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Sample records for redox manipulation treatability

  1. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-01

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na 2 O 6 S 2 ) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment

  2. 100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2000-10-12

    A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the 100 D Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate in groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron within the aquifer sediments, which is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and then withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in spring 1997; the first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998. The remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998.These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer approximately 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) and 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone. Analysis of post-emplacement groundwater samples showed concentrations of chromate, in the reduced zone decreased from approximately 1.0 mg/L before the tests to below analytical detection limits (<0.007 mg/L). Chromate concentrations also declined in downgradient monitoring wells to as low as 0.020 mg/L. These data, in addition to results from pre-test reducible iron characterization, indicate the barrier should be effective for 20 to 25 years. The 100-D Area ISRM barrier is being expanded to a length of up to 2,300 ft to capture a larger portion of the chromate plume.

  3. Chelant extraction and REDOX manipulation for mobilization of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.D.; Peters, R.W.; Miller, G.A.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Was the result of open burning and open detonation of chemical agents and munitions in the Toxic Burning Pits area at J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland, soils have been contaminated with heavy metals. Simultaneous extraction is complicated because of the multitude of contaminant forms that exist. This paper uses data from a treatability study performed at Argonne National Laboratory to discuss and compare several treatment methods that were evaluated for remediating metals-contaminated soils. J-Field soils were subjected to a series of treatability experiments designed to determine the feasibility of using soil washing/soil flushing, enhancements to soil washing/soil flushing, solidification/stabilization, and electrokinetics for remediating soils contaminated with metals. Chelating and mobilizing agents evaluated included ammonium acetate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid, Citranox, gluconic acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid, in addition to pH-adjusted water. REDOX manipulation can maximize solubilities, increase desorption, and promote removal of heavy metal contaminants. Reducing agents that were studied included sodium borohydride, sodium metabisulfite, and thiourea dioxide. The oxidants studied included hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium permanganate. This paper summaries the results from the physical/chemical characterization, soil washing/soil flushing, and enhancements to soil washing/soil flushing portions of the study

  4. New tools for redox biology: From imaging to manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Dmitry S; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2017-08-01

    Redox reactions play a key role in maintaining essential biological processes. Deviations in redox pathways result in the development of various pathologies at cellular and organismal levels. Until recently, studies on transformations in the intracellular redox state have been significantly hampered in living systems. The genetically encoded indicators, based on fluorescent proteins, have provided new opportunities in biomedical research. The existing indicators already enable monitoring of cellular redox parameters in different processes including embryogenesis, aging, inflammation, tissue regeneration, and pathogenesis of various diseases. In this review, we summarize information about all genetically encoded redox indicators developed to date. We provide the description of each indicator and discuss its advantages and limitations, as well as points that need to be considered when choosing an indicator for a particular experiment. One chapter is devoted to the important discoveries that have been made by using genetically encoded redox indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF AMENDMENTS FOR MENDING THE INSITU REDOX MANIPULATION (ISRM) BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-07

    In May of 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from DOE Headquarters EM-23 to provide a team of technical experts to evaluate likely chemical/biological amendments for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. This request was a follow-on to an earlier request for assistance regarding the cause of chromium (Cr) breakthrough and recommendations for mending the barrier (March 2004 workshop). This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the ISRM technology, was installed at a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to estimate barrier longevity, calculated to be in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in approximately 17 wells has been found to contain elevated Cr concentrations. The March 2004 technical assistance team (TAT) identified potential causes of Cr breakthrough as likely related to physical and chemical heterogeneity within the aquifer (including loss of reductive capacity within preferential flow paths) and the presence of other oxidants (DO and nitrate) significantly affecting the reductive capacity of the treated aquifer. These aquifer characteristics may limit the ability of alternative amendments to extend the reducing capacity of the barrier. A 2001 Bechtel Hanford report and

  6. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites

  7. Site specific health and safety plan for drilling in support of in situ redox manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, B.G.

    1997-02-01

    This document contains the Site Specific Health and Safety Plan for Drilling in support of the In Situ REDOX Manipulation in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Approximately eight wells will be drilled in the 100-D/DR Area using rotary, sonic, or cable tool drilling methods. Split-spoon sampling will be done in conjunction with the drilling. The drilling may be spread out over several months. Included in this document are checklists for health and safety procedures

  8. Creation of a subsurface permeable treatment barrier using in situ redox manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Cole, C.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of in situ redox manipulation is to create a permeable treatment zone in the subsurface for remediating redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater. The permeable treatment zone is created just downstream of the contaminant plume or contaminant source through the injection of reagents and/or microbial nutrients to alter the redox potential of the aquifer fluids and sediments. Contaminant plumes migrating through this manipulated zone can then be destroyed or immobilized. In a field test at the Hanford Site, ∼77,000 L of buffered sodium dithionite solution were successfully injected into the unconfined aquifer at the 100-H Area in September 1995. The target contaminant was chromate. No significant plugging of the well screen or the formation was detected during any phase of the test. Dithionite was detected in monitoring wells at least 7.5 m from the injection point. Data were obtained from all three phases of the test (i.e., injection, reaction, withdrawal). Preliminary core data show that from 60% to 100% of the available reactive iron in the targeted aquifer sediments was reduced by the injected dithionite. One year after the injection, groundwater in the treatment zone remains anoxic. Total and hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater have been reduced from a preexperiment concentration of ∼60 μg/L to below the detection limit of the analytical methods

  9. Geologic, geochemical, microbiologic, and hydrologic characterization at the In Situ Redox Manipulation Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, V.R.; Teel, S.S.; Amonette, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    This report documents results from characterization activities at the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Test Site which is located within the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Information obtained during hydrogeologic characterization of the site included sediment physical properties, geochemical properties, microbiologic population data, and aquifer hydraulic properties. The purpose of obtaining this information was to improve the conceptual understanding of the hydrogeology beneath the ISRM test site and provide detailed, site specific hydrogeologic parameter estimates. The resulting characterization data will be incorporated into a numerical model developed to simulate the physical and chemical processes associated with the field experiment and aid in experiment design and interpretation

  10. Uranium Mobility During In Situ Redox Manipulation of the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, C.T.; Szecsody, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Williams, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments and computer simulations was conducted to assess the extent of uranium remobilization that is likely to occur at the end of the life cycle of an in situ sediment reduction process. The process is being tested for subsurface remediation of chromate- and chlorinated solvent-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Uranium species that occur naturally in the +6 valence state ∼(VI) at 10 ppb in groundwater at Hanford will accumulate as U(N) through the reduction and subsequent precipitation conditions of the permeable barrier created by in situ redox manipulation. The precipitated uranium will W remobilized when the reductive capacity of the barrier is exhausted and the sediment is oxidized by the groundwater containing dissolved oxygen and other oxidants such as chromate. Although U(N) accumulates from years or decades of reduction/precipitation within the reduced zone, U(W) concentrations in solution are only somewhat elevated during aquifer oxidation because oxidation and dissolution reactions that release U(N) precipitate to solution are slow. The release rate of uranium into solution was found to be controlled mainly by the oxidation/dissolution rate of the U(IV) precipitate (half-life 200 hours) and partially by the fast oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II) (half- life 5 hours) and the slow oxidation of Fe(II)CO 3 (half-life 120 hours) in the reduced sediment. Simulations of uranium transport that incorporated these and other reactions under site-relevant conditions indicated that 35 ppb U(VI) is the maximum concentration likely to result from mobilization of the precipitated U(IV) species. Experiments also indicated that increasing the contact time between the U(IV) precipitates and the reduced sediment, which is likely to occur in the field, results in a slower U(IV) oxidation rate, which, in turn, would lower the maximum concentration of mobilized U(W). A six-month-long column experiment confirmed that

  11. Influence of Nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study is to determine the influence of nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) barrier longevity. There is a wide spread groundwater plume of 60 mg/L nitrate upgradient of the ISRM barrier with lower nitrate concentrations downgradient, suggestive of nitrate reduction occurring. Batch and 1-D column experiments showed that nitrate is being slowly reduced to nitrite and ammonia. These nitrate reduction reactions are predominantly abiotic, as experiments with and without bactericides present showed no difference in nitrate degradation rates. Nitrogen species transformation rates determined in experiments covered a range of ferrous iron/nitrate ratios such that the data can be used to predict rates in field scale conditions. Field scale reaction rate estimates for 100% reduced sediment (16 C) are: (a) nitrate degradation = 202 ± 50 h (half-life), (b) nitrite production = 850 ± 300 h, and (c) ammonia production = 650 ± 300 h. Calculation of the influence of nitrate reduction on the 100D Area reductive capacity requires consideration of mass balance and reaction rate effects. While dissolved oxygen and chromate reduction rates are rapid and essentially at equilibrium in the aquifer, nitrate transformation reactions are slow (100s of hours). In the limited (20-40 day) residence time in the ISRM barrier, only a portion of the nitrate will be reduced, whereas dissolved oxygen and chromate are reduced to completion. Assuming a groundwater flow rate of 1 ft/day, it is estimated that the ISRM barrier reductive capacity is 160 pore volumes (with no nitrate), and 85 pore volumes if 60 mg/L nitrate is present (i.e., a 47% decrease in the ISRM barrier longevity). Zones with more rapid groundwater flow will be less influenced by nitrate reduction. For example, a zone with a groundwater flow rate of 3 ft/day and 60 mg/L nitrate will have a reductive capacity of 130 pore volumes. Finally, long-term column experiments

  12. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  13. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  14. Using superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics to manipulate the redox environment of neural precursor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Giedzinski, E.; Baure, J.; Doctrow, S. R.; Rola, R.; Fike, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Past work has shown that neural precursor cells are predisposed to redox sensitive changes, and that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the acute and persistent changes that occur within the irradiated CNS. Irradiation leads to a marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that correlates with oxidative endpoints in vivo and reductions in neuro-genesis. To better understand the impact of oxidative stress on neural precursor cells, and to determine if radiation-induced oxidative damage and precursor cell loss after irradiation could be reduced, a series of antioxidant compounds (EUK-134, EUK-163, EUK-172, EUK-189) were tested, three of which possess both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and one (EUK-163) whose only significant activity is SOD. Our results show that these SOD/catalase mimetics apparently increase the oxidation of a ROS-sensitive fluorescent indicator dye, particularly after short (12 h) treatments, but that longer treatments (24 h) decrease oxidation attributable to radiation-induced ROS. Similarly, other studies found that cells incubated with CuZnSOD showed some increase in intracellular ROS levels. Subsequent data suggested that the dye-oxidising capabilities of the EUK compounds were linked to differences in their catalase activity and, most likely, their ability to catalyse per-oxidative pathways. In unirradiated mice, the EUK-134 analogue induced some decrease of proliferating precursor cells and immature neurons 48 h after radiation, an effect that may be attributable to cytotoxicity and/or inhibition of precursor proliferation. In irradiated mice, a single injection of EUK-134 was not found to be an effective radioprotector at acute times (48 h). The present results support continued development of our in vitro model as a tool for predicting certain in vivo responses, and suggest that in some biological systems the capability to scavenge superoxide but produce excess H 2 O 2 , as is known for CuZnSOD, may be

  15. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Y.; Routelous, F.; Spina, G.; Perpina, J.; Suquet, J.; Rossi, M.; Zanca, M.; Billiet, A.; Madec, L.; Lemoine, T.; Gaboriaud, G.; Aubert, B.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.; Rehel, J.L.; Rebibo, G.; Bensimon, J.L.; Kulski, A.; Serhal, M.; Nguyen, K.V.; Lescure, R.; Cymbalista, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three articles have for purpose the radiation doses optimization in medical imaging. The first one concerns the radiation protection of manipulators working at a PET scan post, the second one concerns more particularly the optimization of doses delivered in pediatric computerized tomography, the third one is devoted to a comparison between radiation dose and image quality through scanners of adult temporal bone. (N.C.)

  16. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  17. Treatability study sample exemption: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published

  18. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  19. Tipping the balance: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum secreted oxalic acid suppresses host defenses by manipulating the host redox environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic ascomycete fungus with an extremely broad host range. This pathogen produces the non-specific phytotoxin and key pathogenicity factor, oxalic acid (OA. Our recent work indicated that this fungus and more specifically OA, can induce apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD in plant hosts, this induction of PCD and disease requires generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the host, a process triggered by fungal secreted OA. Conversely, during the initial stages of infection, OA also dampens the plant oxidative burst, an early host response generally associated with plant defense. This scenario presents a challenge regarding the mechanistic details of OA function; as OA both suppresses and induces host ROS during the compatible interaction. In the present study we generated transgenic plants expressing a redox-regulated GFP reporter. Results show that initially, Sclerotinia (via OA generates a reducing environment in host cells that suppress host defense responses including the oxidative burst and callose deposition, akin to compatible biotrophic pathogens. Once infection is established however, this necrotroph induces the generation of plant ROS leading to PCD of host tissue, the result of which is of direct benefit to the pathogen. In contrast, a non-pathogenic OA-deficient mutant failed to alter host redox status. The mutant produced hypersensitive response-like features following host inoculation, including ROS induction, callose formation, restricted growth and cell death. These results indicate active recognition of the mutant and further point to suppression of defenses by the wild type necrotrophic fungus. Chemical reduction of host cells with dithiothreitol (DTT or potassium oxalate (KOA restored the ability of this mutant to cause disease. Thus, Sclerotinia uses a novel strategy involving regulation of host redox status to establish infection. These results address a long-standing issue

  20. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  1. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  2. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  3. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level

  4. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  5. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  6. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  7. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, G.B.; Truex, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    (sm b ullet) Treatability test plan published in 2008 (sm b ullet) Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) (sm b ullet) Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  8. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications

  9. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment

  10. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  11. 100 Area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992f). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications. The most recent applications are excavation of the 618-9 burial ground and partial remediation of the 316-5 process trenches (DOE-RL 1992a, 1992b). Both projects included excavation of soil and dust control (using water sprays). Excavation is a well-developed technology and equipment is readily available; however, certain aspects of the excavation process require testing before use in full-scale operations. These include the following: Measurement and control of excavation-generated dust and airborne contamination; verification of field analytical system capabilities; demonstration of soil removal techniques specific to the 100 Area waste site types and configurations. The execution of this treatability test may produce up to 500 yd 3 of contaminated soil, which will be used for future treatability tests. These tests may include soil washing with vitrification of the soil washing residuals. Other tests will be conducted if soil washing is not a viable alternative

  12. Redox fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; McKinley, I.; Shea, M.; Smellie, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the investigations of redox fronts performed at the Osamu Utsumi mine. Results obtained by modelling groups on the rate of movement of the redox fronts and on the chemical reactions involved are discussed. Some of the most important rockwater interactions which occur at redox fronts can be modelled reasonably well but the complex redox chemistry of elements like sulphur is poorly simulated. The observed enrichment of many trace elements close to the redox fronts could be of significance for high-level waste repositories, but cannot be quantified by existing models. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  14. Enhanced performance of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway by manipulation of redox reactions relevant to IspC, IspG, and IspH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Yang, Liyang; Wang, Chonglong; Choi, Eui-Sung; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-04-20

    The 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is a carbon-efficient route for synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the building blocks of isoprenoids. However, practical application of a native or recombinant MEP pathway for the mass production of isoprenoids in Escherichia coli has been unsatisfactory. In this study, the entire recombinant MEP pathway was established with plasmids and used for the production of an isoprenoid, protoilludene. E. coli harboring the recombinant MEP pathway plasmid (ME) and a protoilludene synthesis pathway plasmid (AO) produced 10.4mg/L of protoilludene after 48h of culture. To determine the rate-limiting gene on plasmid ME, each constituent gene of the MEP pathway was additionally overexpressed on the plasmid AO. The additional overexpression of IPP isomerase (IDI) enhanced protoilludene production to 67.4mg/L. Overexpression of the Fpr and FldA protein complex, which could mediate electron transfer from NADPH to Fe-S cluster proteins such as IspG and IspH of the MEP pathway, increased protoilludene production to 318.8mg/L. Given that it is required for IspC as well as IspG/H, the MEP pathway has high demand for NADPH. To increase the supply of NADPH, a NADH kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (tPos5p) that converts NADH to NADPH was introduced along with the deletion of a promiscuous NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (YjgB) that consumes NADPH. This resulted in a protoilludene production of 512.7mg/L. The results indicate that IDI, Fpr-FldA redox proteins, and NADPH regenerators are key engineering points for boosting the metabolic flux toward a recombinant MEP pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a treatable dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enofe, Ikponmwosa; Thacker, Ike; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Dementia is a chronic loss of neurocognitive function that is progressive and irreversible. Although rare, dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) could present with a rapid decline in neurocognitive function with or without Parkinson-like symptoms. DAVFs represent a potentially treatable and reversible cause of dementia. Here, we report the case of an elderly woman diagnosed with a DAVF after presenting with new-onset seizures, deteriorating neurocognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms.

  16. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  17. Engineering redox balance through cofactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Redox balance plays an important role in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximal carbon flux towards target metabolites with no fluctuations in redox. This requires functional cofactor systems that support dynamic homeostasis between different redox states or functional stability in a given redox state. Redox balance can be achieved by improving the self-balance of a cofactor system, regulating the substrate balance of a cofactor system, and engineering the synthetic balance of a cofactor system. This review summarizes how cofactor systems can be manipulated to improve redox balance in microbes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  19. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  20. Neonatal screening for treatable congenital disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Boonwanich, W.; Krasao, P.; Waiyasilp, S.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a treatable disease if detected at the early stage of life. It is one of the most frequent cause of mental retardation in children. In 85 % of cases, congenital hypothyroidism is a consequence of thyroid disgenesis, in which the gland is either absent, located ectopically and/or severely reduced in size. Early detection and treatment with thyroid hormone supplement can significantly reduce mental damage. In 1996, Thailand initiated a neonatal screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) and phenylketonuria (PKU), with the objective of bringing a better quality of life to people throughout the country, but especially in the remote areas. The programme involves implementing routine screening nationwide. The plan of action was designed with the goal of having public health service units throughout the country provide neonatal screening by year 2002 for the 1.2 million babies born per annum in Thailand. The government supported the programme by allocating a five-year budget of approximately US$15 million. The programme received additional assistance through technical support and human resource development from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Centers for Disease Control. This assistance promoted self-sustainability and strengthened the programme's technical base. The programme is on track. It is expected that by year 2002 all new born babies in Thailand will be screened for CHT and PKU

  1. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  2. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Waste treatability guidance program. User's guide. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, C.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User's Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan

  4. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  5. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations

  6. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  7. A manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.; Hofmann, D.A.; Ashby, R.

    1984-01-01

    A manipulator is described, for remote handling of objects within an enclosure, by an operator outside the enclosure. The manipulator consists of a telescopically extensible arm member, the action of which is controlled by a motor-driven lead screw. (U.K.)

  8. Pad A Treatability Study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Pad A Treatability Study Project is to identify and demonstrate through lab- and pilot-scale testing, technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salt waste. This document presents proposed objectives and schedules, scope of work and breakdown structure, cost elements, deployment, benefits, and change controls for the project

  9. Treatability test plan for the 200-ZP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The primary contaminants of concern are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE). The pilot-scale treatability testing has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants present in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume. The overall scope of this test plan includes: description of the pump and treat system to be tested, as well as the test performance objectives and data quality objectives (DQOs) that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot-scale treatment system; discussion of the treatment technology to be tested and supporting development activities, including process flow and conceptual design descriptions and equipment, fabrication, utility, and system startup needs; description of pilot-scale treatment system performance, operating procedures, and operational controls, as well as anticipated monitoring activities, analytes, parameters, analytical procedures, and quality assurance protocols; summaries of other related treatability testing elements, including personnel and environmental health and safety controls, process and secondary waste management and disposition, schedule, and program organization

  10. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  11. A potentially treatable cause of dementia | Katsidzira | Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potentially treatable cause of dementia. L Katsidzira, T Machiridza, A Ndlovu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  12. Engineered Proteins: Redox Properties and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; Tian, Hui; Wang, Xiaotang; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Oxidoreductases and metalloproteins, representing more than one third of all known proteins, serve as significant catalysts for numerous biological processes that involve electron transfers such as photosynthesis, respiration, metabolism, and molecular signaling. The functional properties of the oxidoreductases/metalloproteins are determined by the nature of their redox centers. Protein engineering is a powerful approach that is used to incorporate biological and abiological redox cofactors as well as novel enzymes and redox proteins with predictable structures and desirable functions for important biological and chemical applications. The methods of protein engineering, mainly rational design, directed evolution, protein surface modifications, and domain shuffling, have allowed the creation and study of a number of redox proteins. This review presents a selection of engineered redox proteins achieved through these methods, resulting in a manipulation in redox potentials, an increase in electron-transfer efficiency, and an expansion of native proteins by de novo design. Such engineered/modified redox proteins with desired properties have led to a broad spectrum of practical applications, ranging from biosensors, biofuel cells, to pharmaceuticals and hybrid catalysis. Glucose biosensors are one of the most successful products in enzyme electrochemistry, with reconstituted glucose oxidase achieving effective electrical communication with the sensor electrode; direct electron-transfer-type biofuel cells are developed to avoid thermodynamic loss and mediator leakage; and fusion proteins of P450s and redox partners make the biocatalytic generation of drug metabolites possible. In summary, this review includes the properties and applications of the engineered redox proteins as well as their significance and great potential in the exploration of bioelectrochemical sensing devices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1796–1822. PMID:22435347

  13. Pad A treatability study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This plan addresses the work to be accomplished by the Pad A Treatability Study Project. The purpose of this project is to investigate potential treatment and separation technologies, identify the best technologies, and to demonstrate by both lab- and pilot-scale demonstration, the most applicable remedial technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salts at the Pad A site located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) a the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The conduct of this project will be supported by other DOE laboratories, universities, and private industries, who will provide support for near-term demonstrations of treatment and separation technologies. The purpose of this long-range planning document is to present the detailed plan for the implementation of the Pad A Treatability Study Project

  14. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Manipulatives Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Peggy L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifth graders (n=16) engaged in manipulative activities to improve their grasp of math concepts; one-third were identified as exceptional children. Posttest results after 12 lessons showed the overall class average increased from 49% to 59% and all areas improved compared to pretest scores. Attitude changes were also apparent. (Contains 24…

  16. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital

  17. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Karnebeek Clara D M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intellectual disability (ID is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM, therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes

  18. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  19. Currency Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Weithing Zhang; Thomas Mertens; Tarek Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Many central banks manage the stochastic behavior of their currencies' exchange rates by imposing pegs relative to a target currency. We study the effects of such currency manipulation in a multi-country model of exchange rate determination with endogenous capital accumulation. We find that the imposition of an exchange rate peg relative to a given target currency increases the volatility of consumption in the target country and decreases the volatility of the target currency's exchange rate ...

  20. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  1. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs......In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  2. CARWASH WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERISTICS, VOLUMES, AND TREATABILITY BY GRAVITY OIL SEPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Fall

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the characteristics, volumes and treatability of Full-service carwash wastewaters in Toluca (Mexico State). The average water use for Exterior-only wash was 50 L per small-size car and 170 L per medium-size vehicle (pick up, van or light truck). The Full-service wash (exterior, engine and chassis) required 170 L per small-size car and 300 L per light truck. Wastewaters were generally emulsified and contained high contaminant loads (in average, 1100 mg...

  3. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  4. Hanford Site physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct a physical separations soil treatability test in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site, Washington. The objective of this test is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils in waste sites at Hanford and other sites. It is not the intent of this test to remove contaminated materials from the fine soils. Physical separation is a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils. Organic contaminants are expected to be insignificant for the 300-FF-I Operable Unit test, and further removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils will require secondary treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or other technologies. Additional investigations/testing are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of applying secondary treatment technologies, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for the treatability test to be conducted as a service contract. More detailed instructions and procedures will be provided as part of the vendors (sellers) proposal. The procedures will be approved by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and finalized by the seller prior to initiating the test

  5. De Novo Construction of Redox Active Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, C C; Sheehan, M M; Ennist, N M; Kodali, G; Bialas, C; Englander, M T; Discher, B M; Dutton, P L

    2016-01-01

    Relatively simple principles can be used to plan and construct de novo proteins that bind redox cofactors and participate in a range of electron-transfer reactions analogous to those seen in natural oxidoreductase proteins. These designed redox proteins are called maquettes. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic binary patterning of heptad repeats of amino acids linked together in a single-chain self-assemble into 4-alpha-helix bundles. These bundles form a robust and adaptable frame for uncovering the default properties of protein embedded cofactors independent of the complexities introduced by generations of natural selection and allow us to better understand what factors can be exploited by man or nature to manipulate the physical chemical properties of these cofactors. Anchoring of redox cofactors such as hemes, light active tetrapyrroles, FeS clusters, and flavins by His and Cys residues allow cofactors to be placed at positions in which electron-tunneling rates between cofactors within or between proteins can be predicted in advance. The modularity of heptad repeat designs facilitates the construction of electron-transfer chains and novel combinations of redox cofactors and new redox cofactor assisted functions. Developing de novo designs that can support cofactor incorporation upon expression in a cell is needed to support a synthetic biology advance that integrates with natural bioenergetic pathways. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Redox Proteome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    The redox proteome consists of reversible and irreversible covalent modifications that link redox metabolism to biologic structure and function. These modifications, especially of Cys, function at the molecular level in protein folding and maturation, catalytic activity, signaling, and macromolecular interactions and at the macroscopic level in control of secretion and cell shape. Interaction of the redox proteome with redox-active chemicals is central to macromolecular structure, regulation, and signaling during the life cycle and has a central role in the tolerance and adaptability to diet and environmental challenges. PMID:23861437

  7. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested.

  8. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream number-sign 1, Stream number-sign 3, Stream number-sign 6, and Stream number-sign 7. Stream number-sign 1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream number-sign 3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream number-sign 6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft 3 wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream number-sign 7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network's mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable limits

  9. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  10. Chloroplast Redox Poise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steccanella, Verdiana

    the redox status of the plastoquinone pool and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the plant cell, the equilibrium between redox reactions and ROS signals is also maintained by various balancing mechanisms among which the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin system (TR-Trx) stands out as a mediator......The redox state of the chloroplast is maintained by a delicate balance between energy production and consumption and is affected by the need to avoid increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox power and ROS generated in the chloroplast are essential for maintaining physiological...... metabolic pathways and for optimizing chloroplast functions. The redox poise of photosynthetic electron transport components like plastoquinone is crucial to initiate signaling cascades and might also be involved in key biosynthetic pathways such as chlorophyll biosynthesis. We, therefore, explored...

  11. Engineering redox homeostasis to develop efficient alcohol-producing microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zhao, Qiuwei; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

    2017-06-24

    The biosynthetic pathways of most alcohols are linked to intracellular redox homeostasis, which is crucial for life. This crucial balance is primarily controlled by the generation of reducing equivalents, as well as the (reduction)-oxidation metabolic cycle and the thiol redox homeostasis system. As a main oxidation pathway of reducing equivalents, the biosynthesis of most alcohols includes redox reactions, which are dependent on cofactors such as NADH or NADPH. Thus, when engineering alcohol-producing strains, the availability of cofactors and redox homeostasis must be considered. In this review, recent advances on the engineering of cellular redox homeostasis systems to accelerate alcohol biosynthesis are summarized. Recent approaches include improving cofactor availability, manipulating the affinity of redox enzymes to specific cofactors, as well as globally controlling redox reactions, indicating the power of these approaches, and opening a path towards improving the production of a number of different industrially-relevant alcohols in the near future.

  12. Treatability Study Report for In SITU Lead Immobilization Using Phosphate-Based Binders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bricka, R. M; Marwaha, Anirudha; Fabian, Gene L

    2008-01-01

    .... The treatability study described in this report was designed to develop the information necessary to support the immobilization of lead contaminants in soil by in situ treatment with phosphate-based binders...

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Soil washing treatability testing for rad-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, K.S.; Lear, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Soil washing treatability testing was successfully completed on soil contaminated with Ra-226 and Th-232. The objective of the soil washing study was to determine if the radiologically contaminated fraction of the soil could be separated from the bulk of the soil material. The cleanup criteria was 38 microm) fraction was allowed to settle and was washed to separate it from the highly contaminated fine (< 38 microm) fraction. The clean coarse fraction comprised 85.7% of the total solids and had less than 15 pCi/g of Ra-226 and Th-232. This material was to be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D disposal facility. The suspended fines were flocculated and dewatered to minimize the amount of highly contaminated material produced by the soil washing. The dewatered fines would require disposal at a low-level radiological disposal facility. Mass balance calculations were made to determine production rates and chemical and equipment requirements for the full-scale soil washing treatment

  15. In situ respiration testing: A field treatability test for bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.; Vogel, C.; Hoeppel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of aerating subsurface soils to stimulate in situ biological activity and promote bioremediation. Bioventing differs from soil venting in remedial approach. Soil venting is designed and operated to maximize the volatilization of low-molecular-weight compounds, with some biodegradation occurring. In contrast, bioventing is designed to maximize biodegradation of aerobically biodegradable compounds, regardless of their molecular weight, with some volatilization occurring. Bioventing is gaining wide acceptance as a remediation alternative at petroleum-contaminated sites. However, site variability usually requires that a short term treatability test be conducted in situ at potential sites to determine the applicability of bioventing. Battelle has worked with the US Air Force and the US Navy to develop a simple and inexpensive field test to evaluate bioventing potential-contaminated sites. This test has been used to evaluate the applicability of bioventing at over 50 sites. The in situ respiration test consists of injecting air and an inert tracer gas (helium) over a 24-hour period to aerate soils at an oxygen-deficient, petroleum-contaminated site. Soil vapor samples are collected to determine oxygen utilization rates and carbon dioxide production rates. The stoichiometric relationship for the oxidation of hexane is used to calculate the biodegradation rate. The tracer gas is monitored to estimate the effect of diffusion on changes in soil-gas concentrations

  16. Treatability studies in support of the nonradiological wastewater treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Fowler, V.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Project (NRWTP) will treat nonradiological wastewaters generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to pollutant levels acceptable under restrictions imposed by the effluent limits of best available technology (BAT) regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), according to the goals established by the Clean Water Act. A three-phase treatability study was conducted to resolve many of the uncertainties facing the NRWTP. The first phase consisted of batch simulation of the proposed NRWTP flowsheet in the laboratory. The Phase I results revealed no major problems with the proposed flowsheet. Phase II consisted of more-detailed parametric studies of the flowsheet processes at a bench-scale level in the laboratory. The Phase II results were used to guide the planning and design of the Phase III study, which consisted of flowsheet simulation on a continuous basis using a mini-pilot plant (MPP) facility. This facility is contained within two connected semitrailer vans and an analytical trailer.

  17. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  18. Firm contracts for treatability tests on contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Geosafe Corporation, a Pacific Northwest-headquartered hazardous waste remediation company, announced that is has successfully completed treatability testing of contaminated soils under contract with Woodward Clyde Consultants of Denver, Colorado, the prime contractor for a major hazardous waste site in the Western United States. The tests are being conducted at the University of Washington with Geosafe's specially-designed test equipment. The recently concluded testing confirms the ability of Geosafe's patented in situ vitrification (ISV) technology to treat soils containing a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. ISV, for which Geosafe has worldwide rights, is the only technology available today that will fully comply with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The ability of ISV to treat mixtures of organic, inorganic and radioactive wastes in situ, in a single process, offers distinct advantages over excavation, transportation and incineration. During the ISV process, organic contaminants are pyrolized and the inorganics present are chemically incorporated into the molten soil which, when cooled, resembles naturally-occurring obsidian

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-18

    Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  1. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  2. Pulsed corona discharge for improving treatability of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chao-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Coking wastewater (CW) contains toxic and macromolecular substances that inhibit biological treatment. The refractory compounds remaining in biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) provide chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color levels that make it unacceptable for reuse or disposal. Gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) utilizing mostly hydroxyl radicals and ozone as oxidants was applied to both raw coking wastewater (RCW) and BTCW wastewater as a supplemental treatment. The energy efficiency of COD, phenol, thiocyanate and cyanide degradation by PCD was the subject of the research. The cost-effective removal of intermediate oxidation products with addition of lime was also studied. The energy efficiency of oxidation was inversely proportional to the pulse repetition frequency: lower frequency allows more effective utilization of ozone at longer treatment times. Oxidative treatment of RCW showed the removal of phenol and thiocyanate at 800 pulses per second from 611 to 227mg/L and from 348 to 86mg/L, respectively, at 42kWh/m 3 delivered energy, with substantial improvement in the BOD 5 /COD ratio (from 0.14 to 0.43). The COD and color of BTCW were removed by 30% and 93%, respectively, at 20kWh/m 3 , showing energy efficiency for the PCD treatment exceeding that of conventional ozonation by a factor of 3-4. Application of lime appeared to be an effective supplement to the PCD treatment of RCW, degrading COD by about 28% at an energy input of 28kWh/m 3 and the lime dose of 3.0kg/m 3 . The improvement of RCW treatability is attributed to the degradation of toxic substances and fragmentation of macromolecular compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  4. Redox-active media for permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.; Baghel, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, three classes of redox-active media are described and evaluated in terms of their long-term effectiveness in treating TCE-contaminated groundwater in permeable reactive zones. Zero-valent iron, in the form of recycled cast iron filings, the first class, has received considerable attention as a reactive media and has been used in about a dozen pilot- and full-scale subsurface wall installations. Criteria used in selecting commercial sources of granular iron, will be discussed. Two other classes of redox-active media that have not yet seen wide use in pilot- or full-scale installations will also be described: Fe(II) minerals and bimetallic systems. Fe(II) minerals, including magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrous sulfide (troilite, FeS), are redox-active and afford TCE reduction rates and product distributions that suggest that they react via a reductive mechanism similar to that which operates in the FeO system. Fe(II) species within the passive oxide layer coating the iron metal may act as electron transfer mediators, with FeO serving as the bulk reductant. Bimetallic systems, the third class of redox-active media, are commonly prepared by plating a second metal onto zero-valent iron (e.g., Ni/Fe and Pd/Fe) and have been shown to accelerate solvent degradation rates relative to untreated iron metal. The long-term effectiveness of this approach, however, has not yet been determined in groundwater treatability tests. The results of a Ni-plated iron column study using site groundwater indicate that a change in reduction mechanism (to catalytic dehydrohalogenation/hydrogenation) accounts for the observed rate enhancement. A significant loss in media reactivity was observed over time, attributable to Ni catalyst deactivation or poisoning. Zero-valent iron systems have not shown similar losses in reactivity in long-term laboratory, pilot or field investigations

  5. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  6. Redox Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the regulation of cellular ROS, their modes of production and removal, and the redox-sensitive targets that are modified by their flux. In particular, we focus on the actions of redox-sensitive targets that alter mitochondrial function and the role of these redox modifications on metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and apoptotic pathways. We also consider the role of mitochondria in modulating these pathways, and discuss how redox-dependent events may contribute to pathobiology by altering mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1323–1367. PMID:22146081

  7. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  8. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

  9. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co., Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, John E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Anderson L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths where direct exposure pathways are not of concern, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Department of Energy developed a treatability test program for technologies to address Tc-99 and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment, have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. The treatability test of desiccation described herein was conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation was shown to be a potentially effective vadose zone remediation technology to protect groundwater when used in conjunction with a surface infiltration barrier.

  10. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  11. Currency Manipulation versus Current Account Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Junning Cai

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a country’s currency peg can become currency manipulation representing protracted government intervention in the foreign exchange market that gives it unfair competitive advantage in international trade yet prevents effective balance of payments in its trade partners. Regarding this widespread fallacy, this paper explains why currency peg is not currency manipulation even when it keeps a country’s currency undervalued. We clarify that 1) government is inherently a major player...

  12. Redox-capacitor to connect electrochemistry to redox-biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Leverage, W Taylor; Liu, Yi; White, Ian M; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-01-07

    It is well-established that redox-reactions are integral to biology for energy harvesting (oxidative phosphorylation), immune defense (oxidative burst) and drug metabolism (phase I reactions), yet there is emerging evidence that redox may play broader roles in biology (e.g., redox signaling). A critical challenge is the need for tools that can probe biologically-relevant redox interactions simply, rapidly and without the need for a comprehensive suite of analytical methods. We propose that electrochemistry may provide such a tool. In this tutorial review, we describe recent studies with a redox-capacitor film that can serve as a bio-electrode interface that can accept, store and donate electrons from mediators commonly used in electrochemistry and also in biology. Specifically, we (i) describe the fabrication of this redox-capacitor from catechols and the polysaccharide chitosan, (ii) discuss the mechanistic basis for electron exchange, (iii) illustrate the properties of this redox-capacitor and its capabilities for promoting redox-communication between biology and electrodes, and (iv) suggest the potential for enlisting signal processing strategies to "extract" redox information. We believe these initial studies indicate broad possibilities for enlisting electrochemistry and signal processing to acquire "systems level" redox information from biology.

  13. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  14. Aqueous liquid redox desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicher, M.; Niemiec, B.; Katona, T.

    1999-12-01

    The LO-CAT II process is an aqueous liquid redox process which uses ferric and ferrous iron catalysts to oxidise hydrogen sulfide (from sour gas) to elemental sulfur: the relevant chemical equations are given. Chelating agents keep the iron in solution. The system is described under the headings of (i) LO-CAT chemistry, (ii) design parameters, (iii) startup challenges, (iv) present situation and (v) anticipated future conditions. Further improvements to the system are anticipated.

  15. Ediacaran Redox Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S. K.; Jiang, G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Kendall, B.; Owens, J. D.; Anbar, A. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for pervasive oxic conditions, and likely even deep ocean oxygenation has been documented at three intervals in the lower (ca. 632 Ma), middle (ca. 580 Ma) and upper (ca. 551 Ma) Ediacaran. The Doushantuo Formation in South China hosts large enrichments of redox-sensitive trace element (e.g., molybdenum, vanadium and uranium) in anoxic shales, which are indicative of a globally oxic ocean-atmosphere system. However, ocean redox conditions between these periods continue to be a topic of debate and remain elusive. We have found evidence for widespread anoxic conditions through much of the Ediacaran in the deep-water Wuhe section in South China. During most of the Ediacaran-early Cambrian in basinal sections is characterized by Fe speciation data and pyrite morphologies that indicate deposition under euxinic conditions with near-crustal enrichments of redox-sensitive element and positive pyrite-sulfur isotope values, which suggest low levels of marine sulfate and widespread euxinia. Our work reinforces an emerging view that the early Earth, including the Ediacaran, underwent numerous rises and falls in surface oxidation state, rather than a unidirectional rise as originally imagined. The Ediacaran ocean thus experienced repetitive expansion and contraction of marine chalcophilic trace-metal levels that may have had fundamental impact on the slow evolution of early animals and ecosystems. Further, this framework forces us to re-examine the relationship between Neoproterozoic oxygenation and metazoan diversification. Varying redox conditions through the Cryogenian and Ediacaran may help explain molecular clock and biomarker evidence for an early appearance and initial diversification of metazoans but with a delay in the appearance of most major metazoan crown groups until close to Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary.

  16. Cationic polymers in water treatment: Part 1: Treatability of water with cationic polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polasek, P.; Mutl, Silvestr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2002), s. 69-82 ISSN 0378-4738 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Keywords : cationic polymers * treatability * water quality Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.481, year: 2002

  17. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2018-01-16

    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  19. Survey of commercial firms with mixed-waste treatability study capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; McNeel, K.; Eaton, D.; Kimmel, R.

    1996-01-01

    According to the data developed for the Proposed Site Treatment Plans, the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 230,000 m 3 and embodied in approximately 2,000 waste streams. Many of these streams are unique and may require new technologies to facilitate compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act disposal requirements. Because most waste streams are unique, a demonstration of the selected technologies is justified. Evaluation of commercially available or innovative technologies in a treatability study is a cost-effective method of providing a demonstration of the technology and supporting decisions on technology selection. This paper summarizes a document being prepared by the Mixed Waste Focus Area of the DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The document will provide DOE waste managers with a list of commercial firms (and universities) that have mixed-waste treatability study capabilities and with the specifics regarding the technologies available at those facilities. In addition, the document will provide a short summary of key points of the relevant regulations affecting treatability studies and will compile recommendations for successfully conducting an off-site treatability study. Interim results of the supplier survey are tabulated in this paper. The tabulation demonstrates that treatment technologies in 17 of the US Environmental Protection Agency's technology categories are available at commercial facilities. These technologies include straightforward application of standard technologies, such as pyrolysis, as well as proprietary technologies developed specifically for mixed waste. The paper also discusses the key points of the management of commercial mixed-waste treatability studies

  20. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern. This document is a Treatability Study Work Plan for the demonstration program. The document contains a description of the proposed treatability study, background of the EM heating process, description of the field equipment, and demonstration test design

  1. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power...

  2. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  3. Manipulators in teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  4. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  5. Geochemistry of Natural Redox Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, B.A.

    1999-05-01

    Redox fronts are important geochemical boundaries which need to be considered in safety assessment of deep repositories for radioactive waste. In most cases, selected host-rock formations will be reducing due to the presence of ferrous minerals, sulphides, etc. During construction and operation of the repository, air will be introduced into the formation. After repository closure, oxidising conditions may persist locally until all oxygen is consumed. In the case of high-level waste, radiolysis of water may provide an additional source of oxidants. Oxidising conditions within a repository are thus possible and potentially have a strong influence on the mobility of many elements. The rate of movement of redox fronts, the boundary between oxidising and reducing environments, and their influence on migrating radionuclides are thus important factors influencing repository performance. The present report is a review of elemental behaviour at natural redox fronts, based on published information and work of the author. Redox fronts are geochemically and geometrically variable manifestations of a global interface between generally oxidising geochemical milieux in contact with the atmosphere and generally reducing milieux in contact with rocks containing ferrous iron, sulphide and/or organic carbon. A classification of redox fronts based on a subdivision into continental near-surface, marine near-surface, and deep environments is proposed. The global redox interface is often located close to the surface of rocks and sediments and, sometimes, within bodies of water. Temperature conditions are close to ambient. A deeper penetration of the global redox front to depths of several kilometres is found in basins containing oxidised sediments (red beds) and in some hydrothermal circulation systems. Temperatures at such deep redox fronts may reach 200 o C. Both near-surface and deep redox fronts are sites of formation of economic deposits of redox-sensitive elements, particularly of

  6. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  7. In Praise of Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  8. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  9. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  10. Manipulation, salience, and nudges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noggle, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker. However, other nudges influence decision-making in ways that do not involve providing more and better information. Nudges of this sort raise concerns about manipulation. This paper will focus on noninformational nudges that operate by changing the salience of various options. It will survey two approaches to understanding manipulation, one which sees manipulation as a kind of pressure, and one that sees it as a kind of trickery. On the pressure view, salience nudges do not appear to be manipulative. However, on the trickery view (which the author favors), salience nudges will be manipulative if they increase the salience so that it is disproportionate to that fact's true relevance and importance for the decision at hand. By contrast, salience nudges will not be manipulative if they merely highlight some fact that is true and important for the decision at hand. The paper concludes by providing examples of both manipulative and nonmanipulative salience nudges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  12. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  14. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  15. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Manipulators for production and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Ian

    1987-01-01

    The development of caves or cells and master-slave manipulators to handle radioactive materials is discussed. Some of the most recent advances are described. A manipulator arm, a master-slave manipulator and a servomanipulator mounted on a manipulator are illustrated. Future developments are discussed - these include resolved tip control for the manipulator. (UK)

  17. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  18. Simulation of robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories' Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment

  19. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  20. Comparison of hardenability calculation methods of the heat-treatable constructional steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W. [Division of Tool Materials and Computer Techniques in Metal Science, Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation has been made of the consistency of calculation of the hardenability curves of the selected heat-treatable alloyed constructional steels with the experimental data. The study has been conducted basing on the analysis of present state of knowledge on hardenability calculation employing the neural network methods. Several calculation examples and comparison of the consistency of calculation methods employed are included. (author). 35 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  2. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD'S SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-01-01

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented

  3. Treatability of stabilize landfill leachate by using pressmud ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azme, N. N. Mohd; Murshed, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the landfill that contains high concentration of heavy metals, chemicals and nutrient loading. The treatability of these contaminants are complicated since the current treatment technology are costly and site specific. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of stabilized landfill leachate by using waste (pressmud ash) as an absorbent. Pressmud ash was prepared by burning at different temperature from 100 to 700 degree Celsius and test at 24 hours shaking time, pH 8, and 4000 rpm. Leachate samples were collected from municipal solid waste (MSW) Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) and were analyzed for heavy metal, COD, ammonia and colour. This study was performed in two phases i) leachate characteristic, ii) treatability assessment by using pressmud ash. Pressmud was sampled from the sugar mill, Malaysian Sugar Manufacturing (MSM) Sdn Bhd, Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang. The pressmud with 400°C are highly potential material with a low cost which can be a good adsorbent was capable reducing efficiencies of COD (60.76%), ammonia (64.37%) and colour (35.78%) from real wastewater leachate. Pressmud showed good sorption capability. Surface modification with burning greatly enhanced the reducing efficiency of sugar waste based adsorbent with adsorption efficiency.

  4. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  5. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes

  6. Geometric control of manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruarooran, C.

    1996-01-01

    Resolved motion control enables the end effector to be moved as a rigid body in space without having to work out manually the joint combinations needed. Since a rigid body in space has three independent translational and three independent rotational movements, a manipulator with at least six joints can be controlled in this way. Normally the manipulator has more than six joints providing an infinite number of ways of moving the tip in the desired direction and this redundancy can be exploited in a variety of ways. Resolved motion tests performed on a hydraulically operated heavy duty manipulator at the Dungeness nuclear power plant are described. The results have shown that manipulators with as many as ten joints can be controlled under resolved tip motion and the areas which are critical to the performance of this type of control have been identified. (UK)

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODEL MANIPULATOR ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Krakhmalev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to describe the dynamics of manipulator robots. Mathematical model are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation and using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Mathematical model make it possible to determine the elastic deviations of manipulator robots from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. Mathematical model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by model are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered model can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the manipulator robots.

  8. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  9. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  10. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Cheng, J.; Xun, Y.; Ma, P.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O 2 ), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm -2 . Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  12. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  13. Balanced articulated manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Daniel; Germond, J.-C.; Marchal, Paul; Vertut, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a manipulator of the type comprising a master arm and a slave arm, capable of working in a containment restricted by a wall fitted with an aperture to introduce the slave arm into the containment. According to the invention this manipulator is permanently balanced irrespective of its distortions when it is secured to the wall of the containment in which it is desired to work. The entire manipulator is also balanced when being set up and when moved outside the containment, in relation to a supporting axle. This result is achieved in a simplified manner by giving homothetic shapes to the various component parts of the slave and master arms, the master arm having at least one balancing weight [fr

  14. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  15. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  16. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Wedege; Emil Dražević; Denes Konya; Anders Bentien

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined ...

  17. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  18. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  19. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  20. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  1. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  2. Microrobots to Manipulate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    At DTU Fotonik we developed and harnessed the new and emerging research area of so-called Light Robotics including the 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time laser-manipulated in a 3D-volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potentia...

  3. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  4. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  5. The TFTR maintenance manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, D.; Loesser, D.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Cerdan, G.

    1989-01-01

    TFTR plans to begin D-T experiments in mid 1990. The D-T experimental program will produce approximately one hundred shots, with a neutron generation rate of 10 19 neutrons per shot. This will result in high levels of activation in TFTR, especially in the vacuum vessel. The primary purpose of the Maintenance Manipulator is to provide a means of remotely performing certain defined maintenance and inspection tasks inside the vacuum torus so as to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The manipulator consists of a six-link folding boom connected to a fixed boom on a movable carriage. The entire manipulator is housed in a vacuum antechamber connected to the vacuum torus, through a port formerly used for a vacuum pumping duct. The configuration extends 180 0 in either direction to provide complete coverage of the torus. The four 3500 l/s turbopumps which were formerly used in the pumping duct will be mounted on the antechamber. The manipulator will utilize two end effectors. The first, called a General Inspection Arm (GIA) provides a movable platform to an inspection camera and an in-vacuum leak detector. The second is a bilateral, force-reflecting pair of slave arms which utilize specially developed tools to perform several maintenance functions. All components except the slave arms are capable of operating in TFTR's vacuum environment and during 150 0 C bakeout of the torus. (orig.)

  6. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  7. Safety assessment for the 118-B-1 Burial Ground excavation treatability tests. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.J.; Frain, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This revision of the Safety Assessment provides an auditable safety analysis of the hazards for the proposed treatability test activities per DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, DOE Limited Standard, Hazard Baseline Documentation (DOE 1994). The proposed activities are classified as radiological activities and as such, no longer require Operational Safety Limits (OSLs). The OSLS, Prudent Actions, and Institutional and Organization Controls have been removed from this revision and replaced with ''Administrative Actions Important to Safety,'' as determined by the hazards analysis. Those Administrative Actions Important to Safety are summarized in Section 1.1, ''Assessment Summary.''

  8. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  9. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare

  10. Redox regulation of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-20

    We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. The redox signaling hub interfaces directly with the phytohormone network in the synergistic control of growth and its modulation in response to environmental stress, but a few components have been identified. Accumulating evidence points to a complex interplay of phytohormone and redox controls that operate at multiple levels. For simplicity, we focus here on redox-dependent processes that control root growth and development and bud burst. The multiple roles of reactive oxygen species in the control of plant growth and development have been identified, but increasing emphasis should now be placed on the functions of redox-regulated proteins, along with the central roles of reductants such as NAD(P)H, thioredoxins, glutathione, glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, ascorbate, and reduced ferredoxin in the regulation of the genetic and epigenetic factors that modulate the growth and vigor of crop plants, particularly within an agricultural context.

  11. Redox mechanism of reactive oxygen species in exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that regular exercise benefits health. However, unaccustomed and/or exhaustive exercise can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to oxidative stress-related tissue damage and impaired muscle contractility. ROS are produced in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although mitochondria, NADPH oxidases and xanthine oxidase have all been identified as contributors to ROS production, the exact redox mechanisms underlying exercise-induced oxidative stress remain elusive. Interestingly, moderate exposure to ROS is necessary to induce the body’s adaptive responses such as the activation of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Dietary antioxidant manipulation can also reduce ROS levels and muscle fatigue, as well as enhance exercise recovery. To elucidate the complex role of ROS in exercise, this article updates on new findings of ROS origins within skeletal muscles associated with various types of exercises such as endurance, sprint and mountain climbing, corresponding antioxidant defense systems as well as dietary manipulation against damage caused by ROS.

  12. Treatability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Studds, Phil

    developed a mobile test unit including equipment for both standard and more advanced oxidation test directly on the site. The remediation techniques included are electrochemical oxidation, photochemical/photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, Fenton’s, permanganate, and persulfate among others. A versatile...

  13. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermany, Daniel S; Goldbaum, Michael; Cai, Wenjia; Valentim, Carolina C S; Liang, Huiying; Baxter, Sally L; McKeown, Alex; Yang, Ge; Wu, Xiaokang; Yan, Fangbing; Dong, Justin; Prasadha, Made K; Pei, Jacqueline; Ting, Magdalene Y L; Zhu, Jie; Li, Christina; Hewett, Sierra; Dong, Jason; Ziyar, Ian; Shi, Alexander; Zhang, Runze; Zheng, Lianghong; Hou, Rui; Shi, William; Fu, Xin; Duan, Yaou; Huu, Viet A N; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Edward D; Zhang, Charlotte L; Li, Oulan; Wang, Xiaobo; Singer, Michael A; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Jie; Tafreshi, Ali; Lewis, M Anthony; Xia, Huimin; Zhang, Kang

    2018-02-22

    The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. We also provide a more transparent and interpretable diagnosis by highlighting the regions recognized by the neural network. We further demonstrate the general applicability of our AI system for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia using chest X-ray images. This tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a treatability variance guidance document for US DOE mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, N.; Spikula, R.; Harms, T.

    1990-03-01

    In response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs), a treatability variance guidance document was prepared. The guidance manual is for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The manual was prepared as a part of an ongoing effort by DOE-EH to provide guidance for the operations offices and facilities to comply with the RCRA (LDRs). A treatability variance is an alternative treatment standard granted by EPA for a restricted waste. Such a variance is not an exemption from the requirements of the LDRs, but rather is an alternative treatment standard that must be met before land disposal. The manual, Guidance For Obtaining Variance From the Treatment Standards of the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (1), leads the reader through the process of evaluating whether a variance from the treatment standard is a viable approach and through the data-gathering and data-evaluation processes required to develop a petition requesting a variance. The DOE review and coordination process is also described and model language for use in petitions for DOE radioactive mixed waste (RMW) is provided. The guidance manual focuses on RMW streams, however the manual also is applicable to nonmixed, hazardous waste streams. 4 refs

  15. A universal microscope manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  16. Redox Couples with Unequal Diffusion Coefficients: Effect on Redox Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mampallil Augustine, Dileep; Mathwig, Klaus; Kang, Shuo; Lemay, Serge Joseph Guy

    2013-01-01

    Redox cycling between two electrodes separated by a narrow gap allows dramatic amplification of the faradaic current. Unlike conventional electrochemistry at a single electrode, however, the mass-transport-limited current is controlled by the diffusion coefficient of both the reduced and oxidized

  17. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  18. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  19. Manipulating atoms with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The physical mechanisms which allow manipulating of neutral atoms with laser photons are described. A remark is also made concerning several possible applications of ultra-cool atoms and streams of future research. The article is completed by Prof. Cohen-Tannoudji's autobiography. (Z.J.)

  20. Protozoa manipulation by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancy Milena Porras Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism manipulation, considered as controlled motion and positioning, is one of the most important activities in microbiology and medicine. To achieve this goal there are some techniques such as those which and optical forces, among others. These techniques are usually sophisticated, and some of them can induce irreversible alterations on the microorganisms which prevents their use in another tests. Thus, there is justified the study of technological alternatives to manipulate microorganisms in an easy and cost-effective way. This work shows the interaction between protozoa and air microbubbles when they are under the influence of an ultrasonic field of 5.8 mW. At the microbubbles resonant frequencies, microorganisms were attracted toward the bubbles' frontier remaining there while the ultrasonic field was applied. Once the ultrasound disappears, protozoa recover their freedom of movement. The observed effects could be used as the actuation principle of devices capable to trap, hold and release microorganisms of high mobility without any apparent damage. Microbubbles are generated by electrolysis which take place on the surface of an electrode array, while the ultrasound is originated by means of a piezoelectric transducer. As microorganisms there were employed those present in stagnated water, and were observed through an stereomicroscope. Key words: manipulator; protozoa; ultrasonic; transducer; piezoelectric.

  1. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  2. Timing of developmental reduction in epithelial glutathione redox potential is associated with increased epithelial proliferation in the immature murine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Graham K; Berardinelli, Andrew J; Ray, Laurie; Jackson, Arena R; Neish, Andrew S; Hansen, Jason M; Denning, Patricia W

    2017-08-01

    BackgroundThe intracellular redox potential of the glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) couple regulates cellular processes. In vitro studies indicate that a reduced GSH/GSSG redox potential favors proliferation, whereas a more oxidized redox potential favors differentiation. Intestinal growth depends upon an appropriate balance between the two. However, how the ontogeny of intestinal epithelial cellular (IEC) GSH/GSSG redox regulates these processes in the developing intestine has not been fully characterized in vivo.MethodsOntogeny of intestinal GSH redox potential and growth were measured in neonatal mice.ResultsWe show that IEC GSH/GSSG redox potential becomes increasingly reduced (primarily driven by increased GSH concentration) over the first 3 weeks of life. Increased intracellular GSH has been shown to drive proliferation through increased poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) activity. We show that increasing IEC poly-ADP-ribose chains can be measured over the first 3 weeks of life, indicating an increase in IEC PARP activity. These changes are accompanied by increased intestinal growth and IEC proliferation as assessed by villus height/crypt depth, intestinal length, and Ki67 staining.ConclusionUnderstanding how IEC GSH/GSSG redox potential is developmentally regulated may provide insight into how premature human intestinal redox states can be manipulated to optimize intestinal growth and adaptation.

  3. The redox-Mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Seidel, Daniel

    2014-06-06

    A complement to the classic three-component Mannich reaction, the redox-Mannich reaction, utilizes the same starting materials but incorporates an isomerization step that enables the facile preparation of ring-substituted β-amino ketones. Reactions occur under relatively mild conditions and are facilitated by benzoic acid.

  4. Using Manipulatives in Math Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Eileen S.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers to better use manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics to learning disabled learners are offered including a rationale for manipulatives, selection crteria, principles underlying productive use of manipulatives, and making the transition from the concrete to the symbolic. Suggested materials and distributors are listed.…

  5. Burkholderia thailandensis: Genetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Erin C

    2017-05-16

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative bacterium endemic to Southeast Asian and northern Australian soils. It is non-pathogenic; therefore, it is commonly used as a model organism for the related human pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. thailandensis is relatively easily genetically manipulated and a variety of robust genetic tools can be used in this organism. This unit describes protocols for conjugation, natural transformation, mini-Tn7 insertion, and allelic exchange in B. thailandensis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  8. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997

  9. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  10. Remote control manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T

    1970-02-28

    A prior-art remote control manipulator comprises a horizontal suspension section, a master arm and a slave arm which are coupled to ends of the suspension section in a manner to pivotally move relative to the suspension section, and a connecting device which includes a tape and which joins both the arms. When the connecting device malfunctions, the slave arm can neither be extended nor contracted. Means to keep the tension of the tape is required which restricts the extension length of the slave arm. Further, the slave arm can be moved only in the axial direction. The invention described provides an improved remote control manipulator of the specified type. A moving device which moves the slave arm relative to the master arm without the intervention of the connecting device is mounted on a movable part of the slave arm, while pulleys which maintain the joining relationship of the connecting device are mounted on the movable part and fixed part of the slave arm. Owing to this construction, movement of the slave arm is assured despite troubles which may arise in the connecting device. In addition, no slack arises in the tape. By applying a similar construction to the horizontal suspension section, the suspension section can be stretched, and hence, the slave arm can be moved in a direction orthogonal to its axis.

  11. Urea cycle disorders: a life-threatening yet treatable cause of metabolic encephalopathy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Nicholas F; Cremer, Philip D; Tchan, Michel C

    2015-02-01

    Urea cycle disorders are inborn errors of metabolism that, in rare cases, can present for the first time in adulthood. We report a perplexing presentation in a woman 4 days postpartum of bizarre and out-of-character behaviour interspersed with periods of complete normality. Without any focal neurological signs or abnormality on initial investigations, the diagnosis became clear with the finding of a significantly elevated plasma ammonia level, just as she began to deteriorate rapidly. She improved following intravenous dextrose and lipid emulsion, together with sodium benzoate, arginine and a protein-restricted diet. She remains well 12 months later with no permanent sequelae. Whilst this is a rare presentation of an uncommon disease, it is a treatable disorder and its early diagnosis can prevent a fatal outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Vapor vacuum extraction treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herd, M.D.; Matthern, G.; Michael, D.L.; Spang, N.; Downs, W.; Weidner, J.; Cleary, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s and early 1970s, barreled mixed waste containing volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and radioactive waste was buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Over time, some of the barrels have deteriorated allowing, VOC vapors to be released into the vadose zone. The primary VOC contaminates of concern are CCl 4 and trichloroethylene; however, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have also been detected. Vapor Vacuum Extraction (VVE) is one alternative being considered for remediation of the RWMC SDA vadose zone. A proposed pilot-scale treatability study (TS) will provide operation and maintenance costs for the design of the potential scale-up of the system

  13. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  14. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -4 curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095)

  15. AMPD2 regulates GTP synthesis and is mutated in a potentially treatable neurodegenerative brainstem disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K; Van Vleet, Jeremy; Fenstermaker, Ali G; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Scheliga, Judith S; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma M; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa A; Saleh, Mohammed A M; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-08-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acid synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  17. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Williams, M. D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 (micro)g/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area

  18. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes.

  19. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus and the saga of the treatable dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    A case study of a 74-year-old woman is presented which illustrates the difficulty of understanding dementing illnesses. A diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) was made because of the development of abnormal gait, with urinary incontinence and severe, diffuse, white matter lesions on the MRI scan. Computed tomographic, MRI scans and positron emission tomographic images of glucose use are presented. The treatable dementias are a large, multifaceted group of illnesses, of which NPH is one. The author proposes a new term for this disorder commonly known as NPH because the problem with the term normal-pressure hydrocephalus is that the cerebrospinal fluid pressure is not always normal in the disease

  1. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  2. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  3. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  4. Field demonstration of ex situ biological treatability of contaminated groundwater at the Strachan gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Stepan, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    A multi-phase study was conducted to deal with the issues of groundwater and soil contamination by sour gas processing plants in Alberta. Phase One consisted of a review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Canadian Clean Water Act. The current phase involves the development, evaluation and demonstration of selected remediation technologies to address subsurface contamination of sediments and groundwater at sour gas treatment plants with special attention to the presence of natural gas condensate in the subsurface. Results are presented from a pilot-scale biological treatability test that was performed at the Gulf Strachan Natural Gas Processing Plant in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, where contaminated groundwater from the plant was being pumped to the surface through many recovery wells to control contaminant migration. The recovered groundwater was directed to a pump-and-treat system that consisted of oil-water separation, iron removal, hardness removal, and air stripping, before being reinjected. The pilot-scale biological treatability testing was conducted to evaluate process stability in treating groundwater without pretreatment for iron and hardness reduction and to evaluate the removal of organic contaminants. Results of a groundwater characterization analysis are discussed. Chemical characteristics of the groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant showed that an ex situ remediation technology would address the dissolved volatile and semi-volatile organic contamination from natural gas condensates, as well as the nitrogenous compounds resulting from the use of amine-based process chemicals. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  5. An Evaluation by Midwives and Gynecologists of Treatability of Cervical Lesions by Cryotherapy Among Human Papillomavirus–Positive Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney; Alvarez Larraondo, Manuel J.; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Lejarza, Sandra Vargas; Araya, Luis Villegas; Garcia, Francisco; Budihas, Scott R.; Long, Rodney; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D.; Jeronimo, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate efficacy of a visual triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)– positive women to either immediate cryotherapy or referral if not treatable (eg, invasive cancer, large precancers). Methods We evaluated visual triage in the HPV-positive women aged 25 to 55 years from the 10,000-woman Guanacaste Cohort Study (n = 552). Twelve Peruvian midwives and 5 international gynecologists assessed treatability by cryotherapy using digitized high-resolution cervical images taken at enrollment. The reference standard of treatability was determined by 2 lead gynecologists from the entire 7-year follow-up of the women. Women diagnosed with histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse or 5-year persistence of carcinogenic HPV infection were defined as needing treatment. Results Midwives and gynecologists judged 30.8% and 41.2% of women not treatable by cryotherapy, respectively (P cryotherapy. The proportion of women judged not treatable by a reviewer varied widely and ranged from 18.6%to 61.1%. Interrater agreement was poor with mean pairwise overall agreement of 71.4% and 66.3% and κ ’s of 0.33 and 0.30 for midwives and gynecologists, respectively. Conclusions In future “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention programs using HPV testing and cryotherapy, practitioners will visually triage HPV-positive women. The suboptimal performance of visual triage suggests that screen-and-treat programs using cryotherapy might be insufficient for treating precancerous lesions. Improved, low-technology triage methods and/or improved safe and low-technology treatment options are needed. PMID:19509579

  6. An evaluation by midwives and gynecologists of treatability of cervical lesions by cryotherapy among human papillomavirus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney; Larraondo, Manuel J Alvarez; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Lejarza, Sandra Vargas; Araya, Luis Villegas; Garcia, Francisco; Budihas, Scott R; Long, Rodney; Katki, Hormuzd A; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D; Jeronimo, Jose

    2009-05-01

    To estimate efficacy of a visual triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women to either immediate cryotherapy or referral if not treatable (eg, invasive cancer, large precancers). We evaluated visual triage in the HPV-positive women aged 25 to 55 years from the 10,000-woman Guanacaste Cohort Study (n = 552). Twelve Peruvian midwives and 5 international gynecologists assessed treatability by cryotherapy using digitized high-resolution cervical images taken at enrollment. The reference standard of treatability was determined by 2 lead gynecologists from the entire 7-year follow-up of the women. Women diagnosed with histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse or 5-year persistence of carcinogenic HPV infection were defined as needing treatment. Midwives and gynecologists judged 30.8% and 41.2% of women not treatable by cryotherapy, respectively (P cryotherapy. The proportion of women judged not treatable by a reviewer varied widely and ranged from 18.6% to 61.1%. Interrater agreement was poor with mean pairwise overall agreement of 71.4% and 66.3% and kappa's of 0.33 and 0.30 for midwives and gynecologists, respectively. In future "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention programs using HPV testing and cryotherapy, practitioners will visually triage HPV-positive women. The suboptimal performance of visual triage suggests that screen-and-treat programs using cryotherapy might be insufficient for treating precancerous lesions. Improved, low-technology triage methods and/or improved safe and low-technology treatment options are needed.

  7. Treatability Test Report For The Removal Of Chromium From Groundwater At 100-D Area Using Electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of (le) 20 micrograms per liter ((micro)g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  8. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  9. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  10. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  11. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  12. Tuning the two-dimensional electron liquid at oxide interfaces by buffer-layer-engineered redox reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Green, Robert J.; Sutarto, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    Polar discontinuities and redox reactions provide alternative paths to create two-dimensional electron liquids (2DELs) at oxide interfaces. Herein, we report high mobility 2DELs at interfaces involving SrTiO3 (STO) achieved using polar La7/8Sr1/8MnO3 (LSMO) buffer layers to manipulate both...... polarities and redox reactions from disordered overlayers grown at room temperature. Using resonant x-ray reflectometry experiments, we quantify redox reactions from oxide overlayers on STO as well as polarity induced electronic reconstruction at epitaxial LSMO/STO interfaces. The analysis reveals how...... these effects can be combined in a STO/LSMO/disordered film trilayer system to yield high mobility modulation doped 2DELs, where the buffer layer undergoes a partial transformation from perovskite to brownmillerite structure. This uncovered interplay between polar discontinuities and redox reactions via buffer...

  13. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  14. Media and manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Braco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the media are huge, both in everyday life and in cultural, spiritual and political life of modern man. Their power in the sense of political shaping of people and shaping of public opinion is very distinctive. In the process of propaganda to influence public opinion, they use various manipulative procedures in order to accomplish certain interests and objectives. Through the media, politics realizes its economic, ideological, political and even military activities. The war in the former Yugoslavia and former Bosnia and Herzegovina was also waged through the media. This media war still is spreading the hate speech, thus still causing conflicts and disintegration processes in the Balkans.

  15. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  16. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  17. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  18. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  19. Characteristics of manipulative in mathematics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.

  20. Redox reaction studies by nanosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as intermediates in many chemical and biochemical reactions. An important type of reaction which they can undergo is a one electron or redox process. The direction and rate of such electron transfer reactions is governed by the relative redox potentials of the participating species. Because of the generally short lived nature of free radicals, evaluation of their redox potentials poses a number of problems. Two techniques are described for the experimental determination of the redox potentials of short lived species generated by either a nanosecond electron pulse or laser flash. In the first method, redox titration of the short lived species with stable molecules of known redox potential is carried out, employing the technique of fast kinetic spectrophotometry. Conversely, by the same method it is also possible to evaluate the one electron redox potentials of stable molecules by redox titration with free radicals of known redox potential produced as above. In the second method, electrochemical reduction or oxidation of the short lived species at an appropriate electrode (generally a mercury drop) is carried out at different fixed potentials, and the redox potential evaluated from the current-potential curves (polarograms). Full description of the experimental set up and theoretical considerations for interpretation of the raw data are given. The relative merits of the two methods and their practical applicability are discussed. (auth.)

  1. Dissecting Redox Biology Using Fluorescent Protein Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus; Dick, Tobias P; Meyer, Andreas J; Morgan, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescent protein sensors have revitalized the field of redox biology by revolutionizing the study of redox processes in living cells and organisms. Within one decade, a set of fundamental new insights has been gained, driven by the rapid technical development of in vivo redox sensing. Redox-sensitive yellow and green fluorescent protein variants (rxYFP and roGFPs) have been the central players. Although widely used as an established standard tool, important questions remain surrounding their meaningful use in vivo. We review the growing range of thiol redox sensor variants and their application in different cells, tissues, and organisms. We highlight five key findings where in vivo sensing has been instrumental in changing our understanding of redox biology, critically assess the interpretation of in vivo redox data, and discuss technical and biological limitations of current redox sensors and sensing approaches. We explore how novel sensor variants may further add to the current momentum toward a novel mechanistic and integrated understanding of redox biology in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 680-712.

  2. Adaptive control of robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.

  3. Amplified and in situ detection of redox-active metabolite using a biobased redox capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Gordonov, Tanya; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2013-02-19

    Redox cycling provides a mechanism to amplify electrochemical signals for analyte detection. Previous studies have shown that diverse mediators/shuttles can engage in redox-cycling reactions with a biobased redox capacitor that is fabricated by grafting redox-active catechols onto a chitosan film. Here, we report that redox cycling with this catechol-chitosan redox capacitor can amplify electrochemical signals for detecting a redox-active bacterial metabolite. Specifically, we studied the redox-active bacterial metabolite pyocyanin that is reported to be a virulence factor and signaling molecule for the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that redox cycling can amplify outputs from various electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and differential pulse voltammetry) and can lower the detection limit of pyocyanin to 50 nM. Further, the compatibility of this biobased redox capacitor allows the in situ monitoring of the production of redox-active metabolites (e.g., pyocyanin) during the course of P. aeruginosa cultivation. We anticipate that the amplified output of redox-active virulence factors should permit an earlier detection of life-threatening infections by the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa while the "bio-compatibility" of this measurement approach should facilitate in situ study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial redox signaling.

  4. Image manipulation as research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Debra; Noonan, Bridget

    2009-06-01

    A growing number of research misconduct cases handled by the Office of Research Integrity involve image manipulations. Manipulations may include simple image enhancements, misrepresenting an image as something different from what it is, and altering specific features of an image. Through a study of specific cases, the misconduct findings associated with image manipulation, detection methods and those likely to identify such manipulations, are discussed. This article explores sanctions imposed against guilty researchers and the factors that resulted in no misconduct finding although relevant images clearly were flawed. Although new detection tools are available for universities and journals to detect questionable images, this article explores why these tools have not been embraced.

  5. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  6. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  7. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  8. Radii of Redox Components from Absolute Redox Potentials Compared with Covalent and Aqueous Ionic Radii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Raji

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2010), s. 903-907 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Electrochemistry * Absolute redox potentials * Radii of redox components Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  9. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Dolph L

    2016-07-01

    Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1-9.

  10. Characterization of redox proteins using electrochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of electrochemical techniques in combination with proteins started approximately a decade ago and has since then developed into a powerfull technique for the study of small redox proteins. In addition to the determination of redox potentials, electrochemistry can be used to obtain information about the kinetics of electron transfer between proteins and about the dynamic behaviour of redox cofactors in proteins. This thesis describes the results of a study, initiated to get a ...

  11. Redox flow batteries having multiple electroactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Nie, Zimin

    2018-05-01

    Introducing multiple redox reactions with a suitable voltage range can improve the energy density of redox flow battery (RFB) systems. One example includes RFB systems utilizing multiple redox pairs in the positive half cell, the negative half cell, or in both. Such RFB systems can have a negative electrolyte, a positive electrolyte, and a membrane between the negative electrolyte and the positive electrolyte, in which at least two electrochemically active elements exist in the negative electrolyte, the positive electrolyte, or both.

  12. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  13. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.

  15. Stud manipulating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  16. Redox signaling in the growth and development of colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2003-02-01

    Redox signaling provides a quick and efficient mechanism for clonal or colonial organisms to adapt their growth and development to aspects of the environment, e.g. the food supply. A 'signature' of mitochondrial redox signaling, particularly as mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be elucidated by experimental manipulation of the electron transport chain. The major sites of ROS formation are found at NADH dehydrogenase of complex I and at the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III. Inhibitors of complex III should thus upregulate ROS from both sites; inhibitors of complex I should upregulate ROS from the first but not the second site, while uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation should downregulate ROS from both sites. To investigate the possibility of such redox signaling, perturbations of colony growth and development were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Oxygen uptake of colonies was measured to determine comparable physiological doses of antimycin A(1) (an inhibitor of complex III), rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation). Using these doses, clear effects on colony growth and development were obtained. Treatment with antimycin A(1) results in 'runner-like' colony growth, with widely spaced polyps and stolon branches, while treatment with CCCP results in 'sheet-like' growth, with closely spaced polyps and stolon branches. Parallel results have been obtained previously with azide, an inhibitor of complex IV, and dinitrophenol, another uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Perhaps surprisingly, rotenone produced effects on colony development similar to those of CCCP. Assays of peroxides using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluorescent microscopy suggest a moderate difference in ROS formation between the antimycin and rotenone treatments. The second site of ROS formation (the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III) may thus

  17. Regulatory redox state in tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Ratajczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prx are important regulators of the redox status of tree seeds during maturation and long-term storage. Thioredoxins (Trx are redox transmitters and thereby regulate Prx activity. Current research is focused on the association of Trx with Prx in tree seeds differing in the tolerance to desiccation. The results will allow for better understanding the regulation of the redox status in orthodox, recalcitrant, and intermediate seeds. The findings will also elucidate the role of the redox status during the loss of viability of sensitive seeds during drying and long-term storage.

  18. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  19. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  20. TREATABILITY TEST FOR REMOVING TECHNETIUM-99 FROM 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; TORTOSO AC; ELLIOTT WS; BYRNES ME

    2007-11-29

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg/m{sup 3} (2000 {micro}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to

  1. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-09-01

    Functions and requirements for the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System to be deployed in Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) and tested and evaluated as a candidate tank waste retrieval technology by the GAAT Treatability Study (GAAT TS)

  2. Draft Technical Protocol: A Treatability Test for Evaluating the Potential Applicability of the Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (Rabitt) to Remediate Chloroethenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    This draft, unvalidated protocol describes a comprehensive approach for conducting a phased treatability test to determine the potential for employing the Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT...

  3. Redox reactions in food fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2018-01-01

    involves oxidative steps in the early part of the pathways whereas a multitude of different reactions are used as compensating reductions. Much of the diversity seen between food fermentations arise from the different routes and the different electron acceptors used by microorganisms to counterbalance...... and this contributes to the diversity in flavor, color, texture, and shelf life. The review concludes that these reactions are still only incompletely understood and that they represent an interesting area for fundamental research and also represent a fertile field for product development through a more conscious use...... of the redox properties of strains used to compose food cultures....

  4. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  5. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project

  6. CLIMAN - a mobile manipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noltingk, B.E.; Owen, C.K.V.

    With increasing age the integrity of more remote parts of reactors, such as the core restraints, is questioned so there is a need for a means of access to these places to carry out inspection, minor repairs and alterations. Conventional standpipe manipulators are about 20 m long so that extending them further presents difficulties of load capacity, rigidity, dexterity and control which must increase steeply with range. The proposal outlined here is for a mobile manipulator which can climb at the end of a cable (CLImbing MANipulator - CLIMAN) into a reactor and reach well beyond the range of a fixed base machine. In addition to virtually unlimited range such a mobile manipulator has twice as many degrees of freedom as a fixed base machine. Its body or base can be manoeuvred with six degrees of freedom so as to obtain the maximum coverage and obstacle avoidance for its manipulator. It is proposed that it should be manually controlled. (author)

  7. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  8. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator

  9. Information processing through a bio-based redox capacitor: signatures for redox-cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kim, Eunkyoung; White, Ian M; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-08-01

    Redox-cycling compounds can significantly impact biological systems and can be responsible for activities that range from pathogen virulence and contaminant toxicities, to therapeutic drug mechanisms. Current methods to identify redox-cycling activities rely on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and employ enzymatic or chemical methods to detect ROS. Here, we couple the speed and sensitivity of electrochemistry with the molecular-electronic properties of a bio-based redox-capacitor to generate signatures of redox-cycling. The redox capacitor film is electrochemically-fabricated at the electrode surface and is composed of a polysaccharide hydrogel with grafted catechol moieties. This capacitor film is redox-active but non-conducting and can engage diffusible compounds in either oxidative or reductive redox-cycling. Using standard electrochemical mediators ferrocene dimethanol (Fc) and Ru(NH3)6Cl3 (Ru(3+)) as model redox-cyclers, we observed signal amplifications and rectifications that serve as signatures of redox-cycling. Three bio-relevant compounds were then probed for these signatures: (i) ascorbate, a redox-active compound that does not redox-cycle; (ii) pyocyanin, a virulence factor well-known for its reductive redox-cycling; and (iii) acetaminophen, an analgesic that oxidatively redox-cycles but also undergoes conjugation reactions. These studies demonstrate that the redox-capacitor can enlist the capabilities of electrochemistry to generate rapid and sensitive signatures of biologically-relevant chemical activities (i.e., redox-cycling). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells

  11. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC's Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings

  12. Intra-abdominal hypertension in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection--an under-recognized treatable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2010-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults, with recent reports of increased severity and case fatality. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are increasingly recognized and treatable complications of severe illness in medical patients, and are independent predictors of mortality. Patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at increased risk for IAH and ACS. However, ACS has been only rarely described in this population. We report a case of a 61 year-old morbidly obese, chronically ill, ventilator dependent patient, who developed fulminant CDI, including progressive colonic distension, acute renal failure and intra-abdominal fluid sequestration. Her clinical course worsened abruptly, with new shock, worsening hypoxic respiratory failure, increased peak airway pressures and reduced tidal volumes. Intra-abdominal pressure was 30 mm Hg. The patient was not considered a surgical candidate, was refractory to escalating non-surgical support, and died following withdrawal of life support. Although patients with fulminant CDI share many risk factors for IAH and ACS, these conditions were rarely reported in this population and are likely under recognized, as was the case with the present patient. Increased vigilance for IAH is needed in this at-risk population.

  13. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Imperatore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available.

  14. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  15. Treatability test of a stacked-tray air stripper for VOC in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    A common strategy for hydraulic containment and mass removal at VOC contaminated sites is `pump and treat (P&T)`. In P&T operations, contaminated ground water is pumped from wells, treated above ground, and discharged. Many P&T remediation systems at VOC sites rely on air stripping technology because VOCs are easily transferred to the vapor phase. In stacked-tray air strippers, contaminated water is aerated while it flows down through a series of trays. System operations at LLNL are strictly regulated by the California and federal Environmental Protection Agencies (Cal/EPA and EPA), the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). These agencies set discharge limits, require performance monitoring, and assess penalties for non-compliance. National laboratories are also subject to scrutiny by the public and other government agencies. This extensive oversight makes it necessary to accurately predict field treatment performance at new extraction locations to ensure compliance with all requirements prior to facility activation. This paper presents treatability test results for a stacked- tray air stripper conducted at LLNL and compares them to the vendor`s modeling software results.

  16. Process evaluation and treatability study of wastewater in a textile dyeing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Debabrata [Civil Engineering Department, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, P.O. - Botanic Garden, Horah, West Bengal - 711 103 (India)

    2011-07-01

    The process was investigated in a textile dying unit and subsequently wastewater generation profile was studied for the development of a viable treatment. The dyeing unit under the study generated a considerable volume of wastewater containing inorganic chemicals and organic reactive green dye. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) resulting from all the chemically oxidizible substances and the residual color of the dye were targeted for removal. The wastewater samples were collected from different sub-processes and then characterized for the parameters viz. pH, Total solid, Suspended solid, Dissolved solid, COD and Alkalinity. A composite wastewater sample was prepared according to the measured wastewater discharge from various unit operations and used for treatability study. In the first stage, coagulation-flocculation with alum and chemical oxidation with bleaching powder were performed separately. Subsequently, adsorption study was conducted with crushed burnt coal (C.B.C.) on the composite wastewater, initially treated with 10% bleaching powder solution. After several trials, this combination was found to be effective for a C.B.C. content of 10% under a contact period of 90 minutes, which showed 100% colour and about 95% COD removal.

  17. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment

  18. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  19. Impact of paint shop decanter effluents on biological treatability of automotive industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Hanhan, Oytun; Aksoy, Elif Ceren; Insel, Güçlü; Çokgör, Emine

    2017-05-15

    A lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was implemented to investigate biological treatability and kinetic characteristics of paint shop wastewater (PSW) together with main stream wastewater (MSW) of a bus production factory. Readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD fractions of MWS were determined by respirometric analysis: 4.2% (S S ), 10.4% (S H ) and 59.3% (X S ). Carbon and nitrogen removal performance of the SBR feeding with MSW alone were obtained as 89% and 58%, respectively. When PSW was introduced to MSW, both carbon and nitrogen removal were deteriorated. Model simulation indicated that maximum heterotrophic growth rate decreased from 7.2 to 5.7day -1 , maximum hydrolysis rates were reduced from 6 to 4day -1 (k hS ) and 4 to 1day -1 (k hX ). Based on the dynamic model simulation for the evaluation of nitrogen removal, a maximum specific nitrifier growth rate was obtained as 0.45day -1 for MSW feeding alone. When PSW was introduced, nitrification was completely inhibited and following the termination of PSW addition, nitrogen removal performance was recovered in about 100 days, however with a much lower nitrifier growth rate (0.1day -1 ), possibly due to accumulation of toxic compounds in the sludge. Obviously, a longer recovery period is required to ensure an active nitrifier community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatability studies performed in support of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Mueller, J.P.; Sundquist, J.A.; Moore, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Southern Shipbuilding Corporation (SSC) site is located on 54 acres of wooded land adjacent to Bayou Bonfouca, approximately 1.8 miles downstream of the Bayou Bonfouca National Priorities List (NPL) Superfund site in Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. Two one-acre, impoundments on the SSC site were used to store wastes generated from vessel cleaning. Wastes stored in the impoundments are migrating into Bayou Bonfouca, which empties into Lake Pontchartrain. In addition, the impoundments are frequently invaded by flood waters. The US EPA Emergency Response Branch (EPA-ERB) performed a site investigation which indicated that the majority of the contamination is petroleum-related and that the compounds of concern are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PARs). The wastes are generally contained with the two impoundments and surrounding soils. As part of an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Basis (EE/CA) of potential response action alternatives, four treatability studies were performed. A thermal treatment (incineration) study was performed at the EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF). Biodegradation remedy selection feasibility assessment was conducted on-site. A remedy screening soil washing study was also performed by TAT. A solidification/stabilization (S/S) study was conducted through EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) to ascertain if the PAHs could be immobilized within a solid matrix. Experimental objectives, dead methodology and conclusions for these studies are presented as they relate to potential response actions being evaluated at the SSC site

  1. Arabidopsis redox status in response to caterpillar herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna ePaudel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to insect herbivory are regulated through complex, hormone-mediated interactions. Some caterpillar species have evolved strategies to manipulate this system by inducing specific pathways that suppress plant defense responses. Effectors in the labial saliva (LS secretions of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars are believed to induce the salicylic acid (SA pathway to interfere with the jasmonic acid (JA defense pathway; however, the mechanism underlying this subversion is unknown. Since Noctuid caterpillar LS contains enzymes that may affect cellular redox balance, this study investigated rapid changes in cellular redox metabolites within 45 min after herbivory. Caterpillar LS is involved in suppressing the increase in oxidative stress that was observed in plants fed upon by caterpillars with impaired LS secretions. To further understand the link between cellular redox balance and plant defense responses, marker genes of SA, JA and ethylene (ET pathways were compared in wildtype, the glutathione-compromised pad2-1 mutant and the tga2/5/6 triple mutant plants. AtPR1 and AtPDF1.2 showed LS-dependent expression that was alleviated in the pad2-1 and tga2/5/6 triple mutants. In comparison, the ET-dependent genes ERF1 expression showed LS-associated changes in both wildtype and pad2-1 mutant plants and the ORA 59 marker AtHEL had increased expression in response to herbivory, but a LS-dependent difference was not noted. These data support the model that there are SA/NPR1-, glutathione-dependent and ET-, glutathione-independent mechanisms leading to LS-associated suppression of plant induced defences.

  2. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  3. Characterization of redox conditions in pollution plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwart, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evalution of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...

  4. Redox properties of small semiconductor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver, N.; Nitzan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The size dependence of electrical and thermodynamic quantities of intermediate-sized semiconductor particles in an electrolyte solution with a given redox pair are studied. The equilibrium constant for this system is then derived based on the relationship of the electrolytic redox components to the size, charges, and concentration of the semiconductor particles. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Characterization of redox proteins using electrochemical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of electrochemical techniques in combination with proteins started approximately a decade ago and has since then developed into a powerfull technique for the study of small redox proteins. In addition to the determination of redox potentials, electrochemistry can be used to obtain

  6. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  7. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  8. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  9. Modeling manipulation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I

    2010-05-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and professional development. Yet manipulation need not be a skill necessary to practice medicine, and steps should be taken by both individuals and institutions to combat the view that the way medicine must be practiced "in the real world" is somehow different from what one's affective moral sense implores.

  10. Computational simulator of robotic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic application for industrial plants is discussed and a computational model for a mechanical manipulator of three links is presented. A neural network feed-forward type has been used to model the dynamic control of the manipulator. A graphic interface was developed in C programming language as a virtual world in order to visualize and simulate the arm movements handling radioactive waste environment. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  11. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  12. Ruthenium nanocatalysis on redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Ramdass, Arumugam; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2013-07-01

    Nanoparticles have generated intense interest over the past 20 years due to their high potential applications in different areas such as catalysis, sensors, nanoscale electronics, fuel and solar cells and optoelectronics. As the large fractions of metal atoms are exposed to the surface, the use of metal nanoparticles as nanocatalysts allows mild reaction conditions and high catalytic efficiency in a large number of chemical transformations. They have emerged as sustainable heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst supports alternative to conventional materials. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterization and catalytic role of ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) on the redox reactions of heteroatom containing organic compounds with the green reagent H2O2, a field that has attracted immense interest among the chemical, materials and industrial communities. We intend to present a broad overview of Ru nanocatalysts for redox reactions with an emphasis on their performance, stability and reusability. The growth in the chemistry of organic sulfoxides and N-oxides during last decade was due to their importance as synthetic intermediates for the production of a wide range of chemically and biologically active molecules. Thus design of efficient methods for the synthesis of sulfoxides and N-oxides becomes important. This review concentrates on the catalysis of RuNPs on the H2O2 oxidation of organic sulfides to sulfoxides and amines to N-oxides. The deoxygenation reactions of sulfoxides to sulfides and reduction of nitro compounds to amines are fundamental reactions in both chemistry and biology. Here, we also highlight the catalysis of metal nanoparticles on the deoxygenation of sulfoxides and sulfones and reduction of nitro compounds with particular emphasis on the mechanistic aspects.

  13. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V. PMID:27966605

  14. Redox behaviors of iron by absorption spectroscopy and redox potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong

    2010-02-01

    This work is performed to study the redox (reduction/oxidation) behaviors of iron in aqueous system by a combination of absorption spectroscopy and redox potential measurements. There are many doubts on redox potential measurements generally showing low accuracies and high uncertainties. In the present study, redox potentials are measured by utilizing various redox electrodes such as Pt, Au, Ag, and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Measured redox potentials are compared with calculated redox potentials based on the chemical oxidation speciation of iron and thermodynamic data by absorption spectroscopy, which provides one of the sensitive and selective spectroscopic methods for the chemical speciation of Fe(II/III). From the comparison analyses, redox potential values measured by the Ag redox electrode are fairly consistent with those calculated by the chemical aqueous speciation of iron in the whole system. In summary, the uncertainties of measured redox potentials are closely related with the total Fe concentration and affected by the formation of mixed potentials due to Fe(III) precipitates in the pH range of 6 ∼ 9 beyond the solubility of Fe(III), whilst being independent of the initially prepared concentration ratios between Fe(II) and Fe(III)

  15. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V.

  16. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  17. Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216 degree C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80 degree C, and at 200 degree C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800 degree C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200 degree C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies

  18. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  19. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na 2 O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li 2 O and 8.1 wt% Fe 2 O 3 . This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  20. Redox kinetics and mechanism in silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B.

    2009-12-01

    This work contributes to better understand iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate melts. It was conducted on compositions in both Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO and Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO systems. The influence of boron-sodium and aluminum-sodium substitutions and iron content on properties and structure of glasses and on the iron redox kinetics has been studied by Raman, Moessbauer and XANES spectroscopies at the B and Fe K-edges. In borosilicate glasses, an increase in iron content or in the Fe 3+ /ΣFe redox state implies a structural rearrangement of the BO 4 species in the glass network whereas the BO 3 and BO 4 relative proportions remain nearly constant. In all studied glasses and melts, Fe 3+ is a network former in tetrahedral coordination, unless for aluminosilicates of ratio Al/Na≥1 where Fe 3+ is a network modifier in five-fold coordination. Near Tg, diffusion of network modifying cations controls the iron redox kinetics along with a flux of electron holes. At liquidus temperatures, oxygen diffusion is considered to be the mechanism that governs redox reactions. This study shows the role played by the silicate network polymerization on the redox kinetics. In borosilicate melts, iron redox kinetics depends on the boron speciation between BO 3 and BO 4 that depends itself on the sodium content. Furthermore, an increase in the network-former/network-modifier ratio implies a decrease in oxygen diffusion that results in a slowing down of the redox kinetics. The obtained results allow a description of the iron redox kinetics for more complex compositions as natural lavas or nuclear waste model glasses. (author)

  1. Redox processes at a nanostructured interface under strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Wolfram; Surnev, Svetlozar; Netzer, Falko P; Sementa, Luca; Negreiros, Fabio R; Barcaro, Giovanni; Durante, Nicola; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2014-09-21

    Manipulation of chemistry and film growth via external electric fields is a longstanding goal in surface science. Numerous systems have been predicted to show such effects but experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate in a custom-designed UHV apparatus that the application of spatially extended, homogeneous, very high (>1 V nm(-1)) DC-fields not only changes the system energetics but triggers dynamic processes which become important much before static contributions appreciably modify the potential energy landscape. We take a well characterized ultrathin NiO film on a Ag(100) support as a proof-of-principle test case, and show how it gets reduced to supported Ni clusters under fields exceeding the threshold of +0.9 V nm(-1). Using an effective model, we trace the observed interfacial redox process down to a dissociative electron attachment resonant mechanism. The proposed approach can be easily implemented and generally applied to a wide range of interfacial systems, thus opening new opportunities for the manipulation of film growth and reaction processes at solid surfaces under strong external fields.

  2. Feasibility of In Situ Redox Manipulation of Subsurface Sediments for RDX Remediation at Pantex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mckinley, Mark A.; Resch, Charles T.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2001-12-31

    This laboratory study was conducted to assess RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine) abiotic degradation by chemically reduced sediments and other geochemical aspects of the application of this technology to remediation of RDX contamination in groundwater at the U.S. DOE Pantex facility...

  3. Redox sensor proteins for highly sensitive direct imaging of intracellular redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kazunori; Nagai, Takeharu; Nakano, Masahiro; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-02-13

    Intracellular redox state is a critical factor for fundamental cellular functions, including regulation of the activities of various metabolic enzymes as well as ROS production and elimination. Genetically-encoded fluorescent redox sensors, such as roGFP (Hanson, G. T., et al. (2004)) and Redoxfluor (Yano, T., et al. (2010)), have been developed to investigate the redox state of living cells. However, these sensors are not useful in cells that contain, for example, other colored pigments. We therefore intended to obtain simpler redox sensor proteins, and have developed oxidation-sensitive fluorescent proteins called Oba-Q (oxidation balance sensed quenching) proteins. Our sensor proteins derived from CFP and Sirius can be used to monitor the intracellular redox state as their fluorescence is drastically quenched upon oxidation. These blue-shifted spectra of the Oba-Q proteins enable us to monitor various redox states in conjunction with other sensor proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Redox regulation of cell proliferation: Bioinformatics and redox proteomics approaches to identify redox-sensitive cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Wilson, Michael H; Wright, Megan H

    2018-03-29

    Plant stem cells are the foundation of plant growth and development. The balance of quiescence and division is highly regulated, while ensuring that proliferating cells are protected from the adverse effects of environment fluctuations that may damage the genome. Redox regulation is important in both the activation of proliferation and arrest of the cell cycle upon perception of environmental stress. Within this context, reactive oxygen species serve as 'pro-life' signals with positive roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and survival. However, very little is known about the metabolic mechanisms and redox-sensitive proteins that influence cell cycle progression. We have identified cysteine residues on known cell cycle regulators in Arabidopsis that are potentially accessible, and could play a role in redox regulation, based on secondary structure and solvent accessibility likelihoods for each protein. We propose that redox regulation may function alongside other known posttranslational modifications to control the functions of core cell cycle regulators such as the retinoblastoma protein. Since our current understanding of how redox regulation is involved in cell cycle control is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding both which residues are important and how modification of those residues alters protein function, we discuss how critical redox modifications can be mapped at the molecular level. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  6. Metabolic Control of Redox and Redox Control of Metabolism in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reduction-oxidation (Redox) status operates as a major integrator of subcellular and extracellular metabolism and is simultaneously itself regulated by metabolic processes. Redox status not only dominates cellular metabolism due to the prominence of NAD(H) and NADP(H) couples in myriad metabolic reactions but also acts as an effective signal that informs the cell of the prevailing environmental conditions. After relay of this information, the cell is able to appropriately respond via a range of mechanisms, including directly affecting cellular functioning and reprogramming nuclear gene expression. Recent Advances: The facile accession of Arabidopsis knockout mutants alongside the adoption of broad-scale post-genomic approaches, which are able to provide transcriptomic-, proteomic-, and metabolomic-level information alongside traditional biochemical and emerging cell biological techniques, has dramatically advanced our understanding of redox status control. This review summarizes redox status control of metabolism and the metabolic control of redox status at both cellular and subcellular levels. Critical Issues: It is becoming apparent that plastid, mitochondria, and peroxisome functions influence a wide range of processes outside of the organelles themselves. While knowledge of the network of metabolic pathways and their intraorganellar redox status regulation has increased in the last years, little is known about the interorganellar redox signals coordinating these networks. A current challenge is, therefore, synthesizing our knowledge and planning experiments that tackle redox status regulation at both inter- and intracellular levels. Future Directions: Emerging tools are enabling ever-increasing spatiotemporal resolution of metabolism and imaging of redox status components. Broader application of these tools will likely greatly enhance our understanding of the interplay of redox status and metabolism as well as elucidating and

  7. Work plan for the treatability study for PCB dehalogenation by Agent 313 in Waste Area Grouping 11 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This work Plan describes the treatability study for Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) debalogenation by Agent 313 (a registered trademark of the A.L. Sandpiper Corporation of Columbus, ohio) to be conducted at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The study will be conducted at WAG 11 as a result of the contamination of several small areas of soil by leaking capacitors. The primary purpose of this treatability study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Agent 313 in remediating PCB-contaminated soil. However, the WAG 11 soils to be treated may also contain radionuclides and metals. In addition to providing the procedures to be followed during the treatability study, the work plan briefly describes the project background and technology, lists applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for the project, and delineates project goals and objectives. This document also follows the general suggested outline for treatability study work plans shown in the 1992 report Guide for conducting Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Final, EPA;540/R-92-071a, published by the US Environmental Protection Agency

  8. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future

  9. Redox Behavior of Fe2+/Fe3+ Redox Couple by Absorption Spectroscopy and Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, J. Y.; Park, S.; Yun, J. I.

    2010-01-01

    Redox behavior has influences on speciation and other geochemical reactions of radionuclides such as sorption, solubility, and colloid formation, etc. It is one of the factors for evaluation of long-term safety assessment under high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal conditions. Accordingly, redox potential (Eh) measurement in aquatic system is important to investigate the redox conditions. Eh is usually measured with redox active electrodes (Pt, Au, glassy carbon, etc.). Nevertheless, Eh measurements by general methods using electrodes provide low accuracy and high uncertainty problem. Therefore, Eh calculated from the concentration of redox active elements with a proper complexing reagent by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy is progressed. Iron exists mostly as spent nuclear waste container material and in hydro-geologic minerals. In this system, iron controls the redox condition in near-field area and influences chemical behavior and speciation of radionuclides including redox sensitive actinides such as U, Np, and Pu. In the present work, we present the investigation on redox phenomena of iron in aquatic system by a combination of absorption spectroscopy and redox potential measurements

  10. Mitochondrial redox biology and homeostasis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; De Paepe, Rosine; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondria are key players in plant cell redox homeostasis and signalling. Earlier concepts that regarded mitochondria as secondary to chloroplasts as the powerhouses of photosynthetic cells, with roles in cell proliferation, death and ageing described largely by analogy to animal paradigms, have been replaced by the new philosophy of integrated cellular energy and redox metabolism involving mitochondria and chloroplasts. Thanks to oxygenic photosynthesis, plant mitochondria often operate in an oxygen- and carbohydrate-rich environment. This rather unique environment necessitates extensive flexibility in electron transport pathways and associated NAD(P)-linked enzymes. In this review, mitochondrial redox metabolism is discussed in relation to the integrated cellular energy and redox function that controls plant cell biology and fate.

  11. Symproportionation versus Disproportionation in Bromine Redox Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toporek, Marcin; Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M.; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The disproportionation and symproportionation of bromine in different media is presented. • All the redox systems are elaborated according to the principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic redox systems (GATES/GEB). • All physicochemical knowledge is involved in the algorithm applied for this purpose. • The graphical representation of the systems is the basis of gaining the detailed physicochemical knowledge on the systems in question. -- Abstract: The paper refers to dynamic (titration) redox systems where symproportionation or disproportionation of bromine species occur. The related systems are modeled according to principles assumed in the Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Redox Systems (GATES), with Generalized Electron Balance (GEB) concept involved in the GATES/GEB software. The results obtained from calculations made with use of iterative computer programs prepared according to MATLAB computational software, are presented graphically, as 2D and 3D graphs

  12. Polyarene mediators for mediated redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M.; Ingersoll, David; Liang, Chengdu

    2018-01-02

    The fundamental charge storage mechanisms in a number of currently studied high energy redox couples are based on intercalation, conversion, or displacement reactions. With exception to certain metal-air chemistries, most often the active redox materials are stored physically in the electrochemical cell stack thereby lowering the practical gravimetric and volumetric energy density as a tradeoff to achieve reasonable power density. In a general embodiment, a mediated redox flow battery includes a series of secondary organic molecules that form highly reduced anionic radicals as reaction mediator pairs for the reduction and oxidation of primary high capacity redox species ex situ from the electrochemical cell stack. Arenes are reduced to stable anionic radicals that in turn reduce a primary anode to the charged state. The primary anode is then discharged using a second lower potential (more positive) arene. Compatible separators and solvents are also disclosed herein.

  13. Redox characteristics of the eukaryotic cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytoplasm has long been regarded as a cellular compartment in which the reduced state of protein cysteines is largely favored. Under normal conditions, the cytosolic low-molecular weight redox buffer, comprising primarily of glutathione, is highly reducing and reactive oxygen species...... (ROS) and glutathionylated proteins are maintained at very low levels. In the present review, recent progress in the understanding of the cytosolic thiol-disulfide redox metabolism and novel analytical approaches to studying cytosolic redox properties are discussed. We will focus on the yeast model...... organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the combination of genetic and biochemical approaches has brought us furthest in understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular redox regulation. It has been shown in yeast that, in addition to the enzyme glutathione reductase, other mechanisms may exist...

  14. Martensitic transformation and residual stresses after thermomechanical treatment of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 (SAE 4140)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, A. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik; Fritsche, G. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik

    1996-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical deformation on the residual stresses caused by quenching in bar shaped specimens of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 has been investigated using a mechanical method for determining the distribution of residual stresses of the first kind. The results obtained show that the residual stress distribution after quenching is affected by the strengthening and softening of the austenite as a result of deformation and recrystallization and the modified transformation behaviour in martensite stage. An attempt is made to discuss qualitatively the influence of these changes on the generation of residual stresses as compared to results obtained after conventional hardening. (orig.).

  15. Martensitic transformation and residual stresses after thermomechanical treatment of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 (SAE 4140)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, A.; Fritsche, G.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical deformation on the residual stresses caused by quenching in bar shaped specimens of heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 has been investigated using a mechanical method for determining the distribution of residual stresses of the first kind. The results obtained show that the residual stress distribution after quenching is affected by the strengthening and softening of the austenite as a result of deformation and recrystallization and the modified transformation behaviour in martensite stage. An attempt is made to discuss qualitatively the influence of these changes on the generation of residual stresses as compared to results obtained after conventional hardening. (orig.)

  16. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  17. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  19. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  20. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  1. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  2. Redox Regulation of Endothelial Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are present throughout blood vessels and have variable roles in both physiological and pathological settings. EC fate is altered and regulated by several key factors in physiological or pathological conditions. Reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidases, mitochondria, or nitric oxide-producing enzymes are not only cytotoxic but also compose a signaling network in the redox system. The formation, actions, key molecular interactions, and physiological and pathological relevance of redox signals in ECs remain unclear. We review the identities, sources, and biological actions of oxidants and reductants produced during EC function or dysfunction. Further, we discuss how ECs shape key redox sensors and examine the biological functions, transcriptional responses, and post-translational modifications evoked by the redox system in ECs. We summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which redox signals regulate the fate of ECs and address the outcome of altered EC fate in health and disease. Future studies will examine if the redox biology of ECs can be targeted in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24633153

  3. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-06-19

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  4. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  5. Bile Acid Malabsorption After Pelvic and Prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: An Uncommon but Treatable Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Victoria [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Benton, Barbara [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam [Department of Radiology, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Andreyev, H. Jervoise N., E-mail: j@andreyev.demon.co.uk [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a significant therapeutic advance in prostate cancer, allowing increased tumor dose delivery and increased sparing of normal tissues. IMRT planning uses strict dose constraints to nearby organs to limit toxicity. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a treatable disorder of the terminal ileum (TI) that presents with symptoms similar to radiation therapy toxicity. It has not been described in patients receiving RT for prostate cancer in the contemporary era. We describe new-onset BAM in men after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Diagnosis of new-onset BAM was established after typical symptoms developed, selenium-75 homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) scanning showed 7-day retention of <15%, and patients' symptoms unequivocally responded to a bile acid sequestrant. The TI was identified on the original radiation therapy plan, and the radiation dose delivered was calculated and compared with accepted dose-volume constraints. Results: Five of 423 men treated in a prospective series of high-dose prostate and pelvic IMRT were identified with new onset BAM (median age, 65 years old). All reported having normal bowel habits before RT. The volume of TI ranged from 26-141 cc. The radiation dose received by the TI varied between 11.4 Gy and 62.1 Gy (uncorrected). Three of 5 patients had TI treated in excess of 45 Gy (equivalent dose calculated in 2-Gy fractions, using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3) with volumes ranging from 1.6 cc-49.0 cc. One patient had mild BAM (SeHCAT retention, 10%-15%), 2 had moderate BAM (SeHCAT retention, 5%-10%), and 2 had severe BAM (SeHCAT retention, <5%). The 3 patients whose TI received {>=}45 Gy developed moderate to severe BAM, whereas those whose TI received <45 Gy had only mild to moderate BAM. Conclusions: Radiation delivered to the TI during IMRT may cause BAM. Identification of the TI from unenhanced RT planning computed tomography scans is difficult and may impede

  6. Development of guidance for preparing treatability variance petitions from the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions for DOE [Department of Energy] mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.; Scheuer, N.; Martin, R.; Van Epp, T.; Triplett, M.

    1990-01-01

    In response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment requirements, a treatability variance guidance document is being prepared for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The guidance document, although applicable to non-mixed hazardous waste streams, provides specific guidance regarding radioactive mixed-waste streams. Preparation of the guidance manual has involved developing an overview of the Land Disposal Restrictions, as well as an overview of the petition preparation process. The DOE internal review requirements are specifically addressed in the manual. Specific data requirements and engineering analyses are also described. A discussion of EPA's criteria for granting a treatability variance is also provided. A checklist for completeness of the petition is provided. Model language for use in DOE treatability variance petitions will be provided in a petition for a DOE waste stream as an appendix to the document

  7. Leadership Manipulation and Ethics in Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Tommi; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Sintonen, Teppo; Takala, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on exerting influence in leadership, namely manipulation in storytelling. Manipulation is usually considered an unethical approach to leadership. We will argue that manipulation is a more complex phenomenon than just an unethical way of acting in leadership. We will demonstrate through an empirical qualitative study that there are various types of manipulation through storytelling. This article makes a contribution to the literature on manipulation through leadership stor...

  8. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  9. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  10. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  11. Indicial tensor manipulation on MACSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, R.A.; Pavelle, R.

    1977-01-01

    A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The authors outline the capabilities of the system and describe some of the physical problems considered as well as others being examined at this time. (Auth.)

  12. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  13. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan

  15. Taking Stock and Taking Steps: The Case for an Adolescent Version of the Short-Assessment of Risk and Treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Desmarais, Sarah L; Webster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The field of violence risk assessment has matured considerably, possibly advancing beyond its own adolescence. At this point in the field's evolution, it is more important than ever for the development of any new device to be accompanied by a strong rationale and the capacity to provide a unique contribution. With this issue in mind, we first take stock of the field of adolescent risk assessment in order to describe the rapid progress that this field has made, as well as the gaps that led us to adapt the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; Webster, Martin, Brink, Nicholls, & Desmarais, 2009) for use with adolescents. We view the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in progress) as complementing other risk measures in four primary ways: 1) rather than focusing solely on violence risk, it examines broader adverse outcomes to which some adolescents are vulnerable (including self-harm, suicide, victimization, substance abuse, unauthorized leave, self-neglect, general offending); 2) it places a balanced emphasis on adolescents' strengths; 3) it focuses on dynamic factors that are relevant to short-term assessment, risk management, and treatment planning; and 4) it is designed for both mental health and justice populations. We describe the developmentally-informed approach we took in the adaptation of the START for adolescents, and outline future steps for the continuing validation and refinement of the START:AV.

  16. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  17. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  18. Redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celien eLismont

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduction-oxidation or ‘redox’ reactions are an integral part of a broad range of cellular processes such as gene expression, energy metabolism, protein import and folding, and autophagy. As many of these processes are intimately linked with cell fate decisions, transient or chronic changes in cellular redox equilibrium are likely to contribute to the initiation and progression of a plethora of human diseases. Since a long time, it is known that mitochondria are major players in redox regulation and signaling. More recently, it has become clear that also peroxisomes have the capacity to impact redox-linked physiological processes. To serve this function, peroxisomes cooperate with other organelles, including mitochondria. This review provides a comprehensive picture of what is currently known about the redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes in mammals. We first outline the pro- and antioxidant systems of both organelles and how they may function as redox signaling nodes. Next, we critically review and discuss emerging evidence that peroxisomes and mitochondria share an intricate redox-sensitive relationship and cooperate in cell fate decisions. Key issues include possible physiological roles, messengers, and mechanisms. We also provide examples of how data mining of publicly-available datasets from ‘omics’ technologies can be a powerful means to gain additional insights into potential redox signaling pathways between peroxisomes and mitochondria. Finally, we highlight the need for more studies that seek to clarify the mechanisms of how mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress. The outcome of such studies may open up exciting new avenues for the community of researchers working on cellular responses to organelle-derived oxidative stress, a research field in which the role of peroxisomes is currently highly underestimated and an issue of

  19. Monitoring thioredoxin redox with a genetically encoded red fluorescent biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yichong; Makar, Merna; Wang, Michael X; Ai, Hui-Wang

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is one of the two major thiol antioxidants, playing essential roles in redox homeostasis and signaling. Despite its importance, there is a lack of methods for monitoring Trx redox dynamics in live cells, hindering a better understanding of physiological and pathological roles of the Trx redox system. In this work, we developed the first genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for Trx redox by engineering a redox relay between the active-site cysteines of human Trx1 and rxRFP1, a redox-sensitive red fluorescent protein. We used the resultant biosensor-TrxRFP1-to selectively monitor perturbations of Trx redox in various mammalian cell lines. We subcellularly localized TrxRFP1 to image compartmentalized Trx redox changes. We further combined TrxRFP1 with a green fluorescent Grx1-roGFP2 biosensor to simultaneously monitor Trx and glutathione redox dynamics in live cells in response to chemical and physiologically relevant stimuli.

  20. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papet, I.; Lune, P.; Pellerin, O.; Sapoval, M.; Brisse, H.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    These two articles bring notions relative to the safety of procedures, specially in term of irradiation, they give information on different methods in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, especially when the examinations concern children or young patients. (N.C.)

  1. Compartmentation of redox metabolism in malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kehr

    Full Text Available Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, still represents a major threat to human health and welfare and leads to about one million human deaths annually. Plasmodium is a rapidly multiplying unicellular organism undergoing a complex developmental cycle in man and mosquito - a life style that requires rapid adaptation to various environments. In order to deal with high fluxes of reactive oxygen species and maintain redox regulatory processes and pathogenicity, Plasmodium depends upon an adequate redox balance. By systematically studying the subcellular localization of the major antioxidant and redox regulatory proteins, we obtained the first complete map of redox compartmentation in Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate the targeting of two plasmodial peroxiredoxins and a putative glyoxalase system to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid. We furthermore obtained a complete picture of the compartmentation of thioredoxin- and glutaredoxin-like proteins. Notably, for the two major antioxidant redox-enzymes--glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase--Plasmodium makes use of alternative-translation-initiation (ATI to achieve differential targeting. Dual localization of proteins effected by ATI is likely to occur also in other Apicomplexa and might open new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Characterization of Redox properties of humic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of humic materials is the presence of stable free radicals as shown by the width of 1 H-NMR lines of humic acid in solution as well as ESR spectra of solid samples. Presumably, these are due to quinohdrone functional groups in the humic structure. These free radicals are assumed to be a source of the redox effects of humics in metal cations. Phenolic groups have also been proposed as a source of reduction potential in these substances. The reduction potential of humic material is 0.5-0.7 V (vs. the normal hydrogen electrode). In addition to this inherent redox property, humics undergo photolysis by sunlight in surface waters which results in the production of hydrogen peroxide. The latter can also result in redox reactions with metal cations. Such direct and indirect redox capability can have significant effects on the migration of reducible cations. Studies of the reduction of hexavalent actinide cations by humic acid showed the reactions Np O 2 2+ -> Np O 2 + (E 1/2 0 = 1.47 V) and Pu O 2 2+ -> Pu +4 (E 1/2 0 = 1.04 V) while U O 2 2+ was not reduced. The reduction of plutonium in sea water by humics is discussed. Evidence of the effects of redox by humic material on metal cations in natural waters and sediments are also reviewed. (authors). 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Redox-flow battery of actinide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tomoo; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Np battery and U battery were developed. We suggested that Np redox-flow battery should be (-)|Np 3+ ,Np 4+ ||NpO 2 + ,NpO 2 2+ |(+), and U battery (-)|[U III T 2 ] - ,[U IV T 2 ] 0 ||[U V O 2 T] - ,[U VI O 2 T] 0 |(+). The electromotive force at 50 % charge of Np and U battery is 1.10 V and 1.04 V, respectively. The energy efficiency of 70 mA/cm 2 of Np and U battery shows 99 % and 98 %, respectively. V redox-flow battery, electrode reactions of An battery, Np battery, U battery and future of U battery are described. The concept of V redox-flow battery, comparison of energy efficiency of Np, U and V battery, oxidation state and ionic species of 3d transition metals and main An, Purbe diagram of Np and U aqueous solution, shift of redox potential of β-diketones by pKa, and specifications of three redox-flow batteries are reported. (S.Y.)

  4. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are used in a number of different applications such as bomb disposal, mining robotics, and search and rescue operations. These mobile manipulators are highly susceptible to tip over due to the motion of the manipulator...

  5. Predicting treatable traits for long-acting bronchodilators in patients with stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jieun Kang,1,* Ki Tae Kim,2,* Ji-Hyun Lee,3 Eun Kyung Kim,3 Tae-Hyung Kim,4 Kwang Ha Yoo,5 Jae Seung Lee,1 Woo Jin Kim,6 Ju Han Kim,2 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Seoul National University Biomedical Informatics and Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Division of Biomedical Informatics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, 4Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 6Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: There is currently no measure to predict a treatability of long-acting β-2 agonist (LABA or long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We aimed to build prediction models for the treatment response to these bronchodilators, in order to determine the most responsive medication for patients with COPD.Methods: We performed a prospective open-label crossover study, in which each long-acting bronchodilator was given in a random order to 65 patients with stable COPD for 4 weeks, with a 4-week washout period in between. We analyzed 14 baseline clinical traits, expression profiles of 31,426 gene transcripts, and damaged-gene scores of 6,464 genes acquired from leukocytes. The gene expression profiles were measured by RNA microarray and the damaged-gene scores were obtained after DNA exome sequencing. Linear regression analyses were performed to build prediction models after using

  6. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  7. REDOX IMAGING OF THE p53-DEPENDENT MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE IN COLON CANCER EX VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, HE N.; FENG, MIN; MOON, LILY; DOLLOFF, NATHAN; EL-DEIRY, WAFIK; LI, LIN Z.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial redox state and its heterogeneity of colon cancer at tissue level have not been previously reported. Nor has how p53 regulates mitochondrial respiration been measured at (deep) tissue level, presumably due to the unavailability of the technology that has sufficient spatial resolution and tissue penetration depth. Our prior work demonstrated that the mitochondrial redox state and its intratumor heterogeneity is associated with cancer aggressiveness in human melanoma and breast cancer in mouse models, with the more metastatic tumors exhibiting localized regions of more oxidized redox state. Using the Chance redox scanner with an in-plane spatial resolution of 200 μm, we imaged the mitochondrial redox state of the wild-type p53 colon tumors (HCT116 p53 wt) and the p53-deleted colon tumors (HCT116 p53−/−) by collecting the fluorescence signals of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins [Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)] from the mouse xenografts snap-frozen at low temperature. Our results show that: (1) both tumor lines have significant degree of intratumor heterogeneity of the redox state, typically exhibiting a distinct bi-modal distribution that either correlates with the spatial core–rim pattern or the “hot/cold” oxidation-reduction patches; (2) the p53−/− group is significantly more heterogeneous in the mitochondrial redox state and has a more oxidized tumor core compared to the p53 wt group when the tumor sizes of the two groups are matched; (3) the tumor size dependence of the redox indices (such as Fp and Fp redox ratio) is significant in the p53−/− group with the larger ones being more oxidized and more heterogeneous in their redox state, particularly more oxidized in the tumor central regions; (4) the H&E staining images of tumor sections grossly correlate with the redox images. The present work is the first to reveal at the submillimeter scale the intratumor heterogeneity pattern

  8. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  9. Master-slave type manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Remote control manipulator of the master-slave type for carrying out work on the other side of a shield wall. This appliance allows a Y movement relative displacement, the function of which is to extend the range of the manipulator towards the front and also to facilitate its installation, the lateral rotation or inclination of the slave arm in relation to the master arm, and the Z movement extension through which the length of the slave arm is increased in comparison with that of the master arm. Devices have been developed which transform the linear movements into rotational movements to enable these movements to be transmitted through rotational seal fittings capable of ensuring the safety of the separation between the operator's environment and that in the work area. Particular improvements have been made to the handles, handle seals, pincer mechanisms, etc [fr

  10. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  11. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  12. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value....... The paper shows why this happens. The resulting estimated MRS can then be manipulated by adapting the target MRS in the experimental design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  14. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  15. Carbon Redox-Polymer-Gel Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Melinte, S.; Gohy, J.-F.; Ajayan, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage devices that provide high specific power without compromising on specific energy are highly desirable for many electric-powered applications. Here, we demonstrate that polymer organic radical gel materials support fast bulk-redox charge storage, commensurate to surface double layer ion exchange at carbon electrodes. When integrated with a carbon-based electrical double layer capacitor, nearly ideal electrode properties such as high electrical and ionic conductivity, fast bulk redox and surface charge storage as well as excellent cycling stability are attained. Such hybrid carbon redox-polymer-gel electrodes support unprecedented discharge rate of 1,000C with 50% of the nominal capacity delivered in less than 2 seconds. Devices made with such electrodes hold the potential for battery-scale energy storage while attaining supercapacitor-like power performances. PMID:26917470

  16. Effect of long-term fertilization on humic redox mediators in multiple microbial redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Chunfang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Xinwei; Zhang, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongdong

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of different long-term fertilizations on humic substances (HSs), humic acids (HAs) and humins, functioning as redox mediators for various microbial redox biotransformations, including 2,2',4,4',5,5'- hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153 ) dechlorination, dissimilatory iron reduction, and nitrate reduction, and their electron-mediating natures. The redox activity of HSs for various microbial redox metabolisms was substantially enhanced by long-term application of organic fertilizer (pig manure). As a redox mediator, only humin extracted from soils with organic fertilizer amendment (OF-HM) maintained microbial PCB 153 dechlorination activity (1.03 μM PCB 153 removal), and corresponding HA (OF-HA) most effectively enhanced iron reduction and nitrate reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens. Electrochemical analysis confirmed the enhancement of their electron transfer capacity and redox properties. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that C=C and C=O bonds, and carboxylic or phenolic groups in HSs might be the redox functional groups affected by fertilization. This research enhances our understanding of the influence of anthropogenic fertility on the biogeochemical cycling of elements and in situ remediation ability in agroecosystems through microorganisms' metabolisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R; Paek, Eunsu; Dai, Fei; Holsen, Thomas M; Bellona, Christopher L; Bohl, Douglas G; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant ( k obs ). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs , a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas–liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas–liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  18. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  19. Particle Manipulation Methods in Droplet Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-06

    This Feature describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics toolbox to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  20. Physics Based Vision Systems for Robotic Manipulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...

  1. Treatability study work plan for in situ vitrification of seepage pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1994-07-01

    A treatability study is described that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage pit 1 by the end of fiscal year 1995. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlapping melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused melt segments; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. The initial step of this treatability study will be to gather the required site characterization data about pit 1 so that the in situ vitrification can be effectively and safely planned. The second phase will be the field ISV operations at pit 1 employing at least two settings to achieve overlapping and fused melts. Such field operations are likely to require 6 to 8 weeks. Following termination of ISV melting operations at pit 1 and demobilization of portable ISV equipment and the off-gas hood, posttest characterization activities will begin

  2. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  3. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M.; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193)

  4. Electronically Induced Redox Barriers for Treatment of Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sale, Tom; Gilbert, David

    2006-01-01

    ...) and Colorado State University (CSU). The focus is an innovative electrolytic approach for managing redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater, referred to as electrically induced redox barrier (e-barriers...

  5. Biogeochemical Barriers: Redox Behavior of Metals and Metalloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redox conditions and pH are arguably the most important geochemical parameters that control contaminant transport and fate in groundwater systems. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions mediate the chemical behavior of both inorganic and organic chemical constituents by affecting...

  6. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Using Manipulatives to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Matthew; Harper, Sallie; Whitmire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use…

  8. Fabrication of redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules from hen egg white by the sonochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Tian, Fangyuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated inside have been obtained using a facile, cost-effective and fast sonochemical method from hen egg white proteins. Such prepared redox-responsive magnetic hen egg white protein microcapsules (MHEWPMCs) could be easily manipulated to do magnetic-guided targeting delivery. The synchronous loading of the hydrophobic dye Coumarin 6 as a model of drug into MHEWPMCs was readily achieved during the fabrication of MHEWPMCs by dissolving them into the oil phase before ultrasonication. TEM images indicated that Fe3O4 MNPs were encapsulated in MHEWPMCs. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images indicated that the dye was distributed evenly in the MHEWPMCs and no leakage of dye from the MHEWPMCs was observed due to the protection of protein shells. The MHEWPMCs are potential candidates as attractive carriers for drug targeting delivery and stimuli-responsive release due to their magnetic and redox responsiveness of the disulfide in the microcapsule shells.

  9. Are bioassays useful tools to assess redox processes and biodegradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Ludvigsen, L.

    2002-01-01

    sensitive hydrochemical or geochemical parameters, levels of hydrogen, and redox potential. However, all these approaches have to be evaluated against TEAP-bioassays as the most direct measure. We assessed successfully ongoing microbial-mediated redox processes by TEAP-bioassays in degradation studies...... of aromatic and chlorinated aliphatic compounds in landfill leachate plumes, and of pesticides in aquifers with various redox conditions....

  10. Le reazioni redox: un pasticcio concettuale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ghibaudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Le reazioni di ossidoriduzione costituiscono un argomento centrale di qualsiasi corso di base di chimica, sia a livello scolastico che universitario. Il loro apprendimento comporta il superamento di svariati ostacoli concettuali, la cui difficoltà può risultare amplificata da prassi didattiche inadeguate. Gli errori più ricorrenti nel presentare l’argomento sono di due tipi: i fare implicitamente riferimento a modelli esplicativi distinti (es. il numero di ossidazione e il trasferimento elettronico, senza esplicitarli e senza evidenziarne la differente natura e il campo di validità; ii confondere il livello della spiegazione formale con quello della realtà fisica. I fenomeni redox sono normalmente interpretati sulla base di tre distinti modelli empirici, che fanno riferimento al trasferimento di atomi di ossigeno, di atomi di idrogeno, di elettroni; e di un quarto modello, formale, fondato sul cambiamento del numero di ossidazione. La confusione tra questi modelli può generare considerevoli problemi di apprendimento. Il presente lavoro riporta un’analisi critica delle implicazioni concettuali della didattica dei processi redox. L’analisi è articolata in tre sezioni: i disamina della evoluzione storica del concetto di ossidoriduzione; ii analisi dei modelli redox e del loro campo di validità; iii discussione di alcuni aspetti epistemologici inerenti i processi redox che sono rilevanti per la didattica della chimica.

  11. Mitochondrial Energy and Redox Signaling in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: For a plant to grow and develop, energy and appropriate building blocks are a fundamental requirement. Mitochondrial respiration is a vital source for both. The delicate redox processes that make up respiration are affected by the plant's changing environment. Therefore, mitochondrial regulation is critically important to maintain cellular homeostasis. This involves sensing signals from changes in mitochondrial physiology, transducing this information, and mounting tailored responses, by either adjusting mitochondrial and cellular functions directly or reprogramming gene expression. Recent Advances: Retrograde (RTG) signaling, by which mitochondrial signals control nuclear gene expression, has been a field of very active research in recent years. Nevertheless, no mitochondrial RTG-signaling pathway is yet understood in plants. This review summarizes recent advances toward elucidating redox processes and other bioenergetic factors as a part of RTG signaling of plant mitochondria. Critical Issues: Novel insights into mitochondrial physiology and redox-regulation provide a framework of upstream signaling. On the other end, downstream responses to modified mitochondrial function have become available, including transcriptomic data and mitochondrial phenotypes, revealing processes in the plant that are under mitochondrial control. Future Directions: Drawing parallels to chloroplast signaling and mitochondrial signaling in animal systems allows to bridge gaps in the current understanding and to deduce promising directions for future research. It is proposed that targeted usage of new technical approaches, such as quantitative in vivo imaging, will provide novel leverage to the dissection of plant mitochondrial signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2122–2144. PMID:23234467

  12. Methods for using redox liposome biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Quan; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

  13. Redox processes in radiation biology and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Free-radical intermediates, particularly the activated oxygen species OH, O - 2 , and 1 O 2 , are implicated in many types of radiation damage to biological systems. In addition, these same species may be formed, either directly or indirectly through biochemical redox reactions, in both essential and aberrant metabolic processes. Cell survival and adaptation to an environment containing ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical carcinogens ultimately depend upon the cell's ability to maintain optimal function in response to free-radical damage at the chemical level. Many of these feedback control mechanisms are redox controlled. Radiation chemical techniques using selective radical scavengers, such as product analysis and pulse radiolysis, enable us to generate, observe, and characterize individually the nature and reactivity of potentially damaging free radicals. From an analysis of the chemical kinetics of free-radical involvement in biological damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, its protection and sensitization, and the role of free radicals in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis

  14. Redox regulation in cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent (redox regulation) signaling pathways and transcriptional activities are thought to be critical in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation during growth and organogenesis. Aberrant ROS burst and dysregulation of those ROS-dependent cellular processe...

  15. Redox fluctuations in the Early Ordovician oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary; Gilleaudeau, Geoffrey Jon; Peralta, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. Recent co-precipitation experiments have shown that Cr(VI) is incorporated into the calcite lattice, suggesting that carbonates......, accompanied by exceptionally low Cr concentrations (runoff or hydrothermal input into the global...

  16. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  17. Redox cycling of potential antitumor aziridinylquinones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusthof, Klaas J.; de Mol, Nicolaas J.; Richter, Wilma; Janssen, Lambert H.M.; Butler, John; Hoey, Brigid M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    1992-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during redox cycling of newly synthetized potential antitumor 2,5-bis (1-aziridinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (BABQ) derivatives has been studied by assaying the production of ROI (superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide) by xanthine oxidase

  18. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-08-10

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276-310.

  19. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Fraunberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. A Membrane‐Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short‐lifetimes, and expensive ion‐selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane‐free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes ...

  1. Electrochemical redox processes involving soluble cerium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, L.F.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The relevance of cerium in laboratory and industrial electrochemistry is considered. • The history of fundamental electrochemical studies and applications is considered. • The chemistry, redox thermodynamics and electrode kinetics of cerium are summarised. • The uses of cerium ions in synthesis, energy storage, analysis and environmental treatment are illustrated. • Research needs and development perspectives are discussed. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of cerous ions and cathodic reduction of ceric ions, in aqueous acidic solutions, play an important role in electrochemical processes at laboratory and industrial scale. Ceric ions, which have been used for oxidation of organic wastes and off-gases in environmental treatment, are a well-established oxidant for indirect organic synthesis and specialised cleaning processes, including oxide film removal from tanks and process pipework in nuclear decontamination. They also provide a classical reagent for chemical analysis in the laboratory. The reversible oxidation of cerous ions is an important reaction in the positive compartment of various redox flow batteries during charge and discharge cycling. A knowledge of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the redox reaction is critical to an understanding of the role of cerium redox species in these applications. Suitable choices of electrode material (metal or ceramic; coated or uncoated), geometry/structure (2-or 3-dimensional) and electrolyte flow conditions (hence an acceptable mass transport rate) are critical to achieving effective electrocatalysis, a high performance and a long lifetime. This review considers the electrochemistry of soluble cerium species and their diverse uses in electrochemical technology, especially for redox flow batteries and mediated electrochemical oxidation.

  2. Interpersonal relationship manipulation at a personal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Hribernik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and misleading, inhumane and unethical behaviour on the part of the manipulator, which he uses in order gain success, self-confirmation and to achieve his goals. In the act of manipulation personal boundaries of the other person are violated since the manipulator enforces his dominance and subjectedness of the victim. The manipulator invades the victim’s personal integrity, limiting their potential. He isolates, controls and intimidates them; by devises a system to catch the victims, to entangle them in his net and suck them up like a spider. If the manipulation is very successful, the other person does not recognize it as such; they consider themselves happy to be cooperating with the manipulator, as they identify his goals as their own. Therefore, the manipulator can be said to have stolen the manipulated person’s soul.

  3. Dual redox catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions: towards a redox flow Li-O2 battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Jia, Chuankun; Yang, Jing; Pan, Feng; Huang, Qizhao; Wang, Qing

    2015-06-11

    A redox flow lithium-oxygen battery (RFLOB) by using soluble redox catalysts with good performance was demonstrated for large-scale energy storage. The new device enables the reversible formation and decomposition of Li2O2 via redox targeting reactions in a gas diffusion tank, spatially separated from the electrode, which obviates the passivation and pore clogging of the cathode.

  4. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  5. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  6. Manipulation of natural subsurface processes: Field research and validation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Often the only alternative for treating deep subsurface contamination is in situ manipulation of natural processes to change the mobility or form of contaminants. However, the complex interactions of natural subsurface physical, chemical, and microbial processes limit the predictability of the system-wide impact of manipulation based on current knowledge. This report is a summary of research conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State by introducing chemical reagents and microbial nutrients. The experiment would allow the testing of concepts and hypotheses developed from fundamental research in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Subsurface Science Program. Furthermore, the achievement of such control is expected to have implications for in situ remediation of dispersed aqueous contaminants in the subsurface environment at DOE sites nationwide, and particularly at the Hanford Site. This interim report summarizes initial research that was conducted between July 1990 and October 1991

  7. Redox Biology in Neurological Function, Dysfunction, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rodrigo; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2018-04-23

    Reduction oxidation (redox) reactions are central to life and when altered, they can promote disease progression. In the brain, redox homeostasis is recognized to be involved in all aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development, function, aging, and disease. Recent studies have uncovered the diverse nature by which redox reactions and homeostasis contribute to brain physiology, and when dysregulated to pathological consequences. Redox reactions go beyond what is commonly described as oxidative stress and involve redox mechanisms linked to signaling and metabolism. In contrast to the nonspecific nature of oxidative damage, redox signaling involves specific oxidation/reduction reactions that regulate a myriad of neurological processes such as neurotransmission, homeostasis, and degeneration. This Forum is focused on the role of redox metabolism and signaling in the brain. Six review articles from leading scientists in the field that appraise the role of redox metabolism and signaling in different aspects of brain biology including neurodevelopment, neurotransmission, aging, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurotoxicity are included. An original research article exemplifying these concepts uncovers a novel link between oxidative modifications, redox signaling, and neurodegeneration. This Forum highlights the recent advances in the field and we hope it encourages future research aimed to understand the mechanisms by which redox metabolism and signaling regulate CNS physiology and pathophysiology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  8. Imaging dynamic redox processes with genetically encoded probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeriņa, Daria; Morgan, Bruce; Dick, Tobias P

    2014-08-01

    Redox signalling plays an important role in many aspects of physiology, including that of the cardiovascular system. Perturbed redox regulation has been associated with numerous pathological conditions; nevertheless, the causal relationships between redox changes and pathology often remain unclear. Redox signalling involves the production of specific redox species at specific times in specific locations. However, until recently, the study of these processes has been impeded by a lack of appropriate tools and methodologies that afford the necessary redox species specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Recently developed genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes now allow dynamic real-time measurements, of defined redox species, with subcellular compartment resolution, in intact living cells. Here we discuss the available genetically encoded redox probes in terms of their sensitivity and specificity and highlight where uncertainties or controversies currently exist. Furthermore, we outline major goals for future probe development and describe how progress in imaging methodologies will improve our ability to employ genetically encoded redox probes in a wide range of situations. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas H.; Bjerg, Poul L.; Banwart, Steven A.; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Heron, Gorm; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2000-10-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial tools, such as MPN counts, PLFA biomarkers and redox bioassays. This paper reviews the principles behind the different approaches, summarizes methods used and evaluates the approaches based on the experience from the reported applications.

  10. Mesoporous tungsten oxynitride as electrocatalyst for promoting redox reactions of vanadium redox couple and performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmi; Jo, Changshin; Youk, Sol; Shin, Hun Yong; Lee, Jinwoo; Chung, Yongjin; Kwon, Yongchai

    2018-01-01

    For enhancing the performance of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), a sluggish reaction rate issue of V2+/V3+ redox couple evaluated as the rate determining reaction should be addressed. For doing that, mesoporous tungsten oxide (m-WO3) and oxyniride (m-WON) structures are proposed as the novel catalysts, while m-WON is gained by NH3 heat treatment of m-WO3. Their specific surface area, crystal structure, surface morphology and component analysis are measured using BET, XRD, TEM and XPS, while their catalytic activity for V2+/V3+ redox reaction is electrochemically examined. As a result, the m-WON shows higher peak current, smaller peak potential difference, higher electron transfer rate constant and lower charge transfer resistance than other catalysts, like the m-WO3, WO3 nanoparticle and mesoporous carbon, proving that it is superior catalyst. Regarding the charge-discharge curve tests, the VRFB single cell employing the m-WON demonstrates high voltage and energy efficiencies, high specific capacity and low capacity loss rate. The excellent results of m-WON are due to the reasons like (i) reduced energy band gap, (ii) reaction familiar surface functional groups and (ii) greater electronegativity.

  11. Compromised redox homeostasis, altered nitroso-redox balance, and therapeutic possibilities in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jillian N; Ziberna, Klemen; Casadei, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Although the initiation, development, and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been linked to alterations in myocyte redox state, the field lacks a complete understanding of the impact these changes may have on cellular signalling, atrial electrophysiology, and disease progression. Recent studies demonstrate spatiotemporal changes in reactive oxygen species production shortly after the induction of AF in animal models with an uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase activity ensuing in the presence of long-standing persistent AF, ultimately leading to a major shift in nitroso-redox balance. However, it remains unclear which radical or non-radical species are primarily involved in the underlying mechanisms of AF or which proteins are targeted for redox modification. In most instances, only free radical oxygen species have been assessed; yet evidence from the redox signalling field suggests that non-radical species are more likely to regulate cellular processes. A wider appreciation for the distinction of these species and how both species may be involved in the development and maintenance of AF could impact treatment strategies. In this review, we summarize how redox second-messenger systems are regulated and discuss the recent evidence for alterations in redox regulation in the atrial myocardium in the presence of AF, while identifying some critical missing links. We also examine studies looking at antioxidants for the prevention and treatment of AF and propose alternative redox targets that may serve as superior therapeutic options for the treatment of AF. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...... for the cloak is to delay the waves in regions of higher permittivity than the background and subsequently phase match them to the waves outside. Directional acoustic cloaks can also be designed using the topology optimization method. Aluminum cylinders constitutes the design and their placement and size...... concerns the design of planar Fresnel zone plate lenses for focusing electromagnetic waves. The topology optimized zone plates improve the focusing performance compared to results known from the literature....

  13. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  14. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  15. A links manipulator simulation program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    A computer program to simulate the performance of the Heysham II rail-following manipulator has been developed. The program is being used to develop and test the rail-following control algorithms which will be used to control movements of the manipulator when it is operating below the gas baffle dome. The simulation includes the dynamic responses of the manipulator joint drives, excluding friction, backlash and compliance. It also includes full details of the manipulator's geometry. A method is given whereby the actual manipulator dynamics can be written into the program once these have been established by measurement. The program is written in FORTRAN and runs on a Perkin-Elmer 3220 mini-computer. The simulation program responds to velocity demands on the individual joints. These will normally come from the control program, in which they will be manually controlled by a joystick. A sigma 5664 colour graphics generator is programmed to display the current position of the manipulator. (UK)

  16. Probabilistic approach to manipulator kinematics and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.S.; Bhatti, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    A high performance, high speed robotic arm must be able to manipulate objects with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. As with any other physical system, there are a number of factors causing uncertainties in the behavior of a robotic manipulator. These factors include manufacturing and assembling tolerances, and errors in the joint actuators and controllers. In order to study the effect of these uncertainties on the robotic end-effector and to obtain a better insight into the manipulator behavior, the manipulator kinematics and dynamics are modeled using a probabilistic approach. Based on the probabilistic model, kinematic and dynamic performance criteria are defined to provide measures of the behavior of the robotic end-effector. Techniques are presented to compute the kinematic and dynamic reliabilities of the manipulator. The effects of tolerances associated with the various manipulator parameters on the reliabilities are studied. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures

  17. Collision Detection for Underwater ROV Manipulator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satja Sivčev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Work-class ROVs equipped with robotic manipulators are extensively used for subsea intervention operations. Manipulators are teleoperated by human pilots relying on visual feedback from the worksite. Operating in a remote environment, with limited pilot perception and poor visibility, manipulator collisions which may cause significant damage are likely to happen. This paper presents a real-time collision detection algorithm for marine robotic manipulation. The proposed collision detection mechanism is developed, integrated into a commercial ROV manipulator control system, and successfully evaluated in simulations and experimental setup using a real industry standard underwater manipulator. The presented collision sensing solution has a potential to be a useful pilot assisting tool that can reduce the task load, operational time, and costs of subsea inspection, repair, and maintenance operations.

  18. Redox biology in normal cells and cancer: restoring function of the redox/Fyn/c-Cbl pathway in cancer cells offers new approaches to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Mark; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Li, Zaibo; Dong, Tiefei; Cui, Wanchang; Pröschel, Christoph; Ambeskovic, Ibro; Dietrich, Joerg; Han, Ruolan; Yang, Yin Miranda; Folts, Christopher; Stripay, Jennifer; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Stevens, Brett M

    2015-02-01

    This review discusses a unique discovery path starting with novel findings on redox regulation of precursor cell and signaling pathway function and identification of a new mechanism by which relatively small changes in redox status can control entire signaling networks that regulate self-renewal, differentiation, and survival. The pathway central to this work, the redox/Fyn/c-Cbl (RFC) pathway, converts small increases in oxidative status to pan-activation of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase, which controls multiple receptors and other proteins of central importance in precursor cell and cancer cell function. Integration of work on the RFC pathway with attempts to understand how treatment with systemic chemotherapy causes neurological problems led to the discovery that glioblastomas (GBMs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) inhibit c-Cbl function through altered utilization of the cytoskeletal regulators Cool-1/βpix and Cdc42, respectively. Inhibition of these proteins to restore normal c-Cbl function suppresses cancer cell division, increases sensitivity to chemotherapy, disrupts tumor-initiating cell (TIC) activity in GBMs and BLBCs, controls multiple critical TIC regulators, and also allows targeting of non-TICs. Moreover, these manipulations do not increase chemosensitivity or suppress division of nontransformed cells. Restoration of normal c-Cbl function also allows more effective harnessing of estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-independent activities of tamoxifen to activate the RFC pathway and target ERα-negative cancer cells. Our work thus provides a discovery strategy that reveals mechanisms and therapeutic targets that cannot be deduced by standard genetics analyses, which fail to reveal the metabolic information, isoform shifts, protein activation, protein complexes, and protein degradation critical to our discoveries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Chronopotentiometric determination of redox states of peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorčák, Vlastimil; Paleček, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 23 (2007), s. 2405-2412 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040513; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : peptide redox states * constant current chronopotentiometry * catalytic hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.949, year: 2007

  20. Redox pioneer:Professor Christine Helen Foyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Luis A

    2011-10-15

    Dr. Christine Foyer (B.Sc. 1974; Ph.D. 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because she has published an article on redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times, 4 other articles that have been cited more than 500 times, and a further 32 articles that have been each cited more than 100 times. During her Ph.D. at the Kings College, University of London, United Kingdom, Dr. Foyer discovered that ascorbate and glutathione and enzymes linking NADPH, glutathione, and ascorbate are localized in isolated chloroplast preparations. These observations pioneered the discovery of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, now known as Foyer-Halliwell-Asada pathway after the names of the three major contributors, a crucial mechanism for H(2)O(2) metabolism in both animals and plants. Dr. Foyer has made a very significant contribution to our current understanding of the crucial roles of ascorbate and glutathione in redox biology, particularly in relation to photosynthesis, respiration, and chloroplast and mitochondrial redox signaling networks. "My view is that science…is compulsive and you have to keep with it all the time and not get despondent when things do not work well. Being passionate about science is what carries you through the hard times so that it isn't so much work, as a hobby that you do for a living. It is the thrill of achieving a better understanding and finding real pleasure in putting new ideas together, explaining data and passing on knowledge that keeps you going no matter what!" --Prof. Christine Helen Foyer.

  1. Electrochemical determination of thioredoxin redox states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorčák, Vlastimil; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 4 (2009), s. 1543-1548 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : thioredoxin redox states * constant current chronopotentiometric stripping * carbon and mercury electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.214, year: 2009

  2. Proteostasis and REDOX state in the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christians, Elisabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Force-generating contractile cells of the myocardium must achieve and maintain their primary function as an efficient mechanical pump over the life span of the organism. Because only half of the cardiomyocytes can be replaced during the entire human life span, the maintenance strategy elicited by cardiac cells relies on uninterrupted renewal of their components, including proteins whose specialized functions constitute this complex and sophisticated contractile apparatus. Thus cardiac proteins are continuously synthesized and degraded to ensure proteome homeostasis, also termed “proteostasis.” Once synthesized, proteins undergo additional folding, posttranslational modifications, and trafficking and/or become involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions to exert their functions. This includes key transient interactions of cardiac proteins with molecular chaperones, which assist with quality control at multiple levels to prevent misfolding or to facilitate degradation. Importantly, cardiac proteome maintenance depends on the cellular environment and, in particular, the reduction-oxidation (REDOX) state, which is significantly different among cardiac organelles (e.g., mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum). Taking into account the high metabolic activity for oxygen consumption and ATP production by mitochondria, it is a challenge for cardiac cells to maintain the REDOX state while preventing either excessive oxidative or reductive stress. A perturbed REDOX environment can affect protein handling and conformation (e.g., disulfide bonds), disrupt key structure-function relationships, and trigger a pathogenic cascade of protein aggregation, decreased cell survival, and increased organ dysfunction. This review covers current knowledge regarding the general domain of REDOX state and protein folding, specifically in cardiomyocytes under normal-healthy conditions and during disease states associated with morbidity and mortality in humans. PMID:22003057

  3. Master-slave-manipulator 'EMSM I'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The apparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weight compensation. (orig.) [de

  4. Master-slave-manipulator EMSM I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The aparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most obvious innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weightcompensation. (orig.) [de

  5. Positional control of space robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, Vladislav; Shymanchuk, Dzmitry

    2018-05-01

    In this article the mathematical model of a planar space robot manipulator is under study. The space robot manipulator represents a solid body with attached manipulators. The system of equations of motion is determined using the Lagrange's equations. The control problem concerning moving the robot to a given point and return it to a given trajectory in the phase space is solved. Changes of generalized coordinates and necessary control actions are plotted for a specific model.

  6. Managerial Incentives and Stock Price Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Lin; Röell, Ailsa A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a rational expectations model of optimal executive compensation in a setting where managers are in a position to manipulate short-term stock prices, and managers' propensity to manipulate is uncertain. Stock-based incentives elicit not only productive effort, but also costly information manipulation. We analyze the tradeoffs involved in conditioning pay on long- versus short-term performance and characterize a second-best optimal compensation scheme. The paper shows manipu...

  7. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs

  8. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  9. Pyridine nucleotides in regulation of cell death and survival by redox and non-redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Kujundžić, Renata; Žarković, Neven; Gall Trošelj, Koraljka

    2014-01-01

    Changes of the level and ratios of pyridine nucleotides determine metabolism- dependent cellular redox status and the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and sirtuins, thereby influencing several processes closely related to cell survival and death. Pyridine nucleotides participate in numerous metabolic reactions whereby their net cellular level remains constant, but the ratios of NAD+/NADP+ and NADH/NADPH oscillate according to metabolic changes in response to diverse stress signals. In non-redox reactions, NAD+ is degraded and quickly, afterward, resynthesized in the NAD+ salvage pathway, unless overwhelming activation of PARP-1 consumes NAD+ to the point of no return, when the cell can no longer generate enough ATP to accommodate NAD+ resynthesis. The activity of PARP-1 is mandatory for the onset of cytoprotective autophagy on sublethal stress signals. It has become increasingly clear that redox status, largely influenced by the metabolism-dependent composition of the pyridine nucleotides pool, plays an important role in the synthesis of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic sphingolipids. Awareness of the involvement of the prosurvival sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, in transition from inflammation to malignant transformation has recently emerged. Here, the participation of pyridine nucleotides in redox and non-redox reactions, sphingolipid metabolism, and their role in cell fate decisions is reviewed.

  10. Gas-phase ion/ion reactions of peptides and proteins: acid/base, redox, and covalent chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M; McLuckey, Scott A

    2013-02-01

    Gas-phase ion/ion reactions are emerging as useful and flexible means for the manipulation and characterization of peptide and protein biopolymers. Acid/base-like chemical reactions (i.e., proton transfer reactions) and reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions (i.e., electron transfer reactions) represent relatively mature classes of gas-phase chemical reactions. Even so, especially in regards to redox chemistry, the widespread utility of these two types of chemistries is undergoing rapid growth and development. Additionally, a relatively new class of gas-phase ion/ion transformations is emerging which involves the selective formation of functional-group-specific covalent bonds. This feature details our current work and perspective on the developments and current capabilities of these three areas of ion/ion chemistry with an eye towards possible future directions of the field.

  11. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

  12. Measurement of Redox Potential in Nanoecotoxicological Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Tantra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Redox potential has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD as one of the parameters that should be investigated for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. There is still some ambiguity concerning this parameter, i.e., as to what and how to measure, particularly when in a nanoecotoxicological context. In this study the redox potentials of six nanomaterials (either zinc oxide (ZnO or cerium oxide (CeO2 dispersions were measured using an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP electrode probe. The particles under testing differed in terms of their particle size and dispersion stability in deionised water and in various ecotox media. The ORP values of the various dispersions and how they fluctuate relative to each other are discussed. Results show that the ORP values are mainly governed by the type of liquid media employed, with little contributions from the nanoparticles. Seawater was shown to have reduced the ORP value, which was attributed to an increase in the concentration of reducing agents such as sulphites or the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration. The lack of redox potential value contribution from the particles themselves is thought to be due to insufficient interaction of the particles at the Pt electrode of the ORP probe.

  13. Measurement of redox potential in nanoecotoxicological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Cackett, Alex; Peck, Roger; Gohil, Dipak; Snowden, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Redox potential has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as one of the parameters that should be investigated for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. There is still some ambiguity concerning this parameter, i.e., as to what and how to measure, particularly when in a nanoecotoxicological context. In this study the redox potentials of six nanomaterials (either zinc oxide (ZnO) or cerium oxide (CeO(2))) dispersions were measured using an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) electrode probe. The particles under testing differed in terms of their particle size and dispersion stability in deionised water and in various ecotox media. The ORP values of the various dispersions and how they fluctuate relative to each other are discussed. Results show that the ORP values are mainly governed by the type of liquid media employed, with little contributions from the nanoparticles. Seawater was shown to have reduced the ORP value, which was attributed to an increase in the concentration of reducing agents such as sulphites or the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration. The lack of redox potential value contribution from the particles themselves is thought to be due to insufficient interaction of the particles at the Pt electrode of the ORP probe.

  14. Membrane development for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Kim, Soowhan; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-17

    Large-scale energy storage has become the main bottleneck for increasing the percentage of renewable energy in our electricity grids. Redox flow batteries are considered to be among the best options for electricity storage in the megawatt range and large demonstration systems have already been installed. Although the full technological potential of these systems has not been reached yet, currently the main problem hindering more widespread commercialization is the high cost of redox flow batteries. Nafion, as the preferred membrane material, is responsible for about 11% of the overall cost of a 1 MW/8 MWh system. Therefore, in recent years two main membrane related research threads have emerged: 1) chemical and physical modification of Nafion membranes to optimize their properties with regard to vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application; and 2) replacement of the Nafion membranes with different, less expensive materials. This review summarizes the underlying basic scientific issues associated with membrane use in VRFBs and presents an overview of membrane-related research approaches aimed at improving the efficiency of VRFBs and making the technology cost-competitive. Promising research strategies and materials are identified and suggestions are provided on how materials issues could be overcome.

  15. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  16. Long-reach manipulators for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.A.; Challinor, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of redundant facilities at Sellafield has identified that in many cases the conventional means of deploying remote handling equipment are not appropriate and that novel means must be employed. However, decommissioning is not a value adding activity and so expensive one off designs must be avoided. The paper will describe BNFL's approach to the synthesis from proprietary parts of a manipulator which can lift 3 te at a horizontal reach of over 5 metres and yet can still perform the dextrous manipulation necessary to remove small items. It will also cover the development of the manipulator control systems and the adaption of commercial handtools to be manipulator friendly. (author)

  17. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai; Lv Junhong; Wang Guohua; Wang Ying; Li Minqian; Zhang Yi; Li Bin; Li Haikuo; An Hongjie

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as 'cutting', 'pushing', 'folding', 'kneading', 'picking up', 'dipping', etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10 nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed. (authors)

  18. Bioprinting Living Biofilms through Optogenetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yajia; Xia, Aiguo; Yang, Guang; Jin, Fan

    2018-04-18

    In this paper, we present a new strategy for microprinting dense bacterial communities with a prescribed organization on a substrate. Unlike conventional bioprinting techniques that require bioinks, through optogenetic manipulation, we directly manipulated the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow these living bacteria to autonomically form patterned biofilms following prescribed illumination. The results showed that through optogenetic manipulation, patterned bacterial communities with high spatial resolution (approximately 10 μm) could be constructed in 6 h. Thus, optogenetic manipulation greatly increases the range of available bioprinting techniques.

  19. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  20. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU

  1. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU.

  2. Thiol/disulfide redox states in signaling and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in redox systems biology are creating new opportunities to understand complexities of human disease and contributions of environmental exposures. New understanding of thiol-disulfide systems have occurred during the past decade as a consequence of the discoveries that thiol and disulfide systems are maintained in kinetically controlled steady-states displaced from thermodynamic equilibrium, that a widely distributed family of NADPH oxidases produces oxidants that function in cell signaling, and that a family of peroxiredoxins utilize thioredoxin as a reductant to complement the well-studied glutathione antioxidant system for peroxide elimination and redox regulation. This review focuses on thiol/disulfide redox state in biologic systems and the knowledge base available to support development of integrated redox systems biology models to better understand the function and dysfunction of thiol-disulfide redox systems. In particular, central principles have emerged concerning redox compartmentalization and utility of thiol/disulfide redox measures as indicators of physiologic function. Advances in redox proteomics show that, in addition to functioning in protein active sites and cell signaling, cysteine residues also serve as redox sensors to integrate biologic functions. These advances provide a framework for translation of redox systems biology concepts to practical use in understanding and treating human disease. Biological responses to cadmium, a widespread environmental agent, are used to illustrate the utility of these advances to the understanding of complex pleiotropic toxicities. PMID:23356510

  3. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  4. Characterisation of the Redox Sensitive NMDA Receptor

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Ohood

    2016-05-01

    Glucose entry into the brain and its subsequent metabolism to L-lactate, regulated by astrocytes, plays a major role in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. A recent study has shown that L-lactate produced by the brain upon stimulation of glycolysis, and glycogen-derived L-lactate from astrocytes and its transport into neurons, is crucial for memory formation. A recent study revealed the molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of L-lactate in neuronal plasticity and long-term memory formation. L-lactate was shown to induce a cascade of molecular events via modulation of redox-sensitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity that was mimicked by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) co-enzyme. This indicated that changes in cellular redox state, following L-lactate transport inside the cells and its subsequent metabolism, production of NADH, and favouring a reduced state are the key effects of L-lactate. Therefore, we are investigating the role of L-lactate in modulating NMDA receptor function via redox modulatory sites. Accordingly, crucial redox-sensitive cysteine residues, Cys320 and Cys87, of the NR2A NMDA receptor subunit are mutated using site-directed mutation, transfected, and expressed in HEK293 cells. This cellular system will then be used to characterise and monitor its activity upon Llactate stimulation, compared to the wild type. This will be achieved by calcium imaging, using fluorescent microscopy. Our data shows that L-lactate potentiated NMDA receptor activity and increased intracellular calcium influx in NR1/NR2A wild type compared to the control condition (WT NR1/NR2A perfused with (1μM) glutamate and (1μM) glycine agonist only), showing faster response initiation and slower decay rate of the calcium signal to the baseline. Additionally, stimulating with L-lactate associated with greater numbers of cells having high fluorescent intensity (peak amplitude) compared to the control. Furthermore, L-lactate rescued the

  5. Analytical redox reactions and redox potentials of tungsten and its concomitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, G.; Mintrop, L.; Tracht, U.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that tungsten can be more effectively determined by redox titrimetry than by gravimetry. In addition to its inherent greater simplicity the volumetric approach offers to determine several components of the sample from consecutive redox titrations. To provide the necessary information the conditional redox potentials of W, Mo, Fe, V, Ti, Sn, Cu, Cr in HCl, HCl + HF and HCl + H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ have been determined. Use of HF and/or H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ allows sample preparations without any precipitation of tungstic acid. The influence of these auxiliary complexing agents on the potentials and kinetics is discussed. The titrations can be performed reductimetrically or more conveniently oxidimetrically using potentiometric or amperometric indication. The use of strongly reducing agents restricts the tolerance interval to +-0.6%, so that the gravimetric determination of tungsten remains superior for high precision analyses.

  6. Analytical redox reactions and redox potentials of tungsten and its concomitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, G.; Mintrop, L.; Tracht, U.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that tungsten can be more effectively determined by redox titrimetry than by gravimetry. In addition to its inherent greater simplicity the volumetric approach offers to determine several components of the sample from consecutive redox titrations. To provide the necessary information the conditional redox potentials of W, Mo, Fe, V, Ti, Sn, Cu, Cr in HCl, HCl + HF and HCl + H 3 PO 4 have been determined. Use of HF and/or H 3 PO 4 allows sample preparations without any precipitation of tungstic acid. The influence of these auxiliary complexing agents on the potentials and kinetics is discussed. The titrations can be performed reductimetrically or more conveniently oxidimetrically using potentiometric or amperometric indication. The use of strongly reducing agents restricts the tolerance interval to +-0.6%, so that the gravimetric determination of tungsten remains superior for high precision analyses. (orig.) [de

  7. Neutral Red and Ferroin as Reversible and Rapid Redox Materials for Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeehoon; Kim, Ketack

    2018-04-17

    Neutral red and ferroin are used as redox indicators (RINs) in potentiometric titrations. The rapid response and reversibility that are prerequisites for RINs are also desirable properties for the active materials in redox flow batteries (RFBs). This study describes the electrochemical properties of ferroin and neutral red as a redox pair. The rapid reaction rates of the RINs allow a cell to run at a rate of 4 C with 89 % capacity retention after the 100 th  cycle. The diffusion coefficients, electrode reaction rates, and solubilities of the RINs were determined. The electron-transfer rate constants of ferroin and neutral red are 0.11 and 0.027 cm s -1 , respectively, which are greater than those of the components of all-vanadium and Zn/Br 2 cells. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  9. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  10. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator's approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  11. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel

  12. Multiple redox states of multiheme cytochromes may enable bacterial response to changing redox environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, T.; Wrighton, K. C.; Mullin, S. W.; Castelle, C.; Luef, B.; Gilbert, B.; Banfield, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Multiheme c-type cytochromes (MHCs) are key components in electron-transport pathways that enable some microorganisms to transfer electron byproducts of metabolism to a variety of minerals. As a response to changes in mineral redox potential, microbial communities may shift their membership, or individual organisms may adjust protein expression. Alternatively, the ability to respond may be conferred by the innate characteristics of certain electron-transport-chain components. Here, we used potentiostat-controlled microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to measure the timescale of response to imposed changes in redox conditions, thus placing constraints on the importance of these different mechanisms. In the experiments, a solid electrode acts as an electron-accepting mineral whose redox potential can be precisely controlled. We inoculated duplicate MFCs with a sediment/groundwater mixture from an aquifer at Rifle, Colorado, supplied acetate as an electron donor, and obtained stable, mixed-species biofilms dominated by Geobacter and a novel Geobacter-related family. We poised the anode at potentials spanning the range of natural Fe(III)-reduction, then performed cyclic voltammetry (CV) to characterize the overall biofilm redox signature. The apparent biofilm midpoint potential shifted directly with anode set potential when the latter was changed within the range from about -250 to -50 mV vs. SHE. Following a jump in set potential by 200 mV, the CV-midpoint shift by ~100 mV over a timescale of ~30 minutes to a few hours, depending on the direction of the potential change. The extracellular electron transfer molecules, whose overall CV signature is very similar to those of purified MHCs, appear to span a broad redox range (~200 mV), supporting the hypothesis that MHCs confer substantial redox flexibility. This flexibility may be a principle reason for the abundance of MHCs expressed by microorganisms capable of extracellular electron transfer to minerals.

  13. Redox properties of structural Fe in clay minerals: 3. Relationships between smectite redox and structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Christopher A; Klüpfel, Laura E; Voegelin, Andreas; Sander, Michael; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Structural Fe in clay minerals is an important redox-active species in many pristine and contaminated environments as well as in engineered systems. Understanding the extent and kinetics of redox reactions involving Fe-bearing clay minerals has been challenging due to the inability to relate structural Fe(2+)/Fe(total) fractions to fundamental redox properties, such as reduction potentials (EH). Here, we overcame this challenge by using mediated electrochemical reduction (MER) and oxidation (MEO) to characterize the fraction of redox-active structural Fe (Fe(2+)/Fe(total)) in smectites over a wide range of applied EH-values (-0.6 V to +0.6 V). We examined Fe(2+)/Fe(total )- EH relationships of four natural Fe-bearing smectites (SWy-2, SWa-1, NAu-1, NAu-2) in their native, reduced, and reoxidized states and compared our measurements with spectroscopic observations and a suite of mineralogical properties. All smectites exhibited unique Fe(2+)/Fe(total) - EH relationships, were redox active over wide EH ranges, and underwent irreversible electron transfer induced structural changes that were observable with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Variations among the smectite Fe(2+)/Fe(total) - EH relationships correlated well with both bulk and molecular-scale properties, including Fe(total) content, layer charge, and quadrupole splitting values, suggesting that multiple structural parameters determined the redox properties of smectites. The Fe(2+)/Fe(total) - EH relationships developed for these four commonly studied clay minerals may be applied to future studies interested in relating the extent of structural Fe reduction or oxidation to EH-values.

  14. Seasonal variation of organic matter concentration and characteristics in the Maji ya Chai River (Tanzania): Impact on treatability by ultrafiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aschermann, Geert

    2016-05-07

    Many waters in Tanzania exhibit high concentrations of organic matter and dissolved contaminants such as fluoride. Due to bacteria and virus removal, ultrafiltration (UF) is an attractive option for drinking water treatment, and when coupled with adsorbents, may compete with other established processes like nanofiltration (NF) for lower contaminant concentrations. The results presented here examine the characteristics and treatability of tropical natural organic matter (NOM) by UF as a function of seasonal variation. The Tanzanian river Maji ya Chai was sampled monthly during one year. The composition of NOM in Maji ya Chai River is influenced strongly by precipitation. Total organic carbon (TOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and concentration of allochthonous organics substances (such as humic substances (HS)) are elevated in periods following high precipitation, while TOC is lower and contains more biopolymers in the dry seasons. UF experiments with two regenerated cellulose membranes of different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, 5 and 10 kDa) were conducted. UF is able to remove 50–95% of TOC with a seasonal variability of 10–20%. Due to the remaining NOM in the water that would contribute to disinfection by-product formation and bacterial regrowth, the physically disinfected water is more applicable for point of use systems than distribution or storage.

  15. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Heath, B.A.; Davis, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  16. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G

  17. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  18. Metallurgical Laboratory (MetLab) Treatability Study: An Analysis of Passive Soil Vapor Extraction Wells (PSVE) FY1999 Update; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The results to date on the treatability study of the PSVE system at the MetLab of the Savannah River Site (SRS) indicate the technology is performing well. Well concentrations are decreasing and contour maps of the vadose zone soil gas plume show a decrease in the extent of the plume. In the 18 months of operation approximately 200 pounds of chlorinated organic contaminants have been removed by natural barometric pumping of wells fitted with BaroBall valves (low pressure check valves). The mass removal estimates are approximate since the flow rates are estimated, the concentration data is based on exponential fits of a limited data set, and the concentration data is normalized to the average CO2.The concentration values presented in this report should be taken as the general trend or order of magnitude of concentration until longer-term data is collected. These trends are of exponentially decreasing concentration showing the same characteristics as the concentration trends at the SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin after three years of PSVE (Riha et. al., 1999)

  19. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  20. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  1. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Ryu, Jaechan; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-10-01

    Vanadium redox reactions have been considered as a key factor affecting the energy efficiency of the all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). This redox reaction determines the reaction kinetics of whole cells. However, poor kinetic reversibility and catalytic activity towards the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples on the commonly used carbon substrate limit broader applications of VRFBs. Consequently, modified carbon substrates have been extensively investigated to improve vanadium redox reactions. In this Focus Review, recent progress on metal- and carbon-based nanomaterials as an electrocatalyst for VRFBs is discussed in detail, without the intention to provide a comprehensive review on the whole components of the system. Instead, the focus is mainly placed on the redox chemistry of vanadium ions at a surface of various metals, different dimensional carbons, nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures, and metal-carbon composites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Vaughey, John T.; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Lu; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2016-03-29

    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte is selected to have a higher redox potential than the redox reactant of the negative electrolyte.

  3. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  4. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  5. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...

  6. Even Middle Graders Can Learn with Manipulatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Math manipulatives let students see the components of an abstract problem, help build a concrete language for talking about math concepts, and encourage students to gain confidence in their ability to figure things out. Many suggestions for using manipulatives in math instruction are offered. (MT)

  7. Lazy motion planning for robotic manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrien, A.R.P.; van de Molengraft, M.J.G.; Bruyninckx, H.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Robotic manipulators are making a shift towards mobile bases in both industry and domestic environments, which puts high demands on efficient use of the robot’s limited energy resources. In this work, the problem of reducing energy usage of a robot manipulator during a task is investigated. We

  8. Judging Nudging : Answering the Manipulation Objection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, Thomas; Engelen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Is it ever justified to ‘nudge’ people towards their own health? In this article, we argue that it is. We do so by arguing (1) that nudges are not necessarily – as is commonly thought – manipulative; (2) that even those nudges that are manipulative can be justified, for instance, when they preserve

  9. Tools for Manipulation and Characterisation of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Bøggild, Peter

    grippers, which were then successfully used for pick-and-place manipulation of silicon nanowires. For increased gripping force and control over the manipulation process, microfabricated grippers with integrated force-feedback were also demonstrated. Environmental electron beam deposition (EEBD...... components that are some 10000 times smaller....

  10. MEMS 6 degrees of freedom parallel micro manipulator for TEM sample manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Up till now MEMS actuators acted either only in-plane or only out-of plane restricting to 3 DOF manipulation. A design for a millimeter-sized manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom to manipulate a micron-sized substrate at nanometer resolution over strokes of 10 microns with a position stability

  11. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulenova, Alena [Principal Investigator; Vandegrift, III, George F. [Collaborator

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  12. A redox-switchable Au8-cluster sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Haw; Hsu, Yu-Yen; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2012-07-09

    The proof of concept of a simple sensing platform based on the fluorescence of a gold cluster consisting of eight atoms, which is easily manipulated by reduction and oxidation of a specific molecule in the absence of chemical linkers, is demonstrated. Without using any coupling reagents to arrange the distance of the donor-acceptor pair, the fluorescence of the Au(8) -cluster is immediately switched off in the presence of 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) quencher. Through an upward-curving Stern-Volmer plot, the system shows complex fluorescence quenching with a combination of static and dynamic quenching processes. To analyze the static quenching constant (V) by a "sphere of action" model, the collisional encounter between the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT presents a quenching radius (r) ≈5.8 nm, which is larger than the sum of the radii of the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT. This implies that fluorescence quenching can occur even though the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT are not very close to each other. The quenching pathway may be derived from a photoinduced electron-transfer process of the encounter pair between the Au(8) -cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-PyT (as an electron acceptor) to allow efficient fluorescence quenching in the absence of coupling reagents. Interestingly, the fluorescence is restored by oxidation of 2-PyT to form the corresponding disulfide compound and then quenched again after the reduction of the disulfide. This redox-switchable fluorescent Au(8) -cluster platform is a novel discovery, and its utility as a promising sensor for detecting H(2) O(2) -generating enzymatic transformations is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Redox homeostasis: The Golden Mean of healthy living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde; Forman, Henry Jay

    2016-08-01

    The notion that electrophiles serve as messengers in cell signaling is now widely accepted. Nonetheless, major issues restrain acceptance of redox homeostasis and redox signaling as components of maintenance of a normal physiological steady state. The first is that redox signaling requires sudden switching on of oxidant production and bypassing of antioxidant mechanisms rather than a continuous process that, like other signaling mechanisms, can be smoothly turned up or down. The second is the misperception that reactions in redox signaling involve "reactive oxygen species" rather than reaction of specific electrophiles with specific protein thiolates. The third is that hormesis provides protection against oxidants by increasing cellular defense or repair mechanisms rather than by specifically addressing the offset of redox homeostasis. Instead, we propose that both oxidant and antioxidant signaling are main features of redox homeostasis. As the redox shift is rapidly reversed by feedback reactions, homeostasis is maintained by continuous signaling for production and elimination of electrophiles and nucleophiles. Redox homeostasis, which is the maintenance of nucleophilic tone, accounts for a healthy physiological steady state. Electrophiles and nucleophiles are not intrinsically harmful or protective, and redox homeostasis is an essential feature of both the response to challenges and subsequent feedback. While the balance between oxidants and nucleophiles is preserved in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress provokes the establishment of a new radically altered redox steady state. The popular belief that scavenging free radicals by antioxidants has a beneficial effect is wishful thinking. We propose, instead, that continuous feedback preserves nucleophilic tone and that this is supported by redox active nutritional phytochemicals. These nonessential compounds, by activating Nrf2, mimic the effect of endogenously produced electrophiles (parahormesis). In summary

  14. Redox homeostasis: The Golden Mean of healthy living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ursini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion that electrophiles serve as messengers in cell signaling is now widely accepted. Nonetheless, major issues restrain acceptance of redox homeostasis and redox signaling as components of maintenance of a normal physiological steady state. The first is that redox signaling requires sudden switching on of oxidant production and bypassing of antioxidant mechanisms rather than a continuous process that, like other signaling mechanisms, can be smoothly turned up or down. The second is the misperception that reactions in redox signaling involve “reactive oxygen species” rather than reaction of specific electrophiles with specific protein thiolates. The third is that hormesis provides protection against oxidants by increasing cellular defense or repair mechanisms rather than by specifically addressing the offset of redox homeostasis. Instead, we propose that both oxidant and antioxidant signaling are main features of redox homeostasis. As the redox shift is rapidly reversed by feedback reactions, homeostasis is maintained by continuous signaling for production and elimination of electrophiles and nucleophiles. Redox homeostasis, which is the maintenance of nucleophilic tone, accounts for a healthy physiological steady state. Electrophiles and nucleophiles are not intrinsically harmful or protective, and redox homeostasis is an essential feature of both the response to challenges and subsequent feedback. While the balance between oxidants and nucleophiles is preserved in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress provokes the establishment of a new radically altered redox steady state. The popular belief that scavenging free radicals by antioxidants has a beneficial effect is wishful thinking. We propose, instead, that continuous feedback preserves nucleophilic tone and that this is supported by redox active nutritional phytochemicals. These nonessential compounds, by activating Nrf2, mimic the effect of endogenously produced electrophiles

  15. Redox shuttles for safer lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Qin, Yan; Amine, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Overcharge protection is not only critical for preventing the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries during operation, but also important for automatic capacity balancing during battery manufacturing and repair. A redox shuttle is an electrolyte additive that can be used as intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism to enhance the safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The advances on stable redox shuttles are briefly reviewed. Fundamental studies for designing stable redox shuttles are also discussed.

  16. Interaction control of a redundant mobile manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.H.; Velinsky, S.A.; Hess, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and control of a spatial mobile manipulator that consists of a robotic manipulator mounted on a wheeled mobile platform. The Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation is used to obtain a concise description of the dynamics of the system, which is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The complexity of the model is increased by introducing kinematic redundancy, which is created when a multilinked manipulator is used. The kinematic redundancy is resolved by decomposing the mobile manipulator into two subsystems: the mobile platform and the manipulator. The redundancy resolution scheme employs a nonlinear interaction-control algorithm, which is developed and applied to coordinate the two subsystems' controllers. The subsystem controllers are independently designed, based on each subsystem's dynamic characteristics. Simulation results show the promise of the developed algorithm

  17. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  18. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  19. Exercise redox biochemistry: Conceptual, methodological and technical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Cobley

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exercise redox biochemistry is of considerable interest owing to its translational value in health and disease. However, unaddressed conceptual, methodological and technical issues complicate attempts to unravel how exercise alters redox homeostasis in health and disease. Conceptual issues relate to misunderstandings that arise when the chemical heterogeneity of redox biology is disregarded: which often complicates attempts to use redox-active compounds and assess redox signalling. Further, that oxidised macromolecule adduct levels reflect formation and repair is seldom considered. Methodological and technical issues relate to the use of out-dated assays and/or inappropriate sample preparation techniques that confound biochemical redox analysis. After considering each of the aforementioned issues, we outline how each issue can be resolved and provide a unifying set of recommendations. We specifically recommend that investigators: consider chemical heterogeneity, use redox-active compounds judiciously, abandon flawed assays, carefully prepare samples and assay buffers, consider repair/metabolism, use multiple biomarkers to assess oxidative damage and redox signalling. Keywords: Exercise, Oxidative stress, Free radical, Antioxidants, Redox signalling

  20. Redox active polymers and colloidal particles for flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Joaquin; Cheng, Kevin; Shen, Mei; Lichtenstein, Timothy

    2018-05-29

    The invention provides a redox flow battery comprising a microporous or nanoporous size-exclusion membrane, wherein one cell of the battery contains a redox-active polymer dissolved in the non-aqueous solvent or a redox-active colloidal particle dispersed in the non-aqueous solvent. The redox flow battery provides enhanced ionic conductivity across the electrolyte separator and reduced redox-active species crossover, thereby improving the performance and enabling widespread utilization. Redox active poly(vinylbenzyl ethylviologen) (RAPs) and redox active colloidal particles (RACs) were prepared and were found to be highly effective redox species. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis indicates that 94-99% of the nominal charge on different RAPs is accessible and the electrolysis products are stable upon cycling. The high concentration attainable (>2.0 M) for RAPs in common non-aqueous battery solvents, their electrochemical and chemical reversibility, and their hindered transport across porous separators make them attractive materials for non-aqueous redox flow batteries based on size-selectivity.

  1. Redox proteomics of tomato in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Kelly Mayrink; Parker, Jennifer; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammals with adaptive immunity, plants rely on their innate immunity based on pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) for pathogen defense. Reactive oxygen species, known to play crucial roles in PTI and ETI, can perturb cellular redox homeostasis and lead to changes of redox-sensitive proteins through modification of cysteine sulfhydryl groups. Although redox regulation of protein functions has emerged as an important mechanism in several biological processes, little is known about redox proteins and how they function in PTI and ETI. In this study, cysTMT proteomics technology was used to identify similarities and differences of protein redox modifications in tomato resistant (PtoR) and susceptible (prf3) genotypes in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) infection. In addition, the results of the redox changes were compared and corrected with the protein level changes. A total of 90 potential redox-regulated proteins were identified with functions in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, biosynthesis of cysteine, sucrose and brassinosteroid, cell wall biogenesis, polysaccharide/starch biosynthesis, cuticle development, lipid metabolism, proteolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein targeting to vacuole, and oxidation–reduction. This inventory of previously unknown protein redox switches in tomato pathogen defense lays a foundation for future research toward understanding the biological significance of protein redox modifications in plant defense responses. PMID:26504582

  2. Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Professor Stuart A. Lipton Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764. PMID:23815466

  3. Redox-active and Redox-silent Compounds: Synergistic Therapeutics in Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Santarelli, L.; Alleva, R.; Dong, L.F.; Neužil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2015), s. 552-568 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Apoptosis * autophagy * redox-active agents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.455, year: 2015

  4. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, A.K.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Slomp, C.P; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus release from sediments can exacerbate the effect of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems. The flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the overlying water is highly dependent on the redox conditions at the sediment-water interface. Bacteria are key players in the biological

  5. Sedimentary cobalt concentrations track marine redox evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanner, Elizabeth; Planavsky, Noah; Lalonde, Stefan; Robbins, Jamie; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2013-04-01

    Oxygen production by photosynthesis drove the redox evolution of the atmosphere and ocean. Primary productivity by oxygenic photosynthesizers in the modern surface ocean is limited by trace nutrients such as iron, but previous studies have also observed high Co uptake associated with natural cyanobacterial populations. Constraining the size and variation of the oceanic reservoir of Co through time will help to understand the regulation of primary productivity and hence oxygenation through time. In this study, Co concentrations from iron formations (IF), shales and marine pyrites deposited over nearly 4 billion years of Earth's history are utilized to reconstruct secular changes in the mechanisms of Co removal from the oceanic reservoir. The Co reservoir prior to ~2 Ga was dominated by hydrothermal inputs and Fe(III)oxyhydroxides were likely involved in the removal of Co from the water column. Fe(II) oxidation in the water column resulted in the deposition of IF in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic, and the Co inventory of IF records a large oceanic reservoir of Co during this time. Lower Co concentrations in sediments during the Middle Proterozoic signify a decrease in the oceanic reservoir due to the expansion euxinic environments, corresponding to the results of previous studies. A transition to an oxidized deep ocean in the Phanerozoic is evidenced by correlation between Co and manganese (Mn) concentrations in hydrothermal and exhalative deposits, and in marine pyrites. This relationship between Co and Mn, signifying deposition of Co in association with Mn(IV)oxides, does not occur in the Precambrian. Mn(II) oxidation occurs at higher redox potentials than that required for Fe(II) oxidation, and the extent of Mn redox cycling prior to full ventilation of the oceans at the end of the Neoproterozoic was likely limited to spatially restricted oxic surface waters. In this regard, Co is another valuable redox proxy for tracking the growth and decline in oxygenated

  6. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  7. Redox Equilibria in SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Boghosian, Soghomon

    1999-01-01

    been carried out regarding the complex and compound formation of V(V) and the formation of V(IV) and V(III) compounds with low solubility causing catalyst deactivation. However, the redox chemistry of vanadium and the complex formation of V(IV) is much less investigated and further information...... on these subjects in pyrosulfate melts is needed to obtain a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanism. The present paper describes our efforts so far to study the V(IV) chemistry using especially spectroscopic and electrochemical methods....

  8. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  9. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  10. Fe-V redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-07-08

    A redox flow battery having a supporting solution that includes Cl.sup.- anions is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in the supporting solution, a catholyte having Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+ in the supporting solution, and a membrane separating the anolyte and the catholyte. The anolyte and catholyte can have V cations and Fe cations, respectively, or the anolyte and catholyte can each contain both V and Fe cations in a mixture. Furthermore, the supporting solution can contain a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- anions.

  11. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  12. Completion of the Heysham 2 peripheral manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.; Ewen, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    The in-service inspection strategy for the AGR power station at Heysham 2 envisaged a suite of five manipulators to be used for inserting TRIUMPH television cameras into the reactor vessel. Prior to power raising, four of the five had been successfully commissioned and have been in regular use during the subsequent statutory outages. The final device, the Peripheral Manipulator (PM), was eventually completed prior to the 1994 outage and has been successfully deployed on reactor for both the 1994 and 1995 outages. The paper describes the design of the manipulator, its operation and scope of use in the Heysham 2 reactors. (Author)

  13. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests

  14. Interpersonal relationship manipulation at a personal level

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Hribernik

    2010-01-01

    Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and mislea...

  15. Development of the heavy manipulator vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, C.; Paustian, P.; Kruger, W.

    1993-01-01

    After the severe reactor accident of Tschernobyl in 1986 MaK System started to develop a Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System under contract from German nuclear technology assistance company ''KHG'' (Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH). The system comprises a remote controlled manipulator vehicle, a mobile mission control stand as well as a transport/service unit. In order to fulfill the high demands of this complex system a couple of new developments had to be started. The paper describes some of these developments and gives an overview about the main features of the Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System (HMV). (author)

  16. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  18. Criminal Activity or Treatable Health Condition? News Media Framing of Opioid Analgesic Abuse in the United States, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Baller, Julia; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-04-01

    Opioid analgesic abuse is a complex and relatively new public health problem, and to date little is known about how the news media frame the issue. To better understand how this issue has been framed in public discourse, an analysis was conducted of the volume and content of news media coverage of opioid analgesic abuse over a 15-year period from 1998 to 2012 (N=673 news stories). A 70-item structured coding instrument was used to measure items in four domains that prior research suggests can influence public attitudes about health and social issues: causes, solutions, and consequences of the problem and individual depictions of persons who abuse opioid analgesics. Although experts have deemed opioid analgesic abuse a public health crisis, results of our study suggest that the news media more often frame the problem as a criminal justice issue. The most frequently mentioned cause of the problem was illegal drug dealing, and the most frequently mentioned solutions were law enforcement solutions designed to arrest and prosecute the individuals responsible for diverting opioid analgesics onto the illegal market. Prevention-oriented approaches, such as prescription drug-monitoring programs, were mentioned more frequently in the latter years of the study period, but less than 5% of news stories overall mentioned expanding substance abuse treatment, and even fewer mentioned expanding access to evidence-based medication-assisted treatments, such as buprenorphine. Findings underscore the need for a concerted effort to reframe opioid analgesic abuse as a treatable condition addressable via well-established public and behavioral health approaches.

  19. Redox properties of iron in porous ferrisilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, K.; Pal-Borbely, G.; Szegedi, A.; Fejes, P.; Martinez, F.

    2006-01-01

    Insertion of iron into porous ferrisilicates may result in changes of the original structures. For example, this insertion enables the structure to take part in reversible Fe 2+ ↔ Fe 3+ redox process. This process may play an important role e.g. in catalytic procedures. The structure of the host may provide different locations for the iron. In microporous systems (analogous with zeolites, with characteristic pore sizes of 0.5 nm) the framework vs. extra-framework distinction is obvious, since these structures are strictly crystalline (in three dimensions). In contrast, mesoporous structures of 3 - 5 nm characteristic pore dimension, exhibit crystallinity uppermost in two dimensions, since their pore walls are partly amorphous. The appearance of the Fe 2+ ↔ Fe 3+ redox behaviour of iron in micro- and mesoporous systems, its correlation with coordination changes strongly depend on the structure. In general, crystallinity stabilizes the Fe 3+ state, and the Fe 3+ ↔ Fe 2+ change may be correlated with change of the position occupied in the structure. For demonstration, some examples are to be presented by comparing the behaviour of iron located in in microporous (MFI, FER, MCM-22) and mesoporous (MCM-41 and SBA-15) structures. (authors)

  20. Redox regulation of photosynthetic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-12-19

    Redox chemistry and redox regulation are central to the operation of photosynthesis and respiration. However, the roles of different oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory gene expression remain poorly understood. Leaf transcriptome profiles of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that are deficient in either hydrogen peroxide processing enzymes or in low molecular weight antioxidant were therefore compared to determine how different antioxidant systems that process hydrogen peroxide influence transcripts encoding proteins targeted to the chloroplasts or mitochondria. Less than 10 per cent overlap was observed in the transcriptome patterns of leaves that are deficient in either photorespiratory (catalase (cat)2) or chloroplastic (thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tapx)) hydrogen peroxide processing. Transcripts encoding photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle components were lower in glutathione-deficient leaves, as were the thylakoid NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) dehydrogenases (NDH) mRNAs. Some thylakoid NDH mRNAs were also less abundant in tAPX-deficient and ascorbate-deficient leaves. Transcripts encoding the external and internal respiratory NDHs were increased by low glutathione and low ascorbate. Regulation of transcripts encoding specific components of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains by hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate and glutathione may serve to balance non-cyclic and cyclic electron flow pathways in relation to oxidant production and reductant availability.

  1. Dissolution of UO2 in redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Pablo de, J.; Rovira, M.

    1998-01-01

    The performance assessment of the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel in geological formations is strongly dependent on the spent fuel matrix dissolution. Unirradiated uranium (IV) dioxide has shown to be very useful for such purposes. The stability of UO 2 is very dependent on vault redox conditions. At reducing conditions, which are expected in deep groundwaters, the dissolution of the UO 2 -matrix can be explained in terms of solubility, while under oxidizing conditions, the UO 2 is thermodynamically unstable and the dissolution is kinetically controlled. In this report the parameters which affect the uranium solubility under reducing conditions, basically pH and redox potential are discussed. Under oxidizing conditions, UO 2 dissolution rate equations as a function of pH, carbonate concentration and oxidant concentration are reported. Dissolution experiments performed with spent fuel are also reviewed. The experimental equations presented in this work, have been used to model independent dissolution experiments performed with both unirradiated and irradiated UO 2 . (Author)

  2. Redox homeostasis and age‐related deficits in neuromuscular integrity and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Adam P.; Earl, Kate E.; Stofanko, Martin; McDonagh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle is a major site of metabolic activity and is the most abundant tissue in the human body. Age‐related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia) and weakness, characterized by progressive loss of lean muscle mass and function, is a major contributor to morbidity and has a profound effect on the quality of life of older people. With a continuously growing older population (estimated 2 billion of people aged >60 by 2050), demand for medical and social care due to functional deficits, associated with neuromuscular ageing, will inevitably increase. Despite the importance of this ‘epidemic’ problem, the primary biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying age‐related deficits in neuromuscular integrity and function have not been fully determined. Skeletal muscle generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) from a variety of subcellular sources, and age‐associated oxidative damage has been suggested to be a major factor contributing to the initiation and progression of muscle atrophy inherent with ageing. RONS can modulate a variety of intracellular signal transduction processes, and disruption of these events over time due to altered redox control has been proposed as an underlying mechanism of ageing. The role of oxidants in ageing has been extensively examined in different model organisms that have undergone genetic manipulations with inconsistent findings. Transgenic and knockout rodent studies have provided insight into the function of RONS regulatory systems in neuromuscular ageing. This review summarizes almost 30 years of research in the field of redox homeostasis and muscle ageing, providing a detailed discussion of the experimental approaches that have been undertaken in murine models to examine the role of redox regulation in age‐related muscle atrophy and weakness. PMID:28744984

  3. Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; McDonagh, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function-sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. The cellular responses that occur in muscle fibres following exercise provide valuable clues to the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle homoeostasis and potentially the progression of sarcopenia. Redox signalling, as a result of endogenous generation of ROS/RNS in response to muscle contractions, has been identified as a crucial regulator for the adaptive responses to exercise, highlighting the redox environment as a potentially core therapeutic approach to maintain muscle homoeostasis during ageing. Further novel and attractive candidates include the manipulation of microRNA expression. MicroRNAs are potent gene regulators involved in the control of healthy and disease-associated biological processes and their therapeutic potential has been researched in the context of various disorders, including ageing-associated muscle wasting. Finally, we discuss the impact of the circadian clock on the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle and whether disruption of the peripheral muscle clock affects sarcopenia and altered responses to exercise. Interventions that include modifying altered redox signalling with age and incorporating genetic mechanisms such as circadian- and microRNA-based gene regulation, may offer potential effective treatments against age-associated sarcopenia.

  4. Fenton Redox Chemistry : Arsenite Oxidation by Metallic Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges Freitas, S.C.; Van Halem, D.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Van der Meer, W.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-oxidation of As(III) is necessary in arsenic removal processes in order to increase its efficiency. Therefore, the Fenton Redox Chemistry is defined by catalytic activation of H2O2 and currently common used for its redox oxidative properties. In this study the effect of H2O2 production catalysed

  5. Silver nanoparticle catalysed redox reaction: An electron relay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Kaushik; Witcomb, Mike; Scurrell, Mike

    2006-01-01

    A silver cluster shows efficient catalytic activity in a redox reaction because the cluster acts as the electron relay centre behaving alternatively as an acceptor and as a donor of electrons. An effective transfer of electrons is possible when the redox potential of the cluster is intermediate between the electron donor and electron acceptor system

  6. "JCE" Classroom Activity #111: Redox Reactions in Three Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Edgardo L. Ortiz; Barreto, Reizelie; Medina, Zuleika

    2012-01-01

    This activity introduces students to the concept of reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. To help students obtain a thorough understanding of redox reactions, the concept is explored at three levels: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. In this activity, students perform hands-on investigations of the three levels as they work at different…

  7. Exercise redox biochemistry: Conceptual, methodological and technical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, James N; Close, Graeme L; Bailey, Damian M; Davison, Gareth W

    2017-08-01

    Exercise redox biochemistry is of considerable interest owing to its translational value in health and disease. However, unaddressed conceptual, methodological and technical issues complicate attempts to unravel how exercise alters redox homeostasis in health and disease. Conceptual issues relate to misunderstandings that arise when the chemical heterogeneity of redox biology is disregarded: which often complicates attempts to use redox-active compounds and assess redox signalling. Further, that oxidised macromolecule adduct levels reflect formation and repair is seldom considered. Methodological and technical issues relate to the use of out-dated assays and/or inappropriate sample preparation techniques that confound biochemical redox analysis. After considering each of the aforementioned issues, we outline how each issue can be resolved and provide a unifying set of recommendations. We specifically recommend that investigators: consider chemical heterogeneity, use redox-active compounds judiciously, abandon flawed assays, carefully prepare samples and assay buffers, consider repair/metabolism, use multiple biomarkers to assess oxidative damage and redox signalling. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I; Keino, H; Taniguchi, M

    1997-04-01

    Whole-embryo culture systems are useful in the fields of not only embryology but also teratology, toxicology, pharmacology, and physiology. Of the many advantages of whole-embryo culture, we focus here on the surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos. Whole-embryo culture allows us to manipulate mammalian embryos, similarly to fish, amphibian and avian embryos. Many surgical experiments have been performed in mammalian embryos in vitro. Such surgical manipulation alters the destiny of morphogenesis of the embryos and can answer many questions concerning developmental issues. As an example of surgical manipulation using whole-embryo culture systems, one of our experiments is described. Microsurgical electrocauterization of the deep preaxial mesodermal programmed cell death zone (fpp) in the footplate prevented the manifestation of polydactyly in genetic polydactyly mouse embryos (Pdn/Pdn), in which fpp was abolished.

  9. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  10. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert J.; Morse, William D.; Shirey, David L.; Cdebaca, DanielL M.; Hoffman, John P. Jr.; Lucy, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS

  11. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain Share: On This Page Introduction Key Points About ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Low-Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common ...

  12. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...... level of interactivity as the single user system and the application had to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. This paper briefly describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator application. Based on our experience...... developing the CnM, we present: a method of analyzing applications to characterize the requirements for sharing data between collaborating sites, examples of data structures that support collaboration, and guidelines for selecting appropriate synchronization and concurrency control schemes....

  13. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo; Liu, Ligang; Zheng, Hanlin; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    , and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw

  14. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  15. ADVERTISING AS MEAN OF MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia PAVEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a number of issues involved in defining manipulation, because both in the current language as in the specialty literature, the manipulation notion is used with multiple significations, often contradictory ones, and that it’s not firmly delimited by other notions from the same sphere, like persuasion or propaganda. The aim of the article will be, in the end, removing ambiguity that surrounds this concept and offering a better understanding of its very real effects on human lives. We advance and sustain the hypothesis that manipulation is an illegitimate process, justified by the structure of the human conscience and by the mechanisms of the social life. In addition, the paper provides a concrete example of manipulation of public through advertising contracts offered by Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. Finally conclusions were outlined.

  16. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  17. Tension Stiffened and Tendon Actuated Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor); Ganoe, George G. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mercer, Charles D. (Inventor); Corbin, Cole K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A tension stiffened and tendon actuated manipulator is provided performing robotic-like movements when acquiring a payload. The manipulator design can be adapted for use in-space, lunar or other planetary installations as it is readily configurable for acquiring and precisely manipulating a payload in both a zero-g environment and in an environment with a gravity field. The manipulator includes a plurality of link arms, a hinge connecting adjacent link arms together to allow the adjacent link arms to rotate relative to each other and a cable actuation and tensioning system provided between adjacent link arms. The cable actuation and tensioning system includes a spreader arm and a plurality of driven and non-driven elements attached to the link arms and the spreader arm. At least one cable is routed around the driven and non-driven elements for actuating the hinge.

  18. Development of redox stable, multifunctional substrates for anode supported SOFCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Ramos, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Redox stable solid oxide fuel cells are beneficial in many aspects such as tolerance against system failures e.g fuel cut off and emergency shut down, but also allow for higher fuel utilization, which increases efficiency. State-ofthe-art Ni-cermet based anodes suffer from microstructural changes...... with a multifunctional anode support, the development of a two layer fuel electrode based on a redox stable strontium titanate layer for the electrochemically active layer and a redox stable Ni-YSZ support was pursued. Half-cells with well adhearing strontium titante anode layers on stateof-the-art Ni-YSZ cermet...... supports have been achieved. Redox tolerance of the half-cell depends could be increased by optimizing the redox stability of the cermet support....

  19. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  20. Measuring intracellular redox conditions using GFP-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Ostergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen the development of methods for analyzing the redox conditions in specific compartments in living cells. These methods are based on genetically encoded sensors comprising variants of Green Fluorescent Protein in which vicinal cysteine residues have been introduced at solvent......-exposed positions. Several mutant forms have been identified in which formation of a disulfide bond between these cysteine residues results in changes of their fluorescence properties. The redox sensors have been characterized biochemically and found to behave differently, both spectroscopically and in terms...... of redox properties. As genetically encoded sensors they can be expressed in living cells and used for analysis of intracellular redox conditions; however, which parameters are measured depends on how the sensors interact with various cellular redox components. Results of both biochemical and cell...

  1. Dimensional behavior of Ni-YSZ composites during redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Larsen, Peter Halvor

    2009-01-01

    The dimensional behavior of Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermets during redox cycling was tested in dilatometry within the temperature range 600-1000 degrees C. The effect Of humidity oil redox stability was investigated at intermediate and low temperatures. We show that both the sintering...... of nickel depending on temperature of the initial reduction and the operating conditions, and the temperature of reoxidation are very important for the size of the dimensional change. Cumulative redox strain (CRS) is shown to be correlated with temperature. Measured maximum CRS after three redox cycles...... varies within 0.25-3.2% dL/L in dry gas and respective temperature range of 600-1000 degrees C. A high degree of redox reversibility was reached at low temperature. however. reversibility is lost at elevated temperatures. We found that at 850 degrees C, 6% steam and a very high p(H2O)/p(H2) ratio...

  2. Redox-Based Regulation of Bacterial Development and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Abigail J; Kahl, Lisa J; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Dietrich, Lars E P

    2017-06-20

    Severe changes in the environmental redox potential, and resulting alterations in the oxidation states of intracellular metabolites and enzymes, have historically been considered negative stressors, requiring responses that are strictly defensive. However, recent work in diverse organisms has revealed that more subtle changes in the intracellular redox state can act as signals, eliciting responses with benefits beyond defense and detoxification. Changes in redox state have been shown to influence or trigger chromosome segregation, sporulation, aerotaxis, and social behaviors, including luminescence as well as biofilm establishment and dispersal. Connections between redox state and complex behavior allow bacteria to link developmental choices with metabolic state and coordinate appropriate responses. Promising future directions for this area of study include metabolomic analysis of species- and condition-dependent changes in metabolite oxidation states and elucidation of the mechanisms whereby the redox state influences circadian regulation.

  3. Manipulation of biomimetic objects in acoustic levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Castro , Angelica

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains 9 chapters making a total of 205 pages including articles. The articles are menctioned throughout the work and are listed as annexes. These articles were produced during the PhD.; Levitation is a promising tool for contactless guiding and non-toxic manipulation. Acoustic levitation by ultrasonic standing waves (USW) allows micron-scale particle manipulation in acoustic resonators. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the possibilities given by the acoustic levitatio...

  4. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2009-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions, and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We provide theoretical and empirical results demonstrating that while common nearest neighbor algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, can be highly susceptible to manipulation, two classes of collaborative filtering algorithms which we refer to as linear and a...

  5. Counterweight system for master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A counterweight system is described for use in a remote control master-slave manipulator. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. Within the support there is a means of translating linear motion to rotary motion for transfer through the barrier wall and retranslating to linear motion. (U.K.)

  6. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  7. Price Manipulation in an Experimental Asset Market

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga Helena; Vorsatz Marc

    2006-01-01

    We analyze in the laboratory whether an uninformed trader is able to manipulate the price of a financial asset. To do so, we compare the results of two different experimental treatments. In the Benchmark Treatment, twelve subjects trade a common value asset that takes either a high or a low value. Information is distributed asymmetrically, only three outof twelve subjects know the actual value of the asset. The Manipulation Treatment is identical to the Benchmark Treatment apart from the fact...

  8. Billing and coding for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Jorgensen, Douglas J

    2009-08-01

    Some osteopathic physicians are not properly reimbursed by insurance companies after providing osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to their patients. Common problems associated with lack of reimbursements include insurers bundling OMT with the standard evaluation and management service and confusing OMT with chiropractic manipulative treatment or physical therapy services. The authors suggest methods of appeal for denied reimbursement claims that will also prevent future payment denials.

  9. Sports Tournament Predictions Using Direct Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillemot , Romain; Perin , Charles

    2016-01-01

    An advanced interface for sports tournament predictions uses direct manipulation to allow users to make nonlinear predictions. Unlike previous interface designs, the interface helps users focus on their prediction tasks by enabling them to first choose a winner and then fill out the rest of the bracket. In real-world tests of the proposed interface (for the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament and 2015/2016 UEFA Champions League), the authors validated the use of direct manipulation as an alternati...

  10. Subcellular Redox Targeting: Bridging in Vitro and in Vivo Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marcus J C; Poganik, Jesse R; Ghosh, Souradyuti; Aye, Yimon

    2017-03-17

    Networks of redox sensor proteins within discrete microdomains regulate the flow of redox signaling. Yet, the inherent reactivity of redox signals complicates the study of specific redox events and pathways by traditional methods. Herein, we review designer chemistries capable of measuring flux and/or mimicking subcellular redox signaling at the cellular and organismal level. Such efforts have begun to decipher the logic underlying organelle-, site-, and target-specific redox signaling in vitro and in vivo. These data highlight chemical biology as a perfect gateway to interrogate how nature choreographs subcellular redox chemistry to drive precision redox biology.

  11. Advanced manipulator system for large hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.; Moreau, C.; Brossard, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Large hot cells can be approached as extrapolated from smaller ones as wide, higher or longer in size with the same concept of using mechanical master slave manipulators and high density windows. This concept leads to a large number of working places and corresponding equipments, with a number of penetrations through the biological protection. When the large cell does not need a permanent operation of number of work places, as in particular to serve PIE machines and maintain the facility, use of servo manipulators with a large supporting unit and extensive use of television appears optimal. The advance on MA 23 and supports will be described including the extra facilities related to manipulators introduction and maintenance. The possibility to combine a powered manipulator and MA 23 (single or pair) on the same boom crane system will be described. An advance control system to bring the minimal dead time to control support movement, associated to the master slave arm operation is under development. The general television system includes over view cameras, associated with the limited number of windows, and manipulators camera. A special new system will be described which brings an automatic control of manipulator cameras and saves operator load and dead time. Full scale tests with MA 23 and support will be discussed. (author)

  12. Identification of redox-sensitive cysteines in the arabidopsis proteome using OxiTRAQ, a quantitative redox proteomics method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Pei

    2014-01-28

    Cellular redox status plays a key role in mediating various physiological and developmental processes often through modulating activities of redox-sensitive proteins. Various stresses trigger over-production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species which lead to oxidative modifications of redox-sensitive proteins. Identification and characterization of redox-sensitive proteins are important steps toward understanding molecular mechanisms of stress responses. Here, we report a high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach termed OxiTRAQ for identifying proteins whose thiols undergo reversible oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells subjected to oxidative stress. In this approach, a biotinylated thiol-reactive reagent is used for differential labeling of reduced and oxidized thiols. The biotin-tagged peptides are affinity purified, labeled with iTRAQ reagents, and analyzed using a paralleled HCD-CID fragmentation mode in an LTQ-Orbitrap. With this approach, we identified 195 cysteine-containing peptides from 179 proteins whose thiols underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells following the treatment with hydrogen peroxide. A majority of those redox-sensitive proteins, including several transcription factors, were not identified by previous redox proteomics studies. This approach allows identification of the specific redox-regulated cysteine residues, and offers an effective tool for elucidation of redox proteomes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Molecular analysis of Ku redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatilla Andrea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs can occur in response to ionizing radiation (IR, radiomimetic agents and from endogenous DNA-damaging reactive oxygen metabolites. Unrepaired or improperly repaired DSBs are potentially the most lethal form of DNA damage and can result in chromosomal translocations and contribute to the development of cancer. The principal mechanism for the repair of DSBs in humans is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ. Ku is a key member of the NHEJ pathway and plays an important role in the recognition step when it binds to free DNA termini. Ku then stimulates the assembly and activation of other NHEJ components. DNA binding of Ku is regulated by redox conditions and evidence from our laboratory has demonstrated that Ku undergoes structural changes when oxidized that results in a reduction in DNA binding activity. The C-terminal domain and cysteine 493 of Ku80 were investigated for their contribution to redox regulation of Ku. Results We effectively removed the C-terminal domain of Ku80 generating a truncation mutant and co-expressed this variant with wild type Ku70 in an insect cell system to create a Ku70/80ΔC heterodimer. We also generated two single amino acid variants of Cys493, replacing this amino acid with either an alanine (C493A or a serine (C493S, and over-expressed the variant proteins in SF9 insect cells in complex with wild type Ku70. Neither the truncation nor the amino acid substitutions alters protein expression or stability as determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. We show that the C493 mutations do not alter the ability of Ku to bind duplex DNA in vitro under reduced conditions while truncation of the Ku80 C-terminus slightly reduced DNA binding affinity. Diamide oxidation of cysteines was shown to inhibit DNA binding similarly for both the wild-type and all variant proteins. Interestingly, differential DNA binding activity following re-reduction was observed for the Ku70/80

  14. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment

  16. Exercise and Glycemic Control: Focus on Redox Homeostasis and Redox-Sensitive Protein Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced. Furthermore, regular exercise leads to the upregulation of antioxidant defense, which likely assists in the mitigation of chronic oxidative stress-associated disease. In this review, we explore the complex spatiotemporal interplay between exercise, oxidative stress, and glycemic control, and highlight exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and redox-sensitive protein signaling as important regulators of glucose homeostasis. PMID:28529499

  17. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  18. Inflammatory and redox reactions in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Tina; Biasi, Fiorella; Calfapietra, Simone; Nano, Mario; Poli, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    It has been established that there is a relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer development. The constant colonic inflammation typical of inflammatory bowel diseases is now considered a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. The inflammatory network of signaling molecules is also required during the late phases of carcinogenesis, to enable cancer cells to survive and to metastasize. Oxidative reactions are an integral part of the inflammatory response, and are generally associated with CRC development. However, when the malignant phenotype is acquired, increased oxidative status induces antioxidant defenses in cancer cells, favoring their aggressiveness. This contradictory behavior of cancer cells toward redox status is of great significance for potential anticancer therapies. This paper summarizes the essential background information relating to the molecules involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation during carcinogenesis. Understanding more of their function in CRC stages might provide the foundation for future developments in CRC treatment. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Redox signaling during hypoxia in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia triggers a wide range of protective responses in mammalian cells, which are mediated through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Redox signaling in cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 occurs through the reversible oxidation of cysteine thiol groups, resulting in structural modifications that can change protein function profoundly. Mitochondria are an important source of ROS generation, and studies reveal that superoxide generation by the electron transport chain increases during hypoxia. Other sources of ROS, such as the NAD(PH oxidases, may also generate oxidant signals in hypoxia. This review considers the growing body of work indicating that increased ROS signals during hypoxia are responsible for regulating the activation of protective mechanisms in diverse cell types.

  20. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wei, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-12-15

    RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equipotential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

  1. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  2. Chemistry and Redox Biology of Mycothiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Aníbal M; Pedre, Brandán; De Armas, María Inés; Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Radi, Rafael; Messens, Joris; Trujillo, Madia

    2018-02-20

    Mycothiol (MSH, AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is the main low-molecular weight (LMW) thiol of most Actinomycetes, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects millions of people worldwide. Strains with decreased MSH content show increased susceptibilities to hydroperoxides and electrophilic compounds. In M. tuberculosis, MSH modulates the response to several antituberculosis drugs. Enzymatic routes involving MSH could provide clues for specific drug design. Recent Advances: Physicochemical data argue against a rapid, nonenzymatic reaction of MSH with oxidants, disulfides, or electrophiles. Moreover, exposure of the bacteria to high concentrations of two-electron oxidants resulted in protein mycothiolation. The recently described glutaredoxin-like protein mycoredoxin-1 (Mrx-1) provides a route for catalytic reduction of mycothiolated proteins, protecting critical cysteines from irreversible oxidation. The description of MSH/Mrx-1-dependent activities of peroxidases helped to explain the higher susceptibility to oxidants observed in Actinomycetes lacking MSH. Moreover, the first mycothiol-S-transferase, member of the DinB superfamily of proteins, was described. In Corynebacterium, both the MSH/Mrx-1 and the thioredoxin pathways reduce methionine sulfoxide reductase A. A novel tool for in vivo imaging of the MSH/mycothiol disulfide (MSSM) status allows following changes in the mycothiol redox state during macrophage infection and its relationship with antibiotic sensitivity. Redundancy of MSH with other LMW thiols is starting to be unraveled and could help to rationalize the differences in the reported importance of MSH synthesis observed in vitro versus in animal infection models. Future work should be directed to establish the structural bases of the specificity of MSH-dependent enzymes, thus facilitating drug developments. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 487-504.

  3. Redox reactivity and coordination chemistry of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocton, G.

    2009-09-01

    The study and the understanding of actinides chemistry have important implications in the nuclear field both for the development of new actinides materials and the retreatment of the nuclear wastes. One of the major issues in that chemistry is that the actinides elements are known to undergo redox reaction and to form assemblies of different size and different topologies. In that context uranium can be a good model of the heavier radioelement because it is much less radioactive. So, this work concerns the synthesis and the study of the spectroscopy and the magnetic properties of several uranium based polymetallic assemblies synthesized by taking advantage of the redox properties and the coordination chemistry of uranium. The hydrolysis reactivity of trivalent uranium has been studied in absence of sterically hindered ligands and led to the synthesis of oxo/hydroxo uranium assemblies with different sizes by changing the starting complex or the reaction conditions. By following the same strategy, the controlled oxidation of trivalent uranium complexes led to an original azido/nitrido uranium complex. The coordination chemistry of the pentavalent uranyl polymer {[UO 2 py 5 ][KI 2 py 3 ]} n has also been studied with different ligand and in different conditions and led to several cation-cation complexes for which the stability is sufficient for studying there dismutation by proton NMR. By changing the ancillary ligands stable monomeric complexes of pentavalent uranyl complexes were also obtained. The magnetic properties of all the complexes, monomers and polymetallic complexes were studied and an antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for the cation-cation pentavalent uranyl dimer [UO 2 (dbm) 2 (K 18 C 6 )] 2 . (author)

  4. Crystalization and redox effects in waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.W.; Buechele, A.C.; Muller, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the continuation of a systematic study to determine the effects of redox state and the concentration of certain transition metals on selected properties of a simplified lime-aluminosilicate glass system, similar to one proposed for high temperature (1350 degrees C-1450 degrees C) vitrification of soil and wastes from DOE sites. The solubilities of Cr 2 O 3 , ZnO, NiO, and Fe 2 O 3 in the base glass, and of the first three oxides in higher-iron variants of the base glass are determined at 1350 degrees C, 1400 degrees C, and 1450 degrees C. Enthalpies of solution are calculated from the solubility data for these four transition metal oxides. Different redox ratios, Fe 2+ /Fe total , are induced at 1450 degrees C in a glass containing NiO at about 75% of its solubility limit at this temperature and related to changes in microstructure. A ZnO-SiO 2 -Fe 2 O 3 pseudoternary 1450 degrees C isotherm is determined and plotted over a wide range of compositions for glasses melted in air. Phases appearing are zincite-, hematite- and spinel-type phases. A Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve is plotted for a ZnO (12 wt%) containing glass using data from heat treatment studies, and the crystal layer growth rate of a melilite-type phase appearing in this glass is measured at several temperatures over the time range in which the rate is found to be linear. Some kinetic parameters of crystal growth are calculated

  5. Polyoxometalate active charge-transfer material for mediated redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Hudak, Nicholas; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2017-01-17

    Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

  6. Arteriovenous oscillations of the redox potential: Is the redox state influencing blood flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Szczesny, Pawel; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Mazurek, Tomasz; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Paczek, Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the regulation of human blood flow revealed several modes of oscillations with frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 1 Hz. Several mechanisms were proposed that might influence these oscillations, such as the activity of vascular endothelium, the neurogenic activity of vessel wall, the intrinsic activity of vascular smooth muscle, respiration, and heartbeat. These studies relied typically on non-invasive techniques, for example, laser Doppler flowmetry. Oscillations of biochemical markers were rarely coupled to blood flow. The redox potential difference between the artery and the vein was measured by platinum electrodes placed in the parallel homonymous femoral artery and the femoral vein of ventilated anesthetized pigs. Continuous measurement at 5 Hz sampling rate using a digital nanovoltmeter revealed fluctuating signals with three basic modes of oscillations: ∼ 1, ∼ 0.1 and ∼ 0.01 Hz. These signals clearly overlap with reported modes of oscillations in blood flow, suggesting coupling of the redox potential and blood flow. The amplitude of the oscillations associated with heart action was significantly smaller than for the other two modes, despite the fact that heart action has the greatest influence on blood flow. This finding suggests that redox potential in blood might be not a derivative but either a mediator or an effector of the blood flow control system.

  7. A multi-electron redox mediator for redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Yang, Liuqing; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tianran; Lin, Haibin; Yao, Qiaofeng; Lee, Jim Yang

    2018-02-01

    The lithium-sulfur flow battery (LSFB) is a new addition to the rechargeable lithium flow batteries (LFBs) where sulfur or a sulfur compound is used as the cathode material against the lithium anode. We report here our evaluation of an organic sulfide - dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as 1) a catholyte of a LFB and 2) a multi-electron redox mediator for discharging and charging a solid sulfur cathode without any conductive additives. The latter configuration is also known as the redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow battery (RTLSFB). The LFB provides an initial discharge capacity of 131.5 mAh g-1DMTS (1.66 A h L-1), which decreases to 59 mAh g-1DMTS (0.75 A h L-1) after 40 cycles. The RTLSFB delivers a significantly higher application performance - initial discharge capacity of 1225.3 mAh g-1sulfur (3.83 A h L-1), for which 1030.9 mAh g-1sulfur (3.23 A h L-1) is still available after 40 cycles. The significant increase in the discharge and charge duration of the LFB after sulfur addition indicates that DMTS is better used as a redox mediator in a RTLSFB than as a catholyte in a LFB.

  8. Biomethanization of citrus waste: Effect of waste characteristics and of storage on treatability and evaluation of limonene degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes the evaluation of the suitability of mesophilic anaerobic digestion as a simple technology for the treatment of the citrus waste produced by small-medium agro-industrial enterprises involved in the transformation of Citrus fruits. Two different stocks of citrus peel waste were used (i.e., fresh and stored citrus peel waste), to evaluate the influence of waste composition (variability in the type of processed Citrus fruits) and of storage (potentially necessary to operate the anaerobic digester continuously over the whole year due to the seasonality of the production) on anaerobic degradation treatability. A thorough characterization of the two waste types has been performed, showing that the fresh one has a higher solid and organic content, and that, in spite of the similar values of oil fraction amounts, the two stocks are significantly different in the composition of essential oils (43% of limonene and 34% of linalyl acetate in the fresh citrus waste and 20% of limonene and 74% of linalyl acetate in the stored citrus waste). Contrarily to what observed in previous studies, anaerobic digestion was successful and no reactor acidification occurred. No inhibition by limonene and linalyl acetate even at the maximum applied organic load value (i.e., 2.72 gCOD waste /gVS inoculum ) was observed in the treatment of the stored waste, with limonene and linalyl acetate concentrations of 104 mg/l and 385 mg/l, respectively. On the contrary, some inhibition was detected with fresh citrus peel waste when the organic load increased from 2.21 to 2.88 gCOD waste /gVS inoculum , ascribable to limonene at initial concentration higher than 150 mg/l. A good conversion into methane was observed with fresh peel waste, up to 0.33  [Formula: see text] at the highest organic load, very close to the maximum theoretical value of 0.35 [Formula: see text] , while a lower efficiency was achieved with stored peel waste, with a reduction down to 0.24  [Formula: see

  9. Kynurenine pathway metabolites and enzymes involved in redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Esquivel, D; Ramírez-Ortega, D; Pineda, B; Castro, N; Ríos, C; Pérez de la Cruz, V

    2017-01-01

    Oxido-reduction reactions are a fundamental part of the life due to support many vital biological processes as cellular respiration and glucose oxidation. In the redox reactions, one substance transfers one or more electrons to another substance. An important electron carrier is the coenzyme NAD + , which is involved in many metabolic pathways. De novo biosynthesis of NAD + is through the kynurenine pathway, the major route of tryptophan catabolism, which is sensitive to redox environment and produces metabolites with redox capacity, able to alter biological functions that are controlled by redox-responsive signaling pathways. Kynurenine pathway metabolites have been implicated in the physiology process and in the physiopathology of many diseases; processes that also share others factors as dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, which impact the redox environment. This review examines in detail the available evidence in which kynurenine pathway metabolites participate in redox reactions and their effect on cellular redox homeostasis, since the knowledge of the main factors and mechanisms that lead to cell death in many neurodegenative disorders and other pathologies, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and kynurenines imbalance, will allow to develop therapies using them as targets. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing the cellular redox hub in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Light-driven redox chemistry is a powerful source of redox signals that has a decisive input into transcriptional control within the cell nucleus. Like photosynthetic electron transport pathways, the respiratory electron transport chain exerts a profound control over gene function, in order to balance energy (reductant and ATP) supply with demand, while preventing excessive over-reduction or over-oxidation that would be adversely affect metabolism. Photosynthetic and respiratory redox chemistries are not merely housekeeping processes but they exert a controlling influence over every aspect of plant biology, participating in the control of gene transcription and translation, post-translational modifications and the regulation of assimilatory reactions, assimilate partitioning and export. The number of processes influenced by redox controls and signals continues to increase as do the components that are recognized participants in the associated signalling pathways. A step change in our understanding of the overall importance of the cellular redox hub to plant cells has occurred in recent years as the complexity of the management of the cellular redox hub in relation to metabolic triggers and environmental cues has been elucidated. This special issue describes aspects of redox regulation and signalling at the cutting edge of current research in this dynamic and rapidly expanding field. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Unusual thiol-based redox metabolism of parasitic flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Timir; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-08-01

    Parasitic flukes are exposed to free radicals and, to a greater extent, reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their life cycle. Despite being relentlessly exposed to ROS released by activated immune cells, these parasites can survive for many years in the host. Cellular thiol-based redox metabolism plays a crucial role in parasite survival within their hosts. Evidence shows that oxidative stress and redox homeostasis maintenance are important clinical and pathobiochemical as well as effective therapeutic principles in various diseases. The characterization of redox and antioxidant enzymes is likely to yield good target candidates for novel drugs and vaccines. The absence of active catalase in fluke parasites offers great potential for the development of chemotherapeutic agents that act by perturbing the redox equilibrium of the cell. One of the redox-sensitive enzymes, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), has been accepted as a drug target against blood fluke infections, and related clinical trials are in progress. TGR is the sole enzyme responsible for Trx and GSH reduction in parasitic flukes. The availability of helminth genomes has accelerated the research on redox metabolism of flukes; however, significant achievements have yet to be attained. The present review summarizes current knowledge on the redox and antioxidant system of the parasitic flukes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ redox manipulation of subsurface sediments from Fort Lewis, Washington: Iron reduction and TCE dechlorination mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JE Szecsody; JS Fruchter; DS Sklarew; JC Evans

    2000-03-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a bench-scale study to determine how effective chemically treated Ft. Lewis sediments can degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The objectives of this experimental study were to quantify: (1) sediment reduction and oxidation reactions, (2) TCE degradation reactions, and (3) other significant geochemical changes that occurred. Sediment reduction and oxidation were investigated to determine the mass of reducible iron in the Ft. Lewis sediments and the rate of this reduction and subsequent oxidation at different temperatures. The temperature dependence was needed to be able to predict field-scale reduction in the relatively cold ({approximately}11 C) Ft. Lewis aquifer. Results of these experiments were used in conjunction with other geochemical and hydraulic characterization to design the field-scale injection experiment and predict barrier longevity. For example, the sediment reduction rate controls the amount of time required for the dithionite solution to fully react with sediments. Sediment oxidation experiments were additionally conducted to determine the oxidation rate and provide a separate measure of the mass of reduced iron. Laboratory experiments that were used to meet these objectives included: (1) sediment reduction in batch (static) systems, (2) sediment reduction in 1-D columns, and (3) sediment oxidation in 1-D columns. Multiple reaction modeling was conducted to quantify the reactant masses and reaction rates.

  13. Sistem kontrol gerak kinematika robot gripper manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhiada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sistem robot manipulator ini merupakan mekanisme lengan yang terdiri dari serangkaian segmen yang digunakan untuk menangkap dan memindahkan benda dengan beberapa derajat kebebasan. Dalam perkembangannya, robot manipulator telah digunakan dalam melaksanakan misi tertentu dan membantu operasi di ruang angkasa. Robot biasanya berinteraksi dengan sistem tangan, dan dalam kegiatan industri tangan biasanya disebut sebagai gripper. Penulis menggunakan metode simulasi teknik yang dapat menentukan sistem gerak kinematika robot. Simulasi teknik adalah metode yang digunakan untuk mendesain dan menganalisa gerakan robot dimana hasil dari respon gerakan robot yang didapat mendekati hasil dalam keadaan sebenarnya. Simulasi juga dapat menghemat waktu dan biaya yang digunakan dalam mendesain robot gripper manipulator lima jari dengan elemen prismatik. Dengan menggunakan kontrol PID diharapkan respon gerak kinematik dari setiap joint robot manipulator mencapai perfomance yang terbaik seperti overshoot yang kecil, dan kondisi tenang (steady state dalam waktu yang singkat disertai dengan keselahan penggerak yang kecil. Melalui proses Advance tuning pada PID kontrol selesai didapatkan parameter penguat pada PID kontrol yaitu Kp = 0.7194, Ki = 8.306 dan Kd = 0.0061sehingga tercapai performance gerakan kinematika robot gripper manipulator yang terbaik sesuai yang dikehendaki oleh user dengan rise time yang singkat 0.52 detik, waktu puncak yang singkat 0.52 detik, maksimum overshoot yang kecil 1,8%, kesetebailan response dicapai pada 0.76 detik dan kesalahan penggerak yang sangat kecil 0.32%. Kata kunci: Robot gripper manipulator, PID control, gerakan kinematika Abstract A robot gripper manipulator system mechanism comprising a series of segments that are used to capture and move objects with multiple degrees of freedom. In the process, the robot manipulator has been used in carrying out the specific mission and assist operations in space. Robot manipulator

  14. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  15. Development of a maintenance manipulator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1986-01-01

    The maintenance manipulator is a device permanently connected to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel and is located in close proximity to the tokamak. It is used for the inspection and maintenance of in-vessel components whilst the machine remains under vacuum. The total system comprises a vacuum vessel ante-chamber that houses the manipulator, an articulated boom and carriage that transports and positions a dexterous end-effector, and end-effector that supports maintenance tooling, and an inspection system. Because of the maintenance manipulator's operating environment, there are many challenging engineering features, i.e., temperatures up to 150 0 C, changing magnetic fields in space and time that act on the manipulator whilst it is at rest, neutron neutron fluxes of up to 10/sup 11/cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/, and, last but not least, UHV conditions. This paper describes the development of the vacuum system, the maintenance manipulator, and inspective devices. It includes the methods employed to overcome the engineering difficulties and the application of information gained from other advanced technology programs, such as space and nuclear fission

  16. Distinguishing manipulated stocks via trading network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2011-10-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. For the study of manipulation, it is critical to analyze investor behavior in the stock market. In this paper, an analysis of the full transaction records of over a hundred stocks in a one-year period is conducted. For each stock, a trading network is constructed to characterize the relations among its investors. In trading networks, nodes represent investors and a directed link connects a stock seller to a buyer with the total trade size as the weight of the link, and the node strength is the sum of all edge weights of a node. For all these trading networks, we find that the node degree and node strength both have tails following a power-law distribution. Compared with non-manipulated stocks, manipulated stocks have a high lower bound of the power-law tail, a high average degree of the trading network and a low correlation between the price return and the seller-buyer ratio. These findings may help us to detect manipulated stocks.

  17. Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

    A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

  18. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  19. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM

    2004-07-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  20. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM.

    2004-01-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)