits sprayed with the silk protein solution and untreated fruits were separately harvested and packed for export. A half of them were irradiated with gamma radiation for insect eradication and then kept at 10{sup C} with 80 percents relative humidity. The unirradiated half was stored similarly. Results showed that rind color of irradiated fruits changed slower than unirradiated ones. However, silk protein solution spraying and irradiation did not affect fruit firmness and total soluble solids of mangosteen flesh. For sensory evaluation, it was found that sprayed and irradiated fruits showed no differences from the untreated ones in their physical properties, color, taste and odor. Fruits sprayed with the silk protein solution without irradiation had the longest shelf life of 6 weeks.

  4. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  5. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewry, P.R.; Bright, S.W.J.; Burgess, S.R.; Miflin, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  6. Improving protein quality of soybean through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most economical and nutritious food packed with basic nutrients that combat diseases stemming from mal- and under-nutrition. Despite its rich nutritional profile, use of soybean in food has been limited because soybean proteins are often associated with compounds, which could exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) is one of the important anti-nutritional factors that exert negative effect by causing growth inhibition. Soybean cultivar VLS-2 was irradiated with 250 Gy gamma rays in a gamma cell (200) with 60 Co source installed at BARC to induce mutations for low trypsin inhibitor content. Three mutants with lower levels of TI content were identified and can be utilized for developing elite varieties of soybean. (author)

  7. The Role of the Multifunctional BAG3 Protein in Cellular Protein Quality Control and in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stürner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In neurons, but also in all other cells the complex proteostasis network is monitored and tightly regulated by the cellular protein quality control (PQC system. Beyond folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and their refolding upon misfolding the PQC also manages the disposal of aberrant proteins either by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery or by the autophagic-lysosomal system. Aggregated proteins are primarily degraded by a process termed selective macroautophagy (or aggrephagy. One such recently discovered selective macroautophagy pathway is mediated by the multifunctional HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 (BCL-2-associated athanogene 3. Under acute stress and during cellular aging, BAG3 in concert with the molecular chaperones HSP70 and HSPB8 as well as the ubiquitin receptor p62/SQSTM1 specifically targets aggregation-prone proteins to autophagic degradation. Thereby, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy represents a pivotal adaptive safeguarding and emergency system of the PQC which is activated under pathophysiological conditions to ensure cellular proteostasis. Interestingly, BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy is also involved in the clearance of aggregated proteins associated with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease (tau-protein, Huntington’s disease (mutated huntingtin/polyQ proteins, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated SOD1. In addition, based on its initial description BAG3 is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays a decisive role in other widespread diseases, including cancer and myopathies. Therefore, in the search for novel therapeutic intervention avenues in neurodegeneration, myopathies and cancer BAG3 is a promising candidate.

  8. Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labbé, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

    2014-06-01

    To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11 kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and β-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6 mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9 % in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean.

  9. Improving protein-protein interaction prediction using evolutionary information from low-quality MSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várnai, Csilla; Burkoff, Nikolas S; Wild, David L

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary information stored in multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) has been used to identify the interaction interface of protein complexes, by measuring either co-conservation or co-mutation of amino acid residues across the interface. Recently, maximum entropy related correlated mutation measures (CMMs) such as direct information, decoupling direct from indirect interactions, have been developed to identify residue pairs interacting across the protein complex interface. These studies have focussed on carefully selected protein complexes with large, good-quality MSAs. In this work, we study protein complexes with a more typical MSA consisting of fewer than 400 sequences, using a set of 79 intramolecular protein complexes. Using a maximum entropy based CMM at the residue level, we develop an interface level CMM score to be used in re-ranking docking decoys. We demonstrate that our interface level CMM score compares favourably to the complementarity trace score, an evolutionary information-based score measuring co-conservation, when combined with the number of interface residues, a knowledge-based potential and the variability score of individual amino acid sites. We also demonstrate, that, since co-mutation and co-complementarity in the MSA contain orthogonal information, the best prediction performance using evolutionary information can be achieved by combining the co-mutation information of the CMM with co-conservation information of a complementarity trace score, predicting a near-native structure as the top prediction for 41% of the dataset. The method presented is not restricted to small MSAs, and will likely improve interface prediction also for complexes with large and good-quality MSAs.

  10. Effect of diet protein quality on growth and protein synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalkar, D.V.; Mehta, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diet protein quality on albino rats was studied by feeding normal and opaque-2 maize. The weight gain in rats was 60 percent higher on opaque-2 maize as compared to those fed on normal maize. Rats converted 1.0 g of dietary opaque-2 maize to 0.226 g weight gain as compared to 0.131 g for normal maize. The protein content per liver was higher with opaque-2 maize diet suggesting a higher net protein synthesis in opaque-2 maize fed rat livers. In vitro 14 C-phenylalanine incorporation showed that polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rat livers were more efficient in protein synthesis than those from normal maize fed rat livers. Addition of poly-U resulted in more enhanced amino acid incorporation with polysomes from normal maize fed rats as compared to other group indicating greater limitation of mRNA in polysomes from normal maize fed rats. The total yield of liver polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rats was substantially higher. (author)

  11. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  12. Breeding for Quality Protein Maize (QPM Varieties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane N. Tandzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional evaluation of quality protein maize (QPM in feeding trials has proved its nutritional superiority over non-QPM varieties for human and livestock consumption. The present paper reviews some of the most recent achievements in development of QPM varieties using both conventional and molecular breeding under stressed and non-stressed environments. It is evident that numerous QPM varieties have been developed and released around the world over the past few decades. While the review points out some gaps in information or research efforts, challenges associated with adoption QPM varieties are highlighted and suggestions to overcome them are presented. The adoption of released varieties and challenges facing QPM production at the farmer level are also mentioned. Several breeding methods have been conventionally used to develop QPM varieties in stressed (drought, low soil nitrogen, resistance to grey leaf spot, Turcicum leaf blight, ear rot, and Striga and non-stressed environments. At least three genetic loci have been found to be implicated in controlling the levels of a protein synthesis factor correlated with lysine. They have been mapped on chromosomes 2, 4, and 7. While the use of molecular approaches will improve the efficiency and speed of variety development, the cost implications might limit the use of these technologies in the developing world. More emphasis should be given to breeding QPM for tolerance to environmental stresses, such as low soil pH, heat, and combined heat and drought stress. The post-harvest attack of QPM grains should also be considered. The adoption of QPM genotypes by farmers has been found to be limited mainly due to the minimal collaboration between maize breeders, farmers, agricultural extension workers, and other relevant stakeholders, as well as the need for isolating QPM varieties from normal maize. Therefore, there is need to use participatory plant breeding (PPB and/or participatory variety

  13. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Zhang, S.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm

  14. Dual Role of Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1 (AUP1) in Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Protein Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Elizabeth J.; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involves the identification and engagement of misfolded proteins, dislocation of the misfolded protein across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, and ubiquitin-mediated targeting to the proteasome for degradation. Ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) physically associates with the mammalian HRD1-SEL1L complex, and AUP1 depletion impairs degradation of misfolded ER proteins. One of the functions of AUP1 in ER quality control is to recruit the soluble E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2G2. We further show that the CUE domain of AUP1 regulates polyubiquitylation and facilitates the interaction of AUP1 with the HRD1 complex and with dislocation substrates. AUP1 localizes both to the ER and to lipid droplets. The AUP1 expression level affects the abundance of cellular lipid droplets and as such represents the first protein with lipid droplet regulatory activity to be linked to ER quality control. These findings indicate a possible connection between ER protein quality control and lipid droplets. PMID:21857022

  15. Initial investigation of dietitian perception of plant-based protein quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Glenna J; Kress, Kathleen S; Armbrecht, Eric S; Mukherjea, Ratna; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    Interest in plant-based diets is increasing, evidenced by scientific and regulatory recommendations, including Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Dietitians provide guidance in dietary protein selection but little is known about how familiar dietitians are with the quality of plant versus animal proteins or methods for measuring protein quality. Likewise, there is a need to explore their beliefs related to dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess dietitians' perceptions of ...

  16. Cytosolic protein quality control of the orphan protein Fas2, a novel physiological substrate of the E3 ligase Ubr1

    OpenAIRE

    Scazzari, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Cellular protein quality control (PQC) monitors the proper folding of polypeptides, assembly of protein subunits into protein complexes as well as the delivery of terminally misfolded proteins to degradation. The components of PQC known best at the moment are molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin proteasome system. In contrast to the well-described protein quality control system of the endoplasmic reticulum (ERAD), less is known about how misfolded proteins in the cytosol are recognized and ...

  17. Failure of protein quality control in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Edor; Durham, Heather D

    2006-01-01

    The protein chaperoning and ubiquitin-proteasome systems perform many homeostatic functions within cells involving protein folding, transport and degradation. Of paramount importance is ridding cells of mutant or post-translationally modified proteins that otherwise tend to aggregate into insoluble complexes and form inclusions. Such inclusions are characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases and implicate protein misfolding and aggregation as common aspects of pathogenesis. In the most common familial form of ALS, mutations in SOD1 promote misfolding of the protein and target it for degradation by proteasomes. Although proteasomes can degrade the mutant proteins efficiently, altered solubility and aggregation of mutant SOD1 are features of the disease and occur most prominently in the most vulnerable cells and tissues. Indeed, lumbar spinal cord of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice show early reduction in their capacity for protein chaperoning and proteasome-mediated hydrolysis of substrates, and motor neurons are particularly vulnerable to aggregation of mutant SOD1. A high threshold for upregulating key pathways in response to the stress of added substrate load may contribute to this vulnerability. The broad spectrum neuroprotective capability and efficacy of some chaperone-based therapies in preclinical models makes these pathways attractive as targets for therapy in ALS, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the regulation of protein chaperones and UPS components would facilitate development of treatments that upregulate these pathways in a coordinated manner in neural tissue without long term toxicity.

  18. Protein quality of three different species of earthrvorms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Earthworm meal, nutritive value, protein source, poultry. 99 ... species on which the development of a high density production .... 116,28. Arginine. Broiler starter. 6,37. 87,61. 95,90. 116,78. 167,30. 113,50 ... Protein intake (ql7 days).

  19. Protein single-model quality assessment by feature-based probability density functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-04-04

    Protein quality assessment (QA) has played an important role in protein structure prediction. We developed a novel single-model quality assessment method-Qprob. Qprob calculates the absolute error for each protein feature value against the true quality scores (i.e. GDT-TS scores) of protein structural models, and uses them to estimate its probability density distribution for quality assessment. Qprob has been blindly tested on the 11th Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP11) as MULTICOM-NOVEL server. The official CASP result shows that Qprob ranks as one of the top single-model QA methods. In addition, Qprob makes contributions to our protein tertiary structure predictor MULTICOM, which is officially ranked 3rd out of 143 predictors. The good performance shows that Qprob is good at assessing the quality of models of hard targets. These results demonstrate that this new probability density distribution based method is effective for protein single-model quality assessment and is useful for protein structure prediction. The webserver of Qprob is available at: http://calla.rnet.missouri.edu/qprob/. The software is now freely available in the web server of Qprob.

  20. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3- 3 H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  1. Effect of radiation treatment on protein quality and vitamin content of animal feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of autoclaving and irradiation on the protein quality and vitamin content of various nutrients of laboratory animal diets. The protein quality and its amino acid composition was not significantly affected by a radiation dose as high as 7.0 Mrad, whereas the protein quality of autoclaved diet (102 0 C for 5 minutes) was significantly affected. Vitamin B 1 , B 0 and α-tocopherol appeared to be affected by irradiation, whereas autoclaving reduced the levels of vitamins A, B 1 and E. (author)

  2. Model test on the relationship feed energy and protein ratio to the production and quality of milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, R.; Jantra, M. A. C.; Santosa, S. A. B.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find an appropriate relationship model between the feed energy and protein ratio with the amount of production and quality of milk proteins. This research was conducted at Getasan Sub-district, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia using 40 samples (Holstein Friesian cattle, lactation period II-III and lactation month 3-4). Data were analyzed using linear and quadratic regressions, to predict the production and quality of milk protein from feed energy and protein ratio that describe the diet. The significance of model was tested using analysis of variance. Coefficient of determination (R2), residual variance (RV) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were reported for the developed equations as an indicator of the goodness of model fit. The results showed no relationship in milk protein (kg), milk casein (%), milk casein (kg) and milk urea N (mg/dl) as function of CP/TDN. The significant relationship was observed in milk production (L or kg) and milk protein (%) as function of CP/TDN, both in linear and quadratic models. In addition, a quadratic change in milk production (L) (P = 0.003), milk production (kg) (P = 0.003) and milk protein concentration (%) (P = 0.026) were observed with increase of CP/TDN. It can be concluded that quadratic equation was the good fitting model for this research, because quadratic equation has larger R2, smaller RV and smaller RMSPE than those of linear equation.

  3. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  4. Initial investigation of dietitian perception of plant-based protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Glenna J; Kress, Kathleen S; Armbrecht, Eric S; Mukherjea, Ratna; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2014-07-01

    Interest in plant-based diets is increasing, evidenced by scientific and regulatory recommendations, including Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Dietitians provide guidance in dietary protein selection but little is known about how familiar dietitians are with the quality of plant versus animal proteins or methods for measuring protein quality. Likewise, there is a need to explore their beliefs related to dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess dietitians' perceptions of plant-based protein quality and to determine if these are affected by demographic factors such as age and dietary practice group (DPG) membership. This was a cross-sectional design using an online survey. The survey was sent to all members of the Missouri Dietetic Association. All completed surveys (136) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were responses to belief and knowledge questions about the protein quality of plant-based diets, along with demographic information including age and DPG membership. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were determined, and chi-square analysis was used to determine the associations between belief and knowledge responses and demographic characteristics. Responses to belief statements suggested a high level of support for plant-based diets. No associations were found between any of the belief questions and demographic factors. A majority of respondents were not familiar with protein quality determination methods that are currently recognized by global regulatory and advisory agencies. Potential barriers identified in shifting to a more plant-based diet were lack of interest and perceived difficulty. Knowledge among dietitians of plant-based protein quality in general, and methods of protein quality measurement more specifically, needs to be addressed to enhance their knowledge base for making dietary protein recommendations. Two potential avenues for training are university curricula and continuing education opportunities provided to

  5. DeepQA: improving the estimation of single protein model quality with deep belief networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Renzhi; Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Hou, Jie; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-12-05

    Protein quality assessment (QA) useful for ranking and selecting protein models has long been viewed as one of the major challenges for protein tertiary structure prediction. Especially, estimating the quality of a single protein model, which is important for selecting a few good models out of a large model pool consisting of mostly low-quality models, is still a largely unsolved problem. We introduce a novel single-model quality assessment method DeepQA based on deep belief network that utilizes a number of selected features describing the quality of a model from different perspectives, such as energy, physio-chemical characteristics, and structural information. The deep belief network is trained on several large datasets consisting of models from the Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiments, several publicly available datasets, and models generated by our in-house ab initio method. Our experiments demonstrate that deep belief network has better performance compared to Support Vector Machines and Neural Networks on the protein model quality assessment problem, and our method DeepQA achieves the state-of-the-art performance on CASP11 dataset. It also outperformed two well-established methods in selecting good outlier models from a large set of models of mostly low quality generated by ab initio modeling methods. DeepQA is a useful deep learning tool for protein single model quality assessment and protein structure prediction. The source code, executable, document and training/test datasets of DeepQA for Linux is freely available to non-commercial users at http://cactus.rnet.missouri.edu/DeepQA/ .

  6. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) : protein quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy

  7. Chemical evaluation of protein quality and phenolic compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr ACHU Mercy BIH epouse LOH

    2011-07-07

    Jul 7, 2011 ... These results show a great variability on the protein contents which depend on the specie and which also seem to depend on the regions, as seen from the low values obtained for Sudanese seeds. Phenolic compounds have been shown to have a lot of beneficial effects as antioxidants, antithrombotic and ...

  8. The nutritive value of quality protein maize in the diets of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments, each lasting 6 weeks, were conducted to evaluate quality protein maize (QPM) as a feed gredient for broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, either normal hybrid maize (NM) or QPM was used as the sole source of protein and amino acids, and the diets were balanced for vitamins and minerals by the addition of ...

  9. Influence of early postmortem protein oxidation on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, L J; Maddock, K R; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of early postmortem protein oxidation on the color and tenderness of beef steaks. To obtain a range of oxidation levels, the longissimus lumborum muscles (LM) from both strip loins of 20 steers fed either a finishing diet with vitamin E (1,000 IU per steer daily, minimum of 126 d [VITE]; n = 10 steers) or fed the same finishing diet without vitamin E (CON; n = 10 steers) were used. Within 24 h after slaughter, the LM muscle from each carcass was cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks and individually vacuum packaged. Steaks from each steer were assigned to a nonirradiated group or an irradiated group. Steaks were irradiated within 26 h postmortem, and were aged at 4 degrees C for 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after irradiation. Steaks from each diet/irradiation/aging time treatment were used to determine color, shear force, and degree of protein oxidation (carbonyl content). Steaks from steers fed the VITE diet had higher (P irradiation, steaks that had been irradiated had lower (P Irradiated steaks, regardless of diet, had lower a* (P irradiated steaks compared to nonirradiated steaks at 0, 1, 3, and 7 d postirradiation. Immunoblot analysis showed that vitamin E supplementation decreased the number and extent of oxidized sarcoplasmic proteins. Protein carbonyl content was positively correlated with Warner-Bratzler shear force values. These results indicate that increased oxidation of muscle proteins early postmortem could have negative effects on fresh meat color and tenderness.

  10. Quality assessment of protein model-structures based on structural and functional similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Bogumil M; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Kotulska, Malgorzata

    2012-09-21

    Experimental determination of protein 3D structures is expensive, time consuming and sometimes impossible. A gap between number of protein structures deposited in the World Wide Protein Data Bank and the number of sequenced proteins constantly broadens. Computational modeling is deemed to be one of the ways to deal with the problem. Although protein 3D structure prediction is a difficult task, many tools are available. These tools can model it from a sequence or partial structural information, e.g. contact maps. Consequently, biologists have the ability to generate automatically a putative 3D structure model of any protein. However, the main issue becomes evaluation of the model quality, which is one of the most important challenges of structural biology. GOBA--Gene Ontology-Based Assessment is a novel Protein Model Quality Assessment Program. It estimates the compatibility between a model-structure and its expected function. GOBA is based on the assumption that a high quality model is expected to be structurally similar to proteins functionally similar to the prediction target. Whereas DALI is used to measure structure similarity, protein functional similarity is quantified using standardized and hierarchical description of proteins provided by Gene Ontology combined with Wang's algorithm for calculating semantic similarity. Two approaches are proposed to express the quality of protein model-structures. One is a single model quality assessment method, the other is its modification, which provides a relative measure of model quality. Exhaustive evaluation is performed on data sets of model-structures submitted to the CASP8 and CASP9 contests. The validation shows that the method is able to discriminate between good and bad model-structures. The best of tested GOBA scores achieved 0.74 and 0.8 as a mean Pearson correlation to the observed quality of models in our CASP8 and CASP9-based validation sets. GOBA also obtained the best result for two targets of CASP8, and

  11. Modelling consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a theoretical Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model that explicitly includes the environmental input in production functions and the consumers' preferences for environmental quality in utility functions. We empirically apply the model to provide some insights into the effects of the

  12. Physical properties, molecular structures and protein quality of texturized whey protein isolate: effect of extrusion temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion is a powerful food processing operation, which utilizes high temperature and high shear force to produce a product with unique physical and chemical characteristics. Texturization of whey protein isolate (WPI) through extrusion for the production of protein fortified snack foods has provid...

  13. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  14. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  15. APOLLO: a quality assessment service for single and multiple protein models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2011-06-15

    We built a web server named APOLLO, which can evaluate the absolute global and local qualities of a single protein model using machine learning methods or the global and local qualities of a pool of models using a pair-wise comparison approach. Based on our evaluations on 107 CASP9 (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction) targets, the predicted quality scores generated from our machine learning and pair-wise methods have an average per-target correlation of 0.671 and 0.917, respectively, with the true model quality scores. Based on our test on 92 CASP9 targets, our predicted absolute local qualities have an average difference of 2.60 Å with the actual distances to native structure. http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/apollo/. Single and pair-wise global quality assessment software is also available at the site.

  16. The ModFOLD4 server for the quality assessment of 3D protein models

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffin, Liam J.; Buenavista, Maria T.; Roche, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Once you have generated a 3D model of a protein,\\ud how do you know whether it bears any resemblance\\ud to the actual structure? To determine the usefulness\\ud of 3D models of proteins, they must be assessed in\\ud terms of their quality by methods that predict their\\ud similarity to the native structure. The ModFOLD4\\ud server is the latest version of our leading independent\\ud server for the estimation of both the global and\\ud local (per-residue) quality of 3D protein models. The\\ud server ...

  17. Can microbes compete with cows for sustainable protein production - A feasibility study on high quality protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mike; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-01-01

    An increasing population and their increased demand for high-protein diets will require dramatic changes in the food industry, as limited resources and environmental issues will make animal derived foods and proteins, gradually more unsustainable to produce. To explore alternatives to animal...... derived proteins, an economic model was built around the genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli to study the feasibility of recombinant protein production as a food source. Using a novel model, we predicted which microbial production strategies are optimal for economic return, by capturing the tradeoff...... between the market prices of substrates, product output and the efficiency of microbial production. A case study with the food protein, Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin was made to evaluate the upstream economic feasibilities. Simulations with different substrate profiles at maximum productivity were used...

  18. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  19. VoroMQA: Assessment of protein structure quality using interatomic contact areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechnovič, Kliment; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2017-06-01

    In the absence of experimentally determined protein structure many biological questions can be addressed using computational structural models. However, the utility of protein structural models depends on their quality. Therefore, the estimation of the quality of predicted structures is an important problem. One of the approaches to this problem is the use of knowledge-based statistical potentials. Such methods typically rely on the statistics of distances and angles of residue-residue or atom-atom interactions collected from experimentally determined structures. Here, we present VoroMQA (Voronoi tessellation-based Model Quality Assessment), a new method for the estimation of protein structure quality. Our method combines the idea of statistical potentials with the use of interatomic contact areas instead of distances. Contact areas, derived using Voronoi tessellation of protein structure, are used to describe and seamlessly integrate both explicit interactions between protein atoms and implicit interactions of protein atoms with solvent. VoroMQA produces scores at atomic, residue, and global levels, all in the fixed range from 0 to 1. The method was tested on the CASP data and compared to several other single-model quality assessment methods. VoroMQA showed strong performance in the recognition of the native structure and in the structural model selection tests, thus demonstrating the efficacy of interatomic contact areas in estimating protein structure quality. The software implementation of VoroMQA is freely available as a standalone application and as a web server at http://bioinformatics.lt/software/voromqa. Proteins 2017; 85:1131-1145. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Blocking protein quality control to counter hereditary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Nielsen, Sofie V.; Clausen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    cancer susceptibility syndromes, such as Lynch syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease, are caused by missense mutations in tumor suppressor genes, and in some cases, the resulting amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins cause the cellular PQC system to target them for degradation, although...... by stabilizing with chemical chaperones, or by targeting molecular chaperones or the ubiquitin-proteasome system, may thus avert or delay the disease onset. Here, we review the potential of targeting the PQC system in hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes....

  1. A study of quality measures for protein threading models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlewski Leszek

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein structures is one of the fundamental challenges in biology today. To fully understand how well different prediction methods perform, it is necessary to use measures that evaluate their performance. Every two years, starting in 1994, the CASP (Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction process has been organized to evaluate the ability of different predictors to blindly predict the structure of proteins. To capture different features of the models, several measures have been developed during the CASP processes. However, these measures have not been examined in detail before. In an attempt to develop fully automatic measures that can be used in CASP, as well as in other type of benchmarking experiments, we have compared twenty-one measures. These measures include the measures used in CASP3 and CASP2 as well as have measures introduced later. We have studied their ability to distinguish between the better and worse models submitted to CASP3 and the correlation between them. Results Using a small set of 1340 models for 23 different targets we show that most methods correlate with each other. Most pairs of measures show a correlation coefficient of about 0.5. The correlation is slightly higher for measures of similar types. We found that a significant problem when developing automatic measures is how to deal with proteins of different length. Also the comparisons between different measures is complicated as many measures are dependent on the size of the target. We show that the manual assessment can be reproduced to about 70% using automatic measures. Alignment independent measures, detects slightly more of the models with the correct fold, while alignment dependent measures agree better when selecting the best models for each target. Finally we show that using automatic measures would, to a large extent, reproduce the assessors ranking of the predictors at CASP3. Conclusions We show that given a

  2. Study Quality Protein and Fat in Some Romanian and Foreign Soybean Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cenan (Pasc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide soy is one of the most important sources of vegetable protein and vegetable fats supplying plant. Soybean proteins are important both for human food and animal feed industry concentrated. In the last twenty years soybeans have become an irreplaceable product for the food industry. This paper presents the results of the production capacity, protein and oil content of 25 soybean genotypes studied in 2011-2013 at Agricultural Research Station Turda Development. Were calculated  the amounts of protein and oil produced by each genotype in part each year and averaged over three experimental years. Protein content was between 39 per cent and 43.9 per cent and for fat percentage values ​​were between 18.9 per cent and 21.8 per cent. Romanian genotypes quality results are similar to those obtained for foreign genotypes. These genotypes can be grown in climatic conditions of Transylvania resulting quality for there production.

  3. Can microbes compete with cows for sustainable protein production - A feasibility study on high quality protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mike; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-11-08

    An increasing population and their increased demand for high-protein diets will require dramatic changes in the food industry, as limited resources and environmental issues will make animal derived foods and proteins, gradually more unsustainable to produce. To explore alternatives to animal derived proteins, an economic model was built around the genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli to study the feasibility of recombinant protein production as a food source. Using a novel model, we predicted which microbial production strategies are optimal for economic return, by capturing the tradeoff between the market prices of substrates, product output and the efficiency of microbial production. A case study with the food protein, Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin was made to evaluate the upstream economic feasibilities. Simulations with different substrate profiles at maximum productivity were used to explore the feasibility of recombinant Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin production coupled with market prices of utilized materials. We found that recombinant protein production could be a feasible food source and an alternative to traditional sources.

  4. Can microbes compete with cows for sustainable protein production - A feasibility study on high quality protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mike; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-11-01

    An increasing population and their increased demand for high-protein diets will require dramatic changes in the food industry, as limited resources and environmental issues will make animal derived foods and proteins, gradually more unsustainable to produce. To explore alternatives to animal derived proteins, an economic model was built around the genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli to study the feasibility of recombinant protein production as a food source. Using a novel model, we predicted which microbial production strategies are optimal for economic return, by capturing the tradeoff between the market prices of substrates, product output and the efficiency of microbial production. A case study with the food protein, Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin was made to evaluate the upstream economic feasibilities. Simulations with different substrate profiles at maximum productivity were used to explore the feasibility of recombinant Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin production coupled with market prices of utilized materials. We found that recombinant protein production could be a feasible food source and an alternative to traditional sources.

  5. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  6. Split nitrogen application improves wheat baking quality by influencing protein composition rather than concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eXue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of late nitrogen (N fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g. booting, heading or anthesis to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  7. Correlation analysis of protein quality characteristics with gluten-free bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, S W; Foschia, M; Arendt, E K

    2017-07-19

    The interest in gluten-free cereal products has increased significantly over the last number of years and there is still a high demand for high quality products. This study aims to establish possible connections between protein properties and dough and bread quality which could advance the knowledge for gluten-free product development. The objective of the present study was to correlate protein properties with bread characteristics. Therefore, a wide range of tests (solubility, emulsifying, foaming, water hydration properties) was performed to characterize a range of food proteins (potato, pea, carob, lupin and soy). Furthermore, the performance of these proteins in a dough matrix (pasting, rheology) and bread formulation (volume, structure, and texture) was analysed. Statistical analysis showed significant (p bread characteristics. The addition of the proteins to the gluten-free bread formulation affected pasting rheological and bread characteristics such as crumb density, crumb hardness and specific volume. The addition of potato and soy protein resulted in the lowest volume with a dense crumb structure and a low consumer acceptance score. However, lupin, pea and carob containing gluten-free breads had a higher specific volume and softer and less dense crumb structure. The protein solubility (r, 0.89; p bread quality.

  8. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Zhang, Sheng; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black soldier fly larvae and pupae, six spot roach, death's head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, fish meal and soyabean meal. Substrates were analysed for DM, N, crude fat, ash and amino acid (AA) contents and for in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OM) and N. The nutrient composition, AA scores as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility varied considerably between insect substrates. For the AA score, the first limiting AA for most substrates was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. The pupae of the housefly and black soldier fly were high in protein and had high AA scores but were less digestible than other insect substrates. The protein content and AA score of house crickets were high and similar to that of fish meal; however, in vitro N digestibility was higher. The cockroaches were relatively high in protein but the indispensable AA contents, AA scores and the in vitro digestibility values were relatively low. In addition to the indices of protein quality, other aspects such as efficiency of conversion of organic side streams, feasibility of mass-production, product safety and pet owner perception are important for future dog and cat food application of insects as alternative protein source.

  9. Increased Levels of Antinutritional and/or Defense Proteins Reduced the Protein Quality of a Disease-Resistant Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Daniele O B; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Farias, Davi F; Castelar, Ivan; Oliveira, Henrique P; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-07-22

    The biochemical and nutritional attributes of two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, one susceptible (Seridó) and the other resistant (Seridó-RCH) to stem canker, were examined to assess whether the resistance to pathogens was related to levels of antinutritional and/or defense proteins in the plant and subsequently affected the nutritional quality. Lectin, urease, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase activities were higher in the resistant cultivar. Growing rats were fed with isocaloric and isoproteic diets prepared with defatted raw soybean meals. Those on the Seridó-RCH diet showed the worst performance in terms of protein quality indicators. Based on regression analysis, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase appear to be involved in the resistance trait but also in the poorer nutritional quality of Seridó-RCH. Thus, the development of cultivars for disease resistance may lead to higher concentrations of antinutritional compounds, affecting the quality of soybean seeds. Further research that includes the assessment of more cultivars/genotypes is needed.

  10. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF PROTEIN PREPARATIONS ON THE QUALITY OF EXTRUDED MAIZE EXTRUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Rytel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of extrusion enables enrichment of snacking products with protein preparation simultaneously providing a high quality of end products. Maize semolina with particle size of 500-1250 μm was used as raw material and as additives soybean protein isolate, distillery yeast Safethanol 3035 and laboratory obtained potato protein preparation. Snacks were determined for contents of dry matter, protein, fat as well as for texture, volume weight, bulk density and sensory traits. The application of 3% and 6% additions of protein preparations in extruded snacks production was found to exert a beneficial effect on their chemical composition without deteriorating sensory characteristics. The higher, 6%, addition of proteins to extrudates turned out to significantly reduce content of fat (by 18% and ash (by 50%, and to increase total protein content by 26%, on average, in the products examined as compared to the samples free of additives. The addition of potato protein to extrudates, especially at the higher dose (6%, significantly improved their consistency and texture, simultaneously diminishing the expansion ratio of ready products. The higher (6% addition of yeast protein applied in the production of extrudates resulted in slight deterioration of their taste and aroma, yet had a positive effect on the structure and expansion ratio of the ready products. The extrudates produced with the addition of soybean protein were characterized by a good expansion ratio, uniform structure, irrespective of preparation dose and simultaneously demonstrated lower bulk mass as compared to the other products obtained in the experiment.

  11. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  12. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures...... by the European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog...

  13. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) - A concept for describing protein quality in foods and food ingredients: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2005-01-01

    Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS) is discussed. PDCAAS is now widely used as a routine assay for protein quality evaluation, replacing the more traditional biological methods [e.g., measurement of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in rats]. PDCAAS is based on comparison of the

  14. Different Polar Metabolites and Protein Profiles between High- and Low-Quality Japanese Ginjo Sake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese ginjo sake is a premium refined sake characterized by a pleasant fruity apple-like flavor and a sophisticated taste. Because of technical difficulties inherent in brewing ginjo sake, off-flavors sometimes occur. However, the metabolites responsible for off-flavors as well as those present or absent in higher quality ginjo sake remain uncertain. Here, the relationship between 202 polar chemical compounds in sake identified using capillary electrophoresis coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and its organoleptic properties, such as quality and off-flavor, was examined. First, we found that some off-flavored sakes contained higher total amounts of metabolites than other sake samples. The results also identified that levels of 2-oxoglutaric acid and fumaric acid, metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, were highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Similarly, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, co-enzymes for amino transferase, were also highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Additionally, pyruvic acid levels were associated with good quality as well. Compounds involved in the methionine salvage cycle, oxidative glutathione derivatives, and amino acid catabolites were correlated with low quality. Among off-flavors, an inharmonious bitter taste appeared attributable to polyamines. Furthermore, protein analysis displayed that a diversity of protein components and yeast protein (triosephosphate isomerase, TPI leakage was linked to the overall metabolite intensity in ginjo sake. This research provides insight into the relationship between sake components and organoleptic properties.

  15. Bioreactor scale up and protein product quality characterization of piggyBac transposon derived CHO pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra, Yashas; Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Peery, Robert B; Swartling, James R; McCracken, Neil A; Norris, Dawn L; Frye, Christopher C; Barnard, Gavin C

    2017-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells remain the most popular host for the production of biopharmaceutical drugs, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies, and Fc-fusion proteins. Creating and characterizing the stable CHO clonally-derived cell lines (CDCLs) needed to manufacture these therapeutic proteins is a lengthy and laborious process. Therefore, CHO pools have increasingly been used to rapidly produce protein to support and enable preclinical drug development. We recently described the generation of CHO pools yielding mAb titers as high as 7.6 g/L in a 16 day bioprocess using piggyBac transposon-mediated gene integration. In this study, we wanted to understand why the piggyBac pool titers were significantly higher (2-10 fold) than the control CHO pools. Higher titers were the result of a combination of increased average gene copy number, significantly higher messenger RNA levels and the homogeneity (i.e. less diverse population distribution) of the piggyBac pools, relative to the control pools. In order to validate the use of piggyBac pools to support preclinical drug development, we then performed an in-depth product quality analysis of purified protein. The product quality of protein obtained from the piggyBac pools was very similar to the product quality profile of protein obtained from the control pools. Finally, we demonstrated the scalability of these pools from shake flasks to 36L bioreactors. Overall, these results suggest that gram quantities of therapeutic protein can be rapidly obtained from piggyBac CHO pools without significantly changing product quality attributes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:534-540, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Estimating structure quality trends in the Protein Data Bank by equivalent resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaria, Anurag; Jaravine, Victor; Güntert, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The quality of protein structures obtained by different experimental and ab-initio calculation methods varies considerably. The methods have been evolving over time by improving both experimental designs and computational techniques, and since the primary aim of these developments is the procurement of reliable and high-quality data, better techniques resulted on average in an evolution toward higher quality structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Each method leaves a specific quantitative and qualitative "trace" in the PDB entry. Certain information relevant to one method (e.g. dynamics for NMR) may be lacking for another method. Furthermore, some standard measures of quality for one method cannot be calculated for other experimental methods, e.g. crystal resolution or NMR bundle RMSD. Consequently, structures are classified in the PDB by the method used. Here we introduce a method to estimate a measure of equivalent X-ray resolution (e-resolution), expressed in units of Å, to assess the quality of any type of monomeric, single-chain protein structure, irrespective of the experimental structure determination method. We showed and compared the trends in the quality of structures in the Protein Data Bank over the last two decades for five different experimental techniques, excluding theoretical structure predictions. We observed that as new methods are introduced, they undergo a rapid method development evolution: within several years the e-resolution score becomes similar for structures obtained from the five methods and they improve from initially poor performance to acceptable quality, comparable with previously established methods, the performance of which is essentially stable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1 on bread and pasta quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain protein concentration (GPC) affects wheat nutritional value and several critical parameters for bread and pasta quality. A gene designated Gpc-B1, which is not functional in common and durum wheat cultivars, was recently identified in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The functional allele o...

  18. Effect of soy protein isolate on quality of light pork sausages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... The effect of soy protein isolate (SPI) on quality characteristics of light pork ... were darker and firmer and microbiologically safe after storage at 4-5°C for ..... products of defatted soy flour, corn starch and beef: Shelf-life,.

  19. Effect of quality protein maize diet on liver integrity and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of quality protein maize (QPM) diet on the histology of the liver and on the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in albino wistar rats. The AST level in rats fed QPM diet was 57.4 ± 8.92U/L which compared favourably with that ...

  20. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, K.; Meister, M.; Dugbartey, G. J.; Zijlstra, M. P.; Vinet, J.; Brunt, E. R. P.; van Leeuwen, F. W.; Rueb, U.; Kampinga, H. H.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2012-01-01

    K. Seidel, M. Meister, G. J. Dugbartey, M. P. Zijlstra, J. Vinet, E. R. P. Brunt, F. W. van Leeuwen, U. Rub, H. H. Kampinga and W. F. A. den Dunnen (2012) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology38, 548558 Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type

  1. Size exclusion HPLC of proteins for evaluation of durum wheat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present research aimed to assess size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) in protein molecular weight distribution determination for quality evaluation of durum semolina. Semolina samples were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations in 2009 and 2010 in ND. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer ...

  2. Protein-energy nutritional status and kidney disease-specific quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, A.H.A.; de Wit, G.A.; Penne, E.L.; van der Weerd, N.C.; Grooteman, M.P.C.; van den Dorpel, M.A.; Nube, M.J.; Buskens, E.; Levesque, R.; ter Wee, P.M.; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.

    Objective: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome in dialysis care. Previous research has related protein-energy nutritional status to generic HRQOL domains, but it is still not clear as to how it relates to HRQOL domains that are unique to hemodialysis patients. Therefore,

  3. New method for the quality check of food proteins of the maintenance metabolism. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Hernandez, M.; Bergner, H.

    1981-01-01

    Male adult rats (370 g body weight) were fed on maintenance level (460 kJ ME/kgsup(0,75). In a 10 days preliminary period they received a casein/methionine (95/5) diet supplemented with 10 mg 15 N excess per 0.178 kg metabolic body weight in form of ammonium acetate. Thereafter the animals were put on 8 isonitrogenous diets containing as protein sources casein, soya protein, gelatine, whole-egg, fish meal, pea, wheat and yeast. The 15 N excretion via urine and feces was used to evaluate the dietary proteins for maintenance. 15 N in urine was lowest in animals fed on wheat diet and highest after feeding whole-egg diet. From these data a so called ' 15 N excretion biological valence (BV)' was calculated, which indicated the highest quality for wheat and soy protein in meeting the needs of the intermediary maintenance metabolism. On the other hand, dietary protein sources influence the loss of endogenous nitrogen as metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN). It was found to be lowest in animals fed on diets containing isolated proteins (6 mg MFN/100 g body weight) and highest after feeding protein sources of plant origin with a high content in crude fibre (10 mg MFN/100 g). Both, losses of 15 N via urine and via feces were combined in a parameter called 'total BV'. According to this parameter the differences in quality for maintenance were only little between the protein sources tested (casein 100, soy protein 100, pea 99, wheat 99, whole egg 92, fish meal 89, gelatin 89). It was concluded that in the state of maintenance the supply with essential amino acids is not critical and that the supply with dispensable amino acids (or nonspecific nitrogen) is of great importance. (author)

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the protein quality of timothy grass and silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Syrjälä-Qvist

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy grass given N fertilizer at the rates of 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha was preserved in 3 glass-fibre silos of 0.4 m3. The crude protein content of DM in the grass increased with the increase of N fertilization as follows: N40 14.8 %, N80 18.4 % and N120 22.1 %, but the proportion of true protein in crude protein decreased: N40 82 %, N80 78 % and N120 76 %. The proportion of watersoluble N in the total N in the grass was: N40 27 %, N80 30 % and N120 33 %. The higher was the N fertilization level, the more rapidly was the protein of the grass degraded in the rumen. The amino acid profile of the protein was similar at all the N fertilization levels. The quality of all the silages was good. The NH3-N fraction of total N was 2.8—3.9 % and the proportion of water-soluble N in total N was 51—55 %, In silage the decrease during ensiling in the proportion of true protein in crude protein and the increase in the proportion of water-soluble N in total N were smaller than in the other silages. The rumen degradability of protein during the first two hours was also lowest in this silage.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modern Breeding Methods for Improving Protein Quality and Quantity in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanovic, J.; Ehrenberg, L. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    Against the background of the world's urgent need for increased protein production and for an improved quality of vegetable proteins, the ability of plant breeding to contribute to this need is discussed. With examples especially from maize and wheat, existing variations in protein content and protein composition are surveyed, together with the interdependence of these characteristics and their co-variation with the yield. It is shown that plant breeding has a great potential for improving the world's food situation. It is also shown that more rapid achievements are possible than is generally considered to be characteristic of plant-breeding techniques. Special emphasis is stressed on: (a) The capacity of mutation breeding, alone and in conjunction with other methods, to contribute to an increased production of high quality protein; (b) The necessity for the success of programmes whereby fast, cheap, and if possible non-destructive analytical procedures are developed to determine protein and amino acids; (c) The importance of the close collaboration of plant breeders with specialists in related subjects such as soil fertilization, physiology and nutrition, food technology, and biochemistry; (d) The importance of international co-operation and co-ordination. (author)

  7. Redox-based epigenetic status in drug addiction: a potential contributor to gene priming and a mechanistic rationale for metabolic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance, and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS). For example, under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY) to the trans sulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine, and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH)-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting SAM levels and DNA methylation status. Here, existing evidence is presented in a coherent manner to propose a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Further, we discuss how a "gene priming" phenomenon can contribute to the maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Additionally, a new mechanistic rationale for the use of metabolic interventions/redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol and other drug addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms is also provided. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction exemplified by the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  8. Redox-based Epigenetic status in Drug Addiction: Potential mediator of drug-induced gene priming phenomenon and use of metabolic intervention for symptomatic treatment in drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malav Suchin Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is the major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. The levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS, for example; under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY to the transsulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting S-adenosylmethionine (SAM levels and DNA methylation status. In this discussion, we compile this and other existing evidence in a coherent manner to present a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Next, we also discuss how gene priming phenomenon can contribute to maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Lastly, based on our hypothesis and some preliminary evidence, we discuss a mechanistic explanation for use of metabolic interventions / redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction and we support this claim via exemplifying the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  9. Criteria to Extract High-Quality Protein Data Bank Subsets for Structure Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    It is often necessary to build subsets of the Protein Data Bank to extract structural trends and average values. For this purpose it is mandatory that the subsets are non-redundant and of high quality. The first problem can be solved relatively easily at the sequence level or at the structural level. The second, on the contrary, needs special attention. It is not sufficient, in fact, to consider the crystallographic resolution and other feature must be taken into account: the absence of strings of residues from the electron density maps and from the files deposited in the Protein Data Bank; the B-factor values; the appropriate validation of the structural models; the quality of the electron density maps, which is not uniform; and the temperature of the diffraction experiments. More stringent criteria produce smaller subsets, which can be enlarged with more tolerant selection criteria. The incessant growth of the Protein Data Bank and especially of the number of high-resolution structures is allowing the use of more stringent selection criteria, with a consequent improvement of the quality of the subsets of the Protein Data Bank.

  10. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  11. Studies on effect of additives on protein profile, microstructure and quality characteristics of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnima, C; Ramasarma, P R; Prabhasankar, P

    2012-02-01

    Wheat storage proteins play a vital role in pasta making quality. In the present study, SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration chromatography and Scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed to understand the changes in the wheat protein fractions and their interactions with additives namely Sodium Steroyl Lactate (SSL), Glycerol Monostearate (GMS) and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) during processing of pasta. SDS-PAGE studies indicated changes in High Molecular Weight Glutenin (HMW) fractions during drying stages of pasta preparation and in cooked pasta samples. In uncooked pasta, gel filtration patterns showed four peaks corresponding to different storage proteins whereas in the case of cooked pasta, these peaks were merged into three peaks. Pasta quality characteristics studies indicated that pasta with HPMC was found to have minimum percentage of cooking loss (5.6%), increased cooked weight (82 g), firmness (2.97 N) and high overall quality score (27) than GMS, SSL and control. Microstructure studies confirm the beneficial effect of HPMC. The present study indicated that HPMC is better additive for pasta manufacture followed by GMS. This could be due to interaction of HPMC with starch and protein matrix is different from that of GMS and SSL.

  12. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Protein source and quality in therapeutic foods affect the immune response and outcome in severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is a vital component of therapeutic foods designed to treat severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children; however there are still unknowns about the quality and quantity of the proteins to use in these foods. This review examines two recent studies investigating several different qualities an...

  14. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides.

  15. Storage influence on the functional, sensory and keeping quality of quality protein maize flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, D; Kumar, H V Dileep; Sreeramasetty, T A; Puttaramanaik; Gowda, K T Pandurange; Shivakumar, G B

    2014-11-01

    Apart from nutritional values functional and sensory properties affect the behavior of food system and its acceptability for consumption during storage. Hence keeping quality of maize flour (HQPM-7) with and without lime treatment(control) was studied in terms of functional (bulk density, pH, swelling capacity, water and oil absorption capacity, least gelation concentration, peroxide value), sensory (appearance, color, taste, texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability) and rolling parameters (water absorption by flour, rolling quality, diameter after baking ) for a period of 6 months under room temperature (25 ± 5 °C) in two types of packages viz, LDPE cover (P) and plastic box (B). Physical parameters such as length, breadth and thickness (11.26-10.52 mm, 9.67-9.14 mm, & 4.72-3.95 mm) were reduced in lime treated grains compared to control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in ash content of lime treated flour (1.67 ± 0.01 g) was observed compared to control (1.5 ± 0.02 g). Calcium content of lime treated maize flour increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 48 to 136 mg. There is a significant reduction in functional properties of flour after 3 and 2 months irrespective in polyethylene cover and plastic box. The properties like rolling quality, diameter after baking and water uptake by the flour were reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after 4 months of storage in treated and after 1 month in control samples. Sensory scores of roti (dry pan cake) decreased significantly after 3 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 4.0 and 3.4. In control samples mean taste (3.6), mouth feel (3.8) as well as OAA scores (3.8) decreased after second month. Hence lime treated maize flour with added nutritional benefits is suitable for making rotis of good palatability and can be stored in LDPE covers up to 3 months.

  16. Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. on the Quality of Protein Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Ahmad Bouchra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05 effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

  17. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Investigation of selection methods im mutation breeding of barley for protein quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulonska, E.; Gaul, H.; Baumer, M.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Gruenbach

    1975-01-01

    This mutation breeding programme is investigating the qualification of micro-mutations for the selection of improved protein quality and quantity. Normally, improvement of protein content in micro-mutations is rather small. Therefore, it is important to develop methods and conditions of selection being (a) capable of measuring these small deviations in protein content and quality, and (b) simple to use. In two experiments carried out in 1971 and 1972 nitrogen fertilization was found to be the most important factor in the improvement of selection conditions. There is a highly significant negative correlation between crude protein content and the standard deviation; i.e. the higher the content of crude protein, the lower the variation coefficient. This in turn leads to an increase of genetic variation necessary for better selection progress. Nitrogen fertilization, especially during ear emergence, covers environmental influences - e.g., planting space, sowing rate, growing in different plots (6, 3, 2, 1 rows or in half-ear hills) - to a great extent. Thus, by applying high doses of nitrogen dressings comparable results can be achieved. In an overall selection experiment (testing the entire crossing and mutation material available at Weihenstephan in a stepwise selection from 1971 to 1973) and two selection experiments conducted in 1971 to 1973 with micro-mutants - variety Nota, 4 times X-rayed and the naked barley strain 1606 treated once with EMS - significant selection results were found. (author)

  19. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  20. QUALITY AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF WHEAT BREAD WITH A PREPARATION OF OAT PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sabat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possibilities and advisability of the use of oats insoluble protein preparation for the production of wheat bread, in order to increase the amount of protein and biological value of protein in this kind of bakery. Research material consisted of the preparation of insoluble oats protein, wheat flour and wheat bread made with the share of oat protein: 5%, 7.5% and 10%, by weight of wheat flour. AOAC methods (2006 were used to determine protein, β-D-glucan and dietary fiber in raw materials and final products. Amino acid composition was measured with the help of amino acid analyzer AAA 400 and used to calculate chemical score (CS and the integrated index of essential amino acids (EAAI, according to FAO/WHO/UNU, 2007. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss, and organoleptic assessment. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus.

  1. Glycoprotein folding and quality-control mechanisms in protein-folding diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Ferris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of proteins – from translation to folding to export – encompasses a complex set of events that are exquisitely regulated and scrutinized to ensure the functional quality of the end products. Cells have evolved to capitalize on multiple post-translational modifications in addition to primary structure to indicate the folding status of nascent polypeptides to the chaperones and other proteins that assist in their folding and export. These modifications can also, in the case of irreversibly misfolded candidates, signal the need for dislocation and degradation. The current Review focuses on the glycoprotein quality-control (GQC system that utilizes protein N-glycosylation and N-glycan trimming to direct nascent glycopolypeptides through the folding, export and dislocation pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A diverse set of pathological conditions rooted in defective as well as over-vigilant ER quality-control systems have been identified, underlining its importance in human health and disease. We describe the GQC pathways and highlight disease and animal models that have been instrumental in clarifying our current understanding of these processes.

  2. Identify High-Quality Protein Structural Models by Enhanced K-Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Li, Haiou; Jiang, Min; Chen, Cheng; Lv, Qiang; Wu, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    Background. One critical issue in protein three-dimensional structure prediction using either ab initio or comparative modeling involves identification of high-quality protein structural models from generated decoys. Currently, clustering algorithms are widely used to identify near-native models; however, their performance is dependent upon different conformational decoys, and, for some algorithms, the accuracy declines when the decoy population increases. Results. Here, we proposed two enhanced K -means clustering algorithms capable of robustly identifying high-quality protein structural models. The first one employs the clustering algorithm SPICKER to determine the initial centroids for basic K -means clustering ( SK -means), whereas the other employs squared distance to optimize the initial centroids ( K -means++). Our results showed that SK -means and K -means++ were more robust as compared with SPICKER alone, detecting 33 (59%) and 42 (75%) of 56 targets, respectively, with template modeling scores better than or equal to those of SPICKER. Conclusions. We observed that the classic K -means algorithm showed a similar performance to that of SPICKER, which is a widely used algorithm for protein-structure identification. Both SK -means and K -means++ demonstrated substantial improvements relative to results from SPICKER and classical K -means.

  3. Fortifying pork liver mixture: Evaluation of protein quality and iron bioavailability – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mariana SREBERNICH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the protein quality and iron bioavailability of a fortifying mixture based on pork liver. Methods Determinations of protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, true digestibility and hemoglobin regeneration efficiency by depletion and repletion were performed. In the depletion phase, the animals (male Wistar rats received an iron-free AIN–93G diet and in the repletion phase they received the following diets: standard AIN–93G diet, fortifying mixture and standard diet containing heptahydrated ferrous sulfate for comparison. Results For standard AIN–93G diet and fortifying mixture the results were 3.75 and 4.04 for protein efficiency ratio and 3.53 and 3.63 for net protein retention, showing that the presence of pork liver in the diet promoted an increase in protein efficiency ratio and net protein retention (not statistically significant. True digestibility results obtained with the fortifying mixture (97.16% were higher than those obtained with the standard AIN–93G diet (casein, but without significant difference. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiency values obtained for standard AIN–93G diet, fortifying mixture and standard diet containing heptahydrated ferrous sulfate were 50.69, 31.96 and 29.96%, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference between the control (standard AIN–93G diet and test (fortifying mixture and standard diet containing heptahydrated ferrous sulfate samples, but not between the test samples. Conclusion The fortifying mixture showed a high protein efficiency ratio value of 4.04 and a high relative biological value (108% and it can be added to soups, creams and meats in day-care centers for the prevention of iron-deficiency in children of school age.

  4. Effect of Processing on the In Vitro and In Vivo Protein Quality of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Nosworthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein quality of different bean types after undergoing the preparatory methods of baking, cooking and extrusion was assayed. Protein quality was assessed using a rodent bioassay to evaluate growth and protein digestibility while amino acid composition was determined via HPLC. In vivo protein digestibility was compared to an in vitro assessment method. The average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS for processed beans was higher than the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS (61% vs. 45%. Extrusion/cooking of Phaseolus varieties resulted in higher PDCAAS (66% on average and DIAAS values (61% on average than baked (52% and 48% while baked faba beans had higher PDCAAS (66% and DIAAS (61% values. A significant correlation was found between PDCAAS and in vitro PDCAAS (R2 = 0.7497. This demonstrates which bean processing method will generate the optimal protein quality, which has benefits for both industrial production and individual domestic preparation.

  5. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  6. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...... with lipid analyses of the fillet. Overall, the results showed that the sensory characteristics of the trout were affected in different ways during ice storage. The source of lipid seemed to affect the sensory quality at the beginning of the storage period, while the protein source seemed to have a more...

  7. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Meister, M; Dugbartey, G J; Zijlstra, M P; Vinet, J; Brunt, E R P; van Leeuwen, F W; Rüb, U; Kampinga, H H; den Dunnen, W F A

    2012-10-01

    A characteristic of polyglutamine diseases is the increased propensity of disease proteins to aggregate, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to the underlying neurodegeneration. Healthy cells contain mechanisms for handling protein damage, the protein quality control, which must be impaired or inefficient to permit proteotoxicity under pathological conditions. We used a quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of the pons of eight patients with the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. We employed the anti-polyglutamine antibody 1C2, antibodies against p62 that is involved in delivering ubiquitinated protein aggregates to autophagosomes, antibodies against the chaperones HSPA1A and DNAJB1 and the proteasomal stress marker UBB⁺¹. The 1C2 antibody stained neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs), diffuse nuclear staining (DNS), granular cytoplasmic staining (GCS) and combinations, with reproducible distribution. P62 always co-localized with 1C2 in NNI. DNS and GCS co-stained with a lower frequency. UBB⁺¹ was present in a subset of neurones with NNI. A subset of UBB⁺¹-containing neurones displayed increased levels of HSPA1A, while DNAJB1 was sequestered into the NNI. Based on our results, we propose a model for the aggregation-associated pathology of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3: GCS and DNS aggregation likely represents early stages of pathology, which progresses towards formation of p62-positive NNI. A fraction of NNI exhibits UBB⁺¹ staining, implying proteasomal overload at a later stage. Subsequently, the stress-inducible HSPA1A is elevated while DNAJB1 is recruited into NNIs. This indicates that the stress response is only induced late when all endogenous protein quality control systems have failed. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. The Neuroprotective Role of Protein Quality Control in Halting the Development of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destiny-Love Manecka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a family of neurodegenerative disorders that comprises Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Each of these disorders is characterized by devastating motor, cognitive, and autonomic consequences. Current treatments for synucleinopathies are not curative and are limited to improvement of quality of life for affected individuals. Although the underlying causes of these diseases are unknown, a shared pathological hallmark is the presence of proteinaceous inclusions containing the α-synuclein (α-syn protein in brain tissue. In the past few years, it has been proposed that these inclusions arise from the self-templated, prion-like spreading of misfolded and aggregated forms of α-syn throughout the brain, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. In this review, we describe how impaired protein homeostasis is a prominent factor in the α-syn aggregation cascade, with alterations in protein quality control (PQC pathways observed in the brains of patients. We discuss how PQC modulates α-syn accumulation, misfolding and aggregation primarily through chaperoning activity, proteasomal degradation, and lysosome-mediated degradation. Finally, we provide an overview of experimental data indicating that targeting PQC pathways is a promising avenue to explore in the design of novel neuroprotective approaches that could impede the spreading of α-syn pathology and thus provide a curative treatment for synucleinopathies.

  9. A novel redox-based switch: LMW-PTP oxidation enhances Grb2 binding and leads to ERK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, Elisa; Raugei, Giovanni; Chiarugi, Paola; Ramponi, Giampietro

    2006-01-01

    Low molecular weight-PTP has been reported as a redox-sensitive protein during both platelet-derived growth factor and integrin signalling. In response to oxidation the phosphatase undergoes a reversible inactivation, which in turn leads to the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of its substrates and the properly executed anchorage-dependent proliferation program. Here, we report that an exogenous oxidative stress enhances LMW-PTP tyrosine phosphorylation, through oxidation/inactivation of the enzyme, thus preventing its auto-dephosphorylation activity. In particular, we observed a selective hyper-phosphorylation of Tyr132, that acts as a docking site for the adaptor protein Grb2. The redox-dependent enhancement of Grb2 recruitment to LMW-PTP ultimately leads to an improvement of ERK activation, likely triggering a prosurvival signal against the oxidant environment

  10. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  11. A pH-Regulated Quality Control Cycle for Surveillance of Secretory Protein Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassori, Stefano; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Caserta, Imma R.; Fagioli, Claudio; Mossuto, Maria F.; Fornili, Arianna; van Anken, Eelco; Degano, Massimo; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary To warrant the quality of the secretory proteome, stringent control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface, preventing the release of nonnative products. Incompletely assembled oligomeric proteins that are deemed correctly folded must rely on additional quality control mechanisms dedicated to proper assembly. Here we unveil how ERp44 cycles between cisGolgi and ER in a pH-regulated manner, patrolling assembly of disulfide-linked oligomers such as IgM and adiponectin. At neutral, ER-equivalent pH, the ERp44 carboxy-terminal tail occludes the substrate-binding site. At the lower pH of the cisGolgi, conformational rearrangements of this peptide, likely involving protonation of ERp44’s active cysteine, simultaneously unmask the substrate binding site and −RDEL motif, allowing capture of orphan secretory protein subunits and ER retrieval via KDEL receptors. The ERp44 assembly control cycle couples secretion fidelity and efficiency downstream of the calnexin/calreticulin and BiP-dependent quality control cycles. PMID:23685074

  12. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yánez-Ruiz, David R; Martin-Garcia, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegr ) as protein supplements to low quality...

  13. Protein quality control in protection against systolic overload cardiomyopathy: the long term role of small heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, Asangi R K; Horak, Kathleen; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-07-21

    Molecular chaperones represent the first line of defense of intracellular protein quality control. As a major constituent of molecular chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSP) are known to confer cardiomyocyte short-term protection against various insults and injuries. Previously, we reported that the small HSP alphaB-crystallin (CryAB) attenuates cardiac hypertrophic response in mice subjected to 2 weeks of severe pressure overload. However, the long-term role of small HSPs in cardiac hypertrophy and failure has rarely been studied. The present study investigates the cardiac responses to chronic severe pressure overload in CryAB/HSPB2 germ line ablated (KO) and cardiac-specific CryAB overexpressingtransgenic (TG) mice. Pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic constriction in KO, TG, and non-transgenic wild type (NTG) control mice and 10 weeks later molecular, cellular, and whole organ level hypertrophic responses were analyzed. As we previously described, CryAB/HSPB2 KO mice showed abnormal baseline cardiac physiology that worsened into a restrictive cardiomyopathic phenotype with aging. Severe pressure overload in these mice led to rapid deterioration of heart function and development of congestive cardiac failure. Contrary to their short term protective phenotype, CryAB TG mice showed no significant effects on cardiac hypertrophic responses and very modest improvement of hemodynamics during chronic systolic overload. These findings indicate that small HSPs CryAB and/or HSPB2 are essential to maintain cardiac structure and function but overex-pression of CryAB is not sufficient to confer a sustained protection against chronic systolic overload.

  14. Baking quality parameters of wheat in relation to endosperm storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat storage proteins of twelve winter wheat cultivars grown at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2009 were studied for their contribution to the baking quality. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS was analyzed by SDS-PAGE method, while the proportions of endosperm storage proteins were determined by RP-HPLC method. Regarding the proportion of storage proteins, results of the linear correlation (p<0.05 showed that protein (P and wet gluten (WG content were highly negatively correlated with albumins and globulins (AG and positively with α- gliadins (GLI. A strong negative correlation between AG and water absorption (WA capacity of flour was found, while α- GLI had positive influence on this property. Dough development time (DDT was positively significantly correlated with HMW-GS and negatively with AG. Degree of dough softening (DS was strongly positively affected by γ- GLI and gliadins to glutenins ratio (GLI/GLU and negatively by total GLU and HMW-GS. Dough energy (E and maximum resistance (RMAX were significantly positively affected by Glu-1 score and negatively by GLI/GLU ratio. Resistance to extensibility ratio (R/EXT was significantly negatively correlated with total GLI. Bread volume was significantly negatively influenced by AG.

  15. High-quality Thermodynamic Data on the Stability Changes of Proteins Upon Single-site Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, Fabrizio, E-mail: fapucci@ulb.ac.be; Bourgeas, Raphaël, E-mail: rbourgeas@ulb.ac.be; Rooman, Marianne, E-mail: mrooman@ulb.ac.be [Department of BioModeling, BioInformatics and BioProcesses, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 165/61, Roosevelt Avenue 50, 1050 Brussels, Belgium and Interuniversity Institute of Bioinformatics in Brussels, CP 263, Triumph Bld, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    We have set up and manually curated a dataset containing experimental information on the impact of amino acid substitutions in a protein on its thermal stability. It consists of a repository of experimentally measured melting temperatures (T{sub m}) and their changes upon point mutations (ΔT{sub m}) for proteins having a well-resolved x-ray structure. This high-quality dataset is designed for being used for the training or benchmarking of in silico thermal stability prediction methods. It also reports other experimentally measured thermodynamic quantities when available, i.e., the folding enthalpy (ΔH) and heat capacity (ΔC{sub P}) of the wild type proteins and their changes upon mutations (ΔΔH and ΔΔC{sub P}), as well as the change in folding free energy (ΔΔG) at a reference temperature. These data are analyzed in view of improving our insights into the correlation between thermal and thermodynamic stabilities, the asymmetry between the number of stabilizing and destabilizing mutations, and the difference in stabilization potential of thermostable versus mesostable proteins.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ACID-SOIL TOLERANT CORN (Zea mays L. WITH HIGH-QUALITY PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Halimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is an important food crop in Indonesia. Plant expansion has been hampered by soil-acidity problem and the protein content of many corn varieties was low. This research initiates development of soil-acid-tolerant corn with high-quality-protein content. Research was done on 12 factorial treatments and 3 replications as blocks in RCBD. The first factor was corn populations: Toray-1(G1, Toray-2(G2, GS-5(G3 and GS-10(G4. The second factor was fertilizations: P1(69 kg N+36 kg P2O5+15 kg K2O per ha; P2(115 kg N+54 kg P2O5+30 kg K2O per ha; and P3(161 kg N+72 kg P2O5+45 kg K2O per ha. The observed variables consisted of several agronomic traits, including the protein content. Results indicated that the corn populations, in general, showed good agronomic traits. The differences were mostly between populations, not between fertilizations, and no interaction was observed. The yield potential ranged from 4.25 to 6.47 ton dry seeds per ha. The protein content of seed resulted from cross ranged from 9.84% to 11.30%, as compared to the parents of 9.11% and 12.62%. This research concludes that genetic factors play an important role as confirmed by heritability estimate (h2=0.75.

  17. Dysfunction of Protein Quality Control in Parkinsonism–Dementia Complex of Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert M. Verheijen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Guam parkinsonism–dementia complex (G-PDC is an enigmatic neurodegenerative disease that is endemic to the Pacific island of Guam. G-PDC patients are clinically characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. Neuropathologically, G-PDC is characterized by abundant neurofibrillary tangles, which are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, marked deposition of 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein, and neuronal loss. Although both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated, the etiology and pathogenesis of G-PDC remain unknown. Recent neuropathological studies have provided new clues about the pathomechanisms involved in G-PDC. For example, deposition of abnormal components of the protein quality control system in brains of G-PDC patients indicates a role for proteostasis imbalance in the disease. This opens up promising avenues for new research on G-PDC and could have important implications for the study of other neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  19. Relationship of molecular weight distribution profile of unreduced gluten protein extracts with quality characteristics of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nisha; Dangi, Priya; Khatkar, B S

    2016-11-01

    A statistical correlation was established among the molecular weight distribution patterns of unreduced gluten proteins and physicochemical, rheological and bread-making quality characteristics of wheat varieties. Size exclusion chromatography fractionated the gluten proteins apparently into five peaks. Peak I signified glutenins (30-130kDa), peak II as gliadins (20-55kDa), peak III as very low molecular weight monomeric gliadins (10-28kDa), peak IV and V, collectively, as albumins and globulins (bread loaf volume (r=0.848(∗∗)); however, peak II had negative (r=-0.818(∗∗)) impact. Bread firmness increased with increment in peak II (r=0.625(∗∗)), and decreased with accretion in peak I (r=-0.623(∗∗)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation quality effects on pigment-protein complex of maize and pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Maize hybrid ZP-704 and Pinus nigra seedlings were grown under the same low irradiance (2.0 µmol/s m²) of white (WR), blue (BR) or red (RR) irradiation and adapted similarly. Radiation quality differences during chloroplast development had a greater effect on the ratio of PSII:PSI complexes than on chlorophyll (Chl) a:b ratio. RR in mesophyll chloroplasts induced primarily an increased accumulation of Chl a, b, xanthophylls, light-harvesting complex proteins LHC1 and LHC3, and PSII-bound polypeptides. BR-treated plants were more efficient in the synthesis of β-carotene, Chl-proteins and PSI-bound polypeptides. BR resulted in the production of sun type chloroplasts while RR gave shade type chloroplasts and WR resulted in intermediate chloroplasts

  1. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  2. Quality protein maize (QPM) seeds grown in Côte d'Ivoire: A source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality protein maize (QPM) seeds grown in Côte d'Ivoire: A source of high value edible oil. ... Biochemical and nutritive analysis have revealed the following assets: unsaponifiable matter (1.43 ± 0.21 and 1.70 ± 0.10%), phosphorus (0.10 ± 0.02 mg/g), carotenoids (0.86 ± 0.01 and 1.06 ± 0.01 mg/g), vitamin A (0.45 ± 0.01 ...

  3. Genotype × environment interaction of quality protein maize grain yield in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Jiban Shrestha; Chitra Bahadur Kunwar; Jharana Upadhyaya; Maiya Giri; Ram Bahadur Katuwal; Ramesh Acharya; Suk Bahadur Gurung; Bhim Nath Adhikari; Amrit Prasad Paudel; Ram Babu Paneru

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine G × E interaction of quality protein maize grain yield, six maize genotypes were evaluated under different environments of three Terai (Chitwan, Surkhet and Doti) and four mid hill (Dhankuta, Lalitpur, Dolakha and Kaski) districts of Nepal during summer seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design along with three replications. The genotypes namely S99TLYQ-B, S99TLYQ-HG-AB and S03TLYQ-AB-01 were identified high yielding ...

  4. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  5. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  6. Biological evaluation of protein quality of two homemade cereal/legume mixtures and a commercial weaning food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Ahmari Tehran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delivery of low-cost, high-protein foods from local materials for weaning infants is a challenge for developing countries. The quality of nutritional protein of cereal/legume mixtures must be developed with an optimal nutrient profile. The current study was conducted to biologically evaluate (in rats the protein found in two homemade foods and a commercial weaning food.Methods: Biological evaluation of the formulations was conducted in 21-day-old weanling Wistar rats, compared with a control diet of casein. The nutrient quality of the weaning foods were monitored by measuring protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein ratio (NPR, relative net protein ratio (RNPR, true digestibility (TD, apparent digestibility (AD, and food efficiency ratio (FER.Results: The TD value of one kind of pasta (Sww1+ SBG was significantly less than casein (P0.05, but its PER was significantly less than Humana (P<0.05.Conclusions: Our findings showed that the second kind of homemade food (Sww2 + SBG, consisting of a ratio of 50 percent soy bean protein-granulate and 50 percent pasta based on wheat flour protein, has high protein quality and is similar to commercial weaning food. It can support the growth of infants in developing countries during the critical weaning period.

  7. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in

  8. New statistical potential for quality assessment of protein models and a survey of energy functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykunov Dmitry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoring functions, such as molecular mechanic forcefields and statistical potentials are fundamentally important tools in protein structure modeling and quality assessment. Results The performances of a number of publicly available scoring functions are compared with a statistical rigor, with an emphasis on knowledge-based potentials. We explored the effect on accuracy of alternative choices for representing interaction center types and other features of scoring functions, such as using information on solvent accessibility, on torsion angles, accounting for secondary structure preferences and side chain orientation. Partially based on the observations made, we present a novel residue based statistical potential, which employs a shuffled reference state definition and takes into account the mutual orientation of residue side chains. Atom- and residue-level statistical potentials and Linux executables to calculate the energy of a given protein proposed in this work can be downloaded from http://www.fiserlab.org/potentials. Conclusions Among the most influential terms we observed a critical role of a proper reference state definition and the benefits of including information about the microenvironment of interaction centers. Molecular mechanical potentials were also tested and found to be over-sensitive to small local imperfections in a structure, requiring unfeasible long energy relaxation before energy scores started to correlate with model quality.

  9. Approach for growth of high-quality and large protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: matsumura@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST (Japan); SOSHO Inc., Osaka 541-0053 (Japan); Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirose, Mika; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Murai, Ryota [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST (Japan); Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST (Japan); SOSHO Inc., Osaka 541-0053 (Japan); Murakami, Satoshi [JST (Japan); SOSHO Inc., Osaka 541-0053 (Japan); Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Tsuyoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST (Japan); SOSHO Inc., Osaka 541-0053 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Three crystallization methods, including crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel, top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) and a large-scale hanging-drop method, have previously been presented. In this study, crystallization has been further evaluated in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel by crystallizing additional proteins. A novel crystallization method combining TSSG and the large-scale hanging-drop method has also been developed. Three crystallization methods for growing large high-quality protein crystals, i.e. crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel, top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) and a large-scale hanging-drop method, have previously been presented. In this study the effectiveness of crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel has been further evaluated by crystallizing additional proteins in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) agarose gel, resulting in complete gelification with high mechanical strength. In TSSG the seed crystals are hung by a seed holder protruding from the top of the growth vessel to prevent polycrystallization. In the large-scale hanging-drop method, a cut pipette tip was used to maintain large-scale droplets consisting of protein–precipitant solution. Here a novel crystallization method that combines TSSG and the large-scale hanging-drop method is reported. A large and single crystal of lysozyme was obtained by this method.

  10. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  11. GRP94: An HSP90-like protein specialized for protein folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Eletto, Davide; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 94 is the HSP90-like protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and therefore it chaperones secreted and membrane proteins. It has essential functions in development and physiology of multicellular organisms, at least in part because of this unique clientele. GRP94...

  12. Nixtamalized flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L). optimization of alkaline processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2004-01-01

    Quality of maize proteins is poor, they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. Recently, in Mexico were successfully developed nutritionally improved 26 new hybrids and cultivars called quality protein maize (QPM) which contain greater amounts of lysine and tryptophan. Alkaline cooking of maize with lime (nixtamalization) is the first step for producing several maize products (masa, tortillas, flours, snacks). Processors adjust nixtamalization variables based on experience. The objective of this work was to determine the best combination of nixtamalization process variables for producing nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from QPM V-537 variety. Nixtamalization conditions were selected from factorial combinations of process variables: nixtamalization time (NT, 20-85 min), lime concentration (LC, 3.3-6.7 g Ca(OH)2/l, in distilled water), and steep time (ST, 8-16 hours). Nixtamalization temperature and ratio of grain to cooking medium were 85 degrees C and 1:3 (w/v), respectively. At the end of each cooking treatment the steeping started for the required time. Steeping was finished by draining the cooking liquor (nejayote). Nixtamal (alkaline-cooked maize kernels) was washed with running tap water. Wet nixtamal was dried (24 hours, 55 degrees C) and milled to pass through 80-US mesh screen to obtain NMF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as optimization technique, over four response variables: In vitro protein digestibility (PD), total color difference (deltaE), water absorption index (WAI), and pH. Predictive models for response variables were developed as a function of process variables. Conventional graphical method was applied to obtain maximum PD, WAI and minimum deltaE, pH. Contour plots of each of the response variables were utilized applying superposition surface methodology, to obtain three contour plots for observation and selection of best combination of NT (31 min), LC (5.4 g Ca(OH)2/l), and ST (8.1 hours) for producing

  13. Regulation of protein quality control by UBE4B and LSD1 through p53-mediated transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Periz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein quality control is essential for clearing misfolded and aggregated proteins from the cell, and its failure is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we identify two genes, ufd-2 and spr-5, that when inactivated, synergistically and robustly suppress neurotoxicity associated with misfolded proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of human orthologs ubiquitination factor E4 B (UBE4B and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, respectively encoding a ubiquitin ligase and a lysine-specific demethylase, promotes the clearance of misfolded proteins in mammalian cells by activating both proteasomal and autophagic degradation machineries. An unbiased search in this pathway reveals a downstream effector as the transcription factor p53, a shared substrate of UBE4B and LSD1 that functions as a key regulator of protein quality control to protect against proteotoxicity. These studies identify a new protein quality control pathway via regulation of transcription factors and point to the augmentation of protein quality control as a wide-spectrum antiproteotoxicity strategy.

  14. Modulation of Protein Quality Control and Proteasome to Autophagy Switch in Immortalized Myoblasts from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wattin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of proteome integrity is of primary importance in post-mitotic tissues such as muscle cells; thus, protein quality control mechanisms must be carefully regulated to ensure their optimal efficiency, a failure of these processes being associated with various muscular disorders. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is one of the most common and severe forms of muscular dystrophies and is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Protein quality control modulations have been diversely observed in degenerating muscles of patients suffering from DMD or in animal models of the disease. In this study, we investigated whether modulations of protein quality control mechanisms already pre-exist in undifferentiated myoblasts originating from DMD patients. We report for the first time that the absence of dystrophin in human myoblasts is associated with protein aggregation stress characterized by an increase of protein aggregates. This stress is combined with BAG1 to BAG3 switch, NFκB activation and up-regulation of BAG3/HSPB8 complexes that ensure preferential routing of misfolded/aggregated proteins to autophagy rather than to deficient 26S proteasome. In this context, restoration of pre-existing alterations of protein quality control processes might represent an alternative strategy for DMD therapies.

  15. Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Vieux

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., “starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20” in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools (“observed series”, several scenarios (1600 series per scenario of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal. In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4–14 were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children.

  16. Interaction between bacterial outer membrane proteins and periplasmic quality control factors: a kinetic partitioning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Ge, Xi; Lv, Zhixin; Zhi, Zeyong; Chang, Zengyi; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2011-09-15

    The OMPs (outer membrane proteins) of Gram-negative bacteria have to be translocated through the periplasmic space before reaching their final destination. The aqueous environment of the periplasmic space and high permeability of the outer membrane engender such a translocation process inevitably challenging. In Escherichia coli, although SurA, Skp and DegP have been identified to function in translocating OMPs across the periplasm, their precise roles and their relationship remain to be elucidated. In the present paper, by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and single-molecule detection, we have studied the interaction between the OMP OmpC and these periplasmic quality control factors. The results of the present study reveal that the binding rate of OmpC to SurA or Skp is much faster than that to DegP, which may lead to sequential interaction between OMPs and different quality control factors. Such a kinetic partitioning mechanism for the chaperone-substrate interaction may be essential for the quality control of the biogenesis of OMPs.

  17. Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Duchêne, Christelle; Darmon, Nicole

    2018-02-13

    In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., "starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20") in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools ("observed series"), several scenarios (1600 series per scenario) of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal). In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4-14) were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i) MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii) MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii) removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children.

  18. A pilot study to evaluate the application of a generic protein standard panel for quality control of biomarker detection technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivia Hernan J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein biomarker studies are currently hampered by a lack of measurement standards to demonstrate quality, reliability and comparability across multiple assay platforms. This is especially pertinent for immunoassays where multiple formats for detecting target analytes are commonly used. Findings In this pilot study a generic panel of six non-human protein standards (50 - 10^7 pg/mL of varying abundance was prepared as a quality control (QC material. Simulated "normal" and "diseased" panels of proteins were prepared in pooled human plasma and incorporated into immunoassays using the Meso Scale Discovery® (MSD® platform to illustrate reliable detection of the component proteins. The protein panel was also evaluated as a spike-in material for a model immunoassay involving detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers within individual human plasma samples. Our selected platform could discriminate between two panels of the proteins exhibiting small differences in abundance. Across distinct experiments, all component proteins exhibited reproducible signal outputs in pooled human plasma. When individual donor samples were used, half the proteins produced signals independent of matrix effects. These proteins may serve as a generic indicator of platform reliability. Each of the remaining proteins exhibit differential signals across the distinct samples, indicative of sample matrix effects, with the three proteins following the same trend. This subset of proteins may be useful for characterising the degree of matrix effects associated with the sample which may impact on the reliability of quantifying target diagnostic biomarkers. Conclusions We have demonstrated the potential utility of this panel of standards to act as a generic QC tool for evaluating the reproducibility of the platform for protein biomarker detection independent of serum matrix effects.

  19. BACHSCORE. A tool for evaluating efficiently and reliably the quality of large sets of protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E.; Zamuner, S.; Cossio, P.; Laio, A.; Seno, F.; Trovato, A.

    2013-12-01

    In protein structure prediction it is of crucial importance, especially at the refinement stage, to score efficiently large sets of models by selecting the ones that are closest to the native state. We here present a new computational tool, BACHSCORE, that allows its users to rank different structural models of the same protein according to their quality, evaluated by using the BACH++ (Bayesian Analysis Conformation Hunt) scoring function. The original BACH statistical potential was already shown to discriminate with very good reliability the protein native state in large sets of misfolded models of the same protein. BACH++ features a novel upgrade in the solvation potential of the scoring function, now computed by adapting the LCPO (Linear Combination of Pairwise Orbitals) algorithm. This change further enhances the already good performance of the scoring function. BACHSCORE can be accessed directly through the web server: bachserver.pd.infn.it. Catalogue identifier: AEQD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 130159 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 687 455 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer capable of running an executable produced by a g++ compiler (4.6.3 version). Operating system: Linux, Unix OS-es. RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes Classification: 3. Nature of problem: Evaluate the quality of a protein structural model, taking into account the possible “a priori” knowledge of a reference primary sequence that may be different from the amino-acid sequence of the model; the native protein structure should be recognized as the best model. Solution method: The contact potential scores the occurrence of any given type of residue pair in 5 possible

  20. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  1. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Microbiological Quality and Protein Patterns of 4 Selected Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chookaew, S.; Eamsir, J.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on microbiological quality and protein pattern of four selected beans: mung beans, soy beans, peanuts and black beans. All beans samples were exposed to irradiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 kGy before evaluated for their microbiological quality using AOAC method and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the amount of bacteria, yeast and mold of irradiated mung beans and peanuts were reduced, whereas these microbiological quality values remained relatively the same for irradiated soy beans and black beans compared to non-irradiated samples. In terms of protein analysis, the protein patterns of the irradiated beans were of the same quality as the non-irradiated samples. To further tested the effect of irradiation on the bean's protein at higher doses, all four selected beans were exposed to gamma ray at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy. We found that the protein patterns of mung beans, peanuts and black beans were altered at doses above 50 kGy.

  2. [Evaluation of the adjusted amino acid score by digestibility for estimating the protein quality and protein available in food and diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility to estimate protein quality and utilizable protein in foods and diets, considering net protein utilization (NPU) as a biological reference method. Ten foods of vegetable origin and ten of animal origin, as well as eight mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin were studied. When all the foods were considered, a positive (r = 0.83) and highly significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between NPU and the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility was found. When the foods were separated according to their origin, this correlation was positive only for the foods of vegetable origin (r = 0.93) and statistically significant (p less than 0.001). Also, only in those foods were similar values found between NPU and amino acid score adjusted by digestibility, as well as in utilizable protein estimated considering both methods. Caution is required to interpret protein quality and utilizable protein values of foods of animal origin and mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin when the amino acid score method adjusted by digestibility, or NPU, are utilized.

  3. Protein quantity and quality of safflower seed improved by NP fertilizer and rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia eNosheen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein is an essential part of human diet. The aim of present study was to improve the protein quality of safflower seed by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in combination with conventional nitrogen and phosphate (NP fertilizers. The seeds of two safflower cultivar Thori and Saif-32, were inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter and grown under field conditions. Protein content and quality was assessed by crude protein, amino acid analysis and SDS-PAGE. Seed crude protein and amino acids (metheonine, phenylanine and glutamic acid showed significant improvement (55%–1250% by Azotobacter supplemented with quarter dose of fertilizers (BTQ at P≤0.05. Additional protein bands were induced in Thori and Saif-32 by BTQ and BTH (Azotobacter supplemented with half dose of fertilizers respectively. The Azospirillum in combination with half dose of fertilizers (SPH and BTQ enhanced the indole acetic acid (90% and gibberellic acid (23%–27% contents in safflower leaf. Taken together, these data suggest that Azospirillum and Azotobacter along with significantly reduced (up to 75% use of NP fertilizers improved the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein.

  4. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Livingston

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70, the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  5. Removal of envelope protein-free retroviral vectors by anion-exchange chromatography to improve product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Teresa; Alves, Ana; Lopes, António; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Cruz, Pedro E

    2008-10-01

    We have investigated the role of the retroviral lipid bilayer and envelope proteins in the adsorption of retroviral vectors (RVs) to a Fractogel DEAE matrix. Intact RVs and their degradation components (envelope protein-free vectors and solubilized vector components) were adsorbed to this matrix and eluted using a linear gradient. Envelope protein-free RVs (Env(-)) and soluble envelope proteins (gp70) eluted in a significantly lower range of conductivities than intact RVs (Env(+)) (13.7-30 mS/cm for Env(-) and gp70 proteins vs. 47-80 mS/cm for Env(+)). The zeta (zeta)-potential of Env(+) and Env(-) vectors was evaluated showing that envelope proteins define the pI of the viral particles (pI (Env(+)) improvement to the quality of retroviral preparations for gene therapy applications.

  6. Genotype × environment interaction of quality protein maize grain yield in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine G × E interaction of quality protein maize grain yield, six maize genotypes were evaluated under different environments of three Terai (Chitwan, Surkhet and Doti and four mid hill (Dhankuta, Lalitpur, Dolakha and Kaski districts of Nepal during summer seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design along with three replications. The genotypes namely S99TLYQ-B, S99TLYQ-HG-AB and S03TLYQ-AB-01 were identified high yielding and better adapted genotypes for Terai environments with grain yield of 4199 kg ha-1, 3715 kg ha-1, and 3336 kg ha-1 respectively and S99TLYQ-B and S03TLYQ-AB-01 for mid hill environments with grain yield of 4547 kg ha-1 and 4365 kg ha-1 respectively. Therefore, these genotypes can be suggested for cultivation in their respective environments in the country.

  7. Performance evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes across various maize production agro ecologies of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior quality protein maize genotypes for grain yield under different agro climatic conditions of terai and hill districts in Nepal, the coordinated varietal trials (CVT were conducted at Dailekh, Doti, Salyan, Lumle and Pakhribas in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Kabre in 2014 during summer season and coordinated farmer’s field trials (CFFT at Surkhet and Dailekh in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Khumaltar in 2014 during summer season. The experiment was carried out using randomized complete block design with three replications for CVT and CFFT. Across the locations and years the superior genotypes found under CVT were S01SIYQ, S01SIWQ-2 and Poshilo Makai-1 where as S99TLYQ-HG-AB, S99TLYQ-B and Poshilo Makai-1 were found superior genotypes under CFFT. The superior genotypes derived from CFFT will be promoted further for similar environments across the country.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Protein Restriction on Meat Quality, Muscle Amino Acids, and Amino Acid Transporters in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Zhu, Xiaotong; Han, Hui; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xingguo; Fang, Rejun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Kai; Sun, Liping; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-10-25

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 16 weeks on meat quality, muscle amino acids, and amino acid transporters. Thirty-nine piglets were randomly divided into three groups: a control (20-18-16% crude protein, CP) and two protein restricted groups (17-15-13% CP and 14-12-10% CP). The results showed that severe protein restriction (14-12-10% CP) inhibited feed intake and body weight, while moderate protein restriction (17-15-13% CP) had little effect on growth performance in pigs. Meat quality (i.e., pH, color traits, marbling, water-holding capacity, and shearing force) were tested, and the results exhibited that 14-12-10% CP treatment markedly improved muscle marbling score and increased yellowness (b*). pH value (45 min) was significantly higher in 17-15-13% CP group than that in other groups. In addition, protein restriction reduced muscle histone, arginine, valine, and isoleucine abundances and enhanced glycine and lysine concentrations compared with the control group, while the RT-PCR results showed that protein restriction downregulated amino acids transporters. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the moderate protein restricted group (17-15-13% CP), while severe protein restriction with dietary 14-12-10% CP markedly enhanced mTOR phosphorylation. In conclusion, long-term protein restriction affected meat quality and muscle amino acid metabolism in pigs, which might be associated with mTOR signaling pathway.

  9. Effect of electrical stunning frequency on meat quality, plasma parameters, and protein solubility of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Zhang, B H; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning frequencies of pulsed direct current on meat quality of broilers. This was achieved by investigating plasma parameters, blood loss, carcass damage, meat water-holding capacity, meat color, meat shear value, muscle pH, and protein solubility. A total of 400 broilers was divided into 5 treatment groups and stunned with 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 Hz at 15 V for 10 seconds. Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed in ice. Breast muscle pH and meat color were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Drip loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, and cooked breast meat-shear values were determined at 24 h postmortem. Treatment at 500 and 900 Hz significantly increased (P meat color were not affected by stunning frequency. In the 500 and 900 Hz groups, the protein solubility and shear force values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and drip loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the 700 Hz group. This study indicates that the waveform of the pulsed direct current is acceptable for stunning broilers at a stunning frequency of 700 Hz. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively.

  11. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Teng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a “top grade” herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM.

  12. Modulation of Protein Quality Control Systems as Novel Mechanisms Underlying Functionality of Food Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Ohnishi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plants that are produced for their defense against environmental stresses, such as polyphenols, which are considered to play a major role in protection against ultraviolet (UV light-induced oxidative damage, as well as anti-fungal and anti-microbial activities. In addition, there is a great body of evidence showing that phytochemicals exhibit a wide array of physiological activities in humans. Accumulated data show that the bioavailability of most, if not all, phytochemicals is quite poor and their substantial biotransformation after ingestion has also been noted. Thus, they are characterized as non-nutritive xenobiotics in animals, and the question of why phytochemicals, which are produced for plant self-defense, have beneficial effects in humans is quite intriguing. Meanwhile, stress-induced denaturing of cellular proteins greatly affects their tertiary structure and critically disrupts their biological functions, occasionally leading to aggregation for the onset of some pathology. Many recent studies have indicated that protein quality control (PQC systems play key roles in counteracting ‘proteo-stress’, which is comprised of several processes, including protein refolding by heat shock proteins (HSPs and degradation of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as autophagy.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(10:400-415 Page 401 of 415 Objective: Phytochemicals are xenobiotics, thus their biochemical interactions with animal proteins are considered to occur in a non-specific manner, which raises the possibility that some phytochemicals cause proteo-stress for activating PQC systems. Because their status is thought to be a critical determinant of homeostasis, the physiological functions of phytochemicals may be partially mediated through those unique systems. The present study was thus undertaken to address this possibility. Methods and Results: We focused

  13. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Pereira; Olga Díaz; Angel Cobos

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão) have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 ...

  14. Effects of water deficit on breadmaking quality and storage protein compositions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaxing; Liu, Dongmiao; Deng, Xiong; Zhen, Shoumin; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2018-03-12

    Water deficiency affects grain proteome dynamics and storage protein compositions, resulting in changes in gluten viscoelasticity. In this study, the effects of field water deficit on wheat breadmaking quality and grain storage proteins were investigated. Water deficiency produced a shorter grain-filling period, a decrease in grain number, grain weight and grain yield, a reduced starch granule size and increased protein content and glutenin macropolymer contents, resulting in superior dough properties and breadmaking quality. Reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the total gliadin and glutenin content and the accumulation of individual components were significantly increased by water deficiency. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 144 individual storage protein spots with significant accumulation changes in developing grains under water deficit. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that water deficiency resulted in significant upregulation of 12 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and 46 low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of storage protein biosynthesis-related transcription factors Dof and Spa was upregulated by water deficiency. The present results illustrated that water deficiency leads to increased accumulation of storage protein components and upregulated expression of Dof and Spa, resulting in an improvement in glutenin strength and breadmaking quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaf, ten Dominique; Dongen, van E.J.I.; Nuijten, M.; Eijsvogels, Thijs; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hopman, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are

  16. The effect of protein and lipid source in organic feed for (organic) rainbow trout on sensory quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    of vegetable protein. While the lipid sources were fish, linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed oil. After slaughtering all fish were frozen (-40°C) until the sensory experiment was performed, for which the trout were thawed and stored for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in ice respectively. The sensory experiment......-life is increased by feeding the fish with vegetable protein compared to fish meal. The conclusion of the experiment therefore was that both dietary vegetable protein and lipid sources can influence on sensory characteristics of trout stored in ice.......The aim of this work was to study which effects protein and lipid source in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncohynchus mykiss) may have on the sensory quality of the final product after up to 14 days of storage in ice. The protein sources used in the experiment were fishmeal and a mixture...

  17. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  18. Influence of using a blend of rennet casein and whey protein concentrate as protein source on the quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D

    2017-03-01

    The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.

  19. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant

  20. Nutritional quality and fractionation of carbohydrates and protein in the forage components of an intensive silvopastoral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Xiomara; Rivera, J.E.; Barahona, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of the forage components of a SPSi based on Leucaena leucocephala associated to improved pastures, as well as its biomass production. The forage production was determined at several moments of the year and the nutritional quality was evaluated through the Cornell model. The soluble protein proportion (fraction A) was similar between the grasses and L. leucocephala, and represented as minimum 34 % of the total protein. The proportion of protein B2 (intermediate degradation) of the legume was higher than that of the grasses (53,7 vs. 30,2 %, respectively). Protein B3 of the diet (slow degradation) was around 22 % of the total protein, and more than 71 % of it can be considered degradable in rumen. L. leucocephala showed a higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates (16,7 %) and lower quantity of fraction B2 (14,94 %) than the grasses. Concerning the biomass availability, a production of 19,26 t DM/ha year-1 was reached. It is concluded that in SPSis a high quantity of quality forage is produced throughout the year, and that this offer is sufficient to cover the requirements of ruminants. (author)

  1. Role of steaming and toasting on the odor, protein characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flour, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R; Ajila, C M; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2011-03-01

    Proteins play an important role in imparting functional attributes like texture and shape, which determine the sensory quality of the foods. Boondi, a deep fried product from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flour dispersion, is a popular snack food in India. Chickpea dhal (splits) or flour was subjected to various processing conditions like steaming and toasting, to determine their effect on the chickpea flour protein characteristics and on the product quality. Dhal and flour subjected to different heat treatments showed differences in their odor profiles. The SDS-PAGE of sodium phosphate buffer extracts of steamed dhal or flour showed that the high molecular weight (HMW) proteins of 66 to 100 kDa that were present in the untreated dhal were found to be absent in steamed dhal extracts. However, SDS buffer extracts on SDS-PAGE of these steamed samples did not show any difference between untreated and thermally treated dhal samples. Phosphate buffer extracts of the thermally treated flours were subjected to gel filtration chromatography and the results indicated that the HMW protein fraction content decreased significantly in the treated dhal or flour samples compared to control. Boondi prepared from the thermally treated dhal samples resulted in the loss of spherical shape of boondi. Thus, the results indicate that thermal treatment of chickpea dhal and flour influence changes in protein characteristics, the sensory profile and quality of boondi.

  2. Uncovering methods for the prevention of protein aggregation and improvement of product quality in a transient expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Bram; Hsu, Yueh-Rong; Tam, Lei-Ting; Sheng, Jackie; Stevens, Jennitte; Haldankar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian expression systems are used routinely for the production of recombinant proteins as therapeutic molecules as well as research tools. Transient expression has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its rapid timeline and improvements in expression level. While improvements to transient expression systems have focused mainly on the level of protein expression, the aspect of protein quality has received little attention. The removal of undesirable products, such as aggregation, depends primarily on purification, requiring additional cumbersome steps, which can lead to a lower product yield and longer timelines. In this study, we show that reducing the level of transcription by transfecting at a lower gene dose improves the quality of secreted molecules prone to aggregation. For gene dosing to have this effect, it is critical for the carrier DNA to be an empty vector containing the same elements as the gene containing plasmid. This approach can be used in combination with a temperature shift to hypothermic conditions during production to enhance the effect. The observed improvements not only minimized aggregation levels, but also generated products with overall superior quality, including more homogeneous signal peptide cleavage and N-linked glycosylation profiles. These techniques have produced a similar improvement in product quality with a variety of other molecules, suggesting that this may be a general approach to enhance product quality from transient expression systems. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  4. Whey protein isolate edible films with essential oils incorporated to improve the microbial quality of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  6. Resolution-by-proxy: a simple measure for assessing and comparing the overall quality of NMR protein structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berjanskii, Mark; Zhou Jianjun; Liang Yongjie; Lin Guohui; Wishart, David S.

    2012-01-01

    In protein X-ray crystallography, resolution is often used as a good indicator of structural quality. Diffraction resolution of protein crystals correlates well with the number of X-ray observables that are used in structure generation and, therefore, with protein coordinate errors. In protein NMR, there is no parameter identical to X-ray resolution. Instead, resolution is often used as a synonym of NMR model quality. Resolution of NMR structures is often deduced from ensemble precision, torsion angle normality and number of distance restraints per residue. The lack of common techniques to assess the resolution of X-ray and NMR structures complicates the comparison of structures solved by these two methods. This problem is sometimes approached by calculating “equivalent resolution” from structure quality metrics. However, existing protocols do not offer a comprehensive assessment of protein structure as they calculate equivalent resolution from a relatively small number (<5) of protein parameters. Here, we report a development of a protocol that calculates equivalent resolution from 25 measurable protein features. This new method offers better performance (correlation coefficient of 0.92, mean absolute error of 0.28 Å) than existing predictors of equivalent resolution. Because the method uses coordinate data as a proxy for X-ray diffraction data, we call this measure “Resolution-by-Proxy” or ResProx. We demonstrate that ResProx can be used to identify under-restrained, poorly refined or inaccurate NMR structures, and can discover structural defects that the other equivalent resolution methods cannot detect. The ResProx web server is available at http://www.resprox.cahttp://www.resprox.ca.

  7. QUALITY AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF WHEAT BREAD WITH A PREPARATION OF OAT PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Sabat; KrzysztofBuksa; Barbara Mickowska; Rafał Ziobro; Halina Gambuś; Dorota Pastuszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possibilities and advisability of the use of oats insoluble protein preparation for the production of wheat bread, in order to increase the amount of protein and biological value of protein in this kind of bakery. Research material consisted of the preparation of insoluble oats protein, wheat flour and wheat bread made with the share of oat protein: 5%, 7.5% and 10%, by weight of wheat flour. AOAC methods (2006) were used to determine protein, β-D-gluc...

  8. Cmr1/WDR76 defines a nuclear genotoxic stress body linking genome integrity and protein quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Irene; Colding, Camilla Skettrup; Henriksen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication stress is a source of genomic instability. Here we identify changed mutation rate 1 (Cmr1) as a factor involved in the response to DNA replication stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that Cmr1-together with Mrc1/Claspin, Pph3, the chaperonin containing TCP1 (CCT) and 25...... other proteins-define a novel intranuclear quality control compartment (INQ) that sequesters misfolded, ubiquitylated and sumoylated proteins in response to genotoxic stress. The diversity of proteins that localize to INQ indicates that other biological processes such as cell cycle progression...... propose that Cmr1/WDR76 plays a role in the recovery from genotoxic stress through regulation of the turnover of sumoylated and phosphorylated proteins....

  9. Aerobic exercise training rescues cardiac protein quality control and blunts endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozi, Luiz H M; Jannig, Paulo R; Rolim, Natale; Voltarelli, Vanessa A; Dourado, Paulo M M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through accumulation of misfolded proteins plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to reestablish ER homoeostasis, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. However, if ER stress persists, sustained UPR activation leads to apoptosis. There is no available therapy for ER stress relief. Considering that aerobic exercise training (AET) attenuates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and calcium imbalance, it may be a potential strategy to reestablish cardiac ER homoeostasis. We test the hypothesis that AET would attenuate impaired cardiac ER stress after myocardial infarction (MI). Wistar rats underwent to either MI or sham surgeries. Four weeks later, rats underwent to 8 weeks of moderate-intensity AET. Myocardial infarction rats displayed cardiac dysfunction and lung oedema, suggesting heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction in MI rats was paralleled by increased protein levels of UPR markers (GRP78, DERLIN-1 and CHOP), accumulation of misfolded and polyubiquitinated proteins, and reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity. These results suggest an impaired cardiac protein quality control. Aerobic exercise training improved exercise capacity and cardiac function of MI animals. Interestingly, AET blunted MI-induced ER stress by reducing protein levels of UPR markers, and accumulation of both misfolded and polyubiquinated proteins, which was associated with restored proteasome activity. Taken together, our study provide evidence for AET attenuation of ER stress through the reestablishment of cardiac protein quality control, which contributes to better cardiac function in post-MI heart failure rats. These results reinforce the importance of AET as primary non-pharmacological therapy to cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. New method for the quality check of food proteins of the maintenance metabolism. 4. Investigation of isolated proteins as well as some protein sources of plant and animal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O; Hernandez, M; Bergner, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1981-01-01

    Male adult rats (370 g body weight) were fed on maintenance level (460 kJ ME/kgsup(0,75). In a 10 days preliminary period they received a casein/methionine (95/5) diet supplemented with 10 mg /sup 15/N excess per 0.178 kg metabolic body weight in form of ammonium acetate. Thereafter the animals were put on 8 isonitrogenous diets containing as protein sources casein, soya protein, gelatine, whole-egg, fish meal, pea, wheat and yeast. The /sup 15/N excretion via urine and feces was used to evaluate the dietary proteins for maintenance. /sup 15/N in urine was lowest in animals fed on wheat diet and highest after feeding whole-egg diet. From these data a so called '/sup 15/N excretion biological valence (BV)' was calculated, which indicated the highest quality for wheat and soy protein in meeting the needs of the intermediary maintenance metabolism. On the other hand, dietary protein sources influence the loss of endogenous nitrogen as metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN). It was found to be lowest in animals fed on diets containing isolated proteins (6 mg MFN/100 g body weight) and highest after feeding protein sources of plant origin with a high content in crude fibre (10 mg MFN/100 g). Both, losses of /sup 15/N via urine and via feces were combined in a parameter called 'total BV'. According to this parameter the differences in quality for maintenance were only little between the protein sources tested (casein 100, soy protein 100, pea 99, wheat 99, whole egg 92, fish meal 89, gelatin 89). It was concluded that in the state of maintenance the supply with essential amino acids is not critical and that the supply with dispensable amino acids (or nonspecific nitrogen) is of great importance.

  11. The influence of additives and drying methods on quality attributes of fish protein powder made from saithe (Pollachius virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun

    2010-09-01

    Fish protein powder (FPP) is used in the food industry for developing formulated food products. This study investigates the feasibility of increasing the value of saithe (Pollachius virens) by producing a functional FPP. Quality attributes of spray and freeze-dried saithe surimi containing lyoprotectants were studied. A freeze-dried saithe surimi without lyoprotectants was also prepared as a control sample. The amount of protein, moisture, fat and carbohydrate in the FPPs were 745-928, 39-58, 21-32 and 10-151 g kg(-1). Quality attributes of FPPs were influenced by the two drying methods and lyoprotectants. The highest level of lipid oxidation was found in the control and the second highest in the spray-dried FPP. The spray-dried fish protein had the lowest viscosity among all FPPs. Gel-forming ability of samples with lyoprotectants was higher than that of the control. Water-binding capacity, emulsion properties and solubility of the freeze-dried fish protein containing lyoprotectants were significantly higher than spray-dried and control samples. However, functional properties of spray-dried FPP were higher than the control sample. It is feasible to develop value-added FPP from saithe surimi using spray- and freeze-drying processes, but freeze-dried FPP containing lyoprotectant had superior functional properties and stability compared with spray-dried sample. Both products might be used as functional protein ingredients in various food systems. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Nutritional composition and protein quality of the edible beetle Holotrichia parallela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingli; Liu, Shaofang; Sun, Jie; Yu, Lina; Zhang, Chushu; Bi, Jie; Yang, Zhen

    2014-10-15

    The adult edible beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) represents a traditional food source in China. Based on nutritional analyses, adult H. parallela is high in protein (70%) and minerals and low in fat. H. parallela contained approximately 10% chitin; the corrected protein content was 66%. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids. Of the total amino acids in H. parallela, 47.4% were essential amino acids. The amino acid scores were 87 and 100, based on the corrected crude and net protein contents, respectively; threonine was the limiting amino acid. In vitro protein digestibility was 78%, and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score was 89 based on the net protein content. Adult H. parallela may be a potential source of proteins and minerals for humans and animals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  14. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  15. Quality control of technetium-99m DTPA: correlation of analytic tests with in vivo protein binding in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.D.; Rowell, K.; Scott, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    When [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA is administered, a small fraction of the activity (presumably an impurity) is bound to plasma proteins. This causes an error in the calculation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma clearance. This paper presents two methods of laboratory quality control for measuring the fraction that binds to plasma proteins. One method involves in vitro binding to human serum albumin followed by gel filtration. The other method involves descending paper chromatography on wet pre-equilibrated anion exchange paper. In a series of 80 patients, correlation was demonstrated between laboratory characteristics and actual clinical performance of the [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA preparation. Both laboratory methods appear suitable for routine quality control

  16. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  17. Protein quality and the protein to carbohydrate ratio within a high fat diet influences energy balance and the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, Liam; Skuse, Peter; Cotter, Paul D; O'Connor, Paula; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald; Roche, Helen M; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2014-01-01

    Macronutrient quality and composition are important determinants of energy balance and the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated how changes to protein quality (casein versus whey protein isolate; WPI) and the protein to carbohydrate (P/C) ratio within a high fat diet (HFD) impacts on these parameters. Mice were fed a low fat diet (10% kJ) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kJ) for 21 weeks with either casein (20% kJ, HFD) or WPI at 20%, 30% or 40% kJ. In comparison to casein, WPI at a similar energy content normalised energy intake, increased lean mass and caused a trend towards a reduction in fat mass (P = 0.08), but the protein challenge did not alter oxygen consumption or locomotor activity. WPI reduced HFD-induced plasma leptin and liver triacylglycerol, and partially attenuated the reduction in adipose FASN mRNA in HFD-fed mice. High throughput sequence-based analysis of faecal microbial populations revealed microbiota in the HFD-20% WPI group clustering closely with HFD controls, although WPI specifically increased Lactobacillaceae/Lactobacillus and decreased Clostridiaceae/Clostridium in HFD-fed mice. There was no effect of increasing the P/C ratio on energy intake, but the highest ratio reduced HFD-induced weight gain, fat mass and plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and leptin levels, while it increased lean mass and oxygen consumption. Similar effects were observed on adipose mRNA expression, where the highest ratio reduced HFD-associated expression of UCP-2, TNFα and CD68 and increased the diet-associated expression of β3-AR, LPL, IR, IRS-1 and GLUT4. The P/C ratio also impacted on gut microbiota, with populations in the 30/40% WPI groups clustering together and away from the 20% WPI group. Taken together, our data show that increasing the P/C ratio has a dramatic effect on energy balance and the composition of gut microbiota, which is distinct from that caused by changes to protein quality.

  18. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (P<0·05) than for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat. With the exception of arginine and tryptophan, the SID of all indispensable AA in SPI was greater (P<0·05) than in soya flour, and with the exception of threonine, the SID of all indispensable AA in wheat was less (P<0·05) than in all other ingredients. If the same scoring pattern for children between 6 and 36 months was used to calculate PDCAAS-like values and DIAAS, PDCAAS-like values were greater (P<0·05) than DIAAS values for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat indicating that PDCAAS-like values estimated in pigs may overestimate the quality of these proteins.

  19. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  20. Pre-emptive Quality Control Protects the ER from Protein Overload via the Proximity of ERAD Components and SRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisae Kadowaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cells possess ER quality control systems to adapt to ER stress and maintain their function. ER-stress-induced pre-emptive quality control (ER pQC selectively degrades ER proteins via translocational attenuation during ER stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. Here, we find that most newly synthesized endogenous transthyretin proteins are rerouted to the cytosol without cleavage of the signal peptide, resulting in proteasomal degradation in hepatocytes during ER stress. Derlin family proteins (Derlins, which are ER-associated degradation components, reroute specific ER proteins, but not ER chaperones, from the translocon to the proteasome through interactions with the signal recognition particle (SRP. Moreover, the cytosolic chaperone Bag6 and the AAA-ATPase p97 contribute to the degradation of ER pQC substrates. These findings demonstrate that Derlins-mediated substrate-specific rerouting and Bag6- and p97-mediated effective degradation contribute to the maintenance of ER homeostasis without the need for translocation.

  1. The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, O B; Ogundeko, T O; Ogunrinola, O O; Saibu, G M; Elemo, B O

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the effect of various processing methods- boiling, drying and roasting- on the in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility and free amino acid profiles of Terminalia catappa seed. Moisture and crude protein of the various samples were determined. In vitro protein digestibility was determined after pepsin digestion. For the in vivo experiment, defatted T. catappa based diet was fed to 3 weeks old Wistar rats for 4 weeks and compared with animals maintained on casein based and nitrogen- free diets. The biological value (BV), net protein utilisation (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the diets were determined. Free amino acid composition was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Moisture was highest in the boiled T. catappa seed (8.30 ± 0.00 %). The raw, roasted and dried seeds had 5.55 ± 0.07, 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.75 ± 0.07 % respectively. Crude protein was 19.19, 18.89, 17.62 and 16.36 % in the dried, roasted, boiled and raw seeds respectively. Roasted T. catappa seed had the highest in vitro protein digestibility with 37.52 %, while the dried, boiled and raw samples had digestibility values of 27.57, 27.07 and 24.45 % respectively. All nine essential amino acids were present in T. catappa in high concentrations except methionine and tryptophan. Glutamate was present in the highest concentration. Also, free amino acids were higher in the processed seeds compared to the raw seed. Animals fed T. catappa diet compared favourably with the casein group, thus indicating that the protein is of good quality.

  2. Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique S. M. ten Haaf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male, with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests, handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L. Protein intake distribution was calculated for each participant as a coefficient of variance (CV = SD of grams of protein intake per main meal divided by the average total amount of proteins (grams of the main meals. Based on the CV, participants were divided into tertiles and classified as spread, intermediate or pulse. The average total protein intake was 1.08 ± 0.29 g/kg/day. Total protein intake was not associated with outcome measures using multivariate regression analyses. Individuals with a spread protein diet during the main meals (CV < 0.43 had higher gait speed compared to those with an intermediate diet (CV 0.43–0.62 (β = −0.42, p = 0.035, whereas a spread and pulse protein diet were not associated with SPPB total score, chair rise, grip strength and Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY. The interaction of higher physical activity and higher total protein intake was significantly associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.71, p = 0.049. While this interaction was not associated with SPPB or grip strength, the association with quality of life emphasizes the need for a higher total protein intake together with an active lifestyle in the elderly.

  3. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  4. evaluation of the protein quality of fish meals by means of the npu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Four lish meals were subjected to a Netl hotetn Utilization (NPU) study of which two were then tested in broiler rations. The ... Experiment I - IlPU determin"otions on fish meals ..... for total amino acids. true protein or crude protein.

  5. Nutritive value of browses as protein supplement(s) to poor quality roughages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions, pasture grasses and cereal residues are frequently low in nutrients especially protein and therefore cannot support high levels of ruminant production. Many browse species are endowed with high levels of protein and hence suitable as supplements. The

  6. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  7. New method for quality testing of food proteins for the maintenance metabolism. 1. Studies of urinary /sup 15/N excretion by /sup 15/N-labelled young rats fed with various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Bergner, U; Adam, K [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-05-01

    Over a period of 7 days 38 Wistar rats received supplements of /sup 15/N in the form of ammonium acetate added to a casein methionine diet. From the 8th day groups of 4 or 5 rats were fed different protein diets (115 kcal per kg body weight sup(0.75)) over a 5-day period. The relationship between /sup 15/N excreted via urine and the quantity of N absorbed from the food protein was used for determining the protein quality under conservation conditions. The following order of protein quality was found: fish meal, casein, wheat, whole egg, soybean, yeast, pea, and gelatin.

  8. New method for quality testing of food proteins for the maintenance metabolism. I. Studies of urinary /sup 15/N excretion by /sup 15/N-labelled young rats fed with various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Bergner, U; Adam, K [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-05-01

    Over a period of 7 days 38 Wistar rats received supplements of /sup 15/N in the form of ammonium acetate added to a casein methionine diet. From the 8th day groups of 4 or 5 rats were fed different protein diets (115 kcal per kg body weight sup(0.75)) over a 5-day period. The relationship between /sup 15/N excreted via urine and the quantity of N absorbed from the food protein was used for determining the protein quality under conservation conditions. The following order of protein quality was found: fish meal, casein, wheat, whole egg, soybean, yeast, pea, and gelatin.

  9. Digestibility, chemical compound and protein quality of amaranthus forage at two harvested cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooria ehsani

    2016-04-01

    technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops (32. In a completely randomized experiment with factorial arrangement (2×2 the digestibility, chemical compound and protein quality of two varieties of amaranthus including: Kharkof (K, A. Spp.(S. which were planted as forage crops and harvested at two cuts, were studied. Data were subjected to analysis using the GLM procedure of SAS (26, using the statistical model: Yijk = µ + Vi + Dj + Vi Dj + eijk Results and Discussion Results of in vitro two stage digestibility (IVD for DM, OM and DOMD were 60.19, 58.16 and 49.09, respectively which were significantly (p>0.05 affected by cultivars and interaction between cultivars and cuts. Results indicated that the means of CP, ASH, NDF, ADF,ADL, NDIN, ADIN, Ca, P, Mg, and K were 14.72, 15.44, 40.85, 27.90,5.07,21.76,6.60, 1.55, 0.25, 0.28, 1.48, percent; respectively. Plant maturity was found to affect neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, CP and nitrate content of amaranth forage. Amaranth contains a high ash content due to its C4 metabolism and a very high carbon uptake per unit area (29. This high ash is in agreement with other researchers (1, 21 .Our amaranth accession had higher NDF (27 and lower ADF (22, 23 in comparison to A. Hypochondriacus reported by other researchers. Lignin content in amaranth is less than that reported by other researchers (27. With increased plant maturity, fraction B1 decreased, probably due to an increase in cell wall bound N (16. Researchers observed that Similar results in CP fraction of amaranthus hypochoderyacus (21(. We observed that a negative relationship between NDF and fraction B1. There was a tendency for fraction B2 to increase with advancing maturity, similar to other researchers (21. At the second harvest, fraction B3 was higher than that at first harvest, similar to reserchers with amaranthus hypochondriacus (1. Different changes in NDF concentration of plant parts with maturity may explain the

  10. Effects of heat on meat proteins - Implications on structure and quality of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornberg, E

    2005-07-01

    Globular and fibrous proteins are compared with regard to structural behaviour on heating, where the former expands and the latter contracts. The meat protein composition and structure is briefly described. The behaviour of the different meat proteins on heating is discussed. Most of the sarcoplasmic proteins aggregate between 40 and 60 °C, but for some of them the coagulation can extend up to 90°C. For myofibrillar proteins in solution unfolding starts at 30-32°C, followed by protein-protein association at 36-40°C and subsequent gelation at 45-50°C (conc.>0.5% by weight). At temperatures between 53 and 63°C the collagen denaturation occurs, followed by collagen fibre shrinkage. If the collagen fibres are not stabilised by heat-resistant intermolecular bonds, it dissolves and forms gelatine on further heating. The structural changes on cooking in whole meat and comminuted meat products, and the alterations in water-holding and texture of the meat product that it leads to, are then discussed.

  11. Protein crystal growth on board Shenzhou 3: a concerted effort improves crystal diffraction quality and facilitates structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.; Cang, H.-X.; Zhou, J.-X.; Wang, Y.-P.; Bi, R.-C.; Colelesage, J.; Delbaere, L.T.J.; Nahoum, V.; Shi, R.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, D.-W.; Lin, S.-X.

    2004-01-01

    The crystallization of 16 proteins was carried out using 60 wells on board Shenzhou 3 in 2002. Although the mission was only 7 days, careful and concerted planning at all stages made it possible to obtain crystals of improved quality compared to their ground controls for some of the proteins. Significantly improved resolutions were obtained from diffracted crystals of 4 proteins. A complete data set from a space crystal of the PEP carboxykinase yielded significantly higher resolution (1.46 A vs. 1.87 A), I/sigma (22.4 vs. 15.5), and a lower average temperature factor (29.2 A 2 vs. 42.9 A 2 ) than the best ground-based control crystal. The 3-D structure of the enzyme is well improved with significant ligand density. It has been postulated that the reduced convection and absence of macromolecule sedimentation under microgravity have advantages/benefits for protein crystal growth. Improvements in experimental design for protein crystal growth in microgravity are ongoing

  12. Induced protein polymorphisms and nutritional quality of gamma irradiation mutants of sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mehlo, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in the endosperm. The suppression of kafirins was counteracted by an upsurge in the synthesis and accumulation of albumins, globulins and other proteins. The data collectively suggest that sorghum has huge genetic potential for nutritional biofortification...

  13. Quality by design approach for viral clearance by protein a chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Miesegaes, George R; Lee, Michael; Coleman, Daniel; Yang, Bin; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Norling, Lenore; Lester, Philip; Brorson, Kurt A; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely used as a capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification processes. Antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can be efficiently purified from the majority of other complex components in harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF). Protein A chromatography is also capable of removing modest levels of viruses and is often validated for viral clearance. Historical data mining of Genentech and FDA/CDER databases systematically evaluated the removal of model viruses by Protein A chromatography. First, we found that for each model virus, removal by Protein A chromatography varies significantly across mAbs, while remains consistent within a specific mAb product, even across the acceptable ranges of the process parameters. In addition, our analysis revealed a correlation between retrovirus and parvovirus removal, with retrovirus data generally possessing a greater clearance factor. Finally, we describe a multivariate approach used to evaluate process parameter impacts on viral clearance, based on the levels of retrovirus-like particles (RVLP) present among process characterization study samples. It was shown that RVLP removal by Protein A is robust, that is, parameter effects were not observed across the ranges tested. Robustness of RVLP removal by Protein A also correlates with that for other model viruses such as X-MuLV, MMV, and SV40. The data supports that evaluating RVLP removal using process characterization study samples can establish multivariate acceptable ranges for virus removal by the protein A step for QbD. By measuring RVLP instead of a model retrovirus, it may alleviate some of the technical and economic challenges associated with performing large, design-of-experiment (DoE)—type virus spiking studies. This approach could also serve to provide useful insight when designing strategies to ensure viral safety in the manufacturing of a biopharmaceutical product. PMID:23860745

  14. Induced protein polymorphisms and nutritional quality of gamma irradiation mutants of sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlo, Luke, E-mail: LMehlo@csir.co.za [CSIR Biosciences, Meiring Naude Road, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mbambo, Zodwa [CSIR Biosciences, Meiring Naude Road, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Microbiology Discipline, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Bado, Souleymane [Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory – Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Lin, Johnson [Microbiology Discipline, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Moagi, Sydwell M.; Buthelezi, Sindisiwe; Stoychev, Stoyan; Chikwamba, Rachel [CSIR Biosciences, Meiring Naude Road, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We analyse kafirin protein polymorphisms induced by gamma irradiation in sorghum. • One mutant with suppressed kafirins in the endosperm accumulated them in the germ. • Kafirin polymorphisms were associated with high levels of free amino acids. • Nutritional value of sorghum can be improved significantly by induced mutations. - Abstract: Physical and biochemical analysis of protein polymorphisms in seed storage proteins of a mutant population of sorghum revealed a mutant with redirected accumulation of kafirin proteins in the germ. The change in storage proteins was accompanied by an unusually high level accumulation of free lysine and other essential amino acids in the endosperm. This mutant further displayed a significant suppression in the synthesis and accumulation of the 27 kDa γ-, 24 kDa α-A1 and the 22 kDa α-A2 kafirins in the endosperm. The suppression of kafirins was counteracted by an upsurge in the synthesis and accumulation of albumins, globulins and other proteins. The data collectively suggest that sorghum has huge genetic potential for nutritional biofortification and that induced mutations can be used as an effective tool in achieving premium nutrition in staple cereals.

  15. Induced protein polymorphisms and nutritional quality of gamma irradiation mutants of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlo, Luke; Mbambo, Zodwa; Bado, Souleymane; Lin, Johnson; Moagi, Sydwell M.; Buthelezi, Sindisiwe; Stoychev, Stoyan; Chikwamba, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse kafirin protein polymorphisms induced by gamma irradiation in sorghum. • One mutant with suppressed kafirins in the endosperm accumulated them in the germ. • Kafirin polymorphisms were associated with high levels of free amino acids. • Nutritional value of sorghum can be improved significantly by induced mutations. - Abstract: Physical and biochemical analysis of protein polymorphisms in seed storage proteins of a mutant population of sorghum revealed a mutant with redirected accumulation of kafirin proteins in the germ. The change in storage proteins was accompanied by an unusually high level accumulation of free lysine and other essential amino acids in the endosperm. This mutant further displayed a significant suppression in the synthesis and accumulation of the 27 kDa γ-, 24 kDa α-A1 and the 22 kDa α-A2 kafirins in the endosperm. The suppression of kafirins was counteracted by an upsurge in the synthesis and accumulation of albumins, globulins and other proteins. The data collectively suggest that sorghum has huge genetic potential for nutritional biofortification and that induced mutations can be used as an effective tool in achieving premium nutrition in staple cereals

  16. Effect of legume grains as a source of dietary protein on the quality of organic lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Adriana; Tornambè, Gabriele; Di Grigoli, Antonino; Genna, Vincenzo; Bellina, Vincenzo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Giambalvo, Dario

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects on lamb growth, carcass traits and meat quality of replacing conventional soybean meal in the diet with alternative legume grains. Twenty-eight male lambs of Comisana breed weighing 16.9 ± 2.7 kg at weaning (66 ± 6 days old) were assigned to one of four diets. Until slaughter at 129 ± 6 days of age, each group received ad libitum pelleted alfalfa hay and concentrates differing in the source of protein: chickpea, faba bean, pea or soybean meal. Lambs fed chickpea showed higher dry matter and protein intakes from concentrate than those fed soybean. Lambs' growth, carcass weight and net dressing percentage did not vary by protein source, although chickpea lambs had more perirenal and pelvic fat than those in the soybean group. Diet did not affect chemical composition, colour, thawing and cooking losses, tenderness, and sensory properties of meat. Chickpea increased trans-vaccenic and linoleic acid, and chickpea and faba bean increased the isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Legume grains can completely replace soybean meal in concentrate, resulting in lamb carcasses and meat of comparable quality. Chickpea leads to an increase in feed intake of lambs and in fat depots in the carcass, and a more beneficial fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  18. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Mao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM. The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness.

  19. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  1. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  3. A model for consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.

    2005-01-01

    We develop an environmental Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model, which includes the economic functions of the environment, to investigate the impacts of consumers' preference changes towards the enhanced consumption of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) and towards a higher willingness to pay for

  4. Registration of 'Bolles' hard red spring wheat with high grain protein concentration and superior baking quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hard red spring wheat market class in the U.S. commands the highest prices on the worldwide wheat markets because of its high protein content, strong gluten, and good baking properties. ‘Bolles’ (PI 678430), a hard red spring wheat cultivar, was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultu...

  5. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF CURD PRODUCTS BASED ON PROTEIN-HERBAL CLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of qualitative indicators of curd products with different nutritional ingredients based on protein-herbal clots. The effect of the number of Rumex juice and the duration of thermoacid processing on the process of precipitation of milk proteins was determined. It was established that the introduction of vegetative coagulant in the amount (9 ± 0.5% at a temperature (93 ... 95 °C and endurance (3 ... 5 min - provides the optimal yield of protein-herbal clot taking into account restrictions according to organoleptic parameters. The effect of white sugar and apple pectin in fiber on the organoleptic, physico-chemical and rheological indicators curd products was investigated. The dietary fibers increase moisture-proof ability and effective viscosity of samples, and white sugar reduces these indexes due to dehydrating properties. The optimal option is to add to the protein-herbal bunch at the same time two components when mixing - white sugar and apple pectin in fiber in quantities of 15% and 2% respectively. Taking into account the influence of individual non-dairy ingredients - Rumex juice of white sugar and apple pectin in fiber on curd products, the performance of the finished product can purposefully be affected.

  6. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  7. A Quadrupole Dalton-based multi-attribute method for product characterization, process development, and quality control of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weichen; Jimenez, Rod Brian; Mowery, Rachel; Luo, Haibin; Cao, Mingyan; Agarwal, Nitin; Ramos, Irina; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, Jihong

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing and storage process, therapeutic proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as isomerization, deamidation, oxidation, disulfide bond modifications and glycosylation. Certain PTMs may affect bioactivity, stability or pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics profile and are therefore classified as potential critical quality attributes (pCQAs). Identifying, monitoring and controlling these PTMs are usually key elements of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Traditionally, multiple analytical methods are utilized for these purposes, which is time consuming and costly. In recent years, multi-attribute monitoring methods have been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, these methods combine high-end mass spectrometry with complicated data analysis software, which could pose difficulty when implementing in a quality control (QC) environment. Here we report a multi-attribute method (MAM) using a Quadrupole Dalton (QDa) mass detector to selectively monitor and quantitate PTMs in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody. The result output from the QDa-based MAM is straightforward and automatic. Evaluation results indicate this method provides comparable results to the traditional assays. To ensure future application in the QC environment, this method was qualified according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline and applied in the characterization of drug substance and stability samples. The QDa-based MAM is shown to be an extremely useful tool for product and process characterization studies that facilitates facile understanding of process impact on multiple quality attributes, while being QC friendly and cost-effective.

  8. Application of Quality by Design to the characterization of the cell culture process of an Fc-Fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Solacroup, Thomas; Deparis, Véronique; Barbafieri, Marco; Gleixner, Ralf; Broly, Hervé; Eon-Duval, Alex

    2012-06-01

    The production bioreactor step of an Fc-Fusion protein manufacturing cell culture process was characterized following Quality by Design principles. Using scientific knowledge derived from the literature and process knowledge gathered during development studies and manufacturing to support clinical trials, potential critical and key process parameters with a possible impact on product quality and process performance, respectively, were determined during a risk assessment exercise. The identified process parameters were evaluated using a design of experiment approach. The regression models generated from the data allowed characterizing the impact of the identified process parameters on quality attributes. The main parameters having an impact on product titer were pH and dissolved oxygen, while those having the highest impact on process- and product-related impurities and variants were pH and culture duration. The models derived from characterization studies were used to define the cell culture process design space. The design space limits were set in such a way as to ensure that the drug substance material would consistently have the desired quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of heat shock protein 70 in transport-stressed broiler pectoralis major muscle and its relationship with meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T; Wang, M F; Han, M Y; Zhu, X S; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. The birds were transported according to a designed protocol. The pectoralis major (PM) muscles of the transport-stressed broilers were categorized as normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle samples according to L* and pH24 h values to test the expression and location of HSP70. Results revealed that the activities of plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased significantly (Pmeat quality and stress indicators. In conclusion, this research suggests that the variation in HSP70 expression may provide a novel insight into the pathways underlying meat quality development.

  10. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shi; Chang, Sam; Gillen, Anne M; Zhang, Yan

    2016-12-15

    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum and a high 11S/7S ratio are favoured by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, 22 soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Collection, were grown in Stoneville, MS for biochemical analysis and tofu texture and sensory quality tests. Eight lines were identified, from 22 lines harvested in 2014, to be suitable for tofu making, as judged by chemical composition and sensory quality of pressed tofu. In the filled tofu making and texture analysis study, the correlation between A3 subunit content and filled tofu firmness was significant (N=22, r=0.77, Pquality information for the selection of soybean genotypes for improving food quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of water unextractable solids with gluten protein: Effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oudgenoeg, G.; Vliet, T. van; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    In a previous study, we have shown that water unextractable solids (WUS) interfere with gluten formation and affect the quality of the resulting gluten. In this study we aim to explain how WUS can affect the process of gluten formation. To this end, WUS were modified with NaOH, xylanase, horseradish

  12. Interaction of water unextractable solids with gluten protein: effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oudgenoeg, G.; Vliet, van T.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract In a previous study, we have shown that water unextractable solids (WUS) interfere with gluten formation and affect the quality of the resulting gluten. In this study we aim to explain how WUS can affect the process of gluten formation. To this end, WUS were modified with NaOH, xylanase,

  13. Interaction of water extractable pentosans with gluten protein : effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.; Oudgenoeg, G.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of modified water extractable pentosans (WEP) on gluten yield, dough properties, gluten quality and composition were studied. The results show that WEP interfere with gluten formation in both a direct and an indirect way. WEP interfere indirectly by competing for water and thus changing

  14. The influence of magnetic fields on protein crystal growth and quality; Zum Einfluss magnetischer Felder auf das Wachstum und die Qualitaet von Proteinkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meents, Alke

    2005-08-01

    Magnetic fields can affect protein crystal growth in several ways. In homogeneous magnetic fields molecules and crystallites line up themselves along the magnetic field direction due to their magnetic anisotropy. Inhomogeneous magnetic fields exert a force on diamagnetic and paramagnetic compounds towards regions of lower or higher field strength. This effect can be used to create a microgravity-like environment for diamagnetic proteins and an environment comparable to hypergravity for paramagnetic proteins. Crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields and a microgravity-like environment are reported to have a positive effect on crystal quality. The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effect of protein crystallization in magnetic fields on the crystal quality by comparing a large number of crystals grown under identical conditions with- and without magnetic fields. Crystal quality was determined by means of high resolution rocking-curve measurements. Furthermore in certain cases complete diffraction datasets were collected. Any possible influence of magnetic fields on the mosaicity and the quality of the diffraction data was evaluated statistically by applying Wilcoxon-Ranksum tests. To investigate the effect of protein crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields the diamagnetic proteins Thaumatin, Trypsin, and Lysozyme and paramagnetic Myoglobin were crystallized in magnetic fields of 5 T, 8.8 T, and 15.8 T. The analysis of crystal mosaicity and quality of the diffraction data of the diamagnetic proteins did not reveal a significant influence on the crystal quality. In contrast the crystals of paramagnetic Myoglobin grew up to 14 times larger than the ones in the control experiment. In addition they had a significant lower mosaicity, and diffracted to a higher resolution than ever reported before. Special pole pieces for an existing magnet were designed and build to grow protein crystals in an inhomogeneous magnetic field The experimental

  15. Redox-dependent interaction between thaumatin-like protein and β-glucan influences malting quality of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder; Tripathi, Rajiv K; Lemaux, Peggy G; Buchanan, Bob B; Singh, Jaswinder

    2017-07-18

    Barley is the cornerstone of the malting and brewing industry. It is known that 250 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the grain are associated with 19 malting-quality phenotypes. However, only a few of the contributing genetic components have been identified. One of these, on chromosome 4H, contains a major malting QTL, QTL2, located near the telomeric region that accounts, respectively, for 28.9% and 37.6% of the variation in the β-glucan and extract fractions of malt. In the current study, we dissected the QTL2 region using an expression- and microsynteny-based approach. From a set of 22 expressed sequence tags expressed in seeds at the malting stage, we identified a candidate gene, TLP8 ( thaumatin-like protein 8 ), which was differentially expressed and influenced malting quality. Transcript abundance and protein profiles of TLP8 were studied in different malt and feed varieties using quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The experiments demonstrated that TLP8 binds to insoluble (1, 3, 1, 4)-β-D glucan in grain extracts, thereby facilitating the removal of this undesirable polysaccharide during malting. Further, the binding of TLP8 to β-glucan was dependent on redox. These findings represent a stride forward in our understanding of the malting process and provide a foundation for future improvements in the final beer-making process.

  16. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 μm pore size. Next, the liophilization of the corresponding retentates was carried out. Each powder was added in three different mass ratios: 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %. The addition of the powders caused higher yields of the whey cheese – mainly the one with the additional whey powder – but it did not affect the strength of the products. The retention of water and other components of whey and milk in the whey cheese was influenced by the protein composition of the powders. In relation to colour parameters, the whey cheese manufactured with ultrafiltration and microfiltration retentate powders showed lower values of ligthness than the control whey cheese – mainly the whey cheese with 1.5 % of added powders. The microstructure constituted of small aggregates in the whey cheese manufactured with ultrafiltration and 0.20-μm microfiltration retentate powders and also by large, smooth structures in the other whey cheeses, especially in batches with added Sorelho powders.

  17. KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANWAR, M.M.; YOUSEF, E.T.; ABD-ELHADI, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 7 0C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12 th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

  18. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.

  19. Bioisosteric Replacements Extracted from High-Quality Structures in the Protein Databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Matthew P; Cosgrove, David A; Gillet, Valerie J

    2018-03-20

    Bioisosterism is an important concept in the lead optimisation phase of drug discovery where the aim is to make modifications to parts of a molecule in order to improve some properties while maintaining others. We present an analysis of bioisosteric fragments extracted from the ligands in an established data set consisting of 121 protein targets. A pairwise analysis is carried out of all ligands for a given target. The ligands are fragmented using the BRICS fragmentation scheme and a pair of fragments is deemed to be bioisosteric if they occupy a similar volume of the protein binding site. We consider two levels of generality, one which does not consider the number of attachment points in the fragments and a more restricted case in which both fragments are required to have the same number of attachments. We investigate the extent to which the bioisosteric pairs that are found are common across different target. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Progressive quality control of secretory proteins in the early secretory compartment by ERp44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Degano, Massimo; Fagioli, Claudio; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    ERp44 is a pH-regulated chaperone of the secretory pathway. In the acidic milieu of the Golgi, its C-terminal tail changes conformation, simultaneously exposing the substrate-binding site for cargo capture and the RDEL motif for ER retrieval through interactions with cognate receptors. Protonation of cysteine 29 in the active site allows tail movements in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that conserved histidine residues in the C-terminal tail also regulate ERp44 in vivo. Mutants lacking these histidine residues retain substrates more efficiently. Surprisingly, they are also O-glycosylated and partially secreted. Co-expression of client proteins prevents secretion of the histidine mutants, forcing tail opening and RDEL accessibility. Client-induced RDEL exposure allows retrieval of proteins from distinct stations along the secretory pathway, as indicated by the changes in O-glycosylation patterns upon overexpression of different partners. The ensuing gradients might help to optimize folding and assembly of different cargoes. Endogenous ERp44 is O-glycosylated and secreted by human primary endometrial cells, suggesting possible pathophysiological roles of these processes. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsching, Keith J.; Hong, Mei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations ( 13 C– 13 C, 15 N– 13 C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 13 C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited “hand-picked” data sets, we show that ∼94 % of the 13 C NMR data and almost all 15 N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6 % of the 13 C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. −2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra-residue cross peaks by inspection or by using a

  2. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsching, Keith J., E-mail: kfritzsc@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Hong, Mei [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus, E-mail: srohr@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations ({sup 13}C–{sup 13}C, {sup 15}N–{sup 13}C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 {sup 13}C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited “hand-picked” data sets, we show that ∼94 % of the {sup 13}C NMR data and almost all {sup 15}N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6 % of the {sup 13}C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. −2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra

  3. MEAL-BASED ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS IN OBESE OLDER ADULTS WITH MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: RATIONALE AND DESIGN FOR THE MEASUR-UP TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Starr, Kathryn N. Porter; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E.; Pieper, Carl F.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response --Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 grams of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume −30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  4. THE QUALITY OF FRIED SNACKS FORTIFIED WITH FIBER AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tajner Czopek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of fortification of extruded potato pellets, obtained with 5 and 10 % addition of wheat bran, corn bran and corn germ, applied separately and in mixtures with 3 % addition of potato protein concentrate on fat content and physical properties of snacks fried from them. The addition of wheat bran, regardless its dose, did positively influenced on snacks texture. Yet it also caused the increase in fat content and density, as well as darkening of snacks color. The use of corn bran contributed to lower values of snacks density and fat absorption, while the addition of corn germ resulted in lighter, more desired snacks color, but at the same time it brought about increased fat content and made snacks harder. There was not recorded any significant snacks diversity concerning expansion degree, regardless the kind of additive used, as well as snacks moisture. doi:10.5219/54

  5. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

    2012-10-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep.

  6. How early studies on secreted and membrane protein quality control gave rise to the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway: the early history of ERAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Patrick G; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    All newly synthesized proteins are subject to quality control check-points, which prevent aberrant polypeptides from harming the cell. For proteins that ultimately reside in the cytoplasm, components that also reside in the cytoplasm were known for many years to mediate quality control. Early biochemical and genetic data indicated that misfolded proteins were selected by molecular chaperones and then targeted to the proteasome (in eukaryotes) or to proteasome-like particles (in bacteria) for degradation. What was less clear was how secreted and integral membrane proteins, which in eukaryotes enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), were subject to quality control decisions. In this review, we highlight early studies that ultimately led to the discovery that secreted and integral membrane proteins also utilize several components that constitute the cytoplasmic quality control machinery. This component of the cellular quality control pathway is known as ER associated degradation, or ERAD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Functional and structural diversity of endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Equilibrium-phase MR angiography: Comparison of unspecific extracellular and protein-binding gadolinium-based contrast media with respect to image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb-Eigner, Katharina; Taupitz, Matthias; Asbach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare contrast and image quality of whole-body equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR angiography using a non-protein-binding unspecific extracellular gadolinium-based contrast medium with that of two contrast media with different protein-binding properties. 45 patients were examined using either 15 mL of gadobutrol (non-protein-binding, n = 15), 32 mL of gadobenate dimeglumine (weakly protein binding, n = 15) or 11 mL gadofosveset trisodium (protein binding, n = 15) followed by equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR-angiography of four consecutive anatomic regions. The time elapsed between the contrast injection and the beginning of the equilibrium-phase image acquisition in the respective region was measured and was up to 21 min. Signal intensity was measured in two vessels per region and in muscle tissue. Relative contrast (RC) values were calculated. Vessel contrast, artifacts and image quality were rated by two radiologists in consensus on a five-point scale. Compared with gadobutrol, gadofosveset trisodium revealed significantly higher RC values only when acquired later than 15 min after bolus injection. Otherwise, no significant differences between the three contrast media were found regarding vascular contrast and image quality. Equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR-angiography using a weakly protein-binding or even non-protein-binding contrast medium is equivalent to using a stronger protein-binding contrast medium when image acquisition is within the first 15 min after contrast injection, and allows depiction of the vasculature with high contrast and image quality. The protein-binding contrast medium was superior for imaging only later than 15 min after contrast medium injection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Relationship Between Protein Fractions of Wheat Gluten and the Quality of Ring-Shaped Rolls Evaluated by the Echolocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazina Juodeikiene

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the relationship between separate protein fractions and the quality of baked ring-shaped rolls. The qualitative and quantitative protein composition of flour derived from some wheat varieties grown in Lithuania has been determined. The protein properties are evaluated by SDS-PAGE. A new method of the analysis of swelling, based on the principle of echolocation, has been used to determine the quality of this specific kind of baked goods. For the application of this method the wheat flour, which is most suitable for the production of ring-shaped rolls, made from the wheat variety Portal (Pasvalys PVRS, has been selected. This flour has the following quality parameters: proteins 10.5 %, gluten 22.0 %, gluten index 47 r.u. Correlation between the flour quality parameters and the quality of the final bread product shows that γ-gliadins (r=–0.63, LMM glutenins (r=0.55, HMM glutenins (r=0.63 and the content of gluten (r=0.87 have the greatest influence on the quality of the ring-shaped rolls.

  10. Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maathuis, Annet; Havenaar, Robert; He, Tao; Bellmann, Susann

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk-based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk-based infant formula (CIF), and human milk (HM). The GIF, CIF, and HM were investigated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model simulating infant conditions. Digested compounds were dialyzed from the intestinal compartment as bioaccessible fraction. Dialysate was collected in 15 to 60-minute periods for 4 hours. True ileal protein digestibility and DIAAS were determined as bioaccessible nitrogen (N) and amino acids. N bioaccessibility from the GIF showed similar kinetics to that of HM. The CIF showed a delay in N bioaccessibility versus the GIF and HM. In the 1st hour of digestion, N bioaccessibility was 19.9% ± 3.5% and 23.3% ± 1.3% for the GIF and HM, respectively, and 11.2% ± 0.6% for CIF (P < 0.05 vs HM). In the 3rd hour of digestion, the N bioaccessibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CIF (28.9% ± 1.2%) than for the GIF (22.5% ± 1.6%) and HM (20.6% ± 1.0%). After 4 hours, the true ileal protein digestibility of the GIF, CIF, and HM was 78.3% ± 3.7%, 73.4% ± 2.7%, and 77.9% ± 4.1%, respectively. The DIAAS for the GIF, CIF, and HM for 0- to 6-month-old infants was 83%, 75%, and 77% for aromatic AA. The protein quality is not different between the GIF, CIF, and HM, but the kinetics of protein digestion of the GIF is more comparable to that of HM than that of the CIF.

  11. The utility of comparative models and the local model quality for protein crystal structure determination by Molecular Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlowski Marcin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational models of protein structures were proved to be useful as search models in Molecular Replacement (MR, a common method to solve the phase problem faced by macromolecular crystallography. The success of MR depends on the accuracy of a search model. Unfortunately, this parameter remains unknown until the final structure of the target protein is determined. During the last few years, several Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs that predict the local accuracy of theoretical models have been developed. In this article, we analyze whether the application of MQAPs improves the utility of theoretical models in MR. Results For our dataset of 615 search models, the real local accuracy of a model increases the MR success ratio by 101% compared to corresponding polyalanine templates. On the contrary, when local model quality is not utilized in MR, the computational models solved only 4.5% more MR searches than polyalanine templates. For the same dataset of the 615 models, a workflow combining MR with predicted local accuracy of a model found 45% more correct solution than polyalanine templates. To predict such accuracy MetaMQAPclust, a “clustering MQAP” was used. Conclusions Using comparative models only marginally increases the MR success ratio in comparison to polyalanine structures of templates. However, the situation changes dramatically once comparative models are used together with their predicted local accuracy. A new functionality was added to the GeneSilico Fold Prediction Metaserver in order to build models that are more useful for MR searches. Additionally, we have developed a simple method, AmIgoMR (Am I good for MR?, to predict if an MR search with a template-based model for a given template is likely to find the correct solution.

  12. ModFOLD6: an accurate web server for the global and local quality estimation of 3D protein models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Ali H A; McGuffin, Liam J

    2017-07-03

    Methods that reliably estimate the likely similarity between the predicted and native structures of proteins have become essential for driving the acceptance and adoption of three-dimensional protein models by life scientists. ModFOLD6 is the latest version of our leading resource for Estimates of Model Accuracy (EMA), which uses a pioneering hybrid quasi-single model approach. The ModFOLD6 server integrates scores from three pure-single model methods and three quasi-single model methods using a neural network to estimate local quality scores. Additionally, the server provides three options for producing global score estimates, depending on the requirements of the user: (i) ModFOLD6_rank, which is optimized for ranking/selection, (ii) ModFOLD6_cor, which is optimized for correlations of predicted and observed scores and (iii) ModFOLD6 global for balanced performance. The ModFOLD6 methods rank among the top few for EMA, according to independent blind testing by the CASP12 assessors. The ModFOLD6 server is also continuously automatically evaluated as part of the CAMEO project, where significant performance gains have been observed compared to our previous server and other publicly available servers. The ModFOLD6 server is freely available at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/ModFOLD/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. NIR spectroscopy for the quality control of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaf powders: Prediction of minerals, protein and moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rébufa, Catherine; Pany, Inès; Bombarda, Isabelle

    2018-09-30

    A rapid methodology was developed to simultaneously predict water content and activity values (a w ) of Moringa oleifera leaf powders (MOLP) using near infrared (NIR) signatures and experimental sorption isotherms. NIR spectra of MOLP samples (n = 181) were recorded. A Partial Least Square Regression model (PLS2) was obtained with low standard errors of prediction (SEP of 1.8% and 0.07 for water content and a w respectively). Experimental sorption isotherms obtained at 20, 30 and 40 °C showed similar profiles. This result is particularly important to use MOLP in food industry. In fact, a temperature variation of the drying process will not affect their available water content (self-life). Nutrient contents based on protein and selected minerals (Ca, Fe, K) were also predicted from PLS1 models. Protein contents were well predicted (SEP of 2.3%). This methodology allowed for an improvement in MOLP safety, quality control and traceability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effect of energy and protein levels on health, growth, puberty and semen quality of Holstein bull-calves undergoing progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J L; Zaldivar, V; Tamayo-Aviles, A; Faure, R [Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Reproduccion; Boado, A; Lannes, M [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Habana, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Nutricion Animal

    1996-05-01

    Three energy and protein levels in the ration fed potential artificial insemination sires during the first year of age were evaluated with respect to health, body and testicular growth rate, puberty and sperm quality of the animals. Treatment were, Group I, NRC requirements for energy and protein for growing dairy bulls with daily weight gains from 0.4 to 0.9 kg/day; and Groups II and III which were fed 15 and 30% over the recommended energy and protein requirements, respectively. Blood metabolites were found within the reference range. Plasma Cu and Zn were lower in Groups I and III as compared to Group II. Histological studies and gross weights of the thyroid glands were compatible with hypofunction of the glands in animals from Groups I and III. In Group III, 60% of animals showed abundant fat deposition in testicles. Normal fibroelastic consistency of testicles was found in 30, 80, and 20% of animals in Groups I, II, and III, respectively, at 365 days of age. The area under the curve was 641.5, 982.9 and 462.2 for Groups I, II and III, respectively. Volume, motility and percentage of living spermatozoa increased with age (P<0.05) while total morphological alterations decreased significantly. Animals in Group II had the best sperm production. Histological evaluation revealed 80 and 100% of testicular degeneration in animals from Groups I and III, respectively. The application of diet in Group II is recommended to be used in specialized AI bull rearing units in Cuba according to the quantities and characteristics evaluated in this design. 61 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  15. The effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Hey, Henrik; Johansen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of protein supplementation for non--sarcopenic patients with COPD has yet not previously been examined. AIM: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, muscle strength and biochemical blood markers in patients diagnosed with COPD......, mental state was measured by means of St George Respiratory Questionnaire, physical performance was evaluated by shuttle walking test and maximal muscle strength test, and fasting blood samples were analysed. RESULTS: Supplementing exercise with protein had no additional effect on any of the outcome...... measures. However, shuttle walk time, St George total score and subscore for impact improved as effect of time. CONCLUSION: This trial was unable to provide evidence for the effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in non--sarcopenic patients...

  16. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters.

  17. Performance and meat quality traits of beef heifers fed with two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marcio de Souza; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Zervoudakis, Joanis Tilemahos; Monnerat, João Paulo Ismerio dos Santos; Viana, Gabriel da Silva; Silva, Luiz Henrique P; Serão, Nicola Vergara Lopes

    2011-04-01

    The effects of two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) on performance, intake, digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and commercial cuts yield were assessed. Twenty crossbred heifers (240 kg average body weight) were used. At the beginning of the trial, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the 16 remaining animals were randomly assigned to four treatments, in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two levels of concentrate (40% and 80%, dry matter (DM) basis) and two levels of RUP (48.79% and 27.19% of CP). At the end of the trial, all the animals were slaughtered. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between concentrate and RUP levels. Dry matter intake and nutrients digestibility was not affected (P > 0.05) by RUP level. Heifers fed the highest RUP level had greater (P  0.05) DMI and ADG. Heifers fed diets with 80% concentrate had greater intake of TDN and EE, and lower intake of NDF (P RUP levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the carcass characteristics and carcass gain composition. Heifers fed 80% concentrate diets had larger (P  0.05) the composition of carcass gain. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of RUP and concentrate levels on meat quality traits and commercial cut yields.

  18. The effect of a home delivery meal service of energy- and protein-rich meals on quality of life in malnourished outpatients suffering from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Gade, Josephine; Granov, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and associated with increased incidence of complications and mortality. We investigated the effects of a home delivery meal service, providing a selection of energy-dense, protein-rich meals, on quality of life (QoL) in malnourished lung cancer....... Intervention exerted a significant positive effect on performance score after 12 wk (P = 0.047). Increased energy and protein intakes were strongly associated with improved QoL, functional score, hand grip strength, symptom and performance scores. Food delivery service with energy- and protein-rich main meals...

  19. 5,5'-Dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modification of cysteine improves the crystal quality of human chloride intracellular channel protein 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Wei; Li Lanfen; Su Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Structural studies of human chloride intracellular channel protein 2 (CLIC2) had been hampered by the problem of generating suitable crystals primarily due to the protein containing exposed cysteines. Several chemical reagents were used to react with the cysteines on CLIC2 in order to modify the redox state of the protein. We have obtained high quality crystals that diffracted to better than 2.5 A at a home X-ray source by treating the protein with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). After solving the crystal structure of CLIC2, we found that the DTNB had reacted with the Cys 114 , and made CLIC2 in a homogenous oxidized state. This study demonstrated that the DTNB modification drastically improved the crystallization of CLIC2, and it implied that this method may be useful for other proteins containing exposed cysteines in general

  20. Differential proteomic analysis to identify proteins associated with quality traits of frozen mud shrimp (Solenocera melantho) using an iTRAQ-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Zhang, Longteng; Lei, Yutian; Shen, Huixing; Yu, Xunpei; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-06-15

    An iTRAQ-based strategy was applied to investigate proteome changes in mud shrimp during long-term frozen storage under different conditions. A total of 226 proteins was identified as differential abundance proteins (DAPs) in mud shrimp from two frozen treatment groups (-20 °C and -40 °C) compared with the fresh control group. The proteome changes in mud shrimp muscle stored under -20 °C was much greater than that under -40 °C. Correlation analysis between DAPs and quality traits of mud shrimp muscle showed that 12 proteins were correlated closely with color (L ∗ , a ∗ , and b ∗ value) and texture (hardness, elasticity, and chewiness). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that most of these proteins were involved in protein structure, metabolic enzymes, and protein turnover. Among them, several proteins might be potential protein markers for color, and some proteins are good candidate predictors for textural properties of mud shrimp muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding value of whole raw soya beans as a protein supplement for beef cattle consuming low-quality forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelovich, H M; Lagrange, S; Torre, R; Martinez, M F; Laborde, H E

    2018-02-01

    Experiments (Exp) I and II were conducted to compare raw whole soya beans (WSB), roasted (rWSB) or other protein sources as supplements of low-quality forages fed ad libitum to beef cattle, upon DM intake (DMI), ruminal and blood parameters, and animal performance. Exp I: treatments for wheat straw fed to four ruminally cannulated steers were (i) Control-WS: no supplement; (ii) WSB-WS: whole soya beans; (iii) rWSB-WS: roasted WSB; and (iv) SBM-WS: soybean meal-wheat midds mixture; all fed at 1.4 kg DM/day. Exp II: 12 steers grazed deferred grain sorghum (DS) receiving these treatments: (i) Control-DS: no supplement; (ii) WSB-DS: 1.26 kg DM/day whole soya beans; and (iii) SFM-DS: 1.35 kg DM/day of sunflower meal. In Exp I, WS DMI resulted 47, 52 and 41% greater for WSB-WS, rWSB-WS and SBM-WS, respectively, than Control-WS (p < .05). In Exp II, the DMI of DS was unaffected by supplementation; a substitution of DS by supplement was found for WSB-DS (p < .05); however, total diet and digestible DMI increased with supplementation (p < .05). Rumen pH in Exp I remained unaffected by supplementation, but N-NH 3 as well as blood urea-N in Exp II increased (p < .05). In Exp II, average daily weight gains improved similarly with both supplements compared with Control-DS. Additionally, feed-to-gain ratio decreased (p < .05), being lower for WSB-DS (8.3) vs. SFM-DS (9.9). Roasting effects of WSB as a supplement for low-quality forages were not detected, and all protein sources increased total diet DMI and forage utilization. Only moderate cattle weight gains could be expected for unsupplemented DS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase and ExPASy: providing the plant community with high quality proteomic data and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michel; Tognolli, Michael; Bairoch, Amos

    2004-12-01

    The Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase provides manually annotated entries for all species, but concentrates on the annotation of entries from model organisms to ensure the presence of high quality annotation of representative members of all protein families. A specific Plant Protein Annotation Program (PPAP) was started to cope with the increasing amount of data produced by the complete sequencing of plant genomes. Its main goal is the annotation of proteins from the model plant organism Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition to bibliographic references, experimental results, computed features and sometimes even contradictory conclusions, direct links to specialized databases connect amino acid sequences with the current knowledge in plant sciences. As protein families and groups of plant-specific proteins are regularly reviewed to keep up with current scientific findings, we hope that the wealth of information of Arabidopsis origin accumulated in our knowledgebase, and the numerous software tools provided on the Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy) web site might help to identify and reveal the function of proteins originating from other plants. Recently, a single, centralized, authoritative resource for protein sequences and functional information, UniProt, was created by joining the information contained in Swiss-Prot, Translation of the EMBL nucleotide sequence (TrEMBL), and the Protein Information Resource-Protein Sequence Database (PIR-PSD). A rising problem is that an increasing number of nucleotide sequences are not being submitted to the public databases, and thus the proteins inferred from such sequences will have difficulties finding their way to the Swiss-Prot or TrEMBL databases.

  3. Effects of pretreatment of wheat bran on the quality of protein-rich residue for animal feeding and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Kabel, M.A.; Briens, M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of hydrothermal conditions for pretreating wheat bran on the quality of residual protein for animal feeding, and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production were studied according to a 4 × 2 × 2 design with the factors, temperature (120, 140, 160, and 180 °C), acidity (pH 2.3 and

  4. The influence of plant protein on the properties of dough and the quality of wholemeal spelt bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a soy protein concentrate (protein content 65% as a substituent (substituting 20% wholegrain spelt flour and a pea protein isolate (protein concentration 90% as a substituent (substituting 5% and 10% wholegrain spelt flour on the rheological characteristics of spelt dough and on the physical and sensory characteristics of spelt bread enriched with proteins. The stability of dough supplemented with a soy protein concentrate has turned out to be higher than the stability of dough supplemented with pea protein isolates. It is probably the result of different protein behaviour in soybeans and peas. The applied ingredients have manifested different effects on the specific bread volume. In comparison to the control bread, the specific volume of bread samples have been reduced significantly with addition of a 20% soy protein concentrate and a 10% pea protein isolate (from 1.83 ml/g to 1.39 and 1.38 respectively. On the other hand, addition of a 5% pea protein isolate has not brought to a significant decline in the specific bread volume. Addition of a 10% pea protein isolate has increased the chewiness while this parameter has not changed significantly in relation to the control bread with addition of 5% pea protein and 20% soy protein. Spelt bread with 5% pea isolated protein is the most acceptable according to the overall sensory acceptance among all the analysed samples.

  5. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  6. A fungal biofilm reactor based on metal structured packing improves the quality of a Gla::GFP fusion protein produced by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zune, Q; Delepierre, A; Gofflot, S; Bauwens, J; Twizere, J C; Punt, P J; Francis, F; Toye, D; Bawin, T; Delvigne, F

    2015-08-01

    Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites in accordance with solid-state-related physiological mechanisms. This work is based on the comparative analysis of classical submerged fermentation with a fungal biofilm reactor for the production of a Gla::green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein by Aspergillus oryzae. The biofilm reactor comprises a metal structured packing allowing the attachment of the fungal biomass. Since the production of the target protein is under the control of the promoter glaB, specifically induced in solid-state fermentation, the biofilm mode of culture is expected to enhance the global productivity. Although production of the target protein was enhanced by using the biofilm mode of culture, we also found that fusion protein production is also significant when the submerged mode of culture is used. This result is related to high shear stress leading to biomass autolysis and leakage of intracellular fusion protein into the extracellular medium. Moreover, 2-D gel electrophoresis highlights the preservation of fusion protein integrity produced in biofilm conditions. Two fungal biofilm reactor designs were then investigated further, i.e. with full immersion of the packing or with medium recirculation on the packing, and the scale-up potentialities were evaluated. In this context, it has been shown that full immersion of the metal packing in the liquid medium during cultivation allows for a uniform colonization of the packing by the fungal biomass and leads to a better quality of the fusion protein.

  7. Worldwide Protein Data Bank biocuration supporting open access to high-quality 3D structural biology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John D; Feng, Zukang; Persikova, Irina; Sala, Raul; Sen, Sanchayita; Berrisford, John M; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Oldfield, Thomas J; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Igarashi, Reiko; Armstrong, David R; Baskaran, Kumaran; Chen, Li; Chen, Minyu; Clark, Alice R; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Gao, Guanghua; Ghosh, Sutapa; Gore, Swanand; Guranovic, Vladimir; Hendrickx, Pieter M S; Hudson, Brian P; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Kengaku, Yumiko; Lawson, Catherine L; Liang, Yuhe; Mak, Lora; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nishiyama, Kayoko; Patwardhan, Ardan; Sahni, Gaurav; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Sato, Junko; Sekharan, Monica R; Shao, Chenghua; Smart, Oliver S; Tan, Lihua; van Ginkel, Glen; Yang, Huanwang; Zhuravleva, Marina A; Markley, John L; Nakamura, Haruki; Kurisu, Genji; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Velankar, Sameer; Berman, Helen M; Burley, Stephen K

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single global repository for experimentally determined 3D structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes with ligands. The worldwide PDB (wwPDB) is the international collaboration that manages the PDB archive according to the FAIR principles: Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability. The wwPDB recently developed OneDep, a unified tool for deposition, validation and biocuration of structures of biological macromolecules. All data deposited to the PDB undergo critical review by wwPDB Biocurators. This article outlines the importance of biocuration for structural biology data deposited to the PDB and describes wwPDB biocuration processes and the role of expert Biocurators in sustaining a high-quality archive. Structural data submitted to the PDB are examined for self-consistency, standardized using controlled vocabularies, cross-referenced with other biological data resources and validated for scientific/technical accuracy. We illustrate how biocuration is integral to PDB data archiving, as it facilitates accurate, consistent and comprehensive representation of biological structure data, allowing efficient and effective usage by research scientists, educators, students and the curious public worldwide. Database URL: https://www.wwpdb.org/ PMID:29688351

  8. Comparison of true metabolisable energy and true amino acid availability between normal maize and quality protein maize (Shandan 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A precision-fed assay was conducted to determine true metabolisable energy and true amino acid digestibility in Chinese quality protein maize (QPM compared with normal maize (NM. Thirty adult roosters, kept in individual cages, were made to fast for 48h and then tub-fed 50g QPM or NM per bird and their excreta was colleted for the subsequent 48h. Additional fifteen roosters were made to fast in order to estimate endogenous losses of energy and amino acids (AA in excreta. Gross energy of the two types of maize were similar; the lysine content in NM and QPM were 0.27% and 0.41% (DM basis, respectively. True metabolisable energy (TME and true metabolisable energy nitrogen corrected (TMEn values of QPM and NM were not significantly different (P>0.05. Digestibility of some AA, including lysine and methionine, in QPM were higher than those in NM (P<0.05. The results of this study indicated that the nutritive value of QPM might be higher than that of NM.

  9. Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g and adult (220 g Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM (69.41%, while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48% and high-quality protein maize (71.09% ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79% ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%. The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%, while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86% and beans (87.29% diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11% and maize (49.48% ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46. Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia.

  10. Effects of two protein sources and energy level of diet on the performance of young Marchigiana bulls. 2. Meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to study the influence of two protein sources (faba bean-FB vs soybean meal s.e.-SBM and two energy levels of diets given to young Marchigiana bulls on meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC, chemical composition, hydroxyproline and cholesterol contents, fatty acids profile of intramuscular, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues. While chemical composition and WHC was determined only on muscle Longissimus thoracis (LT, hydroxyproline and cholesterol contents were evaluated also on muscles Semitendinosus (ST and Ileopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP. Eighteen young bulls were divided into three groups. Until the slaughter weight (620 kg was achieved, two groups, FB and SBM, were fed diets with similar protein and energy contents but differing in protein sources, and the third group was fed high energy (HE diets. Protein sources did not affect meat nutritional characteristics; but meat of group SBM had high hydroxyproline content: 62.6 vs 60.0 mg 100g-1, respectively, for SBM and FB groups (P<0.05, while compression losses were higher for FB group (7.6 vs 5.7%, respectively, for FB and SBM groups; P<0.01. As respects the comparison among content of hydroxyproline in the different muscles: IP, corresponding to the tenderloin, showed significantly lower concentrations than the other muscles (55.2 vs 60.7 and 63.5 mg 100g-1 for IP, LT and ST, respectively; P<0.01. Feeding regimes did not affect muscular cholesterol content (average values of 53.6, 55.5 and 52.1 mg 100g-1 of fresh muscle for FB, SBM and HE, respectively which was similar to the levels found in meat from specialised Italian beef breeds and lower than those from other breeds. As respects the differences in cholesterol contents among the muscles, IP showed lower contents than other muscles (50.9 vs 54.1, 56.0 mg 100g-1, respectively for IP, ST, LT; P<0.05. The higher energy diets induced higher concentration of saturated fatty acids, in particular of palmitic

  11. Study on Pollen Quality and Quantity as Protein Source of Honeybee Apis mellifera In Rubber Plantation Area (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Minarti

    2009-08-01

    The conclusion of this research is during migratory beekeeping in the area of rubber plantation, bees get pollen low amounts of protein and amino acid levels below the requirement. Keywords : Pollen, Protein, Amino Acids, Honey Bee, Rubber

  12. Expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 in the human cumulus cells as a biomarker of oocytes and embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirin B Demiray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the transforming growth factor-B superfamily, as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs subfamily and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, play a role during follicular development, and the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2, AMH, and THY1 are expressed in ovaries. Aim: This study was designed to define whether or not the expressions of these proteins in human cumulus cells (CCs can be used as predictors of the oocyte and embryo competence. Settings and Design: The study included nine female patients who were diagnosed as idiopathic infertility, aged 25–33 years (median 30 years and underwent Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Materials and Methods: The CCs from 60 oocyte–cumulus complexes obtained from the nine patients were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining in respect of BMPs, AMH and THY1 markers. The CCs surrounding the same oocytes were evaluated separately according to the oocyte and embryo quality. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative data were statistically analyzed for differences using the two-sided Mann–Whitney U test (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences in immunofluorescence staining were observed in oocyte quality and embryo quality for the BMP2 only (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed for AMH or CD90/THY1. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the expression of BMP2 in the CCs of good quality oocytes and subsequently a good embryo.

  13. The relationship of C-reactive protein levels and positive culture with quality of life in acute rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalek P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petr Schalek, Zuzana Hornáčková, Aleš Hahn Ear, Nose and Throat department, 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS has been shown to significantly reduce patient quality of life (QoL. While the QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade, studies measuring the impact of ARS on patient QoL have remained relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the QoL and parameters suggestive of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (C-reactive protein [CRP] levels and positive culture and to see if measurement of the QoL could be used as an indicator for antibiotic treatment in ARS.Methods: Eighty patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. A novel QoL instrument for patients with ARS, called Measurement of Acute Rhinosinusitis (MARS questionnaire, was given to patients at the time of diagnosis. We assessed patient QoL, obtained endoscopically guided cultures from the middle meatus, and measured levels of CRP. The relationship between QoL MARS scores (QoL-Mscores and CRP was determined using a correlation coefficient. To compare QoL-Mscores, relative to culture-positive and culture-negative patients, the Student’s t-test was used.Results: No correlation between the QoL, assessed using the MARS questionnaire, and positive middle meatus culture was demonstrated (P=0.332. A weak correlation was found between QoL-Mscores and CRP values, with a correlation coefficient of 0.221 and P=0.0498.Conclusion: No correlation between the QoL in ARS patients and positive culture was found in this study. The clinical significance of the correlation between QoL-Mscores and CRP values in the antibiotic decision making process needs further research. Keywords: endoscopy, quality of life, questionnaires, anti-bacterial agents

  14. Kualitas Bakso Daging Sapi Peranakan Ongole yang Diberi Pakan Basal Tongkol Jagung dan Undegraded Protein dalam Complete Feed (The Quality of Meatball Made From Meat of Ongole Crossbred Fed Corncob Basal Diet and Undegraded Protein in Complete Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mia Berutu

    2012-02-01

    2.90, and 2.62, and tenderness 2.60 and 2.97 respectively. P1, P2, and P3 meatballs had scores of color 2.51, 2.56, and 2.73, flavor 2.94, 2.44, and 2.45, texture 3.09, 2.76, and 2.43, and tenderness 2.85, 2.77, and 2.74 respectively. It could be concluded that the feed treatment significantly affected the organoleptic quality of meatball such as color, flavor, texture, and tenderness. (Key words: PO cattle bred, Complete feed, Undegraded protein, Meatballs quality

  15. A Comparative Study of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with Whey and Soy Protein on Rheological Properties of Dough and Cookie Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wheat-based foods that are enriched with proteins is increasingly popular. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of partial replacement of wheat flour with whey and soy proteins (0–30% on the rheological properties of dough and cookie-making quality. The incorporation of whey protein (WP diluted the concentration of gluten, leading to an increase in dough development time (MDT and breakdown torque and a decrease in stability time (MST and minimum torque (MMT. The gelation of WP during the heat treatment increased dough peak torque (MPT, G′, and G′′. As a contrast, the addition of soy protein (SP increased dough MST, MDT, and MMT. The aggregation of SP helped increase G′ and decrease tan δ of the dough in oscillatory shear tests. The weak gelling effects and higher water absorption of SP decreased MPT, G′, and G′′ of the dough during heat treatment. With SP, the spread ratio of cookies first decreased from 6.39 to 5.66 and then increased to 6.86, and the overall acceptability scores ranged from 6.62 to 7.02, indicating that the formed soy protein network helped maintain the dough structure for obtaining an improvement in the quality of bakery products.

  16. External Quality Control for Dried Blood Spot Based C-reactive Protein Assay: Experience from the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peifeng; Herningtyas, Elizabeth H.; Kale, Varsha; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Risbud, Arun R.; McCreath, Heather; Lee, Jinkook; Strauss, John; O’Brien, Jennifer C.; Bloom, David E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, in dried blood spots has been increasingly incorporated in community-based social surveys internationally. Although the dried blood spot based CRP assay protocol has been validated in the United States, it remains unclear whether laboratories in other less developed countries can generate C-reactive protein results of similar quality. We therefore conducted external quality monitoring for dried blood spot based C-reactive protein measurement for the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India. Our results show that dried blood spot based C-reactive protein results in these two countries have excellent and consistent correlations with serum-based values and dried blood spot based results from the reference laboratory in the United States. Even though the results from duplicate samples may have fluctuations in absolute values over time, the relative order of C-reactive protein levels remains similar and the estimates are reasonably precise for population-based studies that investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and health. PMID:25879265

  17. Recent advances in the development of quality protein maize germplasm at the Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasal, S.K.; Villegas, E.; Tang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews past difficulties in the acceptance of quality protein maize (QPM) materials by farmers because of several crucial problems plaguing these materials. The breeding strategy used at the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) over the past several years is described in detail. The strategy is based on the combined use of two genetic systems involving the opaque-2 gene and genetic modifiers. Inheritance of modifiers, some considerations in the exploitation and their role in circumventing the problems facing QPM materials are discussed. Progress is reported in overcoming the problems of yield, seed appearance, ear rot and the dry-down ability in QPM materials. Using hard endosperm QPM donor stocks, a wide array of QPM germplasm has been developed through the conversion programme and the development of QPM gene pools. To make the best use of available QPM germplasm, the current efforts in the management and handling of the germplasm are outlined. In the back-up stages, eight tropical and six subtropical QPM pools will be handled. In addition, six tropical and four subtropical advanced QPM populations were formed. These will be subjected to a rigorous international progency testing programme for improved yield, general adaptation and the stability of modifiers. Experimental data from international tests are presented, indicating the superior performance of several QPM materials. The objectives of some exploratory projects in QPM research are explained. Renewed interest in QPM research is being shown and the outlook for commercial exploitation of QPM materials in some countries seems very promising. (author)

  18. Effects of Differences in Dietary Protein and Varying the Interval from Collection of Bovine Embryos to Freezing on Embryo Quality and Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jousan, Frank Dean

    2002-01-01

    High levels of dietary protein may be detrimental to reproductive performance in cattle. The objective of Exp. 1 was to determine the effects of differences in dietary protein on the production and quality of bovine embryos collected from superovulated donors. Angus cows were randomly assigned to receive one of three experimental diets: a daily ration of 5.7 kg poultry litter, 2.0 kg hay, 3.1 kg corn, and 0.5 kg peanut hulls (LITTER; n = 15); a daily ration of 6.2 kg peanut hulls, 2.2 k...

  19. Myowater dynamics and protein secondary structural changes as affected by heating rate in three pork qualities: a combined FT-IR microspectroscopic and 1H NMR relaxometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyun; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Böcker, Ulrike; Ofstad, Ragni; Kohler, Achim

    2007-05-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of heating rate on myowater dynamics and protein secondary structures in three pork qualities by proton NMR T2 relaxation and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy measurements. Two oven temperatures at 100 degrees C and 200 degrees C corresponding to slow and fast heating rates were applied on three pork qualities (DFD, PSE, and normal) to an internal center temperature of 65 degrees C. The fast heating induced a higher cooking loss, particularly for PSE meat. The water proton T21 distribution representing water entrapped within the myofibrillar network was influenced by heating rate and meat quality. Fast heating broadened the T21 distribution and decreased the relaxation times of the T21 peak position for three meat qualities. The changes in T21 relaxation times in meat can be interpreted in terms of chemical and diffusive exchange. FT-IR showed that fast heating caused a higher gain of random structures and aggregated beta-sheets at the expense of native alpha-helixes, and these changes dominate the fast-heating-induced broadening of T21 distribution and reduction in T21 times. Furthermore, of the three meat qualities, PSE meat had the broadest T21 distribution and the lowest T21 times for both heating rates, reflecting that the protein aggregation of PSE caused by heating is more extensive than those of DFD and normal, which is consistent with the IR data. The present study demonstrated that the changes in T2 relaxation times of water protons affected by heating rate and raw meat quality are well related to the protein secondary structural changes as probed by FT-IR microspectroscopy.

  20. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  1. Effect of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and on air quality under different ventilation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of dietary N utilization for milk protein synthesis in dairy animals is quite low (15 to 35% (NRC, 1988; Tamminga, 1992, therefore farmers are driven to use high protein level diets for sustaining milk production in lactating animals. Previous experiments have demonstrated that an increase in the protein level of diet from 13 to 16% resulted in higher blood urea concentrations (Jaime and Purroy, 1995 and increased N excretion in urine in sheep (Gonzalez et al., 1984.

  2. Amount and quality of dietary proteins during the first two years of life in relation to NCD risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    During late infancy many infants have a protein intake, which is more than three times as high as the physiological need. Several observational studies have shown an association between a high-protein intake (>15 energy %) early in life and an increased risk of developing obesity and thereby non...... in life. In conclusion, there is some evidence that a high protein intake during the complementary feeding period is associated with increased risk of NCDs and that avoidance of a high protein intake could reduce the risk of obesity. In low-income countries, emphasis should be on providing sufficient...

  3. A two-step protein quality control pathway for a misfolded DJ-1 variant in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Søs Grønbæk; Larsen, Ida B.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl

    2015-01-01

    A mutation, L166P, in the cytosolic protein, PARK7/DJ-1, causes protein misfolding and is linked to Parkinson disease. Here, we identify the fission yeast protein Sdj1 as the orthologue of DJ-1 and calculate by in silico saturation mutagenesis the effects of point mutants on its structural...... stability. We also map the degradation pathways for Sdj1-L169P, the fission yeast orthologue of the disease-causing DJ-1 L166P protein. Sdj1-L169P forms inclusions, which are enriched for the Hsp104 disaggregase. Hsp104 and Hsp70-type chaperones are required for efficient degradation of Sdj1-L169P...

  4. Relationship between the dough quality and content of specific glutenin proteins in wheat mill streams, and its application to making flour suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Eriko; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Nishio, Zenta; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Hanaoka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Hisashi; Tanida, Masatoshi; Saruyama, Haruo

    2006-04-01

    The content of specific proteins such as high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits HMW-GS 5+10 and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits LMW-GS KS2 in wheat mill streams of extra-strong Kachikei 33 wheat was quantified by SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE. The mill streams showed varied quantities of HMW-GS 5+10 (0.077 to 2.007 mg/g of mill stream), LMW-GS KS2 (0.018 to 0.586 mg/g of mill stream) and total protein (9.42% to 18.98%). The contents of these specific proteins in the mill streams were significantly correlated with the SDS sedimentation volume and the mixing properties, which are respective indices of specific loaf volume and dough strength. The contents of these specific glutenin proteins in the mill streams were therefore found to be significantly important for improving the dough quality suitable for bread and Chinese noodles. Accordingly, we present here the application of this information to the development of an effective method for producing mill streams with high quality and yield that are suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

  5. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  6. Beef quality with different intramuscular fat content and proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation of differentially expressed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanwei; Hopkins, David L; Zhang, Yimin; Li, Peng; Zhu, Lixian; Dong, Pengcheng; Liang, Rongrong; Dai, Jin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Luo, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is an important trait for beef eating quality. The mechanism of how IMF is deposited in beef cattle muscle is not clear at the molecular level. The muscle (M. longissimus lumborum: LL) of a group of Xiangxi yellow×Angus cattle with high fat levels (HF), was compared to the muscle of a low fat group (LF). The meat quality and the expressed protein patterns were compared. It was shown that LL from the HF animals had a greater fat content (P<0.05) and lower moisture content (P<0.05) than LL from LF animals. Forty seven sarcoplasmic proteins were differentially expressed and identified between the two groups. These proteins are involved in 6 molecular functions and 16 biological processes, and affect the Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway, insulin pathway and c-Jun N-terminal kinases leading to greater IMF deposition. Cattle in the HF group had greater oxidative capacity and lower glycolytic levels suggesting a greater energetic efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactic acid fermentation for refining proteins from green crops and obtaining a high quality feed product for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, M.; Molinuevo-Salces, B.; Kiel, P.

    2017-01-01

    of organic protein-rich feeds from green crops. In this context, red clover, clover grass, alfalfa and oilseed radish were studied as possible feedstocks for the development of an organic biorefinery system in Northern Europe. For this purpose, the green crops were processed into a nitrogen-rich protein...

  8. Mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery, verification, and validation--quality assurance and control of protein biomarker assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Carol E; Borchers, Christoph H

    2014-06-01

    In its early years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics focused on the cataloging of proteins found in different species or different tissues. By 2005, proteomics was being used for protein quantitation, typically based on "proteotypic" peptides which act as surrogates for the parent proteins. Biomarker discovery is usually done by non-targeted "shotgun" proteomics, using relative quantitation methods to determine protein expression changes that correlate with disease (output given as "up-or-down regulation" or "fold-increases"). MS-based techniques can also perform "absolute" quantitation which is required for clinical applications (output given as protein concentrations). Here we describe the differences between these methods, factors that affect the precision and accuracy of the results, and some examples of recent studies using MS-based proteomics to verify cancer-related biomarkers. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    M Bassompierre; A Kjar; Ewen McLean

    1997-01-01

    A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

  10. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  11. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in the milling industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size and mill type on flour yield and end-use quality. A hard red spring wheat composite sample was segregated, based on kernel size, into large, medium, ...

  12. AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E BIOLÓGICA DA PROTEÍNA DO GRÃO EM CULTIVARES DE MILHO DE ALTA QUALIDADE PROTÉICA CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF GRAIN PROTEIN IN QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Dias Paes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Cultivares de milho de alta qualidade protéica (QPM desenvolvidos pela Embrapa Milho e Sorgo foram avaliados quanto ao conteúdo de aminoácidos essenciais e aproveitamento biológico da proteína, em ratos Wistar machos, recém-desmamados. Sete grupos de seis animais foram mantidos durante dez dias sob condições ambientais padronizadas, recebendo cada grupo uma das seguintes rações: a controle a 10% e a 7% de proteína (caseína, b aprotéica, c experimentais com milho a 7% de proteína (QPM amarelo - BR 473, QPM branco - BR 451 e milho comum - BR 136, d mistura arroz-feijão a 10% de proteína (1:1 em base protéica. A qualidade protéica do milho BR 473 foi semelhante à do milho BR 451 e significativamente superior (p < 0,05 à do milho BR 136, segundo os índices NPR (Net Protein Ratio - 3,37; 3,54 e 2,58, respectivamente para BR 473, BR 451 e BR 136 e NPU (Net Protein Utilization - 56%, 58% e 43%, respectivamente. Os milhos QPM possuem valor protéico elevado (média de 83% em relação à proteína de referência, similar ao da mistura arroz feijão, constituindo-se em alimentos promissores para uso em programas de combate à desnutrição no Brasil, em especial para crianças de baixa renda.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Proteína; QPM; qualidade protéica; valor protéico.

    Quality protein

  13. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi eYamamoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/ light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II.

  14. Construction of high-quality Caco-2 three-frame cDNA library and its application to yeast two-hybrid for the human astrovirus protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-Ming; Sui, Ting-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells are widely used as an in vitro model of the human small intestinal mucosa. Caco-2 cells are host cells of the human astrovirus (HAstV) and other enteroviruses. High quality cDNA libraries are pertinent resources and critical tools for protein-protein interaction research, but are currently unavailable for Caco-2 cells. To construct a three-open reading frame, full length-expression cDNA library from the Caco-2 cell line for application to HAstV protein-protein interaction screening, total RNA was extracted from Caco-2 cells. The switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript technique was used for cDNA synthesis. Double-stranded cDNA was digested by Sfi I and ligated to reconstruct a pGADT7-Sfi I three-frame vector. The ligation mixture was transformed into Escherichia coli HST08 premium electro cells by electroporation to construct the primary cDNA library. The library capacity was 1.0×10(6)clones. Gel electrophoresis results indicated that the fragments ranged from 0.5kb to 4.2kb. Randomly picked clones show that the recombination rate was 100%. The three-frame primary cDNA library plasmid mixture (5×10(5)cfu) was also transformed into E. coli HST08 premium electro cells, and all clones were harvested to amplify the cDNA library. To detect the sufficiency of the cDNA library, HAstV capsid protein as bait was screened and tested against the Caco-2 cDNA library by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. A total of 20 proteins were found to interact with the capsid protein. These results showed that a high-quality three-frame cDNA library from Caco-2 cells was successfully constructed. This library was efficient for the application to the Y2H system, and could be used for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  16. Serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktayoglu, Pelin; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Em, Serda; Ucar, Demet; Yazmalar, Levent; Mete, Nuriye; Nas, Kemal; Gezer, Orhan

    2013-08-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory cytokine. Previous studies have suggested that HMGB1 can play an important role in the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in these patients. Twenty-nine patients who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of FM and 29 healthy controls (HC) were included in the present study. Serum samples were collected from both the patients and the HC, and HMGB1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess the disease severity and functional status in patients with FM. Furthermore, the Nottingham Health Profile was used to assess quality of life in all subjects, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess depression and anxiety. The serum levels of HMGB1 protein were positively correlated with the FIQ scores in patients with FM (P = 0.002). Mean serum levels of HMGB1 were higher in patients with FM than in HC but this difference was not statistically significant. HMGB1 protein might be a good laboratory-sourced candidate for the assessment of functional status and disease severity in patients with FM. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Screening for the anti-inflammation quality markers of Xiaojin Pills based on HPLC-MS/MS method, COX-2 inhibition test and protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xi; He, Ya-Nan; Feng, Bi; Pan, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Ke, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ming; Han, Li; Zhang, Ding-Kun

    2018-05-10

    Nowadays, breast disorders seriously affect women's health in an increasing number. In China, Xiaojin Pills are commonly used in the treatment of breast diseases. Doctors have concluded that the combined use of Xiaojin Pills with conventional therapy can significantly improve the efficacy with fewer side effects. However, the prescription of Xiaojin Pills is complicated and their quality control methods cannot completely ensure the quality of Xiaojin Pills. On the basis of its mechanism, our study combined chemical evaluation and biological evaluation to identify the anti-inflammatory markers of Xiaojin Pills. In this manuscript, 13 compounds in Xiaojin Pills were quantified. At the same time, the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition rates of different Xiaojin Pills were measured and the possible markers were screened by spectrum-effect relationship. Further, anti-inflammatory activities of markers were verified and protein interaction network was analyzed, identifying the components of Protocatechuate, Beta-Boswellic acid and Levistilide A as the anti-inflammatory quality markers of Xiaojin Pills. We hope our studies can provide a scientific theoretical basis for accurately quality control of Xiaojin Pills and reasonable suggestions for pharmaceutical companies and new ideas for the quality control of other medicines.

  18. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. METHODS: This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. RESULTS: Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001. Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively. In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  19. The Strength of Family Ties: Perceptions of Network Relationship Quality and Levels of C-Reactive Proteins in the North Texas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N; Ruiz, John M; Smith, Timothy W; Smyth, Joshua M; Taylor, Daniel J; Allison, Matthew; Ahn, Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the quality of one's social relationships has been linked to important physical health outcomes, less work has been conducted examining family and friends that differ in their underlying positivity and negativity. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between supportive, aversive, and ambivalent family/friends with levels of C-reactive proteins. Three hundred participants from the North Texas Heart Study completed the social relationships index and a blood draw to assess high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRPs). After standard controls, the number of supportive family members predicted lower hs-CRP levels, whereas the number of ambivalent family members predicted higher hs-CRP levels. These links were independent of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. These data highlight the importance of considering specific types of relationships and their underlying positive and negative aspects in research on social ties and physical health.

  20. The electrostatic profile of consecutive Cβ atoms applied to protein structure quality assessment [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2cf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure of a protein provides insight into its physiological interactions with other components of the cellular soup. Methods that predict putative structures from sequences typically yield multiple, closely-ranked possibilities. A critical component in the process is the model quality assessing program (MQAP, which selects the best candidate from this pool of structures. Here, we present a novel MQAP based on the physical properties of sidechain atoms. We propose a method for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the electrostatic potential difference (EPD of Cβ atoms in consecutive residues. We demonstrate that the EPDs of Cβ atoms on consecutive residues provide unique signatures of the amino acid types. The EPD of Cβ atoms are learnt from a set of 1000 non-homologous protein structures with a resolution cuto of 1.6 Å obtained from the PISCES database. Based on the Boltzmann hypothesis that lower energy conformations are proportionately sampled more, and on Annsen's thermodynamic hypothesis that the native structure of a protein is the minimum free energy state, we hypothesize that the deviation of observed EPD values from the mean values obtained in the learning phase is minimized in the native structure. We achieved an average specificity of 0.91, 0.94 and 0.93 on hg_structal, 4state_reduced and ig_structal decoy sets, respectively, taken from the Decoys `R' Us database. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134.

  1. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  2. The level of heat shock protein 90 in pig Longissimus dorsi muscle and its relationship with meat pH and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muhan; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2014-12-15

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that participates in various cellular processes, the role and significance of HSP90 in postmortem muscle though remains unclear. In the present study, pig Longissimus dorsi muscles, categorized into three pH groups, were tested for HSP90 levels and meat quality parameters (i.e. water holding capacity, colour, tenderness and lipid oxidation). The muscles with a high initial pH (pHi) group (pH>6.4) possessing the greatest water holding capacity and lightness, contained the highest HSP90 level, followed by intermediate (6.0-6.4) and low pHi groups (pHwater retention of meat and may be involved in postmortem meat quality development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological quality and gene expression related to heat-resistant proteins at different stages of development of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, T; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, R G; Oliveira, G E; Andrade, V; Fernandes, J S

    2013-09-13

    We quantified and characterized the expression of heat-resistant proteins during seed development of maize lines with distinct levels of tolerance to high drying temperature. A corn field was planted for multiplication of seeds of different lines, two tolerant and two non-tolerant to high drying temperatures. Harvest of the seeds was carried out at various stages of development and they were then subjected to tests of moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, and cold test. The seeds were stored in a freezer for later analysis of expression of heat-resistant proteins by means of real-time PCR, electrophoresis, and spectrophotometry. We observed that heat-resistant proteins are expressed in a differential manner in seeds from different lines and at different stages of development. The expression of heat-resistant proteins was earlier in lines tolerant to high drying temperatures. Greater germination and vigor values was found for seeds collected at the last stage of development.

  4. Effect of crude protein concentration and dietary electrolyte balance on litter quality, foot pad dermatitis, growth performance and processing yields in two medium heavy turkey hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T; Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J

    2017-10-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of crude protein (CP) concentration and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, processing yields, litter quality and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in male turkeys from two commercial hybrids. Soya bean meal was replaced by vegetable protein sources selected for lower K concentrations to lower DEB in order to improve litter quality and subsequent quality of foot pads. 2. Effects of CP on litter friability and wetness were not consistent during the production period. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low CP was significantly lower than FPD in turkeys fed on diets with high CP until 84 d. Growth performance was adversely affected at low CP. Processing yields were not affected by CP. 3. Litter was significantly dryer in pens of turkeys fed on diets with low DEB than in pens of turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low DEB was significantly lower than in turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. Growth performance and processing yields were adversely affected at low DEB. 4. FPD in turkey hybrid A was higher than in turkey hybrid B at 28 d of age. Thereafter, no differences in FPD between turkey hybrids were observed. Growth performance and processing yields were not affected by turkey hybrid. 5. Overall, a significant interaction effect of CP × DEB was observed for FCR: in turkeys fed on the high DEB treatment, FCR of turkeys fed on the high CP diets was lower than FCR of turkeys fed on the low CP (LCP) diets whereas on the low DEB treatment, FCR was not affected by CP treatment. 6. It was concluded that litter quality can be improved and FPD may be decreased in turkeys fed on diets containing lower CP and DEB levels.

  5. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  6. Impact of egg white protein on the quality and stability of corn oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Batool, J.; Ajaz, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of egg albumin has been examined on the texture and stability of O/W emulsion. The corn oil was used as dispersed phase while the aqueous phase as continuous phase of the emulsion. The aqueous phase was designed with the protein contents (0.5- 4 wt. %) at pH 7. The different oil phase (10-40 wt. %) were homogenized in aqueous phase (90-60 wt. %). It was observed that the viscosity and turbidity of the emulsion were increased with the increase of protein concentration and oil phase contents. Flow profile showed that shear stress was increased with increase of shear rate but it decreased at higher shear rate (100 s-1) in heated emulsion. On the other hand the emulsion viscosity was decreased with the increase of shear rate showing non- Newtonian behavior. This work may be useful in the formulation and physicochemical properties of food products i.e. sauces, mayonnaise etc. (author)

  7. Optimization of crude protein in diets for Nile tilapia reared in net pens: performance, hematology, and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Del Puppo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary crude protein (CP, based on the ideal protein concept for Nile tilapia reared in net pens. The experimental (isocaloric, isocalcium, and isophosphoric diets were formulated to contain 270, 300, 330, and 360g kg-1 CP. In experiment 1, 4320 Nile tilapia (13.5±0.82g were used to evaluate the performance and hematological parameters. The experimental design was completely randomized and the fish were distributed in 24 net pens (1.0m3, with four diets, six replicates, and 180 fishes per experimental unit. In experiment 2, 40 Nile tilapia (22.5±0.56g were used to evaluate the ammonia excretion. Fish were distributed in 40 aquaria (3.0L, with one fish per aquarium (n=10. No protein reduction effect was observed in feed intake and the hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Regarding the statistic models used in the present study, difference was observed between CP values. The optimal level estimated by the quadratic equation first interception with the linear response plateau (LRP as a response to CP changes in the diet was determined for weight gain (324.3g kg-1 and feed conversion (317.8g kg-1. After reduction in the CP levels, a linear reduction was observed in the ammonia excretion in water. Based on the ideal protein concept for Nile tilapia reared in net pens, reducing the CP levels in the diets is possible, without change in the performance and hematological parameters, and with a reduction in the levels of ammonia excretion in water, since amino acids are supplemented.

  8. A protein interaction atlas for the nuclear receptors: properties and quality of a hub-based dimerisation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Graaf David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors are a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors that constitute major pharmacological targets. They exert their combinatorial control through homotypic heterodimerisation. Elucidation of this dimerisation network is vital in order to understand the complex dynamics and potential cross-talk involved. Results Phylogeny, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and gene expression data have been integrated to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the topology and properties of the nuclear receptor interaction network in humans. We discriminate between DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding dimers, and provide a comprehensive interaction map, that identifies potential cross-talk between the various pathways of nuclear receptors. Conclusion We infer that the topology of this network is hub-based, and much more connected than previously thought. The hub-based topology of the network and the wide tissue expression pattern of NRs create a highly competitive environment for the common heterodimerising partners. Furthermore, a significant number of negative feedback loops is present, with the hub protein SHP [NR0B2] playing a major role. We also compare the evolution, topology and properties of the nuclear receptor network with the hub-based dimerisation network of the bHLH transcription factors in order to identify both unique themes and ubiquitous properties in gene regulation. In terms of methodology, we conclude that such a comprehensive picture can only be assembled by semi-automated text-mining, manual curation and integration of data from various sources.

  9. Chemotherapy-Related Toxicity, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life in Precachectic Oncologic Patients with, or without, High Protein Nutritional Support. A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziętarska, Monika; Krawczyk-Lipiec, Joanna; Kraj, Leszek; Zaucha, Renata; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia

    2017-10-11

    Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS) in adult oncologic patients in the first step of cancer cachexia-asymptomatic precachexia, has an influence on the toxicity of systemic therapy. However, secondary endpoints were established: to determine whether high protein ONS influences the nutritional status, the quality of life, and the performance status. A total of 114 persons aged 40-84 years old with colorectal cancer were examined. Based on the randomization, 47 patients were qualified to the interventional group (ONS group) and 48 to Control group. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening), SGA (Subjective Global Assessment), SCRINIO (SCReenIng the Nutritional status In Oncology) Working Group classification, VAS (Visual Analog Scale) for appetite was used. FAACT (Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy) questionnaire was used for assessment of the quality of life. The health status of patients was evaluated based on the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Anthropometric measurements were done. Severe complications of chemotherapy, which caused the end of treatment, a slight complication of the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea grade 2 according to ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) score regardless of the studied group, were observed. There were no statistical differences in the number and severity of the observed complications, i.e., neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. During the follow-up the significant changes of SGA, VAS, albumin and prealbumin were observed between groups. In the ONS group an improvement in nutritional status was noticed (increased appetite VAS, p = 0.05; increased points in SGA, p = 0.015, and

  10. Chemotherapy-Related Toxicity, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life in Precachectic Oncologic Patients with, or without, High Protein Nutritional Support. A Prospective, Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ziętarska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS in adult oncologic patients in the first step of cancer cachexia—asymptomatic precachexia, has an influence on the toxicity of systemic therapy. However, secondary endpoints were established: to determine whether high protein ONS influences the nutritional status, the quality of life, and the performance status. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 persons aged 40–84 years old with colorectal cancer were examined. Based on the randomization, 47 patients were qualified to the interventional group (ONS group and 48 to Control group. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening, SGA (Subjective Global Assessment, SCRINIO (SCReenIng the Nutritional status In Oncology Working Group classification, VAS (Visual Analog Scale for appetite was used. FAACT (Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire was used for assessment of the quality of life. The health status of patients was evaluated based on the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Severe complications of chemotherapy, which caused the end of treatment, a slight complication of the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea grade 2 according to ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score regardless of the studied group, were observed. There were no statistical differences in the number and severity of the observed complications, i.e., neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. During the follow-up the significant changes of SGA, VAS, albumin and prealbumin were observed between groups. In the ONS group an improvement in nutritional status was noticed

  11. Teor de proteína e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz Protein content and physiological quality of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pivotto Bortolotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de proteína como elemento auxiliar na determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz, além de correlacioná-la com a emergência em campo. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de arroz, sendo três lotes da cultivar IRGA 417 e três lotes da cultivar IRGA 422 CL, submetidas ao conjunto de testes, para caracterizar o potencial fisiológico dos lotes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, frio sem terra, comprimento de plântula e massa seca de plântula. Após a determinação da qualidade inicial dos lotes foi aplicado novo conjunto de testes, composto pelo teor de proteína bruta e pelas avaliações das plântulas e plantas em campo. Conclui-se que o teor de proteína bruta é capaz de identificar diferenças entre lotes de arroz, em função da qualidade das sementes, e correlacionar-se com a emergência em campo, quando ocorre em condições desfavoráveis; portanto, trata-se de uma determinação promissora para associação aos testes convencionais a fim de avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de arroz.This work aimed to evaluate the protein content as an aiding tool in the determination of the physiological quality of rice seeds, as well as to correlate the results with field emergence. Six lots of rice seeds were used, i. e., three lots were of cultivar IRGA 417 and three of IRGA 422 CL, which were submitted to a set of tests in order to measure the following physiological qualities of the lots: germination, first count germination, accelerated aging, cold test (without soil, length and dry mass of seedlings. After determining the initial quality of the lots, a new set of tests such as crude protein content and seedlings and plants evaluations in the field were carried out. It was concluded that crude protein content is capable to identify differences between rice lots with different seed quality and to correlate with field

  12. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  13. Consuming High-Protein Soy Snacks Affects Appetite Control, Satiety, and Diet Quality in Young People and Influences Select Aspects of Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Todd, Chelsie B; Zino, Adam Z; Immel, Jordan E; Mukherjea, Ratna; Shafer, Rebecca S; Ortinau, Laura C; Braun, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Data concerning the effects of afternoon snacking on ingestive behavior, mood, and cognition are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare 1088 kJ of high-protein (HP) or high-fat (HF) afternoon snacks vs. no snacking on appetite, food intake, mood, and cognition in adolescents. Thirty-one healthy adolescents (age: 17 ± 1 y) consumed the following afternoon snacks (in randomized order) for 3 d: HP snack (26 g of protein/6 g of fat per 27 g of carbohydrates), HF snack (4 g of protein/12 g of fat per 32 g of carbohydrates), and no snack (NoS). On day 4 of each treatment, the participants completed an 8-h testing day containing pre- and postsnack appetite questionnaires, food cue-stimulated functional MRI brain scans, mood, cognitive function, and eating initiation. Ad libitum dinner and evening snacks were provided and assessed. HP, but not HF, delayed eating initiation vs. NoS (P snacks reduced appetite vs. NoS (P snacks than NoS (P snacking, particularly on HP soy foods, improves appetite, satiety, and diet quality in adolescents, while beneficially influencing aspects of mood and cognition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01781286. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  15. Inhibition of interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate and myofibrillar protein by cyclodextrin derivatives improves gel quality under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumeng; Chen, Lin; Lv, Yuanqi; Wang, Shuangxi; Suo, Zhiyao; Cheng, Xingguang; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2018-06-01

    High levels of polyphenols can interact with myofibrillar proteins (MPs), causing damage to a MP emulsion gel. In this study, β-cyclodextrins were used to reduce covalent and non-covalent interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and MPs under oxidative stress. The loss of both thiol and free amine groups and the unfolding of MPs caused by EGCG (80 μM/g protein) were significantly prevented by β-cyclodextrins, and the structural stability and solubility were improved. MP emulsion gel treated with EGCG (80 μM/g protein) had the highest cooking loss (68.64%) and gel strength (0.51 N). Addition of β-cyclodextrins significantly reduced cooking loss (26.24-58.20%) and improved gel strength (0.31-0.41 N) of MP emulsion gel jeopardized by EGCG under oxidative stress. Damage to the emulsifying properties of MPs caused by EGCG was significantly prevented by addition of β-cyclodextrins. β-cyclodextrins reduced interaction between EGCG and MPs in the order Methyl-β-cyclodextrin > (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin > β-cyclodextrin. In absence of EGCG, addition of β-cyclodextrins partly protected MPs from oxidative attack and improved its solubility. It is concluded that β-cyclodextrins does not markedly reduce the antioxidant ability of EGCG according to carbonyl analysis, and can effectively increase EGCG loading to potentially provide more durable antioxidant effect for meat products during processing, transportation and storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-05

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares Filho, S C; Valadares, R F D; Prates, L L; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2016-01-01

    Effects of supplemental RDP and RUP on nutrient digestion, N metabolism, urea kinetics, and muscle protein degradation were evaluated in Nellore heifers () consuming low-quality signal grass hay (5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis). Five ruminally and abomasally cannulated Nellore heifers (248 ± 9 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Treatments were the control (no supplement) and RDP supplementation to meet 100% of the RDP requirement plus RUP provision to supply 0, 50, 100, or 150% of the RUP requirement. Supplemental RDP (casein plus NPN) was ruminally dosed twice daily, and RUP supply (casein) was continuously infused abomasally. Jugular infusion of [NN]-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to evaluate urea kinetics. The ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was used to estimate skeletal muscle protein degradation. Forage NDF intake (2.48 kg/d) was not affected ( ≥ 0.37) by supplementation, but supplementation did increase ruminal NDF digestion ( Urea entry rate and gastrointestinal entry rate of urea were increased by supplementation ( urea entry rate and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase gastrointestinal entry rate of urea. Urea use for anabolic purposes tended ( = 0.07) to be increased by supplementation, and RUP provision also tended ( = 0.08) to linearly increase the amount of urea used for anabolism. The fraction of recycled urea N incorporated into microbial N was greater ( urea from the renal tubule than did supplemented heifers. Overall, unsupplemented heifers had greater mobilization of AA from myofibrillar protein, which provided N for urea synthesis and subsequent recycling. Supplemental RUP, when RDP was supplied, not only increased N retention but also supported increased urea N recycling and increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  18. Terrestrially derived glomalin-related soil protein quality as a potential ecological indicator in a peri-urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xueyan; Wu, Zhipeng; Lin, Chen; Zhou, Shenglu

    2017-07-01

    Glomalin, which sequesters substantial amounts of carbon, plays a critical role in sustaining terrestrial biome functions and contributes to the fate of many pollutants from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Despite having focused on the amount of glomalin produced, very few attempts have been made to understand how landscapes and environmental conditions influence glomalin composition and characteristics. This study focused on glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) exported as storm runoff including eroded sediment and water that was collected before flowing to surface waters in a peri-urban watershed. GRSP characteristics were assessed by Bradford protein analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), and the determination of aromaticity based on the specific ultraviolet absorption value (280 nm) and molecular weight. General linear models (GLMs) was established by integrating microbial activity, land cover, water temperature, precipitation, and other solution chemical properties to explain the variations in GRSP characteristics. Results showed that a higher GRSP concentration in agricultural reference sites was produced in the form of specific materials with low molecular weight and aromaticity, as well as high percentage of C1 and C5 components which indicate microbial-processed sources, relative to urbanized and forested sites. Compared with forested land, urbanized land clearly produced runoff GRSP with low molecular weight and aromaticity, as well as more degradation of humic-like materials (C3 component). The highest GLM explaining 89% of the variables, including significant variables (p watershed management and thus protecting aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Use of a Chimeric Hsp70 to Enhance the Quality of Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Protein Produced in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoba, Xolani Henry; Burger, Adélle; Coertzen, Dina; Zininga, Tawanda; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Shonhai, Addmore

    2016-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (PfAdoMetDC) from Plasmodium falciparum is a prospective antimalarial drug target. The production of recombinant PfAdoMetDC for biochemical validation as a drug target is important. The production of PfAdoMetDC in Escherichia coli has been reported to result in unsatisfactory yields and poor quality product. The co-expression of recombinant proteins with molecular chaperones has been proposed as one way to improve the production of the former in E. coli. E. coli heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL-GroES and DnaJ have previously been used to enhance production of some recombinant proteins. However, the outcomes were inconsistent. An Hsp70 chimeric protein, KPf, which is made up of the ATPase domain of E. coli DnaK and the substrate binding domain of P. falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) has been previously shown to exhibit chaperone function when it was expressed in E. coli cells whose resident Hsp70 (DnaK) function was impaired. We proposed that because of its domain constitution, KPf would most likely be recognised by E. coli Hsp70 co-chaperones. Furthermore, because it possesses a substrate binding domain of plasmodial origin, KPf would be primed to recognise recombinant PfAdoMetDC expressed in E. coli. First, using site-directed mutagenesis, followed by complementation assays, we established that KPf with a mutation in the hydrophobic residue located in its substrate binding cavity was functionally compromised. We further co-expressed PfAdoMetDC with KPf, PfHsp70 and DnaK in E. coli cells either in the absence or presence of over-expressed GroEL-GroES chaperonin. The folded and functional status of the produced PfAdoMetDC was assessed using limited proteolysis and enzyme assays. PfAdoMetDC co-expressed with KPf and PfHsp70 exhibited improved activity compared to protein co-expressed with over-expressed DnaK. Our findings suggest that chimeric KPf may be an ideal Hsp70 co-expression partner for the production of recombinant plasmodial

  20. Diet quality is inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels in urban, low-income African-American and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Mason, Marc A; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2013-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is influenced by many factors, including socioeconomic position, genetics, and diet. The inverse association between diet and CRP is biologically feasible because micronutrients with antioxidative properties may enable the body to manage the balance between production and accumulation of reactive species that cause oxidative stress. To determine the quality of the diet consumed by urban, low-income African-American and white adults aged 30 to 64 years, and association of diet quality with CRP. Data from a cross-sectional study were used to evaluate diet quality assessed by mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Two 24-hour recalls were collected by trained interviewers using the US Department of Agriculture automated multiple pass method. The sample consisted of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span baseline study participants, 2004-2009, who completed both recalls (n=2,017). MAR equaled the average of the ratio of intakes to Recommended Dietary Allowance for 15 vitamins and minerals. CRP levels were assessed by the nephelometric method utilizing latex particles coated with CRP monoclonal antibodies. Linear ordinary least square regression and generalized linear models were performed to determine the association of MAR (independent variable) with CRP (dependent variable) while adjusting for potential confounders. MAR scores ranged from 74.3 to 82.2. Intakes of magnesium and vitamins A, C, and E were the most inadequate compared with Estimated Average Requirements. CRP levels were significantly associated with MAR, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured body fat, and hypertension. A 10% increase in MAR was associated with a 4% decrease in CRP. The MAR was independently and significantly inversely associated with CRP, suggesting diet is associated with the regulation of inflammation. Interventions to assist people make better food choices may not only improve diet quality but also their health

  1. Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on site and extent of digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics in lambs fed low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Ludden, P A

    2010-02-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Suffolk wether lambs (34.5 +/- 2.0 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square-designed experiment to examine the effects of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on site and extent of digestion in lambs consuming a low-quality forage diet. Wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP supplement provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements, provided on alternate days (MIX-A). Forage OM, N, NDF, or ADF intakes were not affected by treatment. True ruminal OM digestibility was greater (P RUP-A lambs compared with other treatments. Ruminal digestibilities of NDF and ADF were greater (P RUP had less (P RUP-A lambs exhibiting the least concentrations and least variation over time. Ruminal urease activity was not affected by treatment. Microbial N flow was not affected by treatment; however, there was an increase (P = 0.004) in microbial efficiency for RDP-D lambs. Alternate day protein supplementation with a mixture of RDP and RUP may improve digestibility in lambs consuming low-quality forage, which may be related to decreased fluctuation in ruminal ammonia concentrations as a result of greater endogenous N recycling.

  2. Application of quality by design principles to the development and technology transfer of a major process improvement for the manufacture of a recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Mairead; Ibarra, Neysi; Pierce, James J; Buckley, Kevin; O'Donovan, Eimear; Heenan, Mary; Moran, Enda; Farid, Suzanne S; Baganz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of quality by design (QbD) principles to the development and implementation of a major manufacturing process improvement for a commercially distributed therapeutic protein produced in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture. The intent of this article is to focus on QbD concepts, and provide guidance and understanding on how the various components combine together to deliver a robust process in keeping with the principles of QbD. A fed-batch production culture and a virus inactivation step are described as representative examples of upstream and downstream unit operations that were characterized. A systematic approach incorporating QbD principles was applied to both unit operations, involving risk assessment of potential process failure points, small-scale model qualification, design and execution of experiments, definition of operating parameter ranges and process validation acceptance criteria followed by manufacturing-scale implementation and process validation. Statistical experimental designs were applied to the execution of process characterization studies evaluating the impact of operating parameters on product quality attributes and process performance parameters. Data from process characterization experiments were used to define the proven acceptable range and classification of operating parameters for each unit operation. Analysis of variance and Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to assess the appropriateness of process design spaces. Successful implementation and validation of the process in the manufacturing facility and the subsequent manufacture of hundreds of batches of this therapeutic protein verifies the approaches taken as a suitable model for the development, scale-up and operation of any biopharmaceutical manufacturing process. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. In vitro assembly into virus-like particles is an intrinsic quality of Pichia pastoris derived HCV core protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Rivero, Nelson; Rodriguez, Armando; Musacchio, Alexis; Falcon, Viviana; Suarez, Viana M.; Martinez, Gillian; Guerra, Ivis; Paz-Lago, Dalila; Morera, Yanelys; Rosa, Maria C. de la; Morales-Grillo, Juan; Duenas-Carrera, Santiago

    2004-01-01

    Different variants of hepatitis C virus core protein (HCcAg) have proved to self-assemble in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, difficulties in obtaining purified mature HCcAg have limited these studies. In this study, a high degree of monomeric HCcAg purification was accomplished using chromatographic procedures under denaturing conditions. Size exclusion chromatography and sucrose density gradient centrifugation of renatured HCcAg (in the absence of structured RNA) under reducing conditions suggested that it assembled into empty capsids. The electron microscopy analysis of renatured HCcAg showed the presence of spherical VLPs with irregular shapes and an average diameter of 35 nm. Data indicated that HCcAg monomers assembled in vitro into VLPs in the absence of structured RNA, suggesting that recombinant HCcAg used in this work contains all the information necessary for the assembly process. However, they also suggest that some cellular factors might be required for the proper in vitro assembly of capsids

  4. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gulay; Diffey, Simon; Cullis, Brian; Azanza, Fermin; Martin, David; Kelly, Alison; McIntyre, Lynne; Schmidt, Adele; Ma, Wujun; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Leyne, P Emmett; Rampling, Lynette; Quail, Ken J; Morell, Matthew K

    2009-05-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.

  5. Sweetpotato- and cereal-based infant foods: protein quality assessment, and effect on body composition using sprague dawley rats as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    Full Text Available The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g. The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (P<0.0001 higher than that for OFSP ComFa, CFSP ComFa and Weanimix. However, OFSP ComFa had the highest un-truncated PDCAAS by a difference of 4.1%, than CFSP ComFa, and about 20% difference compared with both the Weanimix and Cerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively. However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03. The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.

  6. Effects of castration age, dietary protein level and lysine/methionine ratio on animal performance, carcass and meat quality of Friesian steers intensively reared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2014-09-01

    The effects of castration age, dietary protein level and the dietary lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied in 64 intensively reared Friesian steers. Animals underwent castration procedures at 15 days old or at 5 months old. Dietary treatments started at 90 days old, with eight animals from each castration age randomly allocated to each treatment: 14.6% v. 16.8% CP (DM basis), and 3.0 v. 3.4 lys/met, on a 2×2×2 design. The recommended ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Steers were slaughtered at 443.5±26.2 kg live weight when they reached 12 months old approximately. Average daily gain, cold carcass weight or carcass classification were not affected by any studied effect. Muscle moisture (P=0.024), C18:2n-6 percentage (P=0.047), polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (P=0.049) and n-6/n-3 (P=0.003) were higher in late castrated animals. Both high levels of dietary protein (P=0.008) and lys/met ratio (P=0.048) increased the percentage of muscle in the carcass. A level of 16.8% of CP in the diet also increased the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids in the intramuscular fat (P=0.032), whereas a ratio lys/met of 3.4 decreased the percentage of saturated fatty acids (P=0.028). Thus, it is recommended using diets with a high protein level (16.8%) and a high lys/met ratio (3.4) in animals slaughtered at a young age, in order to obtain carcasses with high muscle content without negatively affecting productive traits or intramuscular fat composition.

  7. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k 20 , min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a 30 , a 45 , and a 60 , mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CF P , mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (k CF , % × min -1 ), curd syneresis instant rate constant (k SR , % × min -1 ), modeled RCT (RCT eq , min), maximum CF value (CF max, mm), and time at CF max (t max , min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CY CURD ), dry matter (%CY SOLIDS ), and water (%CY WATER ) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (REC PROTEIN , REC FAT , REC SOLIDS , and REC ENERGY ), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC culture-negative samples with low, medium, or high SCC; and culture-positive samples divided into contagious, environmental, and opportunistic

  9. Improvement of ovarian response and oocyte quality of aged female by administration of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seung S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advancing female age remains a difficult problem in infertility treatment. Ovarian angiogenesis plays an important role in follicular development and the activation of ovarian angiogenesis has been emerged as a new strategy for the improvement of age-related decline of oocyte quality. BMP-6 affect gonadotropin signals in granulosa cells and it promotes normal fertility by enabling appropriate response to LH and normal oocyte quality. BMP-6 has a potential role in regulation of angiogenesis and regulates the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins (Ids. Ids involved in the control and timing of follicle selection and granulosa cells differentiation. Especially, Id-1 is well-characterized target of BMP-6 signaling. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-administration of BMP-6 during superovulation process improves ovarian response, oocyte quality and expression of Id-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the ovary of aged female using a mouse model. Methods Aged C57BL/6 female mice (26–31 weeks old were superovulated by injection with 0.1 mL of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG containing recombinant mouse BMP-6 at various doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng, followed by injection with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later. Then, the mice were immediately paired with an individual male. The aged control group was superovulated without BMP-6. Young mice of 6–9 weeks old were superovulated without BMP-6 as a positive control for superovulation and in vitro culture of embryos. Eighteen hours after hCG injection, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Both ovaries of each mouse were provided in the examination of ovarian expression of Id-1 and VEGF by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of 0.1 ng BMP-6 significantly increased the number and blastocyst formation rate of oocytes ovulated and ovarian

  10. Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Sanitization of an Isolator for Aseptic Filling of Monoclonal Antibody Drug Product - Hydrogen Peroxide Uptake and Impact on Protein Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Aaron; Reodl, Thomas; Hui, Ada; Knueppel, Stephanie; Eppler, Kirk; Lehnert, Siegfried; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2018-03-15

    A monoclonal antibody drug product (DP) manufacturing process was transferred to a different production site, where aseptic filling took place within an isolator that was sanitized using vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP). A quality-by-design approach was applied for study design to understand the impact of VPHP uptake in the isolator on DP quality. A combination of small-scale and manufacturing-scale studies was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the monoclonal antibody to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as VPHP uptake mechanisms during the filling process. The acceptable H2O2 level was determined to be 100 ng/mL for the antibody in the H2O2 spiking study; protein oxidation was observed above this threshold. The most prominent sources of VPHP uptake were identified to be via the silicone tubing assembly (associated with the peristaltic pumps) and open, filled vials. Silicone tubing, an effective depot to H2O2, could absorb VPHP during different stages of the filling process and discharge H2O2 into the DP solution during filling interruptions. A small-scale isolator model, established to simulate manufacturing-scale conditions, was a useful tool in understanding H2O2 uptake in relation to tubing dimensions and VPHP concentration in the isolator air (or atmosphere). Although the tubing assembly had absorbed a substantial amount of VPHP during the decontamination phase, the majority of H2O2 could be removed during tubing cleaning and sterilization in the subsequent isolator aeration phase, demonstrating that H2O2 in the DP solution is taken up primarily via atmospheric VPHP residues in the isolator during filling. Picarro sensor monitoring suggested that the validated VPHP aeration process generates reproducible residual VPHP profiles in isolator air, thus allowing small-scale studies to provide more relevant recommendations on tubing size and interruption time limits for commercial manufacturing. The recommended process parameters were demonstrated to be

  11. TEOR DE PROTEÍNA NO GRÃO EM POPULAÇÕES DE MILHO DE ALTA QUALIDADE PROTÉICA E SEUS CRUZAMENTOS KERNEL PROTEIN CONTENT IN QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE POPULATIONS AND THEIR CROSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    quality protein maize (QPM and their crosses for total grain protein. The heterosis and its components were quantified as useful parameters for breeding these populations. The analyses were carried out on 96 hybrids, derived from eight populations of dent grains (group 1 and thirteen of flint grains (group 2, including their parents in a partial diallel intergroup design. Kjeldahl's method was used to analyse total protein content. Variance analysis results were significant for all effects, revealing heterogeneity among and within the groups, as well as the presence of heterosis. The total protein content means of group 1 and group 2 were 9.67 g/100g and 10.51 g/100g, respectively, and the mean of hybrid combinations was 11.86 g/100g. The general mean involving all parents and crosses was 11.61 g/100g. The average heterosis was 17.58%, revealing the superiority of the hybrids over the parents. As far as general combining ability and yield mean are concerned, the best parents were CMS 454, CMS 474 and ZQP 103 (group 1 and CMS 453, BR 473, CMS 463, CMS 458 and ZQP 102 (group 2. These populations are recommended for QPM composites with high protein content.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; protein; nutrition quality; QPM; diallel.

  12. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P EPF diets. Steers fed CON also had greater G:F (P EPF steers. Final BW was greater for CON than EP and EPF diets (P EPF steers (P = 0.04). Dressing percent, 12th-rib fat depth, LM area, KPH, and yield grade were not affected by treatment (P >or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P EPF diets. There were no differences in WBSF, ether extract, or lipid oxidation due to treatment (P >or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than EF-fed steers and greater b* values than EP, EF, and EPF steers (P

  13. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE BETWEEN ADOPTERS AND NON-ADOPTERS, AND THE DETERMINANTS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Elijah OBAYELU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the technical efficiency (TE of production of Quality Protein Maize (QPM and the effect on the adoption of QPM in Oyo State, Nigeria. QPM is an improved maize variety developed to reduce protein deficiency problems. A total of 100 maize farmers were sampled through a two-stage sampling procedure. Stochastic frontier approach using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE was used to analyse the TE in the production of QPM, while probit regression was used to determine the effect of TE and other socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents on the adoption of QPM. The results revealed a mean TE of 0.89 and 0.78 for adopters and non-adopters of QPM respectively. This implied that adopters of QPM are more technically efficient than the non-adopters. Quantity of seed planted and fertilizer directly and significantly affected the TE of QPM while gross margin of maize farmers and income from other sources (at P<0.05, the level of education of farmers and QPM farm size (P<0.01 have significant and a negative effects on technical inefficiency from the results of the Tobit regression. The age (P<0.05 of the farmer has direct effect on technical inefficiency. In conclusion, TE, level of output, information availability on QPM and early maturity were significant determinants of QPM rather than the gross margin of production. Farmers decide to adopt QPM technology because of the high level of technical efficiency in the production of this variety. Their output from QPM can be increased by 11 percent, while the non-adopters can increase their maize output by 22 percent using the available technology.

  14. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.

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    Sonja Langmesser

    Full Text Available Many effects of nitric oxide (NO are mediated by the activation of guanylyl cyclases and subsequent production of the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PRKGs, which can therefore be considered downstream effectors of NO signaling. Since NO is thought to be involved in the regulation of both sleep and circadian rhythms, we analyzed these two processes in mice deficient for cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1 in the brain. Prkg1 mutant mice showed a strikingly altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness over the 24 hours of a day as well as reductions in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS duration and in non-REM sleep (NREMS consolidation, and their ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. Furthermore, they displayed a drastic decrease in electroencephalogram (EEG power in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz under baseline conditions, which could be normalized after sleep deprivation. In line with the re-distribution of sleep and wakefulness, the analysis of wheel-running and drinking activity revealed more rest bouts during the activity phase and a higher percentage of daytime activity in mutant animals. No changes were observed in internal period length and phase-shifting properties of the circadian clock while chi-squared periodogram amplitude was significantly reduced, hinting at a less robust oscillator. These results indicate that PRKG1 might be involved in the stabilization and output strength of the circadian oscillator in mice. Moreover, PRKG1 deficiency results in an aberrant pattern, and consequently a reduced quality, of sleep and wakefulness, possibly due to a decreased wake-promoting output of the circadian system impinging upon sleep.

  15. Carcass and meat quality of “Leccese” breed lambs suckling from ewes fed diets containing vegetable by-pass protein

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    A. Tateo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is considered necessary to supplement the majority of dietary proteins for the rearing of goats and sheep (Pulina et al., 1990; Robinson, 1987. In ruminants, 70 % of protein requirement is satisfied by cytoplasmic synthesised protein, while the remaining 30 % is provided by the regular diet. In juvenile animals, when the rumen is not completely developed (Donkin et al., 1987; Thaler et al., 1992, bacterial proteins are not sufficient to satisfy the protein requirements. Naturally available sheep diet is deficient in the proteins required and contributes to low efficiency in protein utilisation in these species (Corino et al., 1995; Rossi et al., 1991...

  16. Use of a small molecule cell cycle inhibitor to control cell growth and improve specific productivity and product quality of recombinant proteins in CHO cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhimei; Treiber, David; McCarter, John D; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Saleem, Ramsey A; McCoy, Rebecca E; Zhang, Yuling; Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Leith, Matthew; Follstad, Brian D; Dell, Brad; Grisim, Brent; Zupke, Craig; Heath, Carole; Morris, Arvia E; Reddy, Pranhitha

    2015-01-01

    The continued need to improve therapeutic recombinant protein productivity has led to ongoing assessment of appropriate strategies in the biopharmaceutical industry to establish robust processes with optimized critical variables, that is, viable cell density (VCD) and specific productivity (product per cell, qP). Even though high VCD is a positive factor for titer, uncontrolled proliferation beyond a certain cell mass is also undesirable. To enable efficient process development to achieve consistent and predictable growth arrest while maintaining VCD, as well as improving qP, without negative impacts on product quality from clone to clone, we identified an approach that directly targets the cell cycle G1-checkpoint by selectively inhibiting the function of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 with a small molecule compound. Results from studies on multiple recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines demonstrate that the selective inhibitor can mediate a complete and sustained G0/G1 arrest without impacting G2/M phase. Cell proliferation is consistently and rapidly controlled in all recombinant cell lines at one concentration of this inhibitor throughout the production processes with specific productivities increased up to 110 pg/cell/day. Additionally, the product quality attributes of the mAb, with regard to high molecular weight (HMW) and glycan profile, are not negatively impacted. In fact, high mannose is decreased after treatment, which is in contrast to other established growth control methods such as reducing culture temperature. Microarray analysis showed major differences in expression of regulatory genes of the glycosylation and cell cycle signaling pathways between these different growth control methods. Overall, our observations showed that cell cycle arrest by directly targeting CDK4/6 using selective inhibitor compound can be utilized consistently and rapidly to optimize process parameters, such as cell growth, qP, and glycosylation profile in

  17. A synonymous mutation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 gene is associated with growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in rabbits

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    Wen-Chao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncoupling proteins 2 (UCP2 plays an important role in energy regulation, previous studies suggested that UCP2 is an excellent candidate gene for human obesity and growth-related traits in cattle and chicks. The current study was designed to detect the genetic variation of UCP2 gene, and to explore the association between polymorphism of UCP2 gene and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. Results A synonymous mutation in exon 1 and four variants in the first intron of the UCP2 gene were identified by using PCR-sequencing. The synonymous mutation c.72G>A was subsequently genotyped by MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay in 248 samples from three meat rabbit breeds (94 Ira rabbits, 83 Champagne rabbits, and 71 Tianfu black rabbits. Association analysis suggested that the individuals with AA and AG genotypes showed greater 70 d body weight (P < 0.05, 84 d body weight (P < 0.01, ADG from 28 to 84 days of age (P < 0.05, eviscerated weight (P < 0.01, semi-eviscerated weight (P < 0.01 and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage (P < 0.05, respectively. Additionally, the individuals with AA and AG genotype had a lower pH value of longissimus muscle (P < 0.01 and hind leg muscle (P < 0.05 after slaughter 24 h. Conclusions These findings indicated that UCP2 could be a candidate gene that associated with growth performance, body composition and meat quality in rabbits, and this would contribute to advancements in meat rabbit breeding practice.

  18. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  19. C-reactive protein as an available biomarker determining mental component of health-related quality of life among individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Latifi, Sahar; Soltani, Zahra; Shakeri, Hania; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan

    2017-05-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in some chronic medical conditions. However, these associations have not yet described in spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we tried to identify biomarkers associated with HRQL in SCI. Cross-sectional. Tertiary rehabilitation center. Referred patients to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2013. Blood samples were taken to measure circulatory CRP, leptin, adiponectin, ferritin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, thyroid hormones, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. All the analyses were performed with adjustment for injury-related confounders (level of injury, injury completeness and time since injury) and demographic characteristics. HRQL was measured with Short Form health survey (SF-36). The initial inverse association between CRP and total score of SF-36 (P: 0.006, r = -0.28) was lost after adjustment for confounders. However, the negative correlation between CRP and Mental Component Summary (MCS) remained significant (P: 0.0005, r = -0.38). Leptin level was inversely correlated with Physical Component Summary (PCS) (P: 0.02, r = -0.30). Although CRP and leptin levels were not related with total scores of SF-36 questionnaire, CRP can be more useful in determining mental component of HRQL whereas leptin can be a determinant of physical component. The combined consideration of these two biomarkers may help to predict HRQL in individuals with SCI.

  20. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

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    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  1. Effect of technological processing and preservation method on amino acid content and protein quality in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the level of amino acids and quality of protein in raw and processed kale leaves. In all samples the dominant amino acids in g kg⁻¹ raw matter were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and proline. In raw kale leaves the limiting amino acids were lysine, isoleucine and cystine with methionine, and in the remaining products also valine and leucine. Blanched kale leaves contained 88% of the amino acid content in raw leaves, 76% in cooked leaves, and 69-77% and 71-72% of initial levels in frozen and canned products, respectively. In raw, blanched and cooked leaves essential amino acids comprised 44%, 44% and 47%, respectively, of total amino acids; in frozen and canned leaves the proportions were 46% and 44%, respectively. The essential amino acid index was 97 for canned products, 100-109 for frozen leaves, and 117 for raw kale leaves. Raw and processed (blanched or cooked) kale leaves are a good source of amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  3. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats ( n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  4. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2). Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y ( n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences. Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts ( P diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts ( P diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of rumen-degradable intake protein supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, T A; Titgemeyer, E C; Cochran, R C; Wickersham, E E; Gnad, D P

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of increasing amounts of rumen-degradable intake protein (DIP) on urea kinetics in steers consuming prairie hay. Ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (278 kg of BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and provided ad libitum access to low-quality prairie hay (4.9% CP). The DIP was provided as casein dosed ruminally once daily in amounts of 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Periods were 13 d long, with 7 d for adaptation and 6 d for collection. Steers were in metabolism crates for total collection of urine and feces. Jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea, followed by determination of urinary enrichment of (15)N(15)N-urea and (14)N(15)N-urea was used to determine urea kinetics. Forage and N intake increased (linear, P Urea synthesis was 19.9, 24.8, 42.9, and 50.9 g of urea-N/d for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (linear, P = 0.004). Entry of urea into the gut was 98.9, 98.8, 98.6, and 95.9% of production for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily, respectively (quadratic, P = 0.003). The amount of urea-N entering the gastrointestinal tract was greatest for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (48.6 g of urea-N/d) and decreased (linear, P = 0.005) to 42.4, 24.5, and 19.8 g of urea-N/d for 118, 59, and 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Microbial incorporation of recycled urea-N increased linearly (P = 0.02) from 12.3 g of N/d for 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily to 28.9 g of N/d for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Provision of DIP produced the desired and previously observed increase in forage intake while also increasing N retention. The large percentage of urea synthesis that was recycled to the gut (95.9% even when steers received the greatest amount of DIP) points to the remarkable ability of cattle to conserve N when fed a low-protein diet.

  6. Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on nitrogen retention, apparent digestibility, and nutrient flux across visceral tissues in lambs fed low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Robinson, T J; Harmon, D L; Ludden, P A

    2010-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on intake, apparent digestibility, N retention, and nutrient flux across visceral tissues of lambs fed a low-quality forage diet. In both experiments, wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements provided on alternate days. In Exp. 1, 12 lambs (29.9 +/- 2.7 kg initial BW) were used. Forage OM, NDF, and ADF intake were not affected by treatment. Total tract digestibilities (OM, NDF, ADF, and N) were unaffected (P >or= 0.15) by treatment. Neither protein degradability nor supplementation frequency had an effect (P >or= 0.52) on N retention. In Exp. 2, 15 lambs (34 +/- 4 kg initial BW) fitted with indwelling catheters in a hepatic vein, the hepatic portal vein, a mesenteric vein, and a mesenteric artery were used. Release of ammonia N by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) was reduced (P = 0.004) in alternate-day-supplemented lambs compared with RDP-D. Consequently, hepatic uptake of ammonia N was least (P = 0.003) in all alternate-day lambs. Alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN) release by the PDV and hepatic uptake of AAN were not affected by treatment or supplementation frequency. Additionally, hepatic output and PDV uptake of urea N were not affected by treatment. Hepatic N uptake (ammonia N + AAN) accounted for urea synthesized by the liver in all treatments; however, hepatic urea synthesis was approximately 4.5-fold less for RUP-A lambs. This suggests that the provision of AA as RUP may provide a delay in ureagenesis, thus altering the timing of N recycling.

  7. Retirada do tegumento e da extração dos pigmentos na qualidade protéica do feijão-preto Effect of removal of tegument and extraction of pigments on protein quality of black beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nascimento Chiaradia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é cultivado e consumido mundialmente e é a leguminosa mais consumida na América Latina. O baixo valor biológico das proteínas do feijão pode ser resultante, dentre outros, da presença de fatores antinutricionais presentes no tegumento do grão. Este trabalho visou avaliar, através de ensaios biológicos, o efeito da retirada do tegumento e das antocianinas e outros polifenóis do feijão-preto, na qualidade de suas proteínas. Foram analisados o quociente de eficiência protéica, o quociente de eficiência líquida protéica e a utilização líquida da proteína, e digestibilidade. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a eliminação parcial do tegumento dos grãos cozidos e secagem em estufa diminuíram significativamente o valor do quociente de eficiência protéica comparativamente ao do grão integral cozido e secado nas mesmas condições. A extração, com etanol acidificado, de 27,5% dos polifenóis não influiu significativamente no valor protéico do feijão-preto. Concluiu-se que a retirada do tegumento e a extração parcial de polifenóis do feijão não elevaram a sua qualidade protéica.Bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. are cultivated and consumed all over the world and are a staple food in most countries of South America. The low biological value of bean proteins may be due to, among others, the effect of antinutritional factors on the tegument. The objective of this work was to evaluate, through biological assays, the effect of removal of black bean tegument, anthocyanins and other polyphenols on protein quality. The protein efficiency ratio, the protein liquid efficiency ratio, the protein liquid utilization and the digestibility were analyzed. The results indicated that removal of the tegument of cooked beans reduced their protein value (PER when compared to whole cooked beans. The ethanolic extraction of 27.5% of polyphenols did not increase the protein quality of beans. It was concluded that removal of the

  8. Utilization of soya protein as an alternative protein source in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... For carcass trait, ash, crude fat, and energy varied significantly with soya protein ... high-protein content, relatively well-balanced amino acid profile ..... and organoleptic quality of flesh of brook char (Salvelinus fontinalis).

  9. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  10. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically...

  11. HspB8 Participates in Protein Quality Control by a Non-chaperone-like Mechanism That Requires eIF2 alpha Phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carra, Serena; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation of mutated proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease. We previously reported that overexpression of the HspB8 . Bag3 chaperone complex suppresses mutated huntingtin aggregation via autophagy. Classically, HspB proteins are thought to act as

  12. Pilot Study of Dose–Response Effects of Exercise on Change in C-Reactive Protein, Cortisol, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Ricci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue, stress, and depression contribute to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL among cancer survivors. This study examined the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training (CART on HRQoL and biomarkers of stress. Cancer survivors (n = 76, 91% female, 39% breast cancer, 32% gynecologic cancer were enrolled in CART for three 60-min sessions, weekly, for 26 weeks. Participants completed the National Institutes of Health's Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (NIH PROMIS fatigue assessment and the SF-36. Cortisol and c-reactive protein (CRP were assessed using volunteered blood specimens. Baseline fatigue scores were worse for participants completing treatment within the last year, compared to long-term survivors [F = (2, 59 = 3.470, p = 0.038]. After 26 weeks, fatigue scores improved by a noteworthy two points [M = 52.72, standard deviation, SD = 10.10 vs. M = 50.67, SD = 10.14; t(48 = 1.7145, p = 0.092]. Pre- to postintervention improvements in bodily pain [M = 50.54, SD = 9.51 vs. M = 48.20, SD = 10.07; t(33 = 2.913, p = 0.006] and limitations in social functioning [M = 50.60, SD = 9.17 vs. M = 47.75, SD = 11.66; t(33 = 2.206, p = 0.034], as well as a mean decrease of 1.64 ± 10.11 mg/L in CRP levels [t(107 = 1.261, p = 5.965], were observed. Participants within 1 year of treatment completion experienced greater improvements in post CRP levels compared to those who had treatment 1–4 years (p = 0.030 and 5 or more years ago (p = 0.023. Physical functioning, fatigue, fear/anxiety, social role satisfaction, and CRP levels improved following participation in this exercise intervention. Oncologists should consider recommending CART as soon as medically feasible following the cessation of cancer treatment.

  13. Evolution of rice and pulse varieties with improved quality through induced mutations. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mia, M.M.

    1980-03-01

    Three mutant varieties, 16 hybrids of advanced generation, 6 recommended varieties and many local collections of rice in Bangladesh were screened for protein content. The 25 varieties or strains showed a variation of protein content between 8.9 - 11.7% and also wide ranges of variation in amylose content, starch-iodine-blue value and water absorption by grain. Amino acid compositions of some promising varieties were also investigated. 60 rice germplasms tested also showed a wide range of variation in protein content (6-13%) and variations of other seed characteristics. 3000 local collections showed a variation range of 5-13% protein content. Mutation breedings were carried out on chickpeas and lentils on a large scale. Dry seed was treated with 60 Co gamma ray and mutants were detected, selected, particularly for high protein content, and evaluated in M 2 -M 8 generations. Of the 10 selected mutant lines of each of the pulses, variations of various agronomic characters were observed. However, induced variation in protein content was only remarkable in chickpea. The most promising chickpea mutant showed 19% higher yield and 12% higher protein content than the mother variety, and was proposed to be released as a variety

  14. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  15. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  16. Effect of dietary protein source and lysine : DE ratio on growth performance, meat quality and body composition of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabó, C.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Babinszky, L.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of four protein sources (soybean meal, sunflower meal, pea, and fish meal as the main protein source) and three apparent ileally digestible Lys:DE ratios (0.50, 0.43, 0.36 and 0.42, 0.36, 0.30 g Lys/MJ DE for 30 to 60 kg BW and 60 to 105 kg BW, respectively) in pig diets on

  17. Protein surface shielding agents in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hašek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization process can be controlled by protein surface shielding agents blocking undesirable competitive adhesion modes during non-equilibrium processes of deposition of protein molecules on the surface of growing crystalline blocks. The hypothesis is based on a number of experimental proofs from diffraction experiments and also retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The molecules adhering temporarily on the surface of protein molecules change the propensity of protein molecules to deposit on the crystal surface in a definite position and orientation. The concepts of competitive adhesion modes and protein surface shielding agents acting on the surface of molecules in a non-equilibrium process of protein crystallization provide a useful platform for the control of crystallization. The desirable goal, i.e. a transient preference of a single dominating adhesion mode between protein molecules during crystallization, leads to uniform deposition of proteins in a crystal. This condition is the most important factor for diffraction quality and thus also for the accuracy of protein structure determination. The presented hypothesis is a generalization of the experimentally well proven behaviour of hydrophilic polymers on the surface of protein molecules of other compounds

  18. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore,

  19. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Related to Protein Complexes Based on Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting protein-protein interactions based on detected protein complexes is proposed to repair deficient interactions derived from high-throughput biological experiments. Protein complexes are pruned and decomposed into small parts based on the adaptive k-cores method to predict protein-protein interactions associated with the complexes. The proposed method is adaptive to protein complexes with different structure, number, and size of nodes in a protein-protein interaction network. Based on different complex sets detected by various algorithms, we can obtain different prediction sets of protein-protein interactions. The reliability of the predicted interaction sets is proved by using estimations with statistical tests and direct confirmation of the biological data. In comparison with the approaches which predict the interactions based on the cliques, the overlap of the predictions is small. Similarly, the overlaps among the predicted sets of interactions derived from various complex sets are also small. Thus, every predicted set of interactions may complement and improve the quality of the original network data. Meanwhile, the predictions from the proposed method replenish protein-protein interactions associated with protein complexes using only the network topology.

  20. Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their Impact on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk could be considered a good and safer alternative, compared to other types of milk, for infants affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, when breastfeeding is not possible. Interestingly, donkey milk has low allergenicity, mainly due to the low total casein amount, and the content of some whey proteins that act as bioactive peptides. The amount of lysozyme, an antibacterial agent, is 1.0 g/L, similar to human milk. Lactoferrin content is 0.08 g/L, with this protein being involved in the regulation of iron homoeostasis, anti-microbial and anti-viral functions, and protection against cancer development. Lactoperoxidase, another protein with antibacterial function, is present in donkey milk, but in very low quantities (0.11 mg/L. β-lactoglobulin content in donkey milk is 3.75 g/L—this protein is able to bind and transport several hydrophobic molecules. Donkey milk’s α-lactalbumin concentration is 1.8 g/L, very close to that of human milk. α-lactalbumin shows antiviral, antitumor, and anti-stress properties. Therefore, donkey milk can be considered as a set of nutraceuticals properties and a beverage suitable, not only for the growing infants, but for all ages, especially for convalescents and for the elderly.

  1. Effects of dietary protein level during rearing period and age at overfeeding on magret and foie gras quality in male mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Julien; Molette, Caroline; Lavigne, Franck; Margetyal, Carole; Amador, Olivier; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of dietary protein content during the rearing period on the performance of mule ducks, according to age at overfeeding (O). Ducks (n = 612) were divided into four groups differing in the protein content in the diet offered during the starting period (S, 0-20 days; S l vs. S h : 150 vs. 175 g/kg crude protein (CP)) and growing-finishing period (GF; 21-67 or 81 days, depending on age at O; GF l vs. GF h : 133 vs. 152 g/kg CP). The relative weight of pectoral muscle was lower when ducks were fed a low protein diet during S (-5%, P ducks of the S l GF h group (+6%; P ducks were fed S l or GF l (P ducks fed the S l diet and overfed at late age (7.4% vs. 0%; P ducks overfed at a late age. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in protein quality control and signaling in the retina: implications in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of damaged or postsynthetically modified proteins and dysregulation of inflammatory responses and angiogenesis in the retina/RPE are thought be etiologically related to formation of drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). T...

  3. Redox-Based Regulation of Bacterial Development and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Abigail J; Kahl, Lisa J; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Dietrich, Lars E P

    2017-06-20

    Severe changes in the environmental redox potential, and resulting alterations in the oxidation states of intracellular metabolites and enzymes, have historically been considered negative stressors, requiring responses that are strictly defensive. However, recent work in diverse organisms has revealed that more subtle changes in the intracellular redox state can act as signals, eliciting responses with benefits beyond defense and detoxification. Changes in redox state have been shown to influence or trigger chromosome segregation, sporulation, aerotaxis, and social behaviors, including luminescence as well as biofilm establishment and dispersal. Connections between redox state and complex behavior allow bacteria to link developmental choices with metabolic state and coordinate appropriate responses. Promising future directions for this area of study include metabolomic analysis of species- and condition-dependent changes in metabolite oxidation states and elucidation of the mechanisms whereby the redox state influences circadian regulation.

  4. 2 Quality Proltein Maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Field experiments were conducted in the Guinea savanna ecology of Ghana to evaluate yield response of quality protein ... to maintain a positive nutrient balance. As most farmers in ..... capture of solar radiation within the canopy. Efficiency of ...

  5. Improving quality of components and protein preparations of blood plasma by introduction of quality management according to the principles of GMP and ISO 9001 in the blood service institutions with benchmarking effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubchack V.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of harmonious introduc¬tion of the new standards of quality management in the institutions of blood service were considered. It was proved that it does not contradict to current legislation and significantly increases pathogenic security of blood components and blood products.

  6. Genome sequence of the thermotolerant foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg ATCC 43845 and phylogenetic analysis of Loci encoding increased protein quality control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are important foodborne pathogens with major economic impact. Some isolates exhibit increased heat tolerance, a concern for food safety. Analysis of a finished-quality genome sequence of an isolate commonly used in heat resistance studies, S. enterica sub...

  7. The influence of diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid, selenium, and vitamin E, with or without animal protein, on the quality of pork from female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, J.A.; Morel, P.C.; Purchas, R.W.; Corrigan, V.K.; Cumarasamy, S.; Wilkinson, B.H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Pork from the LM and semimembranosus muscle (SM) of 59 female Duroc-cross pigs with a mean carcass weight of 80.1 kg (SD = 3.2) were assessed for quality. The pigs were grown on diets containing either animal and plant products (the animal group) or plant products only (the plant group), with or

  8. [Study of enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism in the evaluation of quality of protein-containing wheat germ flakes and wallpaper flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchuk, A N; E En Gyn; Safronova, A M; Peskova, E V

    1991-01-01

    Intake of wheat upholstery meal by growing rats was attended by a sharp decrease in the content and activity of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes in the hepatic microsomes, that was caused by the low biological value of the meal proteins. Hepatic microsomes of the rats that were fed with wheat germ flakes showed increased specific content of cytochromes P-450 and b5, but the total blood protein content per 100 g of body mass was lower than during casein consumption. No significant changes were detected in hydroxylation rate of benz(a)pyrene, aniline and ethylmorphine. During consumption of wheat germ flakes induction of UDP-glucuronide-transferase was detected in hepatic microsomes. Wheat germ flakes induced a 5-fold increase of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat germ flakes produced no significant effect on glutathione-S-aryltransferase and glutathione reductase activity.

  9. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.7pHpHpH(u) beef. More than 30% of bull beef did not achieve acceptable tenderness at 8 days post mortem with this ageing regime. No significant differences in calpain or cathepsin enzyme levels due to meat pH were observed until after 22h post mortem, but low pH(u) beef had elevated caspase 3/7 activity soon after slaughter. At 22h post mortem, greater levels of μ-calpain enzyme were found in the high and intermediate pH(u) beef and cathepsin B levels were superior in the low pH(u) beef after 2 days post mortem. Different rates of desmin and troponin T protein degradation were also observed in aged bull beef. Both proteins were degraded within 6h post mortem for high pH(u) beef, but took >3 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  11. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Terracol, Gilles; Talluri, Jacopo; Maugeri, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Faliva, Milena A; Solerte, Bruno S; Fioravanti, Marisa; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to attenuate the adverse effects of age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function include increased physical activity and nutritional supplementation. This study tested the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with whey protein (22 g), essential amino acids (10.9 g, including 4 g leucine), and vitamin D [2.5 μg (100 IU)] concurrent with regular, controlled physical activity would increase fat-free mass, strength, physical function, and quality of life, and reduce the risk of malnutrition in sarcopenic elderly persons. A total of 130 sarcopenic elderly people (53 men and 77 women; mean age: 80.3 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial. All participants concurrently took part in a controlled physical activity program. We examined body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a handgrip dynamometer, and blood biochemical indexes of nutritional and health status, and evaluated global nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life before and after the 12 wk of intervention. Compared with physical activity and placebo, supplementation plus physical activity increased fat-free mass (1.7-kg gain, P nutritional assessment (P = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.002), and lowered C-reactive protein (P = 0.038). Supplementation with whey protein, essential amino acids, and vitamin D, in conjunction with age-appropriate exercise, not only boosts fat-free mass and strength but also enhances other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402608. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effects of a High Protein Food Supplement on Physical Activity, Motor Performance and Health Related Quality of Life of HIV Infected Botswana Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nnyepi, Maria; Jackson, Jose; Wen, Fujun; Bennink, Maurice; Anabwani, Gabriel; Makhanda, Jerry; Thior, Ibou; Lyoka, Philemon; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Despite existing evidence about the benefits of nutrition, physical activity (PA) and sport to the overall health and wellbeing of children, knowledge gaps remain on this relationship in children living with chronic conditions like HIV/AIDS. Such knowledge should inform context specific programs that could enhance the quality of life of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of integrating a nutrition intervention (culturally tailored food supplement) into antiretroviral therapy (ART) on psychosocial outcomes and physical activity among HIV-positive children in Botswana. 201 HIV-positive children (6-15 years; M = 9.44, SD = 2.40) were recruited and randomly assigned (stratified by age and gender) to two groups. The intervention group (n = 97) received a high protein (bean-sorghum plus micronutrients) food supplement, while the control group (n = 104) received a sorghum plus micronutrients supplement. Participants were followed over 12 months. Anthropometric measures, PA, motor performance, and health related quality of life (HRQL) were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mixed repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time effect of the food supplement on target variables except body fat percentage, speed, and school functioning. Time × treatment interaction was found for physical functioning, psychosocial functioning and total quality of life score. Scores on physical functioning and total of quality life in the intervention group significantly increased from baseline to 6 months compared with the control group ( p = 0.015). A combination of ART and nutritional intervention had a positive effect on physical functioning and total quality of life of HIV-positive children in this study. There were also improvements to physical activity and motor performance tests over time. More research is needed on long term effects of nutrition and PA interventions on HRQL in children living with HIV.

  13. Production process reproducibility and product quality consistency of transient gene expression in HEK293 cells with anti-PD1 antibody as the model protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Han, Lei; Zong, Huifang; Chen, Junsheng; Zhang, Baohong; Zhu, Jianwei

    2017-03-01

    Demonstration of reproducibility and consistency of process and product quality is one of the most crucial issues in using transient gene expression (TGE) technology for biopharmaceutical development. In this study, we challenged the production consistency of TGE by expressing nine batches of recombinant IgG antibody in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to evaluate reproducibility including viable cell density, viability, apoptotic status, and antibody yield in cell culture supernatant. Product quality including isoelectric point, binding affinity, secondary structure, and thermal stability was assessed as well. In addition, major glycan forms of antibody from different batches of production were compared to demonstrate glycosylation consistency. Glycan compositions of the antibody harvested at different time periods were also measured to illustrate N-glycan distribution over the culture time. From the results, it has been demonstrated that different TGE batches are reproducible from lot to lot in overall cell growth, product yield, and product qualities including isoelectric point, binding affinity, secondary structure, and thermal stability. Furthermore, major N-glycan compositions are consistent among different TGE batches and conserved during cell culture time.

  14. EFEK KOLAGEN DARI BERBAGAI JENIS TULANG IKAN TERHADAP KUALITAS MIOFIBRIL PROTEIN IKAN SELAMA PROSES DEHIDRASI [Effect of Various Fish Bone Collagens on the Quality of Myofibril Fish Protein During Dehydration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhomenggolo Sastro Darmanto*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in fish fillet export in Indonesia has caused an increase in its waste such as bones, spines, skin and entrails of fish. Fish bones can be processed by demineralization to produce collagen, an important food additive. The effect of addition of 5% of collagen obtained from fresh water, brackish water and sea water fish bone on the fish protein miofibril of grouper was investigated in this research. Water sorption isotherm, Ca-ATPase activity, gel strength, water holding capacity, folding test and viscosity during dehydration process were evaluated. The results showed that collagens made from various fish bones have different Ca-ATPase activity. The reduction rate of Ca-ATPase activity were in accordance with the reduction of water sorbtion isotherm, gel forming ability, water holding capacity, viscosity and folding test during dehydration process.

  15. Quality of black beans as a function of long-term storage and moldy development: Chemical and functional properties of flour and isolated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Ziegler, Valmor; Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Oliveira, Maurício de

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture content and storage temperature on the percentage of moldy and fermented beans, mycotoxins levels, phenolic acids content, pasting properties of whole flour, as well as functional and thermal properties of protein isolates from black beans stored for 12 months. Beans stored under 14%/32 °C exhibited 16% of fermented grains, while at 17%/25 °C (42.3%) and 17%/32 °C (93.5%) of moldy plus fermented grains, named drastic conditions (DC). Mycotoxins were not present in grains from all storage conditions. Reduction of gallic, caffeic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid contents, and increase of sinapic acid were observed in DC. Reduction of peak, final, and setback viscosities of bean flours in DC indicate the application in refrigerated and frozen products. The increase in foaming and reduction in foam degradation of the proteins highlights their use in beverages where the foam is an important factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweetpotato- and cereal-based infant foods: protein quality assessment, and effect on body composition using sprague dawley rats as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Chiridza, Tracy; Lemercier, Marie-Eve; Broomfield, Anne; Morel, Patrick C H; Coad, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa) and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac) was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g). The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (Pbody composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P≤0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  20. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  1. Quick generation of Raman spectroscopy based in-process glucose control to influence biopharmaceutical protein product quality during mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brandon N; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Timson, Rebecca C; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Wiltberger, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Mitigating risks to biotherapeutic protein production processes and products has driven the development of targeted process analytical technology (PAT); however implementing PAT during development without significantly increasing program timelines can be difficult. The development of a monoclonal antibody expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line via fed-batch processing presented an opportunity to demonstrate capabilities of altering percent glycated protein product. Glycation is caused by pseudo-first order, non-enzymatic reaction of a reducing sugar with an amino group. Glucose is the highest concentration reducing sugar in the chemically defined media (CDM), thus a strategy controlling glucose in the production bioreactor was developed utilizing Raman spectroscopy for feedback control. Raman regions for glucose were determined by spiking studies in water and CDM. Calibration spectra were collected during 8 bench scale batches designed to capture a wide glucose concentration space. Finally, a PLS model capable of translating Raman spectra to glucose concentration was built using the calibration spectra and spiking study regions. Bolus feeding in mammalian cell culture results in wide glucose concentration ranges. Here we describe the development of process automation enabling glucose setpoint control. Glucose-free nutrient feed was fed daily, however glucose stock solution was fed as needed according to online Raman measurements. Two feedback control conditions were executed where glucose was controlled at constant low concentration or decreased stepwise throughout. Glycation was reduced from ∼9% to 4% using a low target concentration but was not reduced in the stepwise condition as compared to the historical bolus glucose feeding regimen. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Evaluation of an edible coating based whey protein and beeswax on the physical and chemical quality of gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Osorio Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It was developed and optimized an edible coating based whey protein concentrate and beeswax. An experimental design 32 was used, this was evaluated by response surface methodology, it was obtained that the optimal formulation with a concentration of 15% beeswax and 10% whey protein, reduced by 35.49% weight loss of the fruit with respect to weight loss of control treatments. The optimal treatment was characterized and evaluated on the physicochemical properties of the gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. in two storage conditions: environment (17- 2 ºC y HR: 69% and cooling (4 -2 ºC y HR: 66%. The results for the 15th day evaluation indicated a decrease in the percentage of weight loss, in storage environment and cooling (36.20% and 41.50% respectively. Control treatments decreased acidity in storage environment and cooling 3.88% and 4.92% respectively, compared to coating treatments. pH have not significantly change with any treatment. The coating prevent reduction of soluble solids 3.76% to environmental conditions and 2.27% to cooling conditions. For maturity index were not any significant changes between control treatments and coating treatments, in both conditions. The firmness remained without any significant changes except treatment environment uncoated, this presented a loss of firmness of 12.04% compared to the treatment environment coated. The respiration rate indicates a climacteric peak at day 8th for environment and at day 10th for cooling. For some properties, the cooling treatment uncoated and environment treatment coated have not any significant changes whereby the coating application can be an alternative to the cooling.

  3. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Considerations for the Development and Delivery of High Quality Complementary Food Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shibani; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of malnutrition in infants and children is multifaceted and requires the following: access to and intake of nutritious food starting at birth with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life, continued breastfeeding in combination with complementary foods from 6-24 mo of age, access to clean drinking water and sanitation, and access to preventive and curative health care (including prenatal). Nutrient-dense complementary foods can improve nutritional status and have long-term benefits; however, in a review of plant-based complementary foods in developing countries, most of them failed to meet many micronutrient requirements. There is need to provide other cost-effective alternatives to increase the quality of the diet during the complementary feeding stage of the lifecycle. This paper provides an overview of the development, testing, efficacy and effectiveness of the delivery of KOKO Plus on the growth and nutritional status of infants 6-24 mo of age.

  4. Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on lamb meat quality Efeito do genótipo e do teor de proteína da dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Mara Azevedo de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the lamb meat quality of Santa Ines and Dorper x Santa Ines lambs fed 12 or 20% dietary crude protein (CP level. Twenty four animals were used, with initial weight of 17 ± 1,82kg, individually penned, fed 40% of corn silage and 60% of concentrate and slaughtered at 35 kg of body weight. After carcass cooling, a sample of Longissimus dorsi was removed to determine the chemical composition and the meat quality characteristics. There was no effect for moisture (71,74%, protein (21,43% and minerals (1,08%, however, Santa Ines lambs showed higher fat content in meat in relation to cross Dorper x Santa Ines when fed 20% of CP (4,43%. The genotype and crude protein level of diet did not affect pH (5,65, cholesterol (28,28mg/100g of meat, water activity (1,002, color (L*: 41,20; a*: 15,62; b*: 5,09, cooking weight loss (35,98%, shear force (1,10kgf/cm2 and water holding capacity of meat (60,18%. The meat of crossbred lambs Dorper x Santa Ines showed less fat when fed 12 and 20% of dietary crude protein and could constitute a marketing tool to promote the meat from this cross. Protein levels evaluated did not affect the quality characteristics of lamb meat, being able to use the lowest level (12%, aiming the formulation of economic diets for producer, since that it also allows satisfactory animal performance.O objetivo com este trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês e Dorper x Santa Inês, alimentados com 12 ou 20% de proteína bruta (PB na dieta. Foram utilizados 24 animais, com peso corporal inicial de 17 ± 1,82kg, confinados individualmente, alimentados com 40% de silagem de milho e 60% de concentrado, abatidos aos 35kg de peso corporal. Após o resfriamento das carcaças, retirou-se uma amostra do músculo Longissimus dorsi para determinação da composição química e das características qualitativas da carne. Não houve efeito para umidade (71,74%, proteína (21,43% e minerais (1

  5. A scored human protein-protein interaction network to catalyze genomic interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Taibo; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansen, Rasmus B

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (InWeb_InBioMap,......Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (In...

  6. Bee venom treatment reduced C-reactive protein and improved follicle quality in a rat model of estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a low grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenemia and chronic anovulation. C-reactive protein (CRP, released by adipocytes, plays a key role in PCOS. Apis mellifera honeybee venom (HBV contains a variety of biologically active components with various pharmaceutical properties. This study was designed to assess the possibility of HBV application as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent. To induce PCOS, 1 mg/100 g body weight estradiol valerate (EV was subcutaneously (SC injected into eight-week-old rats. After 60 days, 0.5 mg/kg HBV was administered SC for 14 consecutive days, and the results of PCOS treatment were investigated. Rats were then anesthetized with chloroform, and their ovaries and livers were surgically removed to determine histomorphometrical changes. Testosterone and 17-β-estradiol were detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. In order to detect serum CRP, ELISA kit was used in three groups of EV-induced PCOS, HBV-treated PCOS and control animals. Thickness of the theca layer, number of cysts and the level of serum CRP significantly decreased in HBV group in comparison with PCOS group. Moreover, corpus luteum, as a sign of ovulation, was observed in HBV-treated ovaries which were absent in PCOS group. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of HBV may be mediated through its inhibitory effect on serum CRP levels.

  7. Effect of ice storage on muscle protein properties and qualities of emulsion fish sausage from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittayanont, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in fish muscle and natural actomyosin (NAM from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis muscle during 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of iced storage were studied. Myosin heavy chain (MHC of NAM extracted from two fish species was degraded throughout iced storage. However, no changes in actin were observed. The total volatile base (TVB. trimethylamine (TMA and surface hydrophobicity increased, while the total sulfhydryl content and emulsion capacity of NAM from both fish species decreased significantly as the storage time increased (p<0.05. A Texture ProfileAnalysis (TPA and shear force of emulsion fish sausages prepared from two fish species kept in ice for 0, 4, 8 and 12 days were investigated. The results showed that hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force of sausage prepared from fish kept in ice were lower than those produced from fresh fish. However, no significant differences in adhesiveness were observed. Cooking loss of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species increased throughout storage time (p<0.05. The texture of bigeye snapper sausage was better than that of lizardfish sausages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species revealed bigger voids, thicker strands and less continuity of protein strands with increasing storage time. More microstructural changes were observed in sausages from lizardfish, compared to those in sausages from bigeye snapper.

  8. Variability in the leptin, leptin receptor and heart fatty acid binding protein genes in relationship with meat quality traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikolášová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The leptin (LEP-HinfI, leptin receptor (LEPR-HpaII and heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP-HinfI genes and their genotypes combination (LEP-HinfI *LEPR-HpaII were tested for associations with the pH1, pH24, myoglobin content (mg/100 g, intramuscular fat content (% and remission (%. The genotypes were determined in Large White, Landrace and Duroc breeds (n = 106, 56 and 4, respectively. The allele frequencies were: LEP-HinfI: C = 0.133 T = 0.867; LEPR-HpaII: A = 0.331 B = 0.669; H-FABP-HinfI: H = 0.745 h = 0.255. The populations of breeds were in the genetic equilibrium according to the χ2 test in the tested loci. The combinations of LEP-HinfI and LEPR-HpaII were significantly associated with the pH24 and remission. The H-FABP-HinfI locus was significantly associated with intramuscular fat content.

  9. Interactive effects of a high-quality protein diet and high stocking density on the stress response and some innate immune parameters of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Afonso, António; Conceição, Luís E C

    2013-10-01

    Amino acids (AA) regulate key metabolic pathways, including some immune responses. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether an increased availability of dietary AA can mitigate the expected increase in plasma cortisol and metabolites levels due to high stocking density and its subsequent immunosuppression. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were maintained at low stocking density (LSD; 3.5 kg m(-2)) or high stocking density (HSD; 12 kg m(-2)) for 18 days. Additionally, both treatments were fed a control or a high protein (HP) diet (LSD, LSD HP, HSD and HSD HP). The HP diet slightly increased the levels of digestible indispensable AA, together with tyrosine and cysteine. HSD was effective in inducing a chronic stress response after 18 days of treatment since fish held at HSD presented higher plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels. Moreover, this increase in stress indicators translated in a decrease in plasma lysozyme, alternative complement pathway (ACP) and peroxidase activities, suggesting some degree of immunosuppression. Interestingly, while plasma glucose and lactate levels in HSD HP specimens decreased to similar values than LSD fish, plasma lysozyme, ACP and peroxidase activities increased, with even higher values than LSD groups for ACP activity. It is suggested that the HP diet may be used as functional feed since it may represent a metabolic advantage during stressful events and may counteract immunosuppression in sole.

  10. PROTEIN - WHICH IS BEST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Falvo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids, whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function are also reviewed

  11. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  12. Oral hygiene grade and quality of life in children with chemotherapy-related oral mucositis: a randomized study on the impact of a fluoride toothpaste with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, E; Amadori, F; Majorana, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the use of a fluoride toothpaste (Bioxtra ® , Biopharm, Milan, Italy) with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol on the oral hygiene grade and on the quality of life (QoL) of children with oral mucositis (OM) grade 1 or 2 receiving chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). Patients between 6 and 14 years with OM were randomly assigned to two groups, group A (Bioxtra ® toothpaste) and group B (fluoride toothpaste without menthol). The patients were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day using a soft toothbrush with a small head. Oral hygiene grade was assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s); quality of life was assessed using the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The patients were evaluated on day 1(diagnosis of OM-T0) and on day 8 (T1). Statistical analysis was performed. A total of 64 patients were enrolled. A significant difference (P oral hygiene grade. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pgoats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (Pgoats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (Pgoats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  14. Use of soybean meal and papain to partially replace animal protein for culturing three marine fish species: Fish growth and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, W Y; Lau, R S S; Kwok, A C K; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using soybean meal added with papain to replace half of the fishmeal used in the moist pellets (49% fishmeal and 45% trash fish) developed by the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) for culturing marine fish. Gold-lined seabream (Rhabdosargus sarba), brown spotted grouper (Epinephelus bleekeri) and pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were farmed at one of the research stations (Kat-O) of AFCD, for a period of 340 days. Results indicated that diets containing papain resulted in better fish growth (reflected by relative weight gain and feed conversion ratio) than diets without papain. In general, wet weight gain of fish depends on the amount of papain added in diet rather than the diet composition. Soybean used in conjunction with papain also contributed to a more effective growth than fish fed with the moist pellets alone. A laboratory experiment (using tanks) was conducted to study the effects of the diets on concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in the tank water. Results showed that concentrations of ammonia and nitrate were significantly lower (p marine fish and lower the adverse impact of trash fish and fishmeal on water quality of the mariculture zones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of refrigerated storage on the quality characteristics of microwave cooked chicken seekh kababs extended with different non-meat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Pathak, Vikas; Fayaz, Hina

    2013-10-01

    Storage quality of chicken seekh kababs extended with different legumes at optimum level viz. 15% cowpea, 15% green gram and 10% black bean were assessed in terms of physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties under aerobic packaging conditions at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C). The chicken seekh kababs were prepared from spent hens meat by low power microwave method and extended with optimum level of different legume (hydrated 1:1 w/w) pastes replacing lean meat in the formulation. The chicken seekh kababs formulated without any extender served as control and were compared with extended chicken seekh kababs. The kababs were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and were analyzed at a regular interval of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The results indicated a significant (p  0.05) increase and almost all the sensory attributes showed a declining trend with advancement of storage. Total plate count and psychrophillic count also increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The products were acceptable throughout the storage period.

  16. Influence of glucoregulation quality on c-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α level in patients with diabetes type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Results of studies which have proved an increased inflammatory activity in diabetes type 1, have been published over recent years. One of possible mechanisms that are used to explain chronic inflammation in diabetes is the state of hyperglycemia leading to the enhanced synthesis of glycosylation end products (AGEs which activate macrophages, increase the oxidative stress and affect the synthesis of interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP. The aim of the study was to determine the inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α in patients with diabetes type 1 and to establish their correlation with glucoregulation parameters and other cardiovascular risk factors as well as to compare them with the healthy controls. Methods. The study included 76 patients with diabetes type 1 and 30 healthy controls. We determined values of inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and glucoregulation parameters (fasting glucose HbA1c. Results. The values of CRP (p = 0.014, IL-6 (p = 0.020 and TNF-α (p = 0.037 were statistically significantly higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between CRP with postprandial glycemia (p = 0.004; the multivariate regression analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between CRP and age (p = 0.001, smoking (p = 0.055, fasting glucose (p = 0.021 and triglycerides (p = 0.048 as well as between IL-6 and LDLcholesterol (p = 0,009. No statistically significant correlations were found between glycosilated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusion. The patients with type 1 diabetes were found to have a low level of inflammatory activity manifested by the increased values of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α.

  17. Influence of glucoregulation quality on C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in patients with diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Milena; Ilić, Tatjana; Stokić, Edita; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Naglić, Dragana Tomić; Bajkin, Ivana; Icin, Tijana

    2011-09-01

    Results of studies which have proved an increased inflammatory activity in diabetes type 1, have been published over recent years. One of possible mechanisms that are used to explain chronic inflammation in diabetes is the state of hyperglycemia leading to the enhanced synthesis of glycosylation end products (AGEs) which activate macrophages, increase the oxidative stress and affect the synthesis of interleukins (IL-1, IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of the study was to determine the inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha) in patients with diabetes type 1 and to establish their correlation with glucoregulation parameters and other cardiovascular risk factors as well as to compare them with the healthy controls. The study included 76 patients with diabetes type 1 and 30 healthy controls. We determined values of inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha) and glucoregulation parameters (fasting glucose HbA(1c)). The values of CRP (p = 0.014), IL-6 (p = 0.020) and TNF-alpha (p = 0.037) were statistically significantly higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between CRP with postprandial glycemia (p = 0.004); the multivariate regression analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between CRP and age (p = 0.001), smoking (p = 0.055), fasting glucose (p = 0.021) and triglycerides (p = 0.048) as well as between IL-6 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.009). No statistically significant correlations were found between glycosilated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and the inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). The patients with type 1 diabetes were found to have a low level of inflammatory activity manifested by the increased values of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

  18. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  19. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  20. Effects of progressive resistance training combined with a protein-enriched lean red meat diet on health-related quality of life in elderly women: secondary analysis of a 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Robinson, Sian; Orellana, Liliana; O'Connell, Stella L; Grimes, Carley A; Mundell, Niamh L; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A; Daly, Robin M

    2017-06-01

    Resistance training (RT) and increased dietary protein are recommended to attenuate age-related muscle loss in the elderly. This study examined the effect of a lean red meat protein-enriched diet combined with progressive resistance training (RT+Meat) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in elderly women. In this 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 years (mean 73 years) from self-care retirement villages participated in RT twice a week and were allocated either 160 g/d (cooked) lean red meat consumed across 2 meals/d, 6 d/week or ≥1 serving/d (25-30 g) carbohydrates (control group, CRT). HR-QoL (SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire), lower limb maximum muscle strength and lean tissue mass (LTM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline and 4 months. In all, ninety-one women (91 %) completed the study (RT+Meat (n 48); CRT (n 43)). Mean protein intake was greater in RT+Meat than CRT throughout the study (1·3 (sd 0·3) v. 1·1 (sd 0·3) g/kg per d, P<0·05). Exercise compliance (74 %) was not different between groups. After 4 months there was a significant net benefit in the RT+Meat compared with CRT group for overall HR-QoL and the physical component summary (PCS) score (P<0·01), but there were no changes in either group in the mental component summary (MCS) score. Changes in lower limb muscle strength, but not LTM, were positively associated with changes in overall HR-QoL (muscle strength, β: 2·2 (95 % CI 0·1, 4·3), P<0·05). In conclusion, a combination of RT and increased dietary protein led to greater net benefits in overall HR-QoL in elderly women compared with RT alone, which was because of greater improvements in PCS rather than MCS.

  1. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  2. Concentrado proteico do soro melhora a qualidade sensorial de sobremesa láctea diet Whey protein concentrate improves the sensory quality of free-fat dairy desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos isentos ou de baixo nível de gordura constituem um desafio para a indústria de alimentos. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da adição de concentrado proteico de soro (CPS nas características sensoriais e aceitabilidade de sobremesas lácteas sem gordura. Quatro formulações foram desenvolvidas com diferentes concentrações de CPS (0%, 1,5%, 3,0% e 4,5% m v-1 e caracterizadas sensorialmente por meio da Análise Descritiva. A aceitabilidade das formulações foi avaliada por 94 consumidores que utilizaram escala hedônica de nove pontos. As sobremesas foram caracterizadas por oito atributos sensoriais: cor, firmeza, resistência ao corte, brilho, consistência, gomosidade, aroma e sabor de baunilha. As formulações contendo 3,0 e 4,5% de CPS apresentaram maior intensidade de todos os atributos sensoriais. A adição de CPS foi efetiva na composição da textura das sobremesas lácteas diet, além de realçar a cor, sabor e aroma do produto. As formulações contendo 1,5 e 3,0% de CPS foram as mais aceitas, evidenciando que a utilização do CPS nessas concentrações favoreceu a aceitabilidade do produto, proporcionando características sensoriais agradáveis aos consumidores.Foods free or low-fat constituted are a challenge for the food industry. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC in the sensory profile and acceptability of dairy desserts free-fat. Four formulations had been developed with different WPC concentrations (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% or 4.5%, mass% and sensory characterized by Descriptive Analysis. The acceptability of the formulations was evaluated by 94 consumers who had used the nine-point hedonic scale. Dairy desserts were characterized by eight sensory attributes: color, firmness, resistance to cut, brightness, thickness, gumminess, aroma and vanilla flavor. The formulations containing 3.0 and 4.5% of WPC presented

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. Proteins engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the - Departement d'Ingenierie et d'etudes de proteines (Deip) of the CEA more than seventy researchers are working hard to understand the function of proteins. For that they use the molecular labelling technique (F.M.)

  5. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reliable information about the safety of taking whey protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Milk allergy: If you are allergic to cow's milk, avoid using whey protein.

  6. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  7. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  8. Whey protein isolate/cellulose nanofibre/TiO2 nanoparticle/rosemary essential oil nanocomposite film: Its effect on microbial and sensory quality of lamb meat and growth of common foodborne pathogenic bacteria during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sani, Mahmood; Ehsani, Ali; Hashemi, Mohammad

    2017-06-19

    The use of biodegradable nanocomposite films in active packaging is of great importance since they can have a controlled release of antimicrobial compounds. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of whey protein isolate (WPI)/cellulose nanofibre (CNF) nanocomposite films containing 1.0% (w/w) titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and 2.0% (w/v) rosemary essential oil (REO) in preserving the microbial and sensory quality of lamb meat during the storage at 4±1°C. Initially, the best concentration of each compound to be added to the film was determined by micro-dilution and disc diffusion methods. The microbial and sensory properties of lamb meat were controlled in two groups (control and treatment) over 15days of storage. Then, the samples were analysed for total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp. count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, inoculated Staphylococcus aureus count, Listeria monocytogenes count, and Escherichia coli O 157 :H 7 count. Microbial analysis and nine-point hedonic scale was applied for the sensory analysis. Results indicated that the use of nanocomposite films significantly reduced the bacterial counts of treatment group. Higher inhibition effect was observed on Gram-positive bacteria than on Gram-negative bacteria (Psensory evaluations also showed that the use of nanocomposite films significantly increased the shelf life of treated meat (15days) compared to the control meat (6days). Based on the results of this study, the edible nanocomposite films were effective in preserving the microbial and sensory qualities of lamb meat; therefore, this application is recommended in meat especially red meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, Jürgen; Battey, James N D; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D; Berman, Helen M; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploration of the protein structure space. One of the challenges in using model information effectively has been to access all models available for a specific protein in heterogeneous formats at different sites using various incompatible accession code systems. Often, structure models for hundreds of proteins can be derived from a given experimentally determined structure, using a variety of established methods. This has been done by all of the PSI centers, and by various independent modeling groups. The goal of the Protein Model Portal (PMP) is to provide a single portal which gives access to the various models that can be leveraged from PSI targets and other experimental protein structures. A single interface allows all existing pre-computed models across these various sites to be queried simultaneously, and provides links to interactive services for template selection, target-template alignment, model building, and quality assessment. The current release of the portal consists of 7.6 million model structures provided by different partner resources (CSMP, JCSG, MCSG, NESG, NYSGXRC, JCMM, ModBase, SWISS-MODEL Repository). The PMP is available at http://www.proteinmodelportal.org and from the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledgebase.

  10. Evaluating the quality of research into a single prognostic biomarker: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 83 studies of C-reactive protein in stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hemingway

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic evaluations of the quality of research on a single prognostic biomarker are rare. We sought to evaluate the quality of prognostic research evidence for the association of C-reactive protein (CRP with fatal and nonfatal events among patients with stable coronary disease.We searched MEDLINE (1966 to 2009 and EMBASE (1980 to 2009 and selected prospective studies of patients with stable coronary disease, reporting a relative risk for the association of CRP with death and nonfatal cardiovascular events. We included 83 studies, reporting 61,684 patients and 6,485 outcome events. No study reported a prespecified statistical analysis protocol; only two studies reported the time elapsed (in months or years between initial presentation of symptomatic coronary disease and inclusion in the study. Studies reported a median of seven items (of 17 from the REMARK reporting guidelines, with no evidence of change over time. The pooled relative risk for the top versus bottom third of CRP distribution was 1.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-2.17, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 79.5. Only 13 studies adjusted for conventional risk factors (age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol and these had a relative risk of 1.65 (95% CI 1.39-1.96, I(2 = 33.7. Studies reported ten different ways of comparing CRP values, with weaker relative risks for those based on continuous measures. Adjusting for publication bias (for which there was strong evidence, Egger's p<0.001 using a validated method reduced the relative risk to 1.19 (95% CI 1.13-1.25. Only two studies reported a measure of discrimination (c-statistic. In 20 studies the detection rate for subsequent events could be calculated and was 31% for a 10% false positive rate, and the calculated pooled c-statistic was 0.61 (0.57-0.66.Multiple types of reporting bias, and publication bias, make the magnitude of any independent association between CRP and prognosis

  11. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  12. Protein degradation and protection against misfolded or damaged proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2003-12-01

    The ultimate mechanism that cells use to ensure the quality of intracellular proteins is the selective destruction of misfolded or damaged polypeptides. In eukaryotic cells, the large ATP-dependent proteolytic machine, the 26S proteasome, prevents the accumulation of non-functional, potentially toxic proteins. This process is of particular importance in protecting cells against harsh conditions (for example, heat shock or oxidative stress) and in a variety of diseases (for example, cystic fibrosis and the major neurodegenerative diseases). A full understanding of the pathogenesis of the protein-folding diseases will require greater knowledge of how misfolded proteins are recognized and selectively degraded.

  13. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Nutritional value of the proteins of carboxydobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, T G; Vlasova, N V; Barashkov, V A

    1980-01-01

    The biological value of proteins from 3 carboxidobacterial strains was assessed on the basis of the protein amino acid content, consumption by the test-organism T. pyriformis and protein susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes in vitro. Carboxidobacterial proteins are characterized by a full-value amino acid composition and contain large amounts of all indispensable amino acids. This indicates that on the whole these proteins are quality ones. Experiments with the test-organisms have shown, however, that the relative biological value of the protein samples significantly yields to casein. The total digestibility of carboxidobacterial proteins by pepsin and trypsin in vitro is close to that of wheat vegetable proteins and lower as compared with that of casein. Carboxidobacterial proteins may be thus attributed to a protein group being an intermediate one between casein and wheat vegetable proteins.

  15. Mapping monomeric threading to protein-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerler, Aysam; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Zhang, Yang

    2013-03-25

    The key step of template-based protein-protein structure prediction is the recognition of complexes from experimental structure libraries that have similar quaternary fold. Maintaining two monomer and dimer structure libraries is however laborious, and inappropriate library construction can degrade template recognition coverage. We propose a novel strategy SPRING to identify complexes by mapping monomeric threading alignments to protein-protein interactions based on the original oligomer entries in the PDB, which does not rely on library construction and increases the efficiency and quality of complex template recognitions. SPRING is tested on 1838 nonhomologous protein complexes which can recognize correct quaternary template structures with a TM score >0.5 in 1115 cases after excluding homologous proteins. The average TM score of the first model is 60% and 17% higher than that by HHsearch and COTH, respectively, while the number of targets with an interface RMSD benchmark proteins. Although the relative performance of SPRING and ZDOCK depends on the level of homology filters, a combination of the two methods can result in a significantly higher model quality than ZDOCK at all homology thresholds. These data demonstrate a new efficient approach to quaternary structure recognition that is ready to use for genome-scale modeling of protein-protein interactions due to the high speed and accuracy.

  16. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  17. More protein in cereals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  18. Quality Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/criteria.html MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines To use the sharing features on this ... materials must also meet our existing quality guidelines. Quality, authority and accuracy of health content The organization's ...

  19. Emprego de fubá de melhor qualidade protéica em farinhas mistas para produção de biscoito Use of quality-protein maize in flour blends and in the production of cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima F. P. Guilherme

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Farinhas mistas (FM à base de farinha de trigo com substituição parcial por isolado protéico de soja, soro de leite em pó e três tipos de fubá (mimoso ou de cultivares BR451 e BR2121 foram preparadas para melhorar a qualidade protéica da farinha de trigo. As características sensoriais e químicas dos biscoitos foram avaliadas, e o valor protéico em potencial foi calculado. Os resultados foram comparados com os da farinha de trigo ou seu biscoito (controles. Os teores em macronutrientes nas FM e nos biscoitos foram superiores aos dos respectivos controles, com exceção de carboidratos. Apenas na aparência o biscoito com FM BR2121 foi estatisticamente inferior à daquele com FM mimoso, sendo semelhantes ao controle e aos outros biscoitos na textura e no sabor. O biscoito com FM mimoso teve a maior aceitação. O valor calórico médio dos biscoitos foi de 436kcal. A qualidade protéica dos biscoitos com as FM - lisina e treonina como aminoácidos limitantes e C-PER em torno de 2 - foi superior a do controle. O custo (preço/kg dos biscoitos assados com as FM foi superior ao do biscoito controle, devido ao custo da FM ter sido cerca do dobro da farinha de trigo pura e de se necessitar maiores quantidades de ingredientes na formulação.Flour blends (FB based on wheat flour with partial substitution for isolated soy protein, powdered whey and three corn flour types (common or cultivar BR451 and BR2121 were prepared to improve the protein quality of wheat flour. The sensory and chemical characteristics of the cookies were evaluated and the potential proteic value was calculated. The results were compared with the wheat flour or its cookie (controls. Macronutrients levels in FB and cookies were superior than those in the respective controls, except for carbohydrates. Only in the appearance the cookie made with FB BR2121 was statistically inferior to the one with common corn FB, being similar to the control and other cookies in texture and

  20. Managing Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Kelemen, Mihaela L

    2002-01-01

    Managing Quality provides a comprehensive review and critical analysis of quality management discourses and techniques by drawing on a number of management disciplines such as operations management, HRM, organizational behaviour, strategy, marketing and organization theory. The book: - introduces readers to key concepts and issues in quality management - provides an overview of both managerial and critical perspectives on quality management - presents the 'wisdom' of quality management gurus - documents the way quality is pursued in manufacturing, service and public sector organizations - comp

  1. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  2. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  3. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  4. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abowd, John M; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  5. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. ABOWD; Françis KRAMARZ; Antoine MOREAU

    1996-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  6. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  7. Volume 9 No. 2 2009 March 2009 PROTEIN NUTRITIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for augmenting the protein quality of cereal and legume based foods. However ... to those obtained using the in-vivo true protein digestibility method; 73.7% - 87.5% ... need to evaluate the nutritional quality of legume residues after protein extraction. ..... Food and Drug Administration's Food Labelling Regulations.

  8. Quality Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    The quality manual is the “heart” of every management system related to quality. Quality assurance in analytical laboratories is most frequently linked with ISO/IEC 17025, which lists the standard requirements for a quality manual. In this chapter examples are used to demonstrate, how these requirements can be met. But, certainly, there are many other ways to do this.

  9. Protein oxidation in muscle foods: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Heinonen, Marina; Baron, Caroline P.

    2011-01-01

    insight into the reactions involved in the oxidative modifications undergone by muscle proteins. Moreover, a variety of products derived from oxidized muscle proteins, including cross-links and carbonyls, have been identified. The impact of oxidation on protein functionality and on specific meat quality...... and consequences of Pox in muscle foods. The efficiency of different anti-oxidant strategies against the oxidation of muscle proteins is also reported.......Protein oxidation in living tissues is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of relevant degenerative diseases, whereas the occurrence and impact of protein oxidation (Pox) in food systems have been ignored for decades. Currently, the increasing interest among food scientists...

  10. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  11. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  12. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunich, M.P.; Vieth, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a point/counterpoint view of a quality assurance director and a project manager. It presents numerous aspects of quality assurance requirements along with analyses as to the value of each

  13. Quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.

  14. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  15. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results

  16. Energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, David I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops economic definitions of energy quality for individual fuels and energy aggregates. There are use- and exchange-value concepts, as well as marginal and total measures, of energy quality. A factor augmentation or quality coefficients approach corresponds to the use-value definition while indicators based on distance functions and relative prices are exchange-value based definitions. These indicators are identical when the elasticity of substitution between fuels is infinity but diverge or cannot be computed for other interfuel elasticities of substitution. When the elasticity of substitution is zero only the quality coefficients approach is defined. I also show that 1) the ratio of an energy volume index to aggregate joules cannot be considered a complete indicator of aggregate energy quality as it does not account for quality changes in the component fuels 2) demand curve integrals do not provide information on relative use-values or fuel qualities when the elasticity of substitution is unity or less. (author)

  17. Energy quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, David I. [Arndt-Corden Division of Economics, Crawford School of Economics and Government and Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper develops economic definitions of energy quality for individual fuels and energy aggregates. There are use- and exchange-value concepts, as well as marginal and total measures, of energy quality. A factor augmentation or quality coefficients approach corresponds to the use-value definition while indicators based on distance functions and relative prices are exchange-value based definitions. These indicators are identical when the elasticity of substitution between fuels is infinity but diverge or cannot be computed for other interfuel elasticities of substitution. When the elasticity of substitution is zero only the quality coefficients approach is defined. I also show that 1) the ratio of an energy volume index to aggregate joules cannot be considered a complete indicator of aggregate energy quality as it does not account for quality changes in the component fuels 2) demand curve integrals do not provide information on relative use-values or fuel qualities when the elasticity of substitution is unity or less. (author)

  18. Quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Quality Management Conference focusses on process control and the thus achievable product quality. It is shown that the buyers' increasing demands on product quality require appropriate response in terms of enhanced efforts and methods for quality assurance in the production process. The connection between quality targets and the expenditure required is shown, as well as a comparative validation of efficiency of quality assurance methods. The firms selected for representation at this conference cover a wide range of products so that practically the entire scope of process control problems in the various industrial branches is discussed in the conference contributions. The last conference session is concerned with the strategies and technical developments for enhanced combination of quality assurance and control and production processes. (orig./HP) [de

  19. New application of silk protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiishi, Youichi

    2000-01-01

    Gunma prefecture is famous for sericulture and silk textile industry district in Japan. In Gunma prefecture, some kinds of new generation silk as high performance and high quality silk were developed. These silk are used not only for the new textile materials but also for new industrial materials. New application of silk protein, fibroin and sericin, is considered. (author)

  20. New application of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Gunma prefecture is famous for sericulture and silk textile industry district in Japan. In Gunma prefecture, some kinds of new generation silk as high performance and high quality silk were developed. These silk are used not only for the new textile materials but also for new industrial materials. New application of silk protein, fibroin and sericin, is considered. (author)

  1. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  2. Protein supplementation with sports protein bars in renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Anthony

    2007-05-01

    Malnutrition prevalence in patients on dialysis is well established. The protein requirements for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have been documented elsewhere, including the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. The clinical challenge is to assist patients in meeting these targets, especially in those with anorexia. Traditional supplements have included fluid, which is an issue for patients who are fluid restricted. The study objectives were to (1) investigate the range of sports protein supplements that may be suitable for patients on hemodialysis to use and (2) trial nonfluid protein supplements in patients on hemodialysis. Known manufacturers of sports protein bars and other sports supplements available in Australia were contacted for the nutrient breakdown of high-protein products, specifically potassium, protein, and phosphorus contents. As a result, selected high-protein sports bars (Protein FX, Aussie Bodies, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) were used as an alternative to the more commonly used renal-specific fluid supplements (Nepro, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL; Novasource Renal, Novartis Nutrition Corporation, Fremont, MI; and Renilon, Nutricia, Wiltshire, UK) in patients with poor nutritional status requiring supplementation. Patient satisfaction and clinical nutrition markers were investigated. The study took place at inpatient, in-center, and satellite hemodialysis settings in Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 32 patients (16 females and 16 males) with an average age of 62.9 years (range 32-86 years) undergoing hemodialysis (acute and maintenance) were included. Subjects were selected by the author as part of routine clinical nutrition care. Patients trialed sports protein bars as a protein supplement alone or in conjunction with other supplementary products. All patients were in favor of the trial, with 22 of 32 patients continuing with the protein

  3. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high quality protein Heterose em cruzamentos entre populações de milho de grãos brancos com alta qualidade protéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate heterosis and its components in 16 white grain maize populations presenting high quality protein. These populations were divided according to grain type in order to establish different heterosis groups. The crosses were carried out according to a partial diallel cross design among flint and dent populations. Seven agronomic traits were evaluated in three environments while four leaf diseases and incidence of corn stunt were evaluated in one. Least square procedure was applied to the normal equation X'Xbeta = X'Y, to estimate the model effects and their respective sum of squares. Among the heterosis components, in diallel analysis, significance for average heterosis in grain yield, number of days to female flowering and to all evaluated diseases was detected. Specific heterosis was significant for days to female flowering and resistance to Puccinia polysora. Results concerned to grain yield trait indicate that populations with superior performance in dent group, no matter what flint population group is used in crosses, tend to generate superior intervarietal hybrids. In decreasing order of preference, the dent type populations CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 and ZQP/B 101 and the flint type CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 and ZQP/B 102 are recommended to form composites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a heterose e seus componentes em 16 populações de milho de grãos brancos, de alta qualidade protéica. Estas populações foram divididas de acordo com o tipo de grão, para estabelecer grupos heteróticos diferentes. Os cruzamentos foram realizados entre populações dentadas e duras, seguindo o esquema dialélico parcial. Sete caracteres agronômicos foram avaliados em três locais, e quatro doenças foliares e a incidência de enfezamento, em um. O procedimento de quadrados mínimos foi aplicado à equação normal X'Xbeta = X'Y, para estimar os efeitos do modelo e suas respectivas somas de quadrados

  4. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  5. Validation-driven protein-structure improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, W.G.

    2016-01-01

    High-quality protein structure models are essential for many Life Science applications, such as protein engineering, molecular dynamics, drug design, and homology modelling. The WHAT_CHECK model validation project and the PDB_REDO model optimisation project have shown that many structure models in

  6. Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin

    2007-01-01

      Peptide mass fingerprinting is an effective way of identifying, e.g., gel-separated proteins, by matching experimentally obtained peptide mass data against large databases. However, several factors are known to influence the quality of the resulting matches, such as proteins contaminating the s...

  7. Processing quality of NS soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current NS soybean varieties are of satisfactory technological quality, and also significant technological diversity. Varieties Triumf and Venera possess higher oil content. Variety Sava has a balanced oil and protein content, and can be used for obtaining different soy products. Variety Rubin has the highest protein content and is suitable for new high protein products. Estimated processing value is a good parameter to describe the processing quality of soybeans. Based on several years and spatial analysis, it is possible to separate the geographic regions with prevailing favourable conditions for obtaining higher protein or oil content.

  8. Automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of applications. Since the usefulness of a model for specific application is determined by its accuracy, model quality estimation is an essential component of protein structure prediction. Comparative protein modeling has become a routine approach in many areas of life science research since fully automated modeling systems allow also nonexperts to build reliable models. In this chapter, we describe practical approaches for automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.

  9. Quality management and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieroni, N.

    1991-01-01

    The main common difficulties are presented found in the implementation of effective Quality Management and Quality Assurance Programmes, based on the recommendations of the IAEA International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group, the information collected by the IAEA experts participating in its meetings, and the results of the IAEA Operational Safety Review Team missions. The difficulties were identified in several areas. The most relevant root causes can be characterized as lack of understanding of quality principles and difficulty in implementation by the responsible management. The IAEA programme is described attempting to provide advice and support in the implementation of an effective quality programme through a number of activities including: preparation of practical guidelines, training programmes for management personnel, assistance in building up qualified manpower, and promoting the quest for excellence through the exchange of experience in the implementation of effective Quality Management and Quality Assurance Programmes in nuclear power plants with good performance records. (Z.S.)

  10. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cante; Feger; Genevray; Hennion; Moneyron; Monneyron; Normand; Rastoin; Silberstein; Vaujour.

    1976-01-01

    The general principles of quality assurance and their applications within the French industrial and commercial regulations are presented. The conditions for the practical application of quality assurance to the different stages of the life of a nuclear power station (design, development, operation) are considered and a special mention is made of nuclear fuels and liquid sodium cooled reactors [fr

  11. Afterschool Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles; Akiva, Tom; McGovern, Gina; Peck, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses efforts to define and improve the quality of afterschool services, highlighting areas of agreement and identifying leading-edge issues. We conclude that the afterschool field is especially well positioned to deliver high-quality services and demonstrate effectiveness at scale because a strong foundation has been built for…

  12. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  13. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  14. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data from a single wheat cultivar provides new tools for understanding the roles of individual alpha gliadin proteins in flour quality and celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-hundred-thirty-six expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding alpha gliadins from Triticum aestivum cv Butte 86 were identified in public databases and assembled into 19 contigs. Consensus sequences for 12 of the contigs encoded complete alpha gliadin proteins, but only two were identical to protei...

  15. Interactions of protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins in relation to tofu gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew T; Yang, Aijun

    2016-03-01

    The content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins are known to affect tofu quality and food-grade soybeans usually have higher levels of proteins. We studied the tofu quality of soybeans with high (44.8%) or low (39.1%) protein content and with or without the 11S globulin polypeptide, 11SA4. Both protein content and 11SA4 significantly affected tofu gel properties. Soybeans containing more protein had smaller seeds which produced significantly firmer (0.663 vs.0.557 N, pseed size, tofu hardness and water holding capacity and led to significant changes to the profile of storage protein subunits, which may have contributed to the improvement in tofu gel properties. These results suggest that, in combination with higher protein content, certain protein subunits or their polypeptides can also be targeted in selecting soybeans to further improve soy food quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  17. Protein improvement in crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabson, R

    1974-07-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  18. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabson, R.

    1974-01-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  19. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The main efforts of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) was focused on support of quality assurance programmes development at responsible organizations Bohunice V-1 and V-v and Mochovce NPPs and their inspection. Development of the level two documentation of a partial quality assurance programme for NPP operation continued at Mochovce NPP. Most of documentation has been submitted to NRA SR for comments and approval. NRA SR invited a mission of French experts to Mochovce NPP to review preparation and performance of internal audits that would be beneficial for improvement in this kind activities at the NPP. Bohunice NPP continued in development of a partial quality assurance programme for operation. The Quality Assurance Programme submitted to NRA SR for approval. Based on a request of Bohunice NPPs, NRA SR consulted the draft quality assurance programme developed by Siemens for stage of the 'Basic Design' of V-1 NPP upgrading. The programme had not been submitted for approval to NRA SR prior to completion of works by Siemens. Based on an internal audit that had been performed, corrective measures were proposed to meet requirements on review and approval of suppliers quality assurance programmes. Requirements related to the quality assurance at nuclear installations were prepared to be incorporated into principles of a act on peaceful use of nuclear power in Slovak Republic

  20. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  1. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  2. Quality assurance and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Bastiani, P. de

    2004-01-01

    The basic quality assurance requirements have to be completed by means that are oriented towards the quality of products; in COGEMA LOGISTICS our approach is based on four principles: 1) an integrated management system: Quality, health and safety, environment 2) an organization based on the responsibility of all actors, trust and transparency 3) a methodical approach to continuously improve the methods that are employed to achieve quality: -process management -corrective and preventive actions -self assessments and various surveys 4) but at the same time strong procedures for control and monitoring of all activities: -technical and quality audits (external and internal) -at source inspections -engineering activities inspections This performance-based approach is necessary to guaranty the effectiveness of the traditional formal QA means

  3. Affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry to identify herpes simplex virus protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, David G

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of herpes simplex virus protein interaction complexes are fundamental to understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the replication and pathogenesis of the virus. Recent advances in affinity-based methods, mass spectrometry configurations, and bioinformatics tools have greatly increased the quantity and quality of protein-protein interaction datasets. In this chapter, detailed and reliable methods that can easily be implemented are presented for the identification of protein-protein interactions using cryogenic cell lysis, affinity purification, trypsin digestion, and mass spectrometry.

  4. Quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, Diana

    1997-01-01

    scen Scenario Interactive Media Element This mini-case study walks users through a scenario and user must make business decisions for a company that looks at the issues of quality and cost. GB3042 Operations Management

  5. Ocean Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  6. Quality assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Maurice A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of quality assurance refers more specifically to the process of objectifying and clearly enunciating goals, and providing means of assessing the outcomes. In this article the author mentions four fundamental elements of quality assurance which should be applied in the medical profession in Malta. These elements should relate to professional performance, resource utilisation, risk management and patient satisfaction. The aim of the medical professionals in Malta is to provide the b...

  7. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section 11 of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves, respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  8. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  9. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  10. Racemic & quasi-racemic protein crystallography enabled by chemical protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen Bh

    2018-04-04

    A racemic protein mixture can be used to form centrosymmetric crystals for structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Both the unnatural d-protein and the corresponding natural l-protein are made by total chemical synthesis based on native chemical ligation-chemoselective condensation of unprotected synthetic peptide segments. Racemic protein crystallography is important for structure determination of the many natural protein molecules that are refractory to crystallization. Racemic mixtures facilitate the crystallization of recalcitrant proteins, and give diffraction-quality crystals. Quasi-racemic crystallization, using a single d-protein molecule, can facilitate the determination of the structures of a series of l-protein analog molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial...

  12. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    encounter large protein families with only a few members of ... server for analysis of functional relationships in protein families, as inferred from protein surface maps comparison ... features, SURF'S UP! can work with models obtained from comparative modelling. ... 1997) or, if the user is confident in the quality of automated.

  13. Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds of soybean and lupin seeds. AA khalil, SS Mohamed, FS Taha, EN Karlsson. Abstract. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an agro-processing aid that can be utilized in order to improve nutritional quality of protein extracts from many sources. In this study, protein ...

  14. Heat-shock protein (Hsp70) and cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A) in the white mullet Mugil curema (Pisces:Mugilidae) as biomarkers to assess environmental quality in coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Sicairos, Julian; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Leal-Tarin, Beatriz; Hernandez-Cornejo, Rubi; Aguilar-Zarate, Gabriela; Garcia-De-La-Parra, Luz Maria; Gutierrez, Jesus N; Marquez-Rocha, Facundo; Garcia-Gasca, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers have been useful tools to monitor some effects of pollution in coastal environments. Hepatic expression of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were analyzed in white mullet (Mugil curema) by RT-PCR from July, 2005 until July, 2006 in three coastal lagoons located in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. These three coastal systems receive contaminants derived from local anthropogenic activities. Heat-shock proteins function to maintain protein integrity in the presence of stressors (such as heat or chemicals) and can be used as biomarkers of homeostatic alterations in polluted environments, whereas cytochrome P450 family members participate in steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism, and in xenobiotic transformation as a detoxification mechanism. The expression levels of both genes showed consistency in time and space, and presented a high overall correlation (r = 0.731, P < 0.001). Regardless of a high individual variability, both genes presented higher expression levels in the Urias Estuary (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for CYP1A and Hsp70, respectively), which was considered the most polluted among the three systems, especially during the rainy season (summer to fall). Gene expression levels were significantly associated with non-halogenated hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments during the sampling period (r = 0.686, P = 0.019 for CYP1A and r = 0.91, P < 0.001 for Hsp70), suggesting that both genes respond to chemicals in the environment. The results indicate that Mugil curema is a good candidate species to implement biomonitoring programs in tropical coastal environments.

  15. Quality Management, Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Blood Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbate, N

    2008-01-01

    Quality terms and the roots of the matter are analyzed according to European Committee’s recommendations. Essence of process and product quality control as well as essence of quality assurance is described. Quality system’s structure including quality control, quality assurance and management is justified in the article.

  16. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  17. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  18. Casein and soy protein meals differentially affect whole-body and splanchnic protein metabolism in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Jäkel, Martin; Soeters, Peter B

    2005-05-01

    Dietary protein quality is considered to be dependent on the degree and velocity with which protein is digested, absorbed as amino acids, and retained in the gut as newly synthesized protein. Metabolic animal studies suggest that the quality of soy protein is inferior to that of casein protein, but confirmatory studies in humans are lacking. The study objective was to assess the quality of casein and soy protein by comparing their metabolic effects in healthy human subjects. Whole-body protein kinetics, splanchnic leucine extraction, and urea production rates were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 8-h enteral intakes of isonitrogenous [0.42 g protein/(kg body weight . 8 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope techniques were used to study metabolic effects. With enteral food intake, protein metabolism changed from net protein breakdown to net protein synthesis. Net protein synthesis was greater in the CAPM group than in the SOPM group [52 +/- 14 and 17 +/- 14 nmol/(kg fat-free mass (FFM) . min), respectively; P CAPM (P = 0.07). Absolute splanchnic extraction of leucine was higher in the subjects that consumed CAPM [306 +/- 31 nmol/(kg FFM . min)] vs. those that consumed SOPM [235 +/- 29 nmol/(kg FFM . min); P < 0.01]. In conclusion, a significantly larger portion of soy protein is degraded to urea, whereas casein protein likely contributes to splanchnic utilization (probably protein synthesis) to a greater extent. The biological value of soy protein must be considered inferior to that of casein protein in humans.

  19. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  20. Optimization of protein buffer cocktails using Thermofluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Linda; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Geerlof, Arie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S

    2013-02-01

    The stability and homogeneity of a protein sample is strongly influenced by the composition of the buffer that the protein is in. A quick and easy approach to identify a buffer composition which increases the stability and possibly the conformational homogeneity of a protein sample is the fluorescence-based thermal-shift assay (Thermofluor). Here, a novel 96-condition screen for Thermofluor experiments is presented which consists of buffer and additive parts. The buffer screen comprises 23 different buffers and the additive screen includes small-molecule additives such as salts and nucleotide analogues. The utilization of small-molecule components which increase the thermal stability of a protein sample frequently results in a protein preparation of higher quality and quantity and ultimately also increases the chances of the protein crystallizing.

  1. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  2. Degradação in vitro da fibra em detergente neutro de forragem tropical de baixa qualidade em função da suplementação com proteína verdadeira e/ou nitrogênio não-proteico In vitro degradation of neutral detergent fiber of low-quality tropical forage according to supplementation with true protein and (or non-protein nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2011-06-01

    forragem de baixa qualidade.The objective was to evaluate in vitro degradation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF of low quality tropical forage according to supplementation with nitrogenous compounds at different true protein:non-protein nitrogen (NPN ratios. A sample of signal grass harvested at dry season was used as basal forage. Casein and the mixture urea:ammonium sulfate (U:AS, 9:1 were used as true protein and NPN source, respectively. The basal supplement for the other was defined by adding casein the incubation medium, in order to raise crude protein (CP level of the basal forage up to 8%, on dry matter basis. The other supplements were defined from the fractional replacement (0, 1/3, 2/3 and 1 of casein CP by U:AS protein equivalents. A control treatment (forage without supplementation was also evaluated. The treatments were evaluated by in vitro simulated ruminal environment, following the incubation times: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The procedure was repeated three times, totaling three evaluations by incubation time for each treatment. Incubation residues were evaluated for NDF contents and interpreted through a non-linear logistic model. Protein supplementation increased 56.8 to 96.0% the degradation rate of potentially degradable NDF (kpdNDF in relation to control and decreased discret lag around 4.5 to 7.4 hours. The exclusive supplementation with urea increased by 15.9% the kpdNDF estimates compared to exclusive supplementation with casein. It was observed maximum kpdNDF and microbial growth at 2/3 CP of U:AS:1/3 CP of casein. Supplements which provide 1/3 of CP protein from true proteinand 2/3 from non-protein nitrogen can optimize the degradation of NDF of low-quality forage.

  3. Quality assurance and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The practice of nuclear diagnostic imaging requires an appropriate quality assurance program to attain high standards of efficiency and reliability. The International Atomic Energy Agency defines the term quality assurance as ''the closeness with which the outcome of a given procedure approaches some ideal, free from all errors and artifacts.'' The term quality control is used in reference to the specific measures taken to ensure that one particular aspect of the procedure is satisfactory. Therefore, quality assurance is a hospital-wide concept that should involve all aspects of clinical practice. Quality control is concerned with the submission of requests for procedures; the scheduling of patients; the preparation and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals; the protection of patients, staff, and the general public against radiation hazards and accidents caused by radioactive materials or by faulty equipment; the setting up, use, and maintenance of electronic instruments; the methodology of the actual procedures; the analysis and interpretation of data; the reporting of results; and, finally, the keeping of records. The chapter discusses each of these areas

  4. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  5. Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Data from the Third Annual Report of the United States Council of Environmental Quality are used in an editorial advocating the use of some of the money committed to cleaning air and water to create a more adequate knowledge base for action. (AL)

  6. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  7. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  8. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  9. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  10. Protein engineering and its applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Swati; Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita

    2017-07-24

    Protein engineering is a young discipline that has been branched out from the field of genetic engineering. Protein engineering is based on the available knowledge about the proteins structure/function(s), tools/instruments, software, bioinformatics database, available cloned gene, knowledge about available protein, vectors, recombinant strains and other materials that could lead to change in the protein backbone. Protein produced properly from genetic engineering process means a protein that is able to fold correctly and to do particular function(s) efficiently even after being subjected to engineering practices. Protein is modified through its gene or chemically. However, modification of protein through gene is easier. There is no specific limitation of Protein Engineering tools; any technique that can lead to change the protein constituent of amino acid and result in the modification of protein structure/function is in the frame of Protein Engineering. Meanwhile, there are some common tools used to reach a specific target. More active industrial and pharmaceutical based proteins have been invented by the field of Protein Engineering to introduce new function as well as to change its interaction with surrounding environment. A variety of protein engineering applications have been reported in the literature. These applications range from biocatalysis for food and industry to environmental, medical and nanobiotechnology applications. Successful combinations of various protein engineering methods had led to successful results in food industries and have created a scope to maintain the quality of finished product after processing.

  11. HitPredict version 4: comprehensive reliability scoring of physical protein?protein interactions from more than 100 species

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez, Yosvany; Nakai, Kenta; Patil, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    HitPredict is a consolidated resource of experimentally identified, physical protein?protein interactions with confidence scores to indicate their reliability. The study of genes and their inter-relationships using methods such as network and pathway analysis requires high quality protein?protein interaction information. Extracting reliable interactions from most of the existing databases is challenging because they either contain only a subset of the available interactions, or a mixture of p...

  12. Development of the protein crystallography by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Since crystal structure determination of the first protein by Kendrew in 1959, protein crystallography developed into the leading role of the protein structure study by various technology developments. Especially the utilization of synchrotron radiation from the 1990s brought innovative progress of protein crystallography on the data quality and the phasing method and had expanded the samples targets including membrane proteins and suprarmolecular complexes. Here I give the outline of the history and the future prospects of the protein crystallography from the role of synchrotron radiation. (author)

  13. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  14. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  15. Protein crystal nucleation in pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Chayen, Naomi E

    2017-01-16

    The most powerful method for protein structure determination is X-ray crystallography which relies on the availability of high quality crystals. Obtaining protein crystals is a major bottleneck, and inducing their nucleation is of crucial importance in this field. An effective method to form crystals is to introduce nucleation-inducing heterologous materials into the crystallization solution. Porous materials are exceptionally effective at inducing nucleation. It is shown here that a combined diffusion-adsorption effect can increase protein concentration inside pores, which enables crystal nucleation even under conditions where heterogeneous nucleation on flat surfaces is absent. Provided the pore is sufficiently narrow, protein molecules approach its walls and adsorb more frequently than they can escape. The decrease in the nucleation energy barrier is calculated, exhibiting its quantitative dependence on the confinement space and the energy of interaction with the pore walls. These results provide a detailed explanation of the effectiveness of porous materials for nucleation of protein crystals, and will be useful for optimal design of such materials.

  16. Quality guidance and quality formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai

    1996-01-01

    set on Danish butter cookies. Five plausible models of the relation between expectation, experience and perceived product quality are estimated. Finally one model is selected on the basis of three criteria: chi-square, RMSEA and AIC: The results show a model where expectations are indirectly related...

  17. PREFAB QUALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wraber, Ida Kristina

    This PhD project is a co-financed project between the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the single family house producer Hjem, and the Department of Architecture & Design at Aalborg University. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the architectural pros and cons as well as the potential...... dwellings as well as testing and challenging the model for analysis of architectural quality as such. The second analysis should show the pros, cons and potential of building prefab wooden dwellings in Denmark in a wider sense, emphasising different methods of manufacturing and approaches to the degree......, technology and site (common abilities, needs, dreams, memories and associations), and it is proposed that the more layers and perspectives that are added to the discussion, the fuller the view of the architectural quality will get. In relation to building prefab wooden dwellings in a Danish context, two...

  18. Alternative protein sources in sea bass nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Agaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive fish farming profitability is declining word-wide. This situation is mainly due to the extensive reliance on fish meal (FM as feed ingredient in finfish diets in order to meet the high dietary protein needs. FM quality and prices are variable and its global supply is decreasing and highly dependent on meteoric events (e.g. El niño. Several protein sources are potentially excellent alternatives to FM...

  19. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  20. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...