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Sample records for red-spotted newt notophthalmus

  1. Long lived haptenspecific memory in the newt, Notophthalmus viridescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    While enhanced long lived secondary humoral immune responses to thymus-dependent (TD) immunogens are known to occur in mammals, they have yet to be characterized in extant ectothermic vertebrates which do not normally generate immunoglobulin isotype diversity. Moreover, examination of memory in such a vertebrate may provide insights into the controversial issue of IgM memory in mammalia. Trinitrophenyl (TNP) conjugated to horse erythrocytes (HRBC) and to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been used to study primitive long lived (5 months) memory in the newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. The ability to recall TNP response memory was tested by secondary immunization with hapten conjugates of the same or a different carrier from the one used to initiate the primary response. All responses were monitored by immunocyto-adherence of pooled sensitized spleen cells. While carrier-specific priming was necessary to initiate primary anti-TNP responses when TD carriers (RBC) were used, it was not required when the more rapid secondary responses were tested. No enhanced anti-carrier responses were found. However, carrier-specific suppression of the secondary anti-hapten response was observed. Anamnesis which was both more rapid and intense developed only when TNP-LPS was used as the primary immunogen and anti-hapten memory was recalled with TNP-sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Daily injections of Cyclosporin A from 1 day before reimmunization, affected the resultant primary (anti-SRBC) and secondary (anti-TNP) responses differentially. Colloidal carbon injection reduced the memory response by one-half. These results suggest that cellular regulatory controls may be involved in newt memory. However, no increase in TNP-specific antigen-binding cell affinity was found in comparisons of primary and secondary responses. Since reimmunization with TNP-LPS failed to produce enhanced responses following TNP-LPS priming, one can conclude that a thymus-independent (TI) carrier of the hapten will

  2. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  3. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  4. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  5. Jupiter Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on March 1, 1979. The spacecraft was 3 million miles (5 million kilometers) from Jupiter at the time. The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (upper right) and the turbulent region immediately to the west. At the middle right of the frame is one of several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. The structure in every feature here is far better than has ever been seen from any telescopic observations. The Red Spot and the white oval both reveal intricate and involved structure. The smallest details that can be seen in this photo are about 55 miles (95 kilometers) across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  6. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  7. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  8. Analysis of newly established EST databases reveals similarities between heart regeneration in newt and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The newt Notophthalmus viridescens possesses the remarkable ability to respond to cardiac damage by formation of new myocardial tissue. Surprisingly little is known about changes in gene activities that occur during the course of regeneration. To begin to decipher the molecular processes, that underlie restoration of functional cardiac tissue, we generated an EST database from regenerating newt hearts and compared the transcriptional profile of selected candidates with genes deregulated during zebrafish heart regeneration. Results A cDNA library of 100,000 cDNA clones was generated from newt hearts 14 days after ventricular injury. Sequencing of 11520 cDNA clones resulted in 2894 assembled contigs. BLAST searches revealed 1695 sequences with potential homology to sequences from the NCBI database. BLAST searches to TrEMBL and Swiss-Prot databases assigned 1116 proteins to Gene Ontology terms. We also identified a relatively large set of 174 ORFs, which are likely to be unique for urodele amphibians. Expression analysis of newt-zebrafish homologues confirmed the deregulation of selected genes during heart regeneration. Sequences, BLAST results and GO annotations were visualized in a relational web based database followed by grouping of identified proteins into clusters of GO Terms. Comparison of data from regenerating zebrafish hearts identified biological processes, which were uniformly overrepresented during cardiac regeneration in newt and zebrafish. Conclusion We concluded that heart regeneration in newts and zebrafish led to the activation of similar sets of genes, which suggests that heart regeneration in both species might follow similar principles. The design of the newly established newt EST database allows identification of molecular pathways important for heart regeneration.

  9. Jupiter's great red spot revisited. [validity of Taylor column theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, R.

    1972-01-01

    On the original Taylor column theory of Jupiter's Great Red Spot, the fixed latitude of the Spot is taken to imply that the Taylor column in Jupiter's atmosphere is associated with a disturbance such as a topographic feature of the surface Q underlying the atmosphere. The alternative suggestion that the Taylor column is produced by a solid raft floating at depth in the atmosphere is somewhat easier to reconcile with the approximately 10s difference between the respective rotation periods P sub S and P sub R of the Red Spot and of the radio sources, but it does not account so readily for the fixed latitude of the Spot unless it can be shown that the raft is in stable equilibrium under the north-south components of the dynamical forces, including wind effects, acting upon it. A slight wavering of the upper end of the Taylor column relative to the lower end could account at least in part for the most rapid variations in P sub S, but the slow large-amplitude variations in P sub S must reflect changes in the longitudinal motion of either the surface Q or of the raft. By generalizing the Proudman-Taylor theorem to the case of a non-homogeneous fluid it is shown that the Taylor column theory does not imply very special and therefore unlikely horizontal and vertical temperature variations in Jupiter's atmosphere, thus refuting a widely-held belief to the contrary.

  10. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot from Spacecraft Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Carlson, Robert W.; Marcus, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nanometers, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nanometers. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  11. A Bayesian approach on molecules and behavior: reconsidering phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of the Salamandridae with emphasis on Triturus newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Vicario, Saverio; Arntzen, J W; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-03-15

    The monophyly of European newts of the genus Triturus within the family Salamandridae has for decades rested on presumably homologous behavioral and morphological characters. Molecular data challenge this hypothesis, but the phylogenetic position of Triturus within the Salamandridae has not yet been convincingly resolved. We addressed this issue and the temporal divergence of Triturus within the Salamandridae with novel Bayesian approaches applied to DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S and cytb). We included 38 salamandrid species comprising all 13 recognized species of Triturus and 16 out of 17 salamandrid genera. A clade comprising all the "Newts" can be separated from the "True Salamanders" and Salamandrina clades. Within the "Newts" well-supported clades are: Tylototriton-Pleurodeles, the "New World Newts" (Notophthalmus-Taricha), and the "Modern Eurasian Newts" (Cynops, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton=together the "Modern Asian Newts", Calotriton, Euproctus, Neurergus and Triturus species). We found that Triturus is a non-monophyletic species assemblage, which includes four groups that are themselves monophyletic: (i) the "Large-Bodied Triturus" (six species), (ii) the "Small-Bodied Triturus" (five species), (iii) T. alpestris and (iv) T. vittatus. We estimated that the last common ancestor of Triturus existed around 64 million years ago (mya) while the root of the Salamandridae dates back to 95 mya. This was estimated using a fossil-based molecular dating approach and an explicit framework to select calibration points that least underestimated their corresponding nodes. Using the molecular phylogeny we mapped the evolution of life history and courtship traits in Triturus and found that several Triturus-specific courtship traits evolved independently. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Time Series of the Great Red Spot (near-infrared filter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Time Evolution of Jupiter's Great Red Spot in the 757 nm (near-infrared) filter of the Galileo Imaging system. These mosaics (6 frames each) were taken nine hours apart and reveal Jupiter's winds through the movements of cloud features. The Great Red Spot is a large atmospheric vortex (20,000 kilometers in its largest diameter) with counter-clockwise winds that reach 150 meters per second near its outer edges. It is embedded between a westward jet to the north and an eastward jet to the south. The central region of the Great Red Spot is relatively quiescent and shows little change over this time period.The direction and velocity of Jupiter's winds are determined by measuring the displacements of cloud features in images such as these. Several competing theories seek to explain the existence and stability of Jovian atmospheric features, including the Great Red Spot. Wind measurements from Galileo images will help distinguish between competing theories. While at first glance the Great Red Spot appears similar to a terrestrial hurricane or mid-latitude storm, its enormous size and the lack of a solid surface on Jupiter complicate such comparisons. North is to the top in both frames. Each pixel subtends a square about 30 kilometers on a side. The images were obtained on June 26th, 1996.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  13. Is there more than one way to skin a newt? Convergent toxin resistance in snakes is not due to a common genetic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, C R; Durso, A M; Hanifin, C T; Pfrender, M E; Ducey, P K; Stokes, A N; Barnett, K E; Brodie, E D; Brodie, E D

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evolution of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance, at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, characterizes coevolutionary arms races between amphibians and their snake predators around the world, and reveals remarkable predictability in the process of adaptation. Here we examine the repeatability of the evolution of TTX resistance in an undescribed predator-prey relationship between TTX-bearing Eastern Newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon platirhinos). We found that that local newts contain levels of TTX dangerous enough to dissuade most predators, and that Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes within newt range are highly resistant to TTX. In fact, these populations of Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes are so resistant to TTX that the potential for current reciprocal selection might be limited. Unlike all other cases of TTX resistance in vertebrates, H. platirhinos lacks the adaptive amino acid substitutions in the skeletal muscle sodium channel that reduce TTX binding, suggesting that physiological resistance in Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes is conferred by an alternate genetic mechanism. Thus, phenotypic convergence in this case is not due to parallel molecular evolution, indicating that there may be more than one way for this adaptation to arise, even among closely related species.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Replacement of the Main Gate Facility at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife Service. This classification indicates that NBAFS has habitat suitable for conserving and managing fish and wildlife. An Integrated Natural...fisher (Martes pennanti). Common amphibians and reptiles on NBAFS include red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), spring peeper (Pseudacris...Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Oct. DeGraaf, R.M., and D.D. Rudis. 1986. New England Wildlife: Habitat, Natural History, and

  15. The Spectrum of Jupiters Great Red Spot: the Case for Ammonium Hydrosulfide (NH4SH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon, Amy A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present new ultraviolet-visible spectra of irradiated ammonium hydrosul?de (NH4SH), a reported Jovian atmospheric cloud component, for a range of temperatures and radiation doses and make assignments to the spectral features. We show that the combination of radiolysis and thermal annealing of NH4SH causes the originally featureless ultraviolet-visible re?ectance spectrum to evolve into one that absorbs in the ultraviolet-visible region. Furthermore, we ?nd that our laboratory spectra resemble HST (Hubble Space Telescope) spectra below 500 nanometers, suggesting that the more stable reaction products of NH4SH radiolysis are likely an important component of the Great Red Spot.

  16. The Spectrum of Jupiter's Great Red Spot: The Case for Ammonium Hydrosulfide (NH4SH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon, Amy A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present new ultraviolet-visible spectra of irradiated ammonium hydrosul?de (NH4SH), a reported Jovian atmospheric cloud component, for a range of temperatures and radiation doses and make assignments to the spectral features. We show that the combination of radiolysis and thermal annealing of NH4SH causes the originally featureless ultraviolet-visible re?ectance spectrum to evolve into one that absorbs in the ultraviolet-visible region. Furthermore, we ?nd that our laboratory spectra resemble HST (Hubble Space Telescope) spectra below 500 nanometers, suggesting that the more stable reaction products of NH4SH radiolysis are likely an important component of the Great Red Spot.

  17. Flow fields within Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. L.; Garneau, G. W.; Beebe, R. F.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 high-resolution images of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC are used to map flow fields within these two areas. The relative vorticity is computed as a function of semi-major axis length and position angle in a coordinate system consisting of concentric ellipses of equal eccentricity. Wind speeds of 110-120 m/s are observed near the outer edge of both features, and along their minor axes relative vorticity profiles reach a maximum of 0.00006/s. Maximum Rossby numbers of 0.36 are computed for flows within both features, and are found to be low, indicating geostrophic constraints on the flow. The difference in streamline curvature within the GRS and the Oval BC is found to compensate for the difference in planetary vorticity at the respective latitudes of the features. Finally, motions within the central region of the GRS are slower and more random than around the spot's outer portion.

  18. New theory of the Great Red Spot from solitary waves in the Jovian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that many characteristics of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and numerous other features that have been observed on Jupiter can be explained by solitary waves on a horizontally sheared zonal flow in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. Streamline patterns for waves corresponding to combined depression-elevation solitary waves (D-E solitrons) show a strong resemblence to the flow around the GRS. The morphology and flow pattern of the South Tropical Disturbance indicate that it was a D solitron. Numerous spot-like features situated in regions between cloud bands where horizontal shear forces might be expected have the morphology of E solitrons. Restrictions placed on the atmospheric parameters by the model are consistent with available models and observations.

  19. Jupiter's Great Red Spot: compactness condition and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Yano

    Full Text Available Linear Rossby wave dispersion relationships suggest that Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS is a baroclinic structure embedded in a barotropic shearing zonal flow. Quasi-geostrophic (QG two-layer simulations support the theory, as long as an infinitely deep zonal flow is assumed. However, once a finite depth of the lower layer is assumed, a self-interaction of the baroclinic eddy component produces a barotropic radiating field, so that the GRS-like eddy can no longer remain compact. Compactness is recovered by explicitly introducing a deep dynamics of the interior for the lower layer, instead of the shallow QG formulation. An implication of the result is a strong coupling of the GRS to a convectively active interior.

  20. Jupiter' high-latitude storms: a Little Red Spot tracked through a Jovian year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.; Adamoli, G.; Mettig, H.-J.

    2011-02-01

    As well as the Great Red Spot, Jupiter sometimes presents one or more Little Red Spots (LRSs) in various latitudes. An LRS is often seen in the North North Temperate Zone (NNTZ), but the frequency and properties of these ovals have never been studied in detail. Here we review all our records of the red, white, and methane-bright anticyclonic ovals in the NNTZ. There is a simple conclusion: A single LRS, which we name NN-LRS-1, has persisted from 1993 to 2009. It has varied in colour between red and off-white, but has been methane-bright throughout these years. This now ranks among the most long-lived spots ever recorded on the planet. There is always at least one other oval in this latitude. This was a second methane-bright LRS from 1994-1997, and there was also a smaller LRS in 2006. The other ovals are all white; two have lasted for four years or more and were sometimes methane-bright; others have had shorter lives and were not. These results suggest that red colour, and the high-level haze that accompanies it, are correlated with the size and longevity of the oval. All these ovals have variable speeds, alternating irregularly between slow (~ 1°/month in System II longitude) and fast (~ 12°/month). The latitudes of the ovals range from 40 to 41.5°N, and correlate closely with their instantaneous speeds. However the larger, longer-lived ovals (especially the LRS) are centred systematically further south than the smaller white ovals, because they distort the retrograding jetstream more deeply. Similar behaviour in other domains on the planet explains how ovals of different sizes move with a single slow current while also being sensitive to the zonal speed gradient. An oval at 60°S shows very similar behaviour and has probably existed since 1994 or earlier.

  1. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  2. A solitary wave theory of the Great Red Spot and other observed features in the Jovian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that solitary waves in a planetary zonal shear have a shape and flow field that are virtually identical to those observed around the Red Spot and numerous other features that have been seen in the Jovian atmosphere. It is suggested that the theoretically calculated interaction between solitary waves has many characteristics in common with the observed interactions between these same Jovian features, and available atmospheric models are shown to be consistent with the very restrictive requirements of the theory.

  3. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography of a macular cherry-red spot in a case report of sialidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Wenjun; Wang, Xin; Tian, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Background Sialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficiency of alpha-N-acetyl neuraminidase. The macular cherry-red spot, which could be important for diagnosis, is a distinctive feature of its ocular manifestation. We evaluated the fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of a juvenile patient who presented with vision decrease and was later confirmed with genetic sialidosis. Case presentation A 13-year-old Chinese male presented ...

  4. A longitudinal study of Taiwanese sialidosis type 1: an insight into the concept of cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S-C; Chen, R-S; Wu Chou, Y-H; Chang, H-C; Kao, L-Y; Huang, Y-Z; Weng, Y-H; Chen, J-K; Hwu, W-L; Lu, C-S

    2009-08-01

    Sialidosis type 1 (ST-1) is a neurodegenerative disorder with limited long-term follow-up report. This study is to document the chronological profile of ST-1. We perform serial analysis of 17 Taiwanese patients with ST-1 focusing on evolution of clinical features, electrophysiological findings, genetic studies, and neuroimage examinations. All patients had a mutation at 554A-->G in exon 3 of the NEU1 gene causing Ser182Gly substitution. Fifteen patients were homozygous. Two patients were heterozygous with novel mutations, 956C-->T causing Ala319Val in one and 163C-->T causing Gln55stop codon in the other. The neuraminidase activity was markedly decreased in all 11 available patients. Only three patients (17.6%) manifested the macular cherry-red spot. The majority of patients (82.3%) developed full-blown manifestation of myoclonus, ataxia, and seizures within 5 years. Abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials with giant cortical waves were found in all patients. Prolonged P100 peak latency of the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were found in 16 patients (94.1%) in the early stage even without visual symptoms. ST-1 in Taiwanese population illustrates distinct characteristics of phenotype with infrequent cherry-red spot. We suggest to screen the NEU1 mutations in patients presenting action myoclonus with abnormal VEPs, even without macular cherry-red spots.

  5. Jupiter's Great Red Spot: Fine-scale matches of model vorticity patterns to prevailing cloud patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Dowling, Timothy E.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a set of six new matches between fine-scale features in the vorticity field of a three-dimensional (3D), primitive-equation, finite-difference model of Jupiter's Great Red Spot that includes no clouds or cloud physics, and quasi-permanent structures in reflected visible-band images of the clouds. These add to similar success by Cho et al. (Cho, J., de la Torre Juárez, M., Ingersoll, A.P., Dritschel, D.G. [2001]. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5099-5106), who earlier captured four characteristic features of the GRS, also reproduced here, using a 3D quasi-geostrophic, cloud-free contour-dynamics model. In that study and this, the key enabling model attribute is sufficient horizontal resolution, rather than the moist-convective and cloud-microphysics processes often required to match the patterns of clouds in terrestrial hurricanes. The only significant feature that these dry models do not capture is the episodic moist-convective plumes seen in the northwest quadrant adjacent to the GRS. We initialize with Jupiter's averaged zonal winds plus an approximately balanced, smooth 3D ellipsoidal anticyclone. The threshold horizontal grid-resolution to obtain the fine-scale matches is approximately Δy/Ld ≲ 0.15, where Δy ≲ 300 km is the meridional grid spacing and Ld ˜ 2000 km the Rossby deformation length. For models with this or finer horizontal resolution, the best correspondence with observations is reached after about six vortex turnaround times from initialization (˜30 Earth days), but good facsimiles of nearly all the studied features appear after only 1.5 turnaround times (˜7-8 days). We conclude that in images of Jupiter, it is not accurate to associate clouds with upward motion, since these dry models reproduce the observed cloud patterns without this association, and indeed the synoptic-scale vertical motions in the model, as well as those deduced from observations, do not at all correspond to the observed cloud patterns. Instead, Jupiter's cloud

  6. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko, Reptilia: Gekkonidae): comparison of red- and black-spotted tokay geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin-Min; Qian, Fang; Zeng, De-Long; Liu, Xiao-Can; Li, Hui-Min

    2011-10-01

    Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae). The genome is 16,590 bp in size. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with that of black-spotted tokay gecko. We compared the mitochondrial genome of red-spotted tokay gecko with that of the black-spotted tokay gecko. Nucleotide sequence of the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 97.99% similar, and the relatively high similarity seems to indicate that they may be separated at the subspecies level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two morphological types of tokay gecko is discussed in detail.

  8. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  9. Establishment, characterization, and virus susceptibility of a new marine cell line from red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Li, Zheng-Qiu; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2007-01-01

    A marine fish cell line from the snout of red spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara, a protogynous hermaphrodite, was established, characterized, and subcultured with more than 60 passages. The grouper snout cell line (GSC) cells multiplied well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The optimal growth temperature was 25 degrees C, and morphologically the cells were fibroblastic. Chromosome analysis revealed that the GSC cell line has a normal diploid karyotype with 2n = 8st + 40t. A virus titration study indicated that the cells were susceptible to turbot Scophthalmus Maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) (10(8.5) TCID(50) ml(-1)), while the viral titer of frog Rana grylio virus 9807 (RGV(9807)) reached 10(3.5) TCID(50) ml(-1). The infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE), immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy experiments, which detected the viral particles in the cytoplasm of virus-infected cells, respectively. Further, significant fluorescent signals were observed when the GSC cells were transfected with pEGFP vector DNA, indicating their potential utility for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies.

  10. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography of a macular cherry-red spot in a case report of sialidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenjun; Wang, Xin; Tian, Guohong

    2016-03-22

    Sialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficiency of alpha-N-acetyl neuraminidase. The macular cherry-red spot, which could be important for diagnosis, is a distinctive feature of its ocular manifestation. We evaluated the fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of a juvenile patient who presented with vision decrease and was later confirmed with genetic sialidosis. A 13-year-old Chinese male presented with bilateral decreased vision over the past 2 years before his initial visit. Funduscopic examination revealed a macular cherry-red bilateral spot. FAF showed hyperreflective areas surrounding a central hyporeflective fovea in both eyes. OCT revealed increased reflectivity in the ganglion cell layer in both maculae without a definite boundary between the hyperreflective and normal areas. These findings suggested that lipofuscin had accumulated in the retinal ganglion cells, which is a distinctive ocular feature in metabolic central nervous system (CNS) disorders. He was later confirmed with genetic sialidosis. FAF and OCT images are very sensitive and useful techniques for diagnosing lysosomal storage disease of the CNS, and are helpful in evaluating the extent of damage in retinal ganglion cells.

  11. The Vertical Structure of Major Meteorological Features on Jupiter: The Great Red Spot and White Ovals BC and DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Carlson, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Multi-spectral imagery of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and two White ovals acquired by the Galileo/NIMS are used to constrain the spatial variability of the vertical aerosol structure and the distribution of ammonia in and around these most-prominent anti-cyclonic features. All three features exhibit a high-altitude core spanning about 3/4 of their visual size when viewed with moderate absorption wavelengths, indicating a bulk elliptical, "wedding cake" shape in their overall three-dimensional cloud structure. A distinctive spiral pattern within the GRS core is seen in moderate methane and hydrogen absorption bandpasses. This pattern - which has been modelled to show a 2 km variation in cloudtop pressure within the GRS - is inconsistent with a different spiral-shaped pattern observed in ammonia-sensitive wavelengths, thus indicating spatial variability not only in the column abundance of ammonia within the GRS, but in its mixing ratio as well. White Ovals BC and DE were observed in February 1997, just a year before their unusual merger into a single feature. At the time of these observations, the centers of the two anti-cyclones were about 16 degrees apart, separated by a complex cyclonic feature which exhibited unusual spatial variability in its appearance in images acquired at ammonia-sensitive wavelengths. In particular, the northern half of this feature has the largest ammonia column abundance seen within the environs around the white ovals, indicating unusual variability in either cloud structure/altitude and/or ammonia humidity within the cyclone.

  12. Characterization of the Great Red Spot from Observations by Juno and the Earth-Based Supporting Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Hansen, Candice; Janssen, Michael A.; Bolton, Scott; Brown, Shannon; Eichstaedt, Gerald; Rogers, John; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Li, Cheng; Momary, Thomas W.; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Fletcher, Leigh; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Simon, Amy A.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Stephens, Andrew W.; Wong, Michael H.; Donnelley, Padraig; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin M.; Hueso, Ricardo; Juno-Support Observing Team

    2017-10-01

    On July 11, 2017, the Juno spacecraft made a close approach to Jupiter, passing over the center of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS). We summarize some of the results from Juno and supporting Earth-based measurements over a broad spectral range. Near-infrared images show that the GRS has higher-altitude particles than anywhere else outside polar regions, and that the darkest red center has the highest-altitude particles within the GRS. This region has darker swirl-like features and little detectable rotational motion. The red region forming the bulk of the GRS has both dark and light swirls and counter-clockwise winds that peak toward its periphery. JunoCam images, resolving down to ~6-7 km per pixel, shows very small, pink features that look like thunderstorm clouds in clusters on top of the brighter swirls. They are similar in morphology to whitish features that can be seen in zones north and south of the GRS. Close to the terminator, shadows some 7-12 km in length associated with these features can be resolved. A train of mesoscale gravity waves with ~70 km spacing spans a length of over 1,000 km near the northern periphery of the GRS between 15.8° and 15.9°S (planetocentric). Thermal-emission images in 5-µm and 8.7-µm spectral windows show most of the GRS as cold with high clouds, surrounded by a visibly-dark warm periphery that is consistent with being relatively clear. Longer-wavelength thermal observations indicate that the GRS is one of the coldest regions on the planet in the upper troposphere with indirect chemical indicators of vertical motions (e.g. para-H2, PH3) consistent with prevailing upwelling motion. NH3 is not enhanced with respect to the regions outside the GRS, most likely because its colder temperatures cause it to condense deeper than it does outside the GRS. A region immediately south of the GRS is anomalously warmer than elsewhere at the same latitude. The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) data are consistent with shorter-wavelength thermal

  13. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus (Anura: Hylidae) selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier A; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Medrano, María C; Ghirardi, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of amphibians is an old issue in herpetology. Notwithstanding, the lack of food resources data in many studies of amphibians feeding has lead to partial understanding of frog feeding strategies. In this study we evaluate the trophic selectivity of a red spotted green frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) population from a Middle Paraná River floodplain pond in Argentina, and discuss the importance of prey availability data when interpreting results from diet analysis. We analyzed the gut contents of 47 H. punctatus adults and compared frog's diet with the environmental food resources. Prey availability was estimated by systematically seep-netting the microhabitat where anurans were localized foraging. We identified 33 taxonomic categories from gastrointestinal contents. Numerically, the most important prey categories were dipterans, followed by hemipterans, homopterans and coleopterans. The diet similarity between males and females was high and no statistical differences in diet composition were found. The most abundant food resources in the environment were dipterans, coleopterans, homopterans and collembolans. In order to assess whether frogs were selecting their preys, we calculated Pianka's niche overlap index and Jacobs' electivity index comparing gut contents to prey availability data. Trophic niche overlap was medium but significantly higher than expected by chance. The electivity index indicated that H. punctatus foraged dipterans slightly above their environmental abundance. Among the secondary preys, hemipterans were foraged selectively, homopterans were consumed in the same proportion to their occurrence in the environment, coleopterans were foraged quite under their availability and collembolans were practically ignored by frogs. Without food resources data, H. punctatus could be classified as a specialist feeder, but dipterans also were quite abundant in the environment. Our results show that H. punctatus fit better as a

  14. Breeding site traits of European newts (Triturus macedonicus, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Mesotriton alpestris: Salamandridae in the Montenegrin karst region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ruža

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the occurrence of three European newt species - the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris, the eastern alpine crested newt (Triturus macedonicus, and the alpine newt (Mesotriton alpestris - in the Montenegrin karst, as well as their breeding site characteristics. In terms of long-lasting breeding site numbers and occupation rate, the most common species is the smooth newt, followed by the alpine newt and the crested newt. The examined water bodies with­out newts showed no significant differences of aquatic habitat characteristics compared to water bodies with newts. The factors that explained most of the observed variation in newt breeding site traits were the habitat category and habitat origin. The alpine newt primarily inhabits natural lakes, while the crested newt inhabits artificial breeding sites such as lithotelma and ubao. The smooth newt is less choosy and occurs in different types of natural and artificial habitats. The aquatic requirements of Montenegrin newt species do not differ substantially in many respects from requirements of the core species range populations.

  15. A discrete stage-structured model of California newt population dynamics during a period of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marjorie T.; Milligan, William R.; Kats, Lee B.; Vandergon, Thomas L.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Davis, Courtney L.; Lucas, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical model for studying the population dynamics under drought of the California newt (Taricha torosa), a species of special concern in the state of California. Since 2012, California has experienced a record-setting drought, and multiple studies predict drought conditions currently underway will persist and even increase in severity. Recent declines and local extinctions of California newt populations in Santa Monica Mountain streams motivate our study of the impact of drought on newt population sizes. Although newts are terrestrial salamanders, they migrate to streams each spring to breed and lay eggs. Since egg and larval stages occur in water, a precipitation deficit due to drought conditions reduces the space for newt egg-laying and the necessary habitat for larval development. To mathematically forecast newt population dynamics, we develop a nonlinear system of discrete equations that includes demographic parameters such as survival rates for newt life stages and egg production, which depend on habitat availability and rainfall. We estimate these demographic parameters using 15 years of stream survey data collected from Cold Creek in Los Angeles County, California, and our model captures the observed decline of the parameterized Cold Creek newt population. Based upon data analysis, we predict how the number of available newt egg-laying sites varies with annual precipitation. Our model allows us to make predictions about how the length and severity of drought can affect the likelihood of persistence and the time to critical endangerment of a local newt population. We predict that sustained severe drought will critically endanger the newt population but that the newt population can rebound if a drought is sufficiently short.

  16. First evidence of a paedomorphic population of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Gvoždík

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Facultative paedomorphosis is an environmentally induced polymorphism that is well known for many caudate species including newts. Although facultative paedomorphosis has been documented in some smooth-newt populations, records of entirely paedomorphic populations outside the Balkans are limited. Here we present the first evidence of a paedomorphic population of the smooth newt in the Czech Republic with discussion of potential causes that need to be further tested.

  17. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egon Heiss; Marie De Vylder

    2016-01-01

    ... physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period...

  18. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watee Kongbuntad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Relatively high genetic diversity occurred at both the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. Genetic differentiation with FST values ranging between 0.006–0.892 was found. Five distinct genetic groups of the red-spotted tokay populations could be classified. A group of populations from northern Thailand showed the highest genetic differentiation from the other groups. Moreover, there was a substantial genetic subdivision depending on the genetic groups with FCT=0.664 and FSC=0.185. This genetic structure is related to geographical distribution and distance between populations, R2=0.5614, p<0.001. Our findings of pronounced genetic structuring and the concomitant conservation genetic consequences if further population loss occurs mean that management actions should therefore focus on the conservation of all of the main sites where tokay geckos still occur.

  19. Sialidosis type 1: cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome with sialidase deficiency and altered electrophoretic mobilities of some enzymes known to be glycoproteins. 1. Clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P K; Abrams, J D; Swallow, D; Stewart, G

    1979-01-01

    A family is described with three affected brothers, two of whom were examined, born to consanguineous parent, who in early adult life began to experience ataxia, intention myoclonus, and progressive visual failure. The brothers examined had cherry red spots at the maculae and cataracts. They were of normal intelligence. The intention myoclonus responded partially to treatment with clonazepam and pheneturide, but not to 5-hydroxytryptophan in combination with carbidopa or to sodium valproate. Studies in one patient showed the excretion of large quantities of sialylated oligosaccharides in the urine. Both patients showed deficient sialidase activity in their cultured fibroblasts. Further studies on cultured skin fibroblasts revealed increased electrophoretic mobility of six glycoprotein enzymes that was returned approximately to normal by treatment with sialidase. The clinical and biochemical findings indicate that these patients are further cases of the newly described condition sialidosis type 1. Images PMID:512662

  20. The Meridional Secondary Circulation of 3D Vortices in Rotating, Stratified, Shear and its Role in Astrophysical Flows: from a Newly Pale Great Red Spot to Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P. S.; Hassanzadeh, P.

    2012-12-01

    The interest in understanding the physics of 3D, compact baroclinic vortices in rotating, stratified shear is growing. This is partly due to the fact that vortices in protoplanetary disks attract dust and may be key in planetesimal formation. The interest is also fueled by the unanswered questions about vortices of Jupiter and Saturn and the recent changes of the Jovian vortices. Examples are the appearance of the Red Oval BA in 2005, and the very recent color-change of the Great Red Spot to pale orange, which was observed in July 2012. While the dynamics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified flows, even without shear, is poorly understood, the presence of horizontal shear strongly influences their dynamics and further complicates the problem. Studying the physics of planetary vortices and their interaction with the environment requires high-resolution 3D simulations. Ignoring the vertical direction, neglecting the vertical motion (as has been done in almost all published numerical simulations of Jovian vortices because most studies have assumed vertical hydrostatic equilibrium), or the lack of enough resolution eliminates or changes important physical processes such as the secondary circulation. This secondary, ageostrophic flow within the vortices is essential in dust accumulation and agglomeration in vortices in protoplanetary disks. The secondary circulation has been shown to be important in determining the color and cloud patterns in Jovian vortices. For example, the recent color change of the Great Red Spot can be explained by changes in its secondary circulation. It has also been suggested that the persistent rings around the Jovian anticyclones are produces by this secondary circulation. We show that the lifetimes of Jovian vortices depend upon their ability to merge with and absorb smaller vortices and also on the secondary circulations within vortices. The main dissipation mechanism for most astrophysical vortices is thermal radiation rather

  1. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European newts Triturus carnifex and Lissotriton vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffara, M; Bruni, G; Paoletti, C; Gustinelli, A; Fioravanti, M L

    2014-09-01

    Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe.

  2. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    ... (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements...

  3. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in imported red tailed knobby newts (Tylototriton kweichowensis): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmans, Frank; Blahak, Silvia; Martel, An; Pantchev, Nikola; Zwart, Peer

    2008-05-01

    A mass die-off of imported red tailed knobby newts (Tylototriton kweichowensis) occurred in 2004 in Belgium and the Netherlands. In addition to massive infection with Rhabdias tokyoensis, Ranavirus was isolated from three dead newts examined virologically and the gene coding for the major capsid protein of the virus was sequenced. The isolate showed 99.8% similarity to the published sequence of frog virus 3. Upon experimental infection of axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) with this isolate, no marked pathology was noticed and the virus could not be re-isolated at 9weeks post-inoculation. Apart from the possibility of exposure of a non-sensitive host, the mortality episode in the newts may be related to stress resulting from the importation of the newts in breeding condition. This possibility is supported by the presence of degenerating egg-follicles in the females.

  4. The distribution of Himalayan Newts, Tylototriton verrucosus in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley, Bhutan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.T. Wangyal; D.B. Gurung

    2012-01-01

    In this study, presence-absence survey of the Himalayan Newts Tylototriton verrucosus was conducted in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley to confirm and validate the past information of the presence of the species...

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the mitogenome of the red-spotted apollo butterfly, Parnassius bremeri (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and comparison with other lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Il; Baek, Jee Yeon; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Bae, Chang Hwan; Han, Yeon Soo; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

    2009-10-31

    The 15,389-bp long complete mitogenome of the endangered red-spotted apollo butterfly, Parnassius bremeri (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was determined in this study. The start codon for the COI gene in insects has been extensively discussed, and has long remained a matter of some controversy. Herein, we propose that the CGA (arginine) sequence functions as the start codon for the COI gene in lepidopteran insects, on the basis of complete mitogenome sequences of lepidopteran insects, including P. bremeri, as well as additional sequences of the COI start region from a diverse taxonomic range of lepidopteran species (a total of 53 species from 15 families). In our extensive search for a tRNA-like structure in the A+T-rich region, one tRNA(Trp)-like sequence and one tRNA(Leu) (UUR)-like sequence were detected in the P. bremeri A+T-rich region, and one or more tRNA-like structures were detected in the A+T-rich region of the majority of other sequenced lepidopteran insects, thereby indicating that such features occur frequently in the lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis using the concatenated 13 amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences of PCGs of the four macrolepidopteran superfamilies together with the Tortricoidea and Pyraloidea resulted in the successful recovery of a monophyly of Papilionoidea and a monophyly of Bombycoidea. However, the Geometroidea were unexpectedly identified as a sister group of the Bombycoidea, rather than the Papilionoidea.

  6. OBSERVATION ON SKELETAL DEFORMITY IN HATCHERY-REARED RED SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara (Temmick et Schlegel FROM LARVAL TO JUVENILE STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformity is a significant problem in fish culture. The skeletal deformities in red spotted grouper from yolk-sac to juvenile stages were examined through clearing and staining of the cartilage and bone using Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. The overall results showed that the pattern of incidence of deformities showed an increase from preflexion to juvenile stages. The rate of deformities based on ten elements of bone from preflexion to juvenile stages were as follows: vertebral (42.6%—9.0%, dorsal proximal radials (4.8%—25.2%, neural spine (0%—8.4%, haemal spine (0%—6.8%, hypural (1.3%—5.4%, anal proximal radials (0%—5.4%, epural (1.3%—4.9%, arypural (2.0%—4.5%, lower jaw (1.3%—2.5%, and upper jaw (0%. Vertebral and dorsal proximal radials were recognized as the most susceptible parts to deformation. The main types of bone deformity were lordosis, scoliosis, fusion, shortening, branching, supernumerary elements, and saddleback syndrome. Development of saddleback syndrome was detected initially in preflexion stage, which was accompanied by deformity of the neural spines, dorsal proximal radials, and disposition of the distal radials and dorsal spines in later life stages. The skeletal deformity encountered during the larval rearing period could be caused by water surface tension.

  7. Genotype-specific real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting analysis for rapid identification of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2017-08-01

    A real-time genotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to assess the most common genotypes of nervous necrosis viruses or nodaviruses. Nodaviruses are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis infections, which have been wreaking havoc in the aquaculture industry worldwide, with fish mortality up to 100%. The four different genotypes of nodaviruses correlate with differences in viral pathogenicity. Therefore, rational development of effective vaccines and diagnostics requires analysis of genetic variation among viruses. The aim of the present study was to develop a real-time tetra-primer genotype-specific PCR assay for genotype identification. Four primers were utilized for simultaneous amplification of nodavirus genotype-specific products in a single closed-tube PCR after a reverse-transcription reaction using RNA isolated from fish samples. For high-throughput sample analysis, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR was used in combination with HRM analysis. The assay was evaluated in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The analysis resulted in melting curves that were indicative of each genotype. The detection limit when using reference plasmids was 100 ag/µL for both genotypes, while the sensitivity of the assays when testing a complex mixture was 10 fg/µL for red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) and 100 fg/µL for striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV). To test the capability of this method under real-world conditions, 58 samples were examined. All samples belonged to the RGNNV genotype, which was fully validated. The results were in full agreement with genotyping by reference methods. The proposed methodology provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, robust and automatable assay for nodavirus genotyping, making it a useful tool for diagnosis and screening for epidemiological studies.

  8. Impact of chaparral wildfire-induced sedimentation on oviposition of stream-breeding California newts (Taricha torosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamradt, Seth C; Kats, Lee B

    1997-05-01

    We examined the effects of chaparral wildfire on stream-breeding California newts (Taricha torosa) in a 750-m stretch of a perennial Santa Monica Mountain stream (Los Angeles County). Detailed field surveys of 1992 and 1993 established the composition (run, riffle, pool) of this habitat and determined the oviposition sites of newts. We also quantified California newt egg mass density and estimated the density of newt adults. A chaparral wildfire burned the entire study site on 2 November 1993. Using the same methods, we collected field survey data in 1994 and 1996. Erosion following the 1993 wildfire produced major changes in stream morphology and composition. Pools and runs represented approximately 40-50% of pre-fire stream area. In the spring following the fire, the stream consisted of less than 20% run and pool. Pools that did remain were often smaller and shallower. The average density of adult California newts did not differ among years. The total number of newt egg masses observed in the spring after the fire was approximately one-third of egg mass counts from pre-fire surveys. Most California newt egg masses were laid in pools and runs; California newts prefer deeper slow-moving water. We conclude that fire-induced landslides and siltation have eliminated pools and runs, thus reducing the amount of habitat suitable for oviposition. Habitat alterations caused by fire likely account for the observed reduction of egg masses at the stream.

  9. Corresponding mitochondrial DNA and niche divergence for crested newt candidate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wielstra

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA does not necessarily correspond to reproductive isolation. However, if mitochondrial DNA lineages occupy separate segments of environmental space, this supports the notion of their evolutionary independence. We explore niche differentiation among three candidate species of crested newt (characterized by distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages and interpret the results in the light of differences observed for recognized crested newt species. We quantify niche differences among all crested newt (candidate species and test hypotheses regarding niche evolution, employing two ordination techniques (PCA-env and ENFA. Niche equivalency is rejected: all (candidate species are found to occupy significantly different segments of environmental space. Furthermore, niche overlap values for the three candidate species are not significantly higher than those for the recognized species. As the three candidate crested newt species are, not only in terms of mitochondrial DNA genetic divergence, but also ecologically speaking, as diverged as the recognized crested newt species, our findings are in line with the hypothesis that they represent cryptic species. We address potential pitfalls of our methodology.

  10. A multimarker phylogeography of crested newts, Triturus cristatus superspecies, reveals cryptic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielstra, B.M.; Wielstra, B.; Baird, A.B.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The crested newt Triturus cristatus superspecies is composed of five recognized species. One of these, T. karelinii sensu lato, comprises three geographically structured mitochondrial DNA lineages: ‘eastern’, ‘central’ and ‘western T. karelinii’. Genetic divergence among these lineages is comparable

  11. The evolution of the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies, Caudata, Salamandridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukov, T.D.; Sotiropoulos, K.; Wielstra, B.M.; Dzukic, G.; Kalezic, M.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies) and explored its evolution. From seven morphometric traits, we determined that body size, interlimb distance and head width define the body form. None of the morphometric traits showed a phylogenetic signal.

  12. Characterization and Comparative Immunoreactivity of Antibody to Newt (T. cristatus) Globins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalski, Louis A.; Walsh, Anne W.; Merrow, Martha; Paulekus, Wayne; Mackin, William; Grasso, Joseph A.

    1984-01-01

    1. Rabbit antisera to newt (T. cristatus) globin were produced by repeated injections of globin and antiglobin antibodies purified by chromatography on globin-Sepharose 4B. 2. Ouchterlony and SDS PAGE analysis indicated that the material eluted from the affinity column was rabbit IgG. 3. The

  13. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  14. Analysis of the hematopoietic tissue in Pleurodeles waltl newts exposed to 2 g hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, Elena; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Yousuf, Rukhsana; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.

    2012-07-01

    Gravity is an important factor in creating biologically-relevant mechanical loads, and in spaceflight living organisms encounter both microgravity as well as hypergravity conditions. Here we studied the influence of hypergravity on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts in parallel with tissue regeneration experiments of the newt lens and tail. At day 9 post-surgery one group of newts was subjected to centrifugation at 2 g (2G, 12 days), while another was kept at 1 g. In addition, a basal control in wet mats, at 1g, (BC, 1G), and an aquarium control, neutrally buoyant, (AC, low G), were also performed. Differential blood counts and histological analysis of the spleen and liver were carried out in experimental and control groups of animals. At day 21 post-surgery in all groups (AC, 1G, and 2G), the number of neutrophils in the blood was significantly lower than in BC indicating a decrease in the inflammation induced by surgery. The 2G group however, showed numbers of neutrophils significantly higher than AC (neutrally buoyant) animals. This result suggests that post-operative inflammation can persist longer at 2 g that under unloaded aquarium conditions. In contrast we did not observe any significant differences in lymphocyte numbers between any experimental and control groups. Histological examination of the liver and spleen also did not show any significant morphological alterations due to hypergravity. These results indicate that 12 day exposure to hypergravity at 2 g, had only partial influence on newt hematopoiesis, possibly extending the duration of surgery-related inflammatory responses. Data obtained with newts in our previous experiments on Foton-M2 and Foton-M3 flights in microgravity also showed only slight effect on blood cells. Furthermore microgravity also did not cause any morphological changes in the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, and did not impair the proliferative capacity of newt hematopoietic cells. In sum these results indicate the

  15. Mitochondrial genomes and divergence times of crocodile newts : Inter-islands distribution of Echinotriton andersoni and the origin of a unique repetitive sequence found in Tylototriton mt genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Nishitani, Takuma; Katsuren, Seiki; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Crocodile newts, which constitute the genera Echinotriton and Tylototriton, are known as living fossils, and these genera comprise many endangered species. To identify mitochondrial (mt) genes suitable for future population genetic analyses for endangered taxa, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mt genomes of the Japanese crocodile newt Echinotriton andersoni and Himalayan crocodile newt Tylototriton verrucosus. Although the control region (CR) is known as the most variabl...

  16. Facilitating permeability of landscapes impacted by roads for protected amphibians: patterns of movement for the great crested newt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Matos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations are highly vulnerable to road mortality and habitat fragmentation caused by road networks. Wildlife road tunnels are considered the most promising road mitigation measure for amphibians yet generally remain inadequately monitored, resulting in mixed success rates in the short-term and uncertain conservation benefits in the long-term. We monitored a complex multi-tunnel and fence system over five years and investigated the impact of the scheme on movement patterns of two newt species, including the largest known UK population of the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus, a European Protected Species. We used a stage descriptive approach based on capture positions to quantify newt movement patterns. Newt species successfully used the mitigation but the system constituted a bottleneck to movements from the fences to the tunnels. Crossing rates varied widely among years and were skewed towards autumn dispersal rather than spring breeding migration. There was a substantial negative bias against adult male great crested newts using the system. This study indicates that road tunnels could partially mitigate wider connectivity loss and fragmentation at the landscape scale for newt species. However, the observed bottleneck effects and seasonal bias could have population-level effects which must be better understood, especially for small populations, so that improvements can be made. Current requirements for monitoring mitigation schemes post-implementation are probably too short to assess their effectiveness in maintaining connectivity and to adequately understand their population-level impacts.

  17. Intra-specific variability of hindlimb length in the palmate newt: an indicator of population isolation induced by habitat fragmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochet, Audrey; Le Chevalier, Hugo; Baillat, Boris; Barthe, Laurent; Pottier, Gilles; Calvez, Olivier; Ribéron, Alexandre; Blanchet, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the main drivers of global amphibian decline. Anthropogenic landscape elements can act as barriers, hindering the dispersal that is essential for maintaining gene flow between populations. Dispersal ability can be influenced by locomotor performance, which in turn can depend on morphological traits, such as hindlimb length (HLL) in amphibians. Here, we tested relationships between HLL and environmental variables--road types, forests and agricultural lands--among 35 sub-populations of palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) in southwestern France. We expected roads to select for short-legged newts due to a higher mortality of more mobile individuals (long-legged newts) when crossing roads. Accordingly, short-legged newts were found in the vicinity of roads, whereas long-legged newts were found closer to forests and in ponds close geographically to another water body. HLL in newts was hence influenced by habitat types in a heterogeneous landscape, and could therefore be used as an indicator of population isolation in a meta-population system. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-Ureña, Emilio; Amat, Fèlix; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  19. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae, with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Valbuena-Ureña

    Full Text Available The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper, restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi, endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM, molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  20. Heavy traffic, low mortality - tram tracks as terrestrial habitat of newts

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    Mikołaj Kaczmarski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian mortality caused by rail traffic has not attracted much attention in comparison to road mortality. Density of railways in landscape, as well as traffic intensity, is usually much lower than in case of roads. As a consequence, their overall effect on amphibian populations is tacitly assumed to be less negative. To test whether very intensive rail traffic can cause substantial mortality in population of a small amphibian, we investigated a Smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris population located in the city of Poznań, W Poland, where tram tracks border isolated breeding ponds. We performed controls during the peak of autumn migratory activity along the tracks. Less than 1% of all individuals found during the survey were killed by rail traffic. Observed mortality was very low despite large number of individuals present on the track and intensive tram traffic. As negative effects of traffic are low, rail or tram embankments can provide an important terrestrial habitat for small European newts.

  1. Morphogenetic changes occurring in the regenerating newt tail under changed gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radugina, Elena A.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Almeida, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    It is widely accepted that gravity greatly affects animal physiology, development, and alters gene expression. Recently it became apparent that it can also affect tissue morphogenesis. In our work, we developed special laboratory conditions that allow us to produce the gravity-dependent alterations in tail regenerates of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. We examined the dynamic morphogenetic changes during 50-day tail regeneration using computer morphometric analysis. Changes that we observed under these conditions were comparable with those found earlier in our spaceflight experiments. The newts kept in aquarium deep water (low g) after 1/3 tail amputation developed normal lanceolate regenerates. In contrast, the animals that stayed on the moist mat (1g) developed tail regenerates curved ventrally, with tips almost touching the mat. The similar results were obtained with a 12-day centrifugation at 2g. The study of the regenerate morphology in low g, 1g, and 2g animal groups allowed us to determine the stage at which the morphological changes in regenerates become apparent, and to detect the main morphological events associated with the development of tail curve, such as bending of ependymal tube and reorientation of the forming cartilage. We describe cellular processes foregoing observed tissue morphogenetic changes, such as cell migration, condensation in cell population, and unequal proliferation in different areas of epidermis and blastema. Cell proliferation in epidermis and blastema of tails regenerated under the conditions of different gravitational load was evaluated by BrdU assay. In 1g newts, cell proliferation increased within the dorso-apical region of the regenerates compared with that in low g group. These results provide us with a valuable insight into the regenerative tissue homostasis that involves cell division, cell death, and migration in the newt regenerating tail. In addition, these findings could provide us with better understanding of the

  2. Characterization and Comparative Immunoreactivity of Antibody to Newt (T. cristatus) Globins

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Louis A.; Walsh, Anne W.; Merrow, Martha; Paulekus, Wayne; Mackin, William; Grasso, Joseph A.

    1984-01-01

    1. Rabbit antisera to newt (T. cristatus) globin were produced by repeated injections of globin and antiglobin antibodies purified by chromatography on globin-Sepharose 4B. 2. Ouchterlony and SDS PAGE analysis indicated that the material eluted from the affinity column was rabbit IgG. 3. The antiglobin antibodies tested by immunodiffusion and ELISA cross-reacted with native hemoglobin and globin from T. cristatus and to varying extents with globins of N. viridescens, R. pipiens and X. laevis,...

  3. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Heiss; Marie De Vylder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial prey capture are challenging. Trophic shifts demand a high degree of behavioral flexibility to account for different physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period. Nonetheless, it was assumed that it lacks the capability of trophic behavioral flexibility, only captures prey on land ...

  4. Implications of a Multi-Step Trigger of Retinal Regeneration in the Adult Newt

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    Hirofumi Yasumuro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The newt is an amazing four-limbed vertebrate that can regenerate various body parts including the retina. In this animal, when the neural retina (NR is removed from the eye by surgery (retinectomy, both the NR and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE eventually regenerate through the process of reprogramming and proliferation of RPE cells. Thus far, we have pursued the onset mechanism of adult newt retinal regeneration. In this study, using an in vitro system, we found that both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK-ERK and β-catenin were involved in cell cycle re-entry of RPE cells. MEK-ERK signaling activity in RPE cells was strengthened by retinectomy, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin in RPE cells was induced by attenuation of cell–cell contact, which was promoted by incision of the RPE or its treatment with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA. EGTA is a Ca2+ chelator that disrupts cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion. Reinforcement of MEK-ERK signaling activity was a prerequisite for nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These results suggest that retinectomy followed by attenuation of cell–cell contact may trigger cell cycle re-entry of RPE cells. This study, together with our previous findings concerning the proliferation and multipotency of adult newt RPE cells, provides insight into the mechanism of the multi-step trigger in which the onset of retinal regeneration in the adult newt is rigorously controlled.

  5. MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN THE SMOOTH NEWT (TRITURUS VULGARIS DURING AQUATIC PHASE

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    Tomislav Treer

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes of length and mass of smooth newts (Triturus vulgaris were investigated during the aquatic phase of their lives in a small pond of Croatian capital Zagreb. During their aquatic phase from March 19th to June 1st 1994 the ecological conditions in the pond were also checked regularly each week. The changes of tail lengths were the most significant in the changes of totallengths in both sexes. However, while males became slightly longer (from 8,47+0,53 cm to 8,85+0,54 cm, p>0.50 and didn't change their mass (from 2,09+0,14 g to 2,06+0,22 g, p>0.50, females became significantly shorter (from 8,50+0,71 cm to 7,30+0,43 cm, p<0.85 and weighted less (from 2,03+0,31 g to 1,61+0,25 g, p<0.75. That can be explained by the usual tail fin decrease after the ovipositian has been completed, by losing organic material and energy during the ovipositian and probably as the result of the asynchronous ovipositian in the newts. The larvae of smooth newts expressed very fast growth (p, as they had to complete their transformation before the unsuitable summer conditions in the pond.

  6. Can newts cope with the heat? Disparate thermoregulatory strategies of two sympatric species in water.

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    Monika Balogová

    Full Text Available Many ectotherms effectively reduce their exposure to low or high environmental temperatures using behavioral thermoregulation. In terrestrial ectotherms, thermoregulatory strategies range from accurate thermoregulation to thermoconformity according to the costs and limits of thermoregulation, while in aquatic taxa the quantification of behavioral thermoregulation have received limited attention. We examined thermoregulation in two sympatric newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris, exposed to elevated water temperatures under semi-natural conditions. According to a recent theory, we predicted that species for which elevated water temperatures pose a lower thermal quality habitat, would thermoregulate more effectively than species in thermally benign conditions. In the laboratory thermal gradient, L. vulgaris maintained higher body temperatures than I. alpestris. Semi-natural thermal conditions provided better thermal quality of habitat for L. vulgaris than for I. alpestris. Thermoregulatory indices indicated that I. alpestris actively thermoregulated its body temperature, whereas L. vulgaris remained passive to the thermal heterogeneity of aquatic environment. In the face of elevated water temperatures, sympatric newt species employed disparate thermoregulatory strategies according to the species-specific quality of the thermal habitat. Both strategies reduced newt exposure to suboptimal water temperatures with the same accuracy but with or without the costs of thermoregulation. The quantification of behavioral thermoregulation proves to be an important conceptual and methodological tool for thermal ecology studies not only in terrestrial but also in aquatic ectotherms.

  7. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

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    Mathieu Denoël

    Full Text Available Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

  8. Reconstitution of the Myocardium in Regenerating Newt Hearts is Preceded by Transient Deposition of Extracellular Matrix Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Borchardt, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    Adult newts efficiently regenerate the heart after injury in a process that involves proliferation of cardiac muscle and nonmuscle cells and repatterning of the myocardium. To analyze the processes that underlie heart regeneration in newts, we characterized the structural changes in the myocardium that allow regeneration after mechanical injury. We found that cardiomyocytes in the damaged ventricle mainly die by necrosis and are removed during the first week after injury, paving the way for the extension of thin myocardial trabeculae, which initially contain only very few cardiomyocytes. During the following 200 days, these thin trabeculae fill up with new cardiomyocytes until the myocardium is fully reconstituted. Interestingly, reconstruction of the newly formed trabeculated network is accompanied by transient deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagen III. We conclude that the ECM is a critical guidance cue for outgrowing and branching trabeculae to reconstruct the trabeculated network, which represents a hallmark of uninjured cardiac tissue in newts. PMID:23398466

  9. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Noxious newts and their natural enemies: Experimental effects of tetrodotoxin exposure on trematode parasites and aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Dana M; Bucciarelli, Gary M; Kats, Lee B; Zimmer, Richard K; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2017-10-01

    The dermal glands of many amphibian species secrete toxins or other noxious substances as a defense strategy against natural enemies. Newts in particular possess the potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX), for which the highest concentrations are found in species within the genus Taricha. Adult Taricha are hypothesized to use TTX as a chemical defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.). However, less is known about how TTX functions to defend aquatic-developing newt larvae against natural enemies, including trematode parasites and aquatic macroinvertebrates. Here we experimentally investigated the effects of exogenous TTX exposure on survivorship of the infectious stages (cercariae) of five species of trematode parasites that infect larval amphibians. Specifically, we used dose-response curves to test the sensitivity of trematode cercariae to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX (0.0 [control], 0.63, 3.13, 6.26, 31.32, and 62.64 nmol L-1) and how this differed among parasite species. We further compared these results to the effects of TTX exposure (0 and 1000 nmolL-1) over 24 h on seven macroinvertebrate taxa commonly found in aquatic habitats with newt larvae. TTX significantly reduced the survivorship of trematode cercariae for all species, but the magnitude of such effects varied among species. Ribeiroia ondatrae - which causes mortality and limb malformations in amphibians - was the least sensitive to TTX, whereas the kidney-encysting Echinostoma trivolvis was the most sensitive. Among the macroinvertebrate taxa, only mayflies (Ephemeroptera) showed a significant increase in mortality following exogenous TTX exposure, despite the use of a concentration 16x higher than the maximum used for trematodes. Our results suggest that maternal investment of TTX into larval newts may provide protection against certain trematode infections and highlight the importance of future work assessing the effects of newt toxicity on

  11. The distribution of Himalayan Newts, Tylototriton verrucosus in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley, Bhutan

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    J.T. Wangyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, presence-absence survey of the Himalayan Newts Tylototriton verrucosus was conducted in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley to confirm and validate the past information of the presence of the species. Toebisa and Kabjisa in Punakha District and Kazhi in Wangdue Phodrang districts were taken as the main study sites where many individuals of the species were found. This study found the species to be distributed along small seasonal and perennial stream reaches and the paddy fields from 1,225-2,679 m.

  12. Feeding ecology of two newt species (Triturus cristatus and Lissotriton vulgaris during the reproduction season

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    Roşca I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide an in-depth survey of feeding ecology and trophic interactions of two syntopic newt species (Triturus cristatus and Lissotriton vulgaris inhabiting aquatic breeding habitats from the eastern Romanian Carpathian Mountains. We sampled 736 individuals from both species. The trophic spectrum was based mostly on Asselidae (>30%. Our results show that both species may be considered generalists because their niche breadth is higher than 0.5, with largely overlapping trophic niches (>70%, which may indicate food competition.

  13. The Using of Skeletochronology as a Screening Method for Age Determination of Alpine Newts (Mesotriton Alpestris: a Technical Report

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    Peter Makovický

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletochronology is a widely used method for age determination in amphibians. This method is based mainly on the histological examination of the finger bones. However, the lengths of utilized severed fingers have not been specified in previous studies. The objective of this study was to analyse the structure of line arrested growth (LAGs involving taking only the last two phalanges of a finger, and using the entire finger of Alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris. Altogether 432 fingers were taken from four localities in the Czech Republic during the newt breeding period. The first group (group A contained fingers that consisted of the last two phalanges (330 samples, and the second (group B contained complete fingers with all phalanges (102 samples. All fingers were processed using standard histological methods and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Phalange cross-section slides were made, and the ages of the individuals were determined by the number of LAGs. From two phalanges it is determine the age of 17.87% of newts; however, age determination was successful in 49.01% of newts when using whole fingers. Age determination success rate differences between groups were significant (P < 0.001. This is a histological study and it is recommended utilizing whole fingers in future Caudata amphibian screening age studies.Errata to this article were published in: Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 2015, 63(3: 1079–1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.11118/actaun201563031079

  14. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M.; Straube, Werner L.; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, Andras; Drechsel, David N.; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2017-01-01

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell

  15. Sexual size dimorphism in the evolutionary context of facultative paedomorphosis: insights from European newts

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    Kalezić Miloš L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a key evolutionary feature that has been studied in many organisms. In a wide range of species, this pattern is more complex because of polymorphism within each sex. However, it is not known whether the magnitude and direction of SSD could be affected by alternative developmental trajectories within sexes. Our aim was to test whether an intrasexual polymorphism, facultative paedomorphosis (a process in which the development of somatic and gonadal tissues differs in alternative morphs, could affect SSD variation patterns in European newts. Results We report here the first evidence that SSD varies depending on the paedomorphic or metamorphic ontogenetic pathway. In species with a consistent female-biased SSD, paedomorphosis decreased the SSD level, but did not affect its direction. In species with moderate female-biased SSD or variable SSD patterns, paedomorphosis changed the magnitude, or both the magnitude and the direction, of SSD. Conclusion Our study highlights the importance of developmental processes for shaping SSD patterns in populations in which contrasting life-history pathways evolved. European newts express different SSD patterns depending on their developmental pathway (i.e., metamorphosis versus paedomorphosis, as well as their species and population. These findings emphasize the importance of studying alternative morphotypes, which are found in a wide range of animal groups, to understand the evolution of SSD.

  16. Laser irradiation of centrosomes in newt eosinophils: evidence of centriole role in motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonce, M.P.; Cloney, R.A.; Berns, M.W.

    1984-06-01

    Newt eosinophils are motile granulated leukocytes that uniquely display a highly visible centrosomal area. Electron microscope and tubulin antibody fluorescence confirms the presence of centrioles, pericentriolar material, and radiating microtubules within this visible area. Actin antibodies intensely stain the advancing cell edges and tail but only weakly stain pseudopods being withdrawn into the cell. Randomly activated eosinophils follow a roughly consistent direction with an average rate of 22.5 ..mu..m/min. The position of the centrosome is always located between the trailing cell nucleus and advancing cell edge. If the cell extends more than one pseudopod, the one closest to or containing the centrosome is always the one in which motility continues. Laser irradiation of the visible centrosomal area resulted in rapid cell rounding. After several minutes following irradiation, most cells flattened and movement continued. However, postirradiation motility was uncoordinated and directionless, and the rate decreased to an average of 14.5 ..mu..m/min. Electron microscopy and tubulin immunofluorescence indicated that an initial disorganization of microtubules resulted from the laser microirradiations. After several minutes, organized microtubules reappeared, but the centrioles appeared increasingly damaged. The irregularities in motility due to irradiation are probably related to the damaged centrioles. The results presented in this paper suggest that the centrosome is an important structure in controlling the rate and direction of newt eosinophil motility.

  17. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  18. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

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    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  19. Formation of otoconia in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Yamashita, M.; Larsen, K.; Asashima, M.

    1994-08-01

    Pre-mated adult female newts and fertilized eggs will be flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 flight, in 1994. One objective of the flight will be to observe the influence of microgravity on the development of the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear. These organs contain sensory hair cells covered by a layer of dense stones (otoconia). Gravity and linear acceleration exert forces on these masses, leading to excitation of the nerve fibers innervating the hair cells. If the production of the otoliths is regulated to reach an optimal weight, their development might be abnormal in microgravity. Ground-based control experiments are reported describing the developmental sequence in which both the otoliths and their associated sensory epithelium and the semicircular canals appear and develop. Three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections through the otic vesicle of newt embryos at stages 31 through 58 demonstrate the first appearance, relative position and growth of the otoliths. Reports of experiments in which fertilized frog eggs were flown on a Russian Cosmos mission conclude that the utricular otolith is increased in volume, whereas the saccular otolith maintains normal size, suggesting that at least in the utricle, the weight of the otolith might be regulated.

  20. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus

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    Egon Heiss

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial prey capture are challenging. Trophic shifts demand a high degree of behavioral flexibility to account for different physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period. Nonetheless, it was assumed that it lacks the capability of trophic behavioral flexibility, only captures prey on land by its tongue (lingual prehension and does not feed in water. This theory was challenged from stomach content analyses in wild populations that found a variety of aquatic invertebrates in the newts' stomachs during their breeding season. Accordingly, we hypothesized that T. verrucosus actively changes its terrestrial prey capture mechanism to hunt for aquatic prey at least during its aquatic stage. In fact, the kinematic analyses showed that T. verrucosus uses lingual prehension to capture prey on land but changes to suction feeding for aquatic strikes. The statistical analyses revealed that terrestrial and aquatic strikes differ significantly in most kinematic parameters while behavioral variability does not differ between both behaviors. In turn, the movement patterns in suction feeding showed a higher degree of coordination between jaw and hyoid movements compared to the putative primary feeding mode, namely lingual prehension. We conclude that T. verrucosus, though relatively slow compared to trophic specialists, benefits from a high degree of behavioral flexibility that allows exploiting food sources efficiently from two very different habitats.

  1. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Egon; De Vylder, Marie

    2016-10-15

    Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial prey capture are challenging. Trophic shifts demand a high degree of behavioral flexibility to account for different physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period. Nonetheless, it was assumed that it lacks the capability of trophic behavioral flexibility, only captures prey on land by its tongue (lingual prehension) and does not feed in water. This theory was challenged from stomach content analyses in wild populations that found a variety of aquatic invertebrates in the newts' stomachs during their breeding season. Accordingly, we hypothesized that T. verrucosus actively changes its terrestrial prey capture mechanism to hunt for aquatic prey at least during its aquatic stage. In fact, the kinematic analyses showed that T. verrucosus uses lingual prehension to capture prey on land but changes to suction feeding for aquatic strikes. The statistical analyses revealed that terrestrial and aquatic strikes differ significantly in most kinematic parameters while behavioral variability does not differ between both behaviors. In turn, the movement patterns in suction feeding showed a higher degree of coordination between jaw and hyoid movements compared to the putative primary feeding mode, namely lingual prehension. We conclude that T. verrucosus, though relatively slow compared to trophic specialists, benefits from a high degree of behavioral flexibility that allows exploiting food sources efficiently from two very different habitats. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Linkage Map of Lissotriton Newts Provides Insight into the Genetic Basis of Reproductive Isolation

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    Marta Niedzicka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are widely used to investigate structure, function, and evolution of genomes. In speciation research, maps facilitate the study of the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation by allowing identification of genomic regions underlying reduced fitness of hybrids. Here we present a linkage map for European newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris species complex, constructed using two families of F2 L. montandoni × L. vulgaris hybrids. The map consists of 1146 protein-coding genes on 12 linkage groups, equal to the haploid chromosome number, with a total length of 1484 cM (1.29 cM per marker. It is notably shorter than two other maps available for salamanders, but the differences in map length are consistent with cytogenetic estimates of the number of chiasmata per chromosomal arm. Thus, large salamander genomes do not necessarily translate into long linkage maps, as previously suggested. Consequently, salamanders are an excellent model to study evolutionary consequences of recombination rate variation in taxa with large genomes and a similar number of chromosomes. A complex pattern of transmission ratio distortion (TRD was detected: TRD occurred mostly in one family, in one breeding season, and was clustered in two genomic segments. This is consistent with environment-dependent mortality of individuals carrying L. montandoni alleles in these two segments and suggests a role of TRD blocks in reproductive isolation. The reported linkage map will empower studies on the genomic architecture of divergence and interactions between the genomes of hybridizing newts.

  3. Temporal changes in cutaneous bacterial communities of terrestrial- and aquatic-phase newts (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Galán, Pedro; Rodríguez, Silvia; Bletz, Molly C; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Animal-associated bacterial communities play essential roles for their host's ecology, physiology and health. Temporal dynamics of these communities are poorly understood, but might be of high relevance for amphibians with a well-expressed biphasic biology of adults where the structure of their skin changes drastically between the aquatic and terrestrial phases. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of cutaneous bacterial communities of Lissotriton boscai and Triturus marmoratus by monthly sampling populations from a pond and surrounding terrestrial habitats near A Coruña, Spain. These communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA isolated from skin swabs. Newt bacterial communities displayed variation at three levels: between larvae and aquatic adults, between adult life phases (terrestrial versus aquatic), and temporally within life phases. The skin bacterial communities tended to differ to a lesser extent temporally and between larvae and adults, and more strongly between life phases. Larvae had a higher proportion of reads associated with antifungal taxa compared with adults, while no differences were found among adult life phases. Terrestrial specimens exhibited the highest community diversity. The regular transitions of adult newts between aquatic and terrestrial environments might contribute to the diversity of their skin microbiota and could increase disease resistance. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Newt tail regeneration: a model for gravity-dependent morphogenesis and clues to the molecular mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora

    Gravity alterations are widely recognized to influence living systems. They may cause temporary or permanent effects on physiology and development at different levels, from gene expression to morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are often unclear, and adequate model systems to study them are required. To address this problem we developed a new experimental model of how gravity affects morphogenesis during tail regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltl. The effects of increased gravity on newt tail morphogenesis were first documented in two joint Russian-US NASA spaceflight experiments in the Russian Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) missions. In these experiments the shape of newt tail regenerate was found to depend on the gravity level, being dorso-ventrally symmetrical in microgravity and in neutrally-buoyant aquarium controls, versus hook-like and bent downward in 1g controls. These 1g controls were conducted in spaceflight habitats using a water-saturated PVA sponge mat. These results were reproducible in multiple spaceflight, and ground laboratory studies, both in the US at NASA ARC and in Russia at IDB RAS, and were characterized in detail using morphometry and histology approaches. The role of hypergravity in shaping morphogenesis was confirmed at NASA ARC with an experiment in the ISS Testbed 8-foot diameter centrifuge operating at 2g. Animals that experienced two-week centrifugation (the period of time used in the Foton flights) developed the same hook-like regenerates as 1g controls, and morphometric analysis revealed no significant difference between 1g and 2g groups, however both were significantly different from aquarium controls. We hypothesize that exposure to 1g or 2g during tail morphogenesis constitutes excessive loading for newts that are adapted to microgravity-like conditions in their aquatic habitat. Because Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are stress-induced molecules that respond to a broad variety of

  5. Incidence of pigmented skin tumors in a population of wild Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Amat, Fèlix; Bargalló, Ferran; Carranza, Salvador

    2011-04-01

    We report the presence of pigmented skin tumors in three populations of the endangered amphibian Montseny brook newt, Calotriton arnoldi, one of the European amphibian species with the smallest distribution range (40 km(2) in the Montseny Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain). Examination of one of the tumors by light microscopy was consistent with chromatophoroma and was most suggestive of a melanophoroma. Tumors were not found in juveniles. In adults, only two of three populations were affected. The proportions of males and females affected were not significantly different, but there was a positive correlation between body size and presence of tumors in both sexes. The etiology of chromatophoromas remains unknown but, in our study, they do not appear to have been caused by water quality or Ultraviolet B.

  6. Data on Population Dynamics of Three Syntopic Newt Species from Western Romania

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    Alfred-S. Cicort-Lucaciu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the population dynamics of three syntopic newt species [Mesotriton alpestris (Laurenti, 1768, Lissotriton vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768] in Zarand Mountains (Arad County, Romania. M. alpestris had the shortest aquatic phase, approximately two months, out of which the nuptial display was 2-3 weeks long. L. vulgaris and T. cristatus spent three months in the habitat, having a nuptial display of 2-3 weeks for L. vulgaris, and of 4-5 weeks for T. cristatus. M. alpestris had the highest degree of reproductive synchronization, while this was the lowest at T. cristatus. Males from all three species had a higher affinity for the aquatic habitat than females. The population size was estimated at 769 for L. vulgaris, 588 for T. cristatus, and 294 for M. alpestris. Balanced sex ratio was observed in the peak of breeding activity for all species.

  7. Selective Landscapes in newt Immune Genes Inferred from Patterns of Nucleotide Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijarczyk, Anna; Dudek, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw

    2016-12-31

    Host-pathogen interactions may result in either directional selection or in pressure for the maintenance of polymorphism at the molecular level. Hence signatures of both positive and balancing selection are expected in immune genes. Because both overall selective pressure and specific targets may differ between species, large-scale population genomic studies are useful in detecting functionally important immune genes and comparing selective landscapes between taxa. Such studies are of particular interest in amphibians, a group threatened worldwide by emerging infectious diseases. Here, we present an analysis of polymorphism and divergence of 634 immune genes in two lineages of Lissotriton newts: L. montandoni and L. vulgaris graecus Variation in newt immune genes has been shaped predominantly by widespread purifying selection and strong evolutionary constraint, implying long-term importance of these genes for functioning of the immune system. The two evolutionary lineages differ in the overall strength of purifying selection which can partially be explained by demographic history but may also signal differences in long-term pathogen pressure. The prevalent constraint notwithstanding, 23 putative targets of positive selection and 11 putative targets of balancing selection were identified. The latter were detected by composite tests involving the demographic model and further validated in independent population samples. Putative targets of balancing selection encode proteins which may interact closely with pathogens but include also regulators of immune response. The identified candidates will be useful for testing whether genes affected by balancing selection are more prone to interspecific introgression than other genes in the genome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Hyaluronic acid production and hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during lens regeneration

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    Kulyk, W.M.; Zalik, S.E.; Dimitrov, E.

    1987-09-01

    The process of lens regeneration in newts involves the dedifferentiation of pigmented iris epithelial cells and their subsequent conversion into lens fibers. In vivo this cell-type conversion is restricted to the dorsal region of the iris. We have examined the patterns of hyaluronate accumulation and endogenous hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during the course of lens regeneration in vivo. Accumulation of newly synthesized hyaluronate was estimated from the uptake of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable material that was sensitive to Streptomyces hyaluronidase. Endogenous hyaluronidase activity was determined from the quantity of reducing N-acetylhexosamine released upon incubation of iris tissue extract with exogenous hyaluronate substrate. We found that incorporation of label into hyaluronate was consistently higher in the regeneration-activated irises of lentectomized eyes than in control irises from sham-operated eyes. Hyaluronate labeling was higher in the dorsal (lens-forming) region of the iris than in ventral (non-lens-forming) iris tissue during the regeneration process. Label accumulation into hyaluronate was maximum between 10 and 15 days after lentectomy, the period of most pronounced dedifferentiation in the dorsal iris epithelium. Both normal and regenerating irises demonstrated a high level of endogenous hyaluronidase activity with a pH optimum of 3.5-4.0. Hyaluronidase activity was 1.7 to 2 times higher in dorsal iris tissue than in ventral irises both prior to lentectomy and throughout the regeneration process. We suggest that enhanced hyaluronate accumulation may facilitate the dedifferentiation of iris epithelial cells in the dorsal iris and prevent precocious withdrawal from the cell cycle. The high level of hyaluronidase activity in the dorsal iris may promote the turnover and remodeling of extracellular matrix components required for cell-type conversion.

  9. Context-Dependent Plastic Response during Egg-Laying in a Widespread Newt Species.

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    Zoltán Tóth

    Full Text Available Previous research on predator-induced phenotypic plasticity mostly focused on responses in morphology, developmental time and/or behaviour during early life stages, but the potential significance of anticipatory parental responses has been investigated less often. In this study I examined behavioural and maternal responses of gravid female smooth newts, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the presence of chemical cues originating from invertebrate predators, Acilius sulcatus water beetles and Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae. More specifically, I tested the extent of oviposition preference, plasticity in egg-wrapping behaviour and plasticity in egg size when females had the possibility to lay eggs at oviposition sites with and without predator cues during overnight trials. I found that individuals did not avoid laying eggs in the environment with predator cues; however, individuals that deposited eggs into both environments adjusted the size of the laid eggs to the perceived environment. Females deposited larger eggs earlier in the season but egg size decreased with time in the absence of predator cues, whereas individuals laid eggs of average size throughout the investigated reproductive period when such cues were present. Also, egg size was found to be positively related to hatching success. Individuals did not adjust their wrapping behaviour to the presence of predator cues, but females differed in the extent of egg-wrapping between ponds. Females' body mass and tail depth were also different between ponds, whereas their body size was positively associated with egg size. According to these results, female smooth newts have the potential to exhibit activational plasticity and invest differently into eggs depending on temporal and environmental factors. Such an anticipatory response may contribute to the success of this caudate species under a wide range of predator regimes at its natural breeding habitats.

  10. Isolation and structural determination of the first 8-epi-type tetrodotoxin analogs from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and comparison of tetrodotoxin analogs profiles of this newt and the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2012-03-01

    Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals.

  11. Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus

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    Mari Yotsu-Yamashita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals.

  12. Massive genetic introgression in threatened northern crested newts (Triturus cristatus) by an invasive congener (T. carnifex) in Western Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dufresnes Christophe; Pellet Jérôme; Bettinelli-Riccardi Sandra; Thiébaud Jacques; Perrin Nicolas; Fumagalli Luca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic pollution through introgressive hybridization of local species by exotic relatives is a major yet neglected aspect of biological invasions particularly in amphibians where human introductions are frequent. In Western Switzerland crested newts make an interesting case: the Italian species Triturus carnifex was introduced at least a century ago within the range of the native and threatened T. cristatus. To understand the genetic consequences of this introduction and inform wildlife mana...

  13. Signs of Müller cell gliotic response found in the retina of newts exposed to real and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Anton, H. J.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Aleinikova, K. S.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Novikova, Y. P.; Almeida, E.

    2012-05-01

    The effects of real and simulated microgravity on the eye tissue regeneration of newts were investigated. For the first time changes in Müller glial cells in the retina of eyes regenerating after retinal detachment were detected in newts exposed to clinorotation. The cells divided, were hypertrophied, and their processes were thickened. Such changes suggested reactive gliosis and were more significant in animals exposed to rotation when compared with desk-top controls. Later experiments onboard the Russian biosatellite Bion-11 showed similar changes in the retinas that were regenerating in a two-week spaceflight. In the Bion-11 animals, GFAP, the major structural protein of retinal macroglial cells, was found to be upregulated. In a more recent experiment onboard Foton-M3 (2007), GFAP expression in retinas of space-flown, ground control (kept at 1 g), and basal control (sacrificed on launch day) newts was quantified, using microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and digital image analysis. A low level of immunoreactivity was observed in basal controls. In contrast, retinas of space-flown animals showed greater GFAP immunoreactivity associated with both an increased cell number and a higher thickness of intermediate filaments. This, in turn, was accompanied by up-regulation of stress protein (HSP90) and growth factor (FGF2) expressions. It can be postulated that such a response of Müller cells was to mitigate the retinal stress in newts exposed to microgravity. Taken together, the data suggest that the retinal population of macroglial cells could be sensitive to gravity changes and that in space it can react by enhancing its neuroprotective function.

  14. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan

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    Masayuki Sumida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4% became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5% hatched normally, 213 (56.3% metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3% became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

  15. The distribution of Himalayan Newts, Tylototriton verrucosus in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Wangyal; D.B. Gurung

    2012-01-01

    In this study, presence-absence survey of the Himalayan Newts Tylototriton verrucosus was conducted in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley to confirm and validate the past information of the presence of the species. Toebisa and Kabjisa in Punakha District and Kazhi in Wangdue Phodrang districts were taken as the main study sites where many individuals of the species were found. This study found the species to be distributed along small seasonal and perennial stream reaches and the paddy fields from 1,...

  16. The balanced lethal system of crested newts: a ghost of sex chromosomes past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossen, Christine; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Balanced lethal systems are more than biological curiosities: as theory predicts, they should quickly be eliminated through the joint forces of recombination and selection. That such systems might become fixed in natural populations poses a challenge to evolutionary theory. Here we address the case of a balanced lethal system fixed in crested newts and related species, which makes 50% of offspring die early in development. All adults are heteromorphic for chromosome pair 1. The two homologues (1A and 1B) have different recessive deleterious alleles fixed on a nonrecombining segment, so that heterozygotes are viable, while homozygotes are lethal. Given such a strong segregation load, how could autosomes stop recombining? We propose a role for a sex-chromosome turnover from pair 1 (putative ancestral sex chromosome) to pair 4 (currently active sex chromosome). Accordingly, 1A and 1B represent two variants (Y(A) and Y(B)) of the Y chromosome from an ancestral male-heterogametic system. We formalize a scenario in which turnovers are driven by sex ratio selection stemming from gene-environment interactions on sex determination. Individual-based simulations show that a balanced lethal system can be fixed with significant likelihood, provided the masculinizing allele on chromosome 4 appears after the elimination of the feminizing allele on chromosome 1. Our study illustrates how strikingly maladaptive traits might evolve through natural selection.

  17. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela

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    Flaminia Gay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L and sewage waters (20 μg/L. Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1 chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2 the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium.

  18. Interspecific hybridization increases MHC class II diversity in two sister species of newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Zieliński, Piotr; Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-02-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms generating variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes remains incomplete. Assessing MHC variation across multiple populations, of recent and ancient divergence, may facilitate understanding of geographical and temporal aspects of variation. Here, we applied 454 sequencing to perform a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of MHC class II in the closely related, hybridizing newts, Lissotriton vulgaris (Lv) and Lissotriton montandoni (Lm). Our study revealed an extensive (299 alleles) geographically structured polymorphism. Populations at the southern margin of the Lv distribution, inhabited by old and distinct lineages (southern Lv), exhibited moderate MHC variation and strong population structure, indicating little gene flow or extensive local adaptation. Lissotriton vulgaris in central Europe and the northern Balkans (northern Lv) and almost all Lm populations had a high MHC variation. A much higher proportion of MHC alleles was shared between Lm and northern Lv than between Lm and southern Lv. Strikingly, the average pairwise F(ST) between northern Lv and Lm was significantly lower than between northern and southern Lv for MHC, but not for microsatellites. Thus, high MHC variation in Lm and northern Lv may result from gene flow between species. We hypothesize that the interspecific exchange of MHC genes may be facilitated by frequency-dependent selection. A marginally significant correlation between the MHC and microsatellite allelic richness indicates that demographic factors may have contributed to the present-day pattern of MHC variation, but unequivocal signatures of adaptive evolution in MHC class II sequences emphasize the role of selection on a longer timescale. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Islands within an island: Population genetic structure of the endemic Sardinian newt, Euproctus platycephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah E; Bovero, Stefano; Sotgiu, Giuseppe; Tessa, Giulia; Angelini, Claudio; Bielby, Jon; Durrant, Christopher; Favelli, Marco; Gazzaniga, Enrico; Garner, Trenton W J

    2017-02-01

    The identification of historic and contemporary barriers to dispersal is central to the conservation of endangered amphibians, but may be hindered by their complex life history and elusive nature. The complementary information generated by mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers generates a valuable tool in elucidating population structure and the impact of habitat fragmentation. We applied this approach to the study of an endangered montane newt, Euproctus platycephalus. Endemic to the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, it is threatened by anthropogenic activity, disease, and climate change. We have demonstrated a clear hierarchy of structure across genetically divergent and spatially distinct subpopulations. Divergence between three main mountain regions dominated genetic partitioning with both markers. Mitochondrial phylogeography revealed a deep division dating to ca. 1 million years ago (Mya), isolating the northern region, and further differentiation between the central and southern regions ca. 0.5 Mya, suggesting an association with Pleistocene severe glacial oscillations. Our findings are consistent with a model of southward range expansion during glacial periods, with postglacial range retraction to montane habitat and subsequent genetic isolation. Microsatellite markers revealed further strong population structure, demonstrating significant divergence within the central region, and partial differentiation within the south. The northern population showed reduced genetic diversity. Discordance between mitochondrial and microsatellite markers at this scale indicated a further complexity of population structure, in keeping with male-biased dispersal and female philopatry. Our study underscores the need to elucidate cryptic population structure in the ecology and conservation strategies for endangered island-restricted amphibians, especially in the context of disease and climate change.

  20. Additional results and discussion to the paper: Asymmetric viability of reciprocal-cross hybrids between crested and marbled newts (Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Jehle, R.; Bardakci, F.; Burke, T.; Wallis, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization between divergent lineages often results in reduced hybrid viability. Here we report findings from a series of independent molecular analyses over several seasons on four life stages of F1 hybrids between the newts Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus. These two species form a bimodal

  1. Effect of temperature extremes on the spatial dynamics of predator–prey interactions: a case study with dragonfly nymphs and newt larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolinský, Radovan; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, January (2014), s. 12-16 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Climate change * Dragonfly * Heat waves * Newt * Predator–prey interaction * Thermal stress * Thermal adaptation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2014

  2. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M; Straube, Werner L; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, András; Drechsel, David N; Tanaka, Elly M

    2017-03-27

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. Protease-activated BMP4/7 heterodimers that are present in serum strongly induced myotube cell cycle re-entry with protease cleavage yielding a 30-fold potency increase of BMP4/7 compared with canonical BMP4/7. Inhibition of BMP signaling via muscle-specific dominant-negative receptor expression reduced cell cycle entry in vitro and in vivo. In vivo inhibition of serine protease activity depressed cell cycle re-entry, which in turn was rescued by cleaved-mimic BMP. This work identifies a mechanism of BMP activation that generates blastema cells from differentiated muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly and polymorphism detection in two highly divergent evolutionary units of Bosca's newt (Lissotriton boscai) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourisson, Coralie; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Carneiro, Miguel; Sequeira, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    This article reports the de novo transcriptome assemblies of two highly divergent evolutionary units of the Iberian endemic Bosca's newt, Lissotriton boscai. These two units are distributed mostly allopatrically but overlap in the central-southwestern coastal region of Portugal. The resources we provide include the raw sequence reads, the assembled transcripts, the annotation and SNPs called for both lineages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mitochondrial genomes and divergence times of crocodile newts: inter-islands distribution of Echinotriton andersoni and the origin of a unique repetitive sequence found in Tylototriton mt genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Nishitani, Takuma; Katsuren, Seiki; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Crocodile newts, which constitute the genera Echinotriton and Tylototriton, are known as living fossils, and these genera comprise many endangered species. To identify mitochondrial (mt) genes suitable for future population genetic analyses for endangered taxa, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mt genomes of the Japanese crocodile newt Echinotriton andersoni and Himalayan crocodile newt Tylototriton verrucosus. Although the control region (CR) is known as the most variable mtDNA region in many animal taxa, the CRs of crocodile newts are highly conservative. Rather, the genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunits and ATPase subunit 6 were found to have high sequence divergences and to be usable for population genetics studies. To estimate the inter-population divergence ages of E. andersoni endemic to the Ryukyu Islands, we performed molecular dating analysis using whole and partial mt genomic data. The estimated divergence ages of the inter-island individuals are older than the paleogeographic segmentation ages of the islands, suggesting that the lineage splits of E. andersoni populations were not caused by vicariant events. Our phylogenetic analysis with partial mt sequence data also suggests the existence of at least two more undescribed species in the genus Tylototriton. We also found unusual repeat sequences containing the 3' region of cytochrome apoenzyme b gene, whole tRNA-Thr gene, and a noncoding region (the T-P noncoding region characteristic in caudate mtDNAs) from T. verrucosus mtDNA. Similar repeat sequences were found in two other Tylototriton species. The Tylototriton taxa with the repeats become a monophyletic group, indicating a single origin of the repeat sequences. The intra-and inter-specific comparisons of the repeat sequences suggest the occurrences of homologous recombination-based concerted evolution among the repeat sequences.

  5. The newt Triturus carnifex as a model for monitoring the ecotoxic impact of the fungicide thiophanate methyl: adverse effects on the adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; De Falco, Maria; Virgilio, Francesca; Valiante, Salvatore; Laforgia, Vincenza; Varano, Lorenzo

    2006-05-01

    The aims of this study were to propose a bioindicator organism, the newt Triturus carnifex, for the assessment of toxicological impact of thiophanate methyl in the Campania region (Italy) and the possible adverse activity on the adrenal gland. In the acute toxicity study, experimental groups of T. carnifex were exposed to 2.40, 4.80, 9.60 and 19.20 microg/L tap water of thiophanate methyl for 2 days; the LD50 was found to be 9.60 microg/L. To evaluate the effects on the adrenal gland, newts were exposed to a dose of 25% of the LD50 2 days for 8 days. The ultrastructural features of the tissues as well as the serum levels of aldosterone, corticosterone, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were evaluated. The number of secretory vesicles in the chromaffin cells appeared significantly decreased, whereas NE and E serum levels appeared strongly increased. Moreover, corticosterone and aldosterone serum levels appeared significantly reduced. The results suggest that: 1) T. carnifex has the features of an ideal bioindicator, due to its high sensitivity to thiophanate methyl, 2) thiophanate methyl acts as endocrine disruptor, affecting the adrenal gland at very low doses, 3) thiophanate methyl may be toxic for nontarget organisms, such as newts.

  6. On the amphibious food uptake and prey manipulation behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi, Arntzen and Wielstra, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Heiss, Egon; Naumov, Borislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Feeding behavior in salamanders undergoing seasonal habitat shifts poses substantial challenges caused by differences in the physical properties of air and water. Adapting to these specific environments, urodelans use suction feeding predominantly under water as opposed to lingual food prehension on land. This study aims to determine the functionality of aquatic and terrestrial feeding behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) in its terrestrial stage. During the terrestrial stage, these newts feed frequently in water where they use hydrodynamic mechanisms for prey capture. On land, prey apprehension is accomplished mainly by lingual prehension, while jaw prehension seems to be the exception (16.67%) in all terrestrial prey capture events. In jaw prehension events there was no detectable depression of the hyo-lingual complex. The success of terrestrial prey capture was significantly higher when T. ivanbureschi used lingual prehension. In addition to prey capture, we studied the mechanisms involved in the subduction of prey. In both media, the newts frequently used a shaking behavior to immobilize the captured earthworms. Apparently, prey shaking constitutes a significant element in the feeding behavior of T. ivanbureschi. Prey immobilization was applied more frequently during underwater feeding, which necessitates a discussion of the influence of the feeding media on food manipulation. We also investigated the osteology of the cranio-cervical complex in T. ivanbureschi to compare it to that of the predominantly terrestrial salamandrid Salamandra salamandra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterogeneous expression of glycoconjugates in the primary olfactory centre of the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-10-19

    Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli. Among them, succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), soya bean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I) and peanut agglutinin showed significantly different bindings to glomeruli between the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. We also found that s-WGA, SBA, BSL-I and Pisum sativum agglutinin preferentially bound to a rostral cluster of glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb. This finding suggests the presence of a functional subset of primary projections to the main olfactory system. Our results therefore demonstrated a region-specific glycoconjugate expression in the olfactory bulb of C. ensicauda, which would be related to a functional segregation of the olfactory system. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Sperm Proteases that May Be Involved in the Initiation of Sperm Motility in the Newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Yokoe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A protease of sperm in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster that is released after the acrosome reaction (AR is proposed to lyse the sheet structure on the outer surface of egg jelly and release sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS. Here, we found that protease activity in the sperm head was potent to widely digest substrates beneath the sperm. The protease activity measured by fluorescein thiocarbamoyl-casein digestion was detected in the supernatant of the sperm after the AR and the activity was inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, an inhibitor for serine or cysteine protease, suggesting the release of serine and/or cysteine proteases by AR. In an in silico analysis of the testes, acrosins and 20S proteasome were identified as possible candidates of the acrosomal proteases. We also detected another AEBSF-sensitive protease activity on the sperm surface. Fluorescence staining with AlexaFluor 488-labeled AEBSF revealed a cysteine protease in the principal piece; it is localized in the joint region between the axial rod and undulating membrane, which includes an axoneme and produces powerful undulation of the membrane for forward sperm motility. These results indicate that AEBSF-sensitive proteases in the acrosome and principal piece may participate in the initiation of sperm motility on the surface of egg jelly.

  9. Body size and reproductive characteristics of paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals of the northern banded newt (Ommatotriton ophryticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup BAŞKALE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Paedomorphs and metamorphs of the northern banded newt (Ommatotriton ophryticus were compared with respect to body size and some reproductive traits. Both morphs have a similar reproduction pathway in terms of egg number and incubation period, while hatching success and egg diameter appear to be different between morphs. This is most likely due to differences in female body size (paedomorphic females are smaller than metamorphic individuals of the same sex.

  10. Getting off to a good start? Genetic evaluation of the ex situ conservation project of the Critically Endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-Ureña, Emilio; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Alonso, Mònica; Carbonell, Francesc; Larios-Martín, Raquel; Obon, Elena; Carranza, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Ex situ management strategies play an important role in the conservation of threatened species when the wild survival of the species cannot be ensured. Molecular markers have become an outstanding tool for the evaluation and management of captive breeding programs. Two main genetic objectives should be prioritized when planning breeding programs: the maintenance of maximum neutral genetic diversity, and to obtain "self-sustaining" captive populations. In this study, we use 24 microsatellite loci to analyze and evaluate the genetic representativity of the initial phases of the captive breeding program of the Montseny brook newt, Calotriton arnoldi, an Iberian endemic listed as Critically Endangered. The results show that the initial captive stock has 74-78% of the alleles present in the wild populations, and captures roughly 93-95% of their total genetic diversity as observed in a previous study on wild newts, although it does not reach the desired 97.5%. Moreover, the percentage of unrelatedness among individuals does not exceed 95%. Therefore, we conclude that the genetic diversity of the captive stock should be improved by incorporating genetic material from unrelated wild newts. In recognition of the previously described significant genetic and morphological differentiation between eastern and western wild populations of C. arnoldi, we suggest maintaining two distinct breeding lines, and we do not recommend outbreeding between these lines. Our comparisons of genetic diversity estimates between real and distinct sample-sized simulated populations corroborated that a minimum of 20 individuals are needed for each captive population, in order to match the level of genetic diversity present in the wild populations. Thus, the current initial stock should be reinforced by adding wild specimens. The captive stock and subsequent cohorts should be monitored in order to preserve genetic variation. In order to avoid genetic adaptation to captivity, occasionally

  11. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also

  12. Activin-treated Urodele Animal Caps : II. Inductive Interactions in Newt Animal Caps After Treatment with Activin A(Developmental Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, Ariizumi; Shinji, Komazaki; Makoto, Asashima; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation; The 2nd Department of Anatomy, Saitama Medical School

    1999-01-01

    The inductive interactions between activin-induced and non-induced cells were investigated in newt animal cap explants. A wide range of concentrations of activin A (0.1-100 ng/ml) induced mesodermal tissues in the animal caps, but at generally low frequencies. Animal caps treated with 100 ng/ml of activin A, on the other hand, differentiated solely into nonspecific endoderm. At this concentration, various mesodermal tissues were induced in addition to endoderm as the animal caps increased in ...

  13. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  14. Liver histology and ultrastructure of the Italian newt (Lissotriton italicus): normal structure and modifications after acute exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Biasone, Patrizia; Macirella, Rachele; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    We examined, from a morphological and ultrastructural point of view, the liver of the Italian newt (Lissotriton italicus), under basal conditions and after exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). Nonylphenol ethoxylates are surfactants widely used in a variety of industrial and agricultural processes that may pose a significant risk to aquatic fauna. NPEs, and their degradation intermediates, are known to affect reproductive biology acting as endocrine disruptors; besides estrogenic effects, nonylphenolic compounds may induce organ toxicity, particularly in liver and gonads. We investigated the effects of a nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE10-ETO) on L. italicus liver using two low concentrations, consistent with the environmental concentrations. For this purpose, animals were exposed to nominal concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/L in a short-term experiment (96 h). A morpho-functional analysis was performed in order to investigate the amphibian responses to NPEs thus contributing to elucidate other potential mode of action of these compounds; indeed very little attention has been dedicated to amphibians though they are often exposed to such contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Pathological alterations on liver histology and ultrastructure were observed at both tested concentrations; the main effects recorded were: increase of intercellular spaces, accumulation of large lipid droplets, increase in melanin content, and a degeneration phenomenon. We also detected, through confocal analysis, the induction of caspase-3, a key mediator of apoptosis, and an up-regulation of cytochrome P450-1A. By using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to NPEs negatively affected the amphibian liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Male attractiveness is influenced by UV wavelengths in a newt species but not in its close relative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Secondi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional communication in the UV range has been reported in Invertebrates and all major groups of Vertebrates but Amphibians. Although perception in this wavelength range has been shown in a few species, UV signalling has not been demonstrated in this group. One reason may be that in lentic freshwater habitats, litter decomposition generates dissolved organic carbon that absorbs UV radiation and thus hinders its use for visual signalling. We tested the effect of male UV characteristics on female sexual preference in two newt species that experience contrasting levels of UV water transmission when breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed water spectral characteristics of a sample of breeding ponds in both species. We quantified male ventral coloration and measured male attractiveness under two lighting conditions (UV present, UV absent using a no-choice female preference design. UV transmission was higher in Lissotriton vulgaris breeding sites. Male UV patterns also differed between experimental males of the two species. We observed a first common peak around 333 nm, higher in L. vulgaris, and a second peak around 397 nm, more frequent and higher in L. helveticus. Male attractiveness was significantly reduced in L. vulgaris when UV was not available but not in L. helveticus. Male attractiveness depended on the hue of the first UV peak in L. vulgaris. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first report of functional UV-based communication in Amphibians. Interestingly, male spectral characteristics and female preferences were consistent with the differences in habitat observed between the two species as L. helveticus often breeds in ponds containing more UV blocking compounds. We discuss the three hypotheses proposed so far for UV signalling in animals (enhanced signal detectability, private communication channel, indicator of individual quality.

  16. Egg transport in the coelom of the newt cynops pyrrhogaster. I. The ovulated egg is transported to the ostium by the ciliary movement of coelomic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamahama, Yumi; Onitake, Kazuo

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the mechanism of egg transport in the newt not only by inserting various conditioned eggs into the recipient's body but also by placing them on the coelomic epithelia of the opened body cavity in the adult female newt. Most of the inserted coelomic eggs were oviposited, while 4 of 14 inserted de-jellied uterine eggs and 3 of 10 inserted de-jellied fertilized eggs were oviposited. The coelomic eggs placed on the coelomic epithelia were transported toward the ostium and entered the ostium. The de-jellied uterine eggs and the de-jellied fertilized eggs were transported to the ostium as well. Of all the eggs examined, the coelomic egg was transported the fastest. The transport speeds of coelomic eggs treated with periodic acid and the speed of boiled coelomic eggs were less than those of untreated coelomic eggs. In contrast, the transport speeds of coelomic eggs treated with trypsin and the speed of coelomic eggs removed from their vitelline envelopes (naked eggs) were faster than those of untreated coelomic eggs. Other experiments were carried out in order to ascertain the dependence of sexual activity on egg transport. The speed of coelomic egg transport in artificially sexually activated females was faster than in sexually inactive females, although the ciliary movement could always be observed in both sexually active females and sexually inactive females. This suggests that the speed of egg transport on the coelomic epithelia is controlled by the sexual activity of the female.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal genetic structuring of the carpathian newt and provide evidence of interspecific gene flow in the nuclear genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zieliński

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within species is commonly structured in a hierarchical manner which may result from superimposition of processes acting at different spatial and temporal scales. In organisms of limited dispersal ability, signatures of past subdivision are detectable for a long time. Studies of contemporary genetic structure in such taxa inform about the history of isolation, range changes and local admixture resulting from geographically restricted hybridization with related species. Here we use a set of 139 transcriptome-derived, unlinked nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP to assess the genetic structure of the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni, Lm and introgression from its congener, the smooth newt (L. vulgaris, Lv. Two substantially differentiated groups of Lm populations likely originated from separate refugia, both located in the Eastern Carpathians. The colonization of the present range in north-western and south-western directions was accompanied by a modest loss of variation; admixture between the two groups has occurred in the middle of the Eastern Carpathians. Local, apparently recent introgression of Lv alleles into several Lm populations was detected, demonstrating increased power for admixture detection in comparison to a previous study based on a limited number of microsatellite markers. The level of introgression was higher in Lm populations classified as admixed than in syntopic populations. We discuss the possible causes and propose further tests to distinguish between alternatives. Several outlier loci were identified in tests of interspecific differentiation, suggesting genomic heterogeneity of gene flow between species.

  18. Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra in Larzac plateau: low occurrence, pond-breeding and cohabitation of larvae with paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Denoël

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds, whereas palmate newt larvae (Lissotriton helveticus typically metamorphose into terrestrial juveniles, but can also reproduce in retaining their gills, a process known as paedomorphosis. Here we report repeated observations of an unusual case of coexistence of these two alternative traits in the same pond (Larzac, France. The prevalence of fire salamanders in Southern Larzac was very low (pond occupancy: 0.36%. The observed abundance of fire salamander larvae and paedomorphic newts was also low in the studied pond. On one hand, the rarity of this coexistence pattern may suggest that habitat characteristics may not be optimal or that competition or predation processes might be operating. However, these hypotheses remain to be tested. On the other hand, as this is the only known case of breeding in Southern Larzac, it could be considered to be at a high risk of extirpation.

  19. Inventory of the pool frog, newt and gulyxne in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av goelgroda, stoerre vattensalamander och gulyxne i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    On assignment from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Ekologigruppen AB carried out inventories of species populations during the summer of 2012. Species included in the study are described in three separate chapters of this report. The three species were pool frog Rana lessonae, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, and fen orchid Liparis loeselii. SKB will follow up the development of the local populations. Inventory of pool frogs are already a follow-up on a study carried out in 2011. Concern for these species is due to their protection within the EU system of species and habitat protection. Construction of the planned depository for used nuclear fuel will involve redirection of groundwater, which could potentially drain these wetlands. The three species pool frog, great crested newt and fen orchid are inventoried by well-documented procedures, which will allow repletion of the study at the same locals and according to the same methods during consequent years. The inventories are not complete in the sense that they would give number of individuals in a local population. Rather, the result should be regarded as an index for comparison and monitoring.

  20. Neuronal regeneration in the newt: a model to study the partly reconstruction of the neural tissue in real and simulated weightles sness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, H.; Grigoryan, E.; Mitashov, V.

    The micro -"g" effect on nervous tissue regeneration in newts has been investigated by our group for many years. It has been performed in real and in simulated microgravity with a clinostat. During limb regeneration the motor - and sensory nerves regrow perfectly within the newly formed limb. Like in `1g' conditions they are responsible for the initiation of blastema formation and continuity of g owth andr differentiation. Except for a general acceleration of growth and differentiation processes no differences became visible. Tail regeneration, which is perfectly regulated in newts during their whole life, includes the restoration of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. They follow or initiate an accelerated growth. Up to the present the cellular derivation of the sensory neurones within the regenerate has not yet been clarified. But growth acceleration comprises the whole nervous system. That means a totally new formation of the sensory connection from the periphery to the whole spinal cord. Regeneration must be initiated by the outgrowth of nerve fibres into the wound area. This may be performed by the remaining cut sensory fibres of the last stump segment and should be followed by the differentiation of undifferentiated cells of neural crest origin nearby the amputation area. Such cells are present in the form of meningeal cells which are the origin of mantle and Schwann cells too. Corresponding to the well proved growth acceleration of lens, retina, connective tissue, muscle and skin, the real and simulated microgravity affects the nervous system in the same manner. Tissues and organs of adult organisms have no chance to remain unaffected by the microgravity effect. We try to find the trigger which initiates the accelerated proliferation of the stem cells of sensory neurons, mantle and sheath cells under micro-"g" conditions.

  1. An Extremely Peramorphic Newt (Urodela: Salamandridae: Pleurodelini from the Latest Oligocene of Germany, and a New Phylogenetic Analysis of Extant and Extinct Salamandrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marjanović

    Full Text Available We describe an Oligocene newt specimen from western Germany that has gone practically unnoticed in the literature despite having been housed in the Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin for a century. It is referable to the coeval Chelotriton, but is unusually peramorphic; for many characters it is more peramorphic than all other caudates or even all other lissamphibians. Most noticeable are the position of the jaw joints far caudal to the occiput, the honeycombed sculpture on the maxilla, and the possible presence of a septomaxilla (which would be unique among salamandrids. Referral to a species would require a revision of the genus, but the specimen likely does not belong to the type species. A phylogenetic analysis of nonmolecular characters of Salamandridae, far larger than all predecessors, confirms the referral to Chelotriton. It further loosely associates the Oligocene Archaeotriton and the Miocene Carpathotriton with the extant Lissotriton, though the former may alternatively lie outside Pleurodelinae altogether. The Miocene? I. randeckensis may not belong to the extant Ichthyosaura. The Miocene "Triturus" roehrsi is found neither with the extant Ommatotriton nor with Lissotriton, but inside an Asian/aquatic clade or, when geographic distribution is included as a character, as the sister-group to all other European molgins. The main cause for discrepancies between the results and the molecular consensus is not heterochrony, but adaptations to a life in mountain streams; this is the most likely reason why the Paleocene Koalliella from western Europe forms the sister-group to some or all of the most aquatic extant newts in different analyses. We would like to urge neontologists working on salamandrids to pay renewed attention to the skeleton, not limited to the skull, as a source of diagnostic and phylogenetically informative characters.

  2. Cloning and expression of a retinoic acid receptor β2 subtype from the adult newt: evidence for an early role in tail and caudal spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christopher; Clark, Alysen; Spencer, Gaynor; Carlone, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARβ2) has been proposed as an important receptor mediating retinoid-induced axonal growth and regeneration in developing mammalian spinal cord and brain. In urodele amphibians, organisms capable of extensive central nervous system (CNS) regeneration as adults, this receptor had not been isolated, nor had its function been characterized. We have cloned a full-length RARβ2 cDNA from adult newt CNS. This receptor, NvRARβ2, is expressed in various adult organs capable of regeneration, including the spinal cord. Interestingly, both the NvRARβ2 mRNA and protein are up-regulated during the first 2 weeks after amputation of the tail, primarily in the ependymoglial and meningeal tissues near the rostral cut surface of the cord. Treatment with LE135, a RARβ-selective antagonist, caused a significant inhibition of ependymal outgrowth and a decrease in tail regenerate length. These data support an early role for this receptor in caudal spinal cord and tail regeneration in this amphibian. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. RARβ2 expression is induced by the down-regulation of microRNA 133a during caudal spinal cord regeneration in the adult newt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, A C; Carlone, R L

    2014-12-01

    Adult urodele amphibians represent unique model organisms to study spinal cord regeneration. Trauma to the spinal cord induces an ependymal response, activating multipotent neural stem cells that contribute to the redifferentiation of both glia and neurons in the regenerate. The molecular events underlying this ependymal response are not completely understood, but likely involve coordinated global changes in gene expression. MicroRNAs and retinoid signaling are postulated to orchestrate these patterns of gene expression in response to trauma. Our objectives were to determine the roles played by some miRNAs as potential regulators of retinoid signaling in this process. We found that the expression levels of miRNAs 133a, 203, and 124a are dysregulated during the first 21 days post amputation (dpa). Interestingly, these miRNAs are expressed primarily within the ependymoglia. We have shown in vitro that a miR-133a mimic targets the 3' UTR of the newt RARβ2 transcript. Importantly, upregulation of this mimic in vivo led to a significant decline in RARβ2 protein at 14 dpa and inhibited regeneration. These data are the first to link miRNAs and retinoid signaling during spinal cord regeneration and provide support for miR-133a as an upstream regulator of RARβ2 expression in this process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phylogeny and phylogeography of the sword-tailed newt, Cynops ensicauda (Amphibia: Caudata), as revealed by nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Atsushi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Matsui, Masafumi

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography among individuals of the endemic newt (Cynops ensicauda) of the Central Ryukyus, Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of remarkable differentiation between assemblages from the Amami and Okinawa Island Groups, supporting the validity of the subspecies C. e. popei described from the latter on morphological grounds. The group of individuals from Okinawa Island Group was further divided into two distinct subgroups unlike the results of previous morphological and allozyme studies. Geographic ranges of these subgroups overlapped in the northern part of Okinawajima Island. The phylogeographic pattern within the Okinawa Island Group suggests an initial division into two geographically isolated population lineages and subsequent secondary sympatry before formation of reproductive isolation. It is also likely that within the Okinawa Island Group emigration occurred from the central and northern parts of Okinawajima Island to its southern part, as well as to several small islets off its western coast. Within the Amami Island Group, recurring restricted gene flow with isolation by distance seems to have occurred around the southwestern region including three islets southwest of Amamioshima Island. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. No signs of inbreeding despite long-term isolation and habitat fragmentation in the critically endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-Ureña, E; Soler-Membrives, A; Steinfartz, S; Orozco-terWengel, P; Carranza, S

    2017-05-01

    Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian (8 km 2 ) and is considered critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here we apply molecular markers to analyze its population structure and find that habitat fragmentation owing to a natural barrier has resulted in strong genetic division of populations into two sectors, with no detectable migration between sites. Although effective population size estimates suggest low values for all populations, we found low levels of inbreeding and relatedness between individuals within populations. Moreover, C. arnoldi displays similar levels of genetic diversity to its sister species Calotriton asper, from which it separated around 1.5 million years ago and which has a much larger distribution range. Our extensive study shows that natural habitat fragmentation does not result in negative genetic effects, such as the loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding on an evolutionary timescale. We hypothesize that species in such conditions may evolve strategies (for example, special mating preferences) to mitigate the effects of small population sizes. However, it should be stressed that the influence of natural habitat fragmentation on an evolutionary timescale should not be conflated with anthropogenic habitat loss or degradation when considering conservation strategies.

  6. Variation in food availability mediate the impact of density on cannibalism, growth, and survival in larval yellow spotted mountain newts (Neurergus microspilotus): Implications for captive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaissi, Somaye; Sharifi, Mozafar

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52. Both food level and density had a significant effect on cannibalism. The highest frequency of cannibalism was recorded for larvae reared in the low food/high density and lowest in high food/low density treatments. Growth, percent of larval metamorphosed, and survival were all highest in the high food/low density and lowest in low food/high density treatment. Food level had a significant effect on growth, metamorphosis, and survival. However, the two levels of density did not influence growth and metamorphosis but showed a significant effect on survival. Similarly, combined effects of food level and density showed significant effects on growth, metamorphosis, and survival over time. Information obtained from current experiment could improve productivity of captive breeding facilities to ensure the release of adequate numbers of individuals for reintroduction programs. Zoo Biol. 35:513-521, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey: hotspots and coldspots in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between garter snakes and newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Edmund D; Ridenhour, B J; Brodie, E D

    2002-10-01

    The "geographic mosaic" approach to understanding coevolution is predicated on the existence of variable selection across the landscape of an interaction between species. A range of ecological factors, from differences in resource availability to differences in community composition, can generate such a mosaic of selection among populations, and thereby differences in the strength of coevolution. The result is a mixture of hotspots, where reciprocal selection is strong, and coldspots, where reciprocal selection is weak or absent, throughout the ranges of species. Population subdivision further provides the opportunity for nonadaptive forces, including gene flow, drift, and metapopulation dynamics, to influence the coevolutionary interaction between species. Some predicted results of this geographic mosaic of coevolution include maladapted or mismatched phenotypes, maintenance of high levels of polymorphism, and prevention of stable equilibrium trait combinations. To evaluate the potential for the geographic mosaic to influence predator-prey coevolution, we investigated the geographic pattern of genetically determined TTX resistance in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis over much of the range of its ecological interaction with toxic newts of genus Taricha. We assayed TTX resistance in over 2900 garter snakes representing 333 families from 40 populations throughout western North America. Our results provide dramatic evidence that geographic structure is an important component in coevolutionary interactions between predators and prey. Resistance levels vary substantially (over three orders of magnitude) among populations and over short distances. The spatial array of variation is consistent with two areas of intense evolutionary response by predators ("hotspots") surrounded by clines of decreasing resistance. Some general predictions of the geographic mosaic process are supported, including clinal variation in phenotypes, polymorphism in some populations, and

  8. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the MojaveDesert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toadscollected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  9. Circulation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot measured from amateur and Hubble images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Jacquesson, M.

    2015-10-01

    The GRS has been shrinking ever since the early 20th century [1,2]. The shrinkage was particularly rapid in 2012-2014, so in 2014 the GRS had the smallest size ever recorded [4]. At the same time, the GRS became darker and redder, and its drift rate decelerated, which usually occurs only during SEB Fades. Changes in the internal circulation of the GRS can also be studied from amateur images, which are now good enough to record small streaks circulating within the GRS, as measured in 2006 and 2012 [2,3]. We have now measured amateur images in 2014-15, and on HST images for comparison, characterising the acceleration and shrinkage of the flow field within the GRS.

  10. A molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships and lineage accumulation rates within the family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisrock, David W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Macey, J Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H; Zhao, Ermi; Jowkar, Houman; Larson, Allan

    2006-11-01

    We examine phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the family Salamandridae using approximately 2700 bases of new mtDNA sequence data (the tRNALeu, ND1, tRNAIle, tRNAGln, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and COI genes and the origin for light-strand replication) collected from 96 individuals representing 61 of the 66 recognized salamandrid species and outgroups. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis are performed on the new data alone and combined with previously reported sequences from other parts of the mitochondrial genome. The basal phylogenetic split is a polytomy of lineages ancestral to (1) the Italian newt Salamandrina terdigitata, (2) a strongly supported clade comprising the "true" salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), and (3) a strongly supported clade comprising all newts except S. terdigitata. Strongly supported clades within the true salamanders include monophyly of each genus and grouping Chioglossa and Mertensiella as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Lyciasalamandra and Salamandra. Among newts, genera Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton form a strongly supported clade whose sister taxon comprises the genera Calotriton, Cynops, Euproctus, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus. Our results strongly support monophyly of all polytypic newt genera except Paramesotriton and Triturus, which appear paraphyletic, and Calotriton, for which only one of the two species is sampled. Other well-supported clades within newts include (1) Asian genera Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton, (2) North American genera Notophthalmus and Taricha, (3) the Triturus vulgaris species group, and (4) the Triturus cristatus species group; some additional groupings appear strong in Bayesian but not parsimony analyses. Rates of lineage accumulation through time are evaluated using this nearly comprehensive sampling of

  11. Phylogeny and biogeography of the family Salamandridae (Amphibia: Caudata) inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Wake, Marvalee H; Qu, Lianghu; Wake, David B

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of members of the salamander family Salamandridae were examined using complete mitochondrial genomes collected from 42 species representing all 20 salamandrid genera and five outgroup taxa. Weighted maximum parsimony, partitioned maximum likelihood, and partitioned Bayesian approaches all produce an identical, well-resolved phylogeny; most branches are strongly supported with greater than 90% bootstrap values and 1.0 Bayesian posterior probabilities. Our results support recent taxonomic changes in finding the traditional genera Mertensiella, Euproctus, and Triturus to be non-monophyletic species assemblages. We successfully resolved the current polytomy at the base of the salamandrid tree: the Italian newt genus Salamandrina is sister to all remaining salamandrids. Beyond Salamandrina, a clade comprising all remaining newts is separated from a clade containing the true salamanders. Among these newts, the branching orders of well-supported clades are: primitive newts (Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton), New World newts (Notophthalmus-Taricha), Corsica-Sardinia newts (Euproctus), and modern European newts (Calotriton, Lissotriton, Mesotriton, Neurergus, Ommatotriton, and Triturus) plus modern Asian newts (Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton).Two alternative sets of calibration points and two Bayesian dating methods (BEAST and MultiDivTime) were used to estimate timescales for salamandrid evolution. The estimation difference by dating methods is slight and we propose two sets of timescales based on different calibration choices. The two timescales suggest that the initial diversification of extant salamandrids took place in Europe about 97 or 69Ma. North American salamandrids were derived from their European ancestors by dispersal through North Atlantic Land Bridges in the Late Cretaceous ( approximately 69Ma) or Middle Eocene ( approximately 43Ma). Ancestors of Asian salamandrids most probably dispersed to the eastern Asia

  12. Variable phenotype and severity of sialidosis expressed in two siblings presenting with ataxia and macular cherry-red spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Rezende Pinto, Wladimir Bocca; Sgobbi de Souza, Paulo Victor; Pedroso, José Luiz; Barsottini, Orlando G P

    2013-09-01

    Sialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from nearly asymptomatic to severe presentations. We present two Brazilian siblings with sialidosis, the first patient with sialidosis type I, and the second with sialidosis type II. Our report reinforces the relevance of ophthalmologic evaluation in patients with early and late-onset ataxias, if an association with myoclonus or dysmorphic features is present or not. Also, we demonstrate that sialidosis might represent a single genetic entity with variable clinical expression through these two siblings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  14. Salamander Hox clusters contain repetitive DNA and expanded non-coding regions: a typical Hox structure for non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Stephen Randal; Putta, Srikrishna; Walker, John A; Smith, Jeramiah J; Maki, Nobuyasu; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-04-05

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic developmental processes. The expression of Hox genes is regulated in part by the tight, spatial arrangement of conserved coding and non-coding sequences. The potential for evolutionary changes in Hox cluster structure is thought to be low among vertebrates; however, recent studies of a few non-mammalian taxa suggest greater variation than originally thought. Using next generation sequencing of large genomic fragments (>100 kb) from the red spotted newt (Notophthalamus viridescens), we found that the arrangement of Hox cluster genes was conserved relative to orthologous regions from other vertebrates, but the length of introns and intergenic regions varied. In particular, the distance between hoxd13 and hoxd11 is longer in newt than orthologous regions from vertebrate species with expanded Hox clusters and is predicted to exceed the length of the entire HoxD clusters (hoxd13-hoxd4) of humans, mice, and frogs. Many repetitive DNA sequences were identified for newt Hox clusters, including an enrichment of DNA transposon-like sequences relative to non-coding genomic fragments. Our results suggest that Hox cluster expansion and transposon accumulation are common features of non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates.

  15. Characterization of nine new microsatellite loci for the marbled newt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triturus marmoratus is distributed throughout central, west- ern and southern France as well as in a large portion of north- ern Iberia. Despite being categorized as of least concern by the IUCN, it is protected by the Annex IV of the EU Habitats. Directive and the Annex III of the Bern Convention (Arntzen et al. 2009). As most ...

  16. Newts in time and space : the evolutionary history of Triturus newts at different temporal and spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espregueira Themudo, Gonçalo

    2010-01-01

    The interspecific relationships in the genus Triturus are incompletely known. In CHAPTER 2, we attempt to resolve them by using allozyme and mtDNA data. Despite the large number of markers used, relationships continue to elude us. The results suggest that speciation in the group occurred during a

  17. Solution structure and phylogenetics of Prod1, a member of the three-finger protein superfamily implicated in salamander limb regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acely Garza-Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the amputation of a limb, newts and salamanders have the capability to regenerate the lost tissues via a complex process that takes place at the site of injury. Initially these cells undergo dedifferentiation to a state competent to regenerate the missing limb structures. Crucially, dedifferentiated cells have memory of their level of origin along the proximodistal (PD axis of the limb, a property known as positional identity. Notophthalmus viridescens Prod1 is a cell-surface molecule of the three-finger protein (TFP superfamily involved in the specification of newt limb PD identity. The TFP superfamily is a highly diverse group of metazoan proteins that includes snake venom toxins, mammalian transmembrane receptors and miscellaneous signaling molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of identifying potential orthologs of Prod1, we have solved its 3D structure and compared it to other known TFPs using phylogenetic techniques. The analysis shows that TFP 3D structures group in different categories according to function. Prod1 clusters with other cell surface protein TFP domains including the complement regulator CD59 and the C-terminal domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. To infer orthology, a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of representative TFP family members was built and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. Prod1 has been proposed to be the salamander CD59 but our analysis fails to support this association. Prod1 is not a good match for any of the TFP families present in mammals and this result was further supported by the identification of the putative orthologs of both CD59 and N. viridescens Prod1 in sequence data for the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The available data suggest that Prod1, and thereby its role in encoding PD identity, is restricted to salamanders. The lack of comparable limb-regenerative capability in other adult vertebrates could be

  18. Tracing glacial refugia fo triturus newts based on mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and species distribution modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielstra, B.M.; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Reijnen, Bastian T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Toxopeus, A.G.; Tzankov, Nikolay; Vukov, Tanja; Arntzen, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The major climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Age heavily influenced the distribution of species and left their mark on intraspecific genetic diversity. Past range shifts can be reconstructed with the aid of species distribution modeling and phylogeographical analyses. We

  19. Economic thermoregulatory response explains mismatch between thermal physiology and behaviour in newts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Kristín, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 220 (2017), s. 1106-1111 ISSN 0022-0949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aerobic scope * Amphibians * Preferred temperature * Specific dynamic action * Thermal niche * Thermoregulatory behaviour Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.320, year: 2016

  20. Chronic exposure to cadmium disrupts the adrenal gland activity of the newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gay, Flaminia; Laforgia, Vincenza; Caputo, Ivana; Esposito, Carla; Lepretti, Marilena; Capaldo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L) and sewage waters (20 μg/L...

  1. What do Hillary Rodham Clinton and Newt Gingrich have in common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D F

    1995-10-25

    In a somewhat tongue-in-cheek style, this article tries to persuade conservatives that it might be in their best interests to consider broader health system reform alternatives in their quest to reduce the cost of federal health entitlements for a balanced budget by 2002. The conventional means for reducing the federal budget by $450 billion in 7 years will inflict much pain on many voters. The substitution of a new, more targeted entitlement, prospectively, for all Americans represents an alternative that provides much gain to many and only some pain to a few.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of red-tailed knobby newt (Tylototriton kweichowensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Jiang, Ye; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Yao, Yongfang; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-11-01

    The entire mitogenome of Tylototriton kweichowensis is 16 727 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGS), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), and 1 control region (CR). Except for ND6 subunit and 8 tRNA genes are distributed on the L-strand, all the other PCGs and tRNA genes are located on the H-strand. "ATG" and "GTG" are the start codons of the PCGs, "TAA", "AGA", "TA-" and "T--" are the stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into typical clover-leaf secondary structure. The genome of T. kweichowensis has two repeat sequences in the cob-noncoding region. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis (NJ tree) robustly resolved the genus-level relationship among the three genera Tylototriton, Echinotriton, and Pleurodeles, and which is congruent with the previous molecular phylogeny results.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wenxian Knobby Newt Tylototriton wenxianensis (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuyao; Jiang, Ye; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-07-01

    We newly sequenced the mitochondrial genome of Tylototriton wenxianensis. The total length of the T. wenxianensis mitogenome is 16 265 bp, with GenBank accession number KR733683. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), and one control region (CR). Most of the genes are encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6, which are encoded on the L-strand. Our mitogenomic phylogenetic tree showed that the relationships among the genera Tylototriton, Echinotriton, and Pleurodeles were well supported, and which is consistent with the previous molecular phylogeny.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Red knobby newt Tylototriton shanjing (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Yang, Mingxian; Han, Fuyao; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Yao, Yongfang; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome of Tylototriton shanjing is 16,661 bp in length with GenBank accession number KR154461, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), and 1 control region (CR). The overall base composition of this mitogenome is biased toward AT content at 59.45%. Most of the PCGs and tRNA genes are located on the H-strand, except for ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes, which were distributed on the L-strand. The PCGs used "ATG" and "GTG" as the start codons, while "TAA", "TAG", "AGA", and "T-" are used as stop codons. Almost all tRNA genes were folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structures. The T. shanjing genome had two tandem repeat sequences in the cob-noncoding region. The mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses shows that the genera Echinotriton and Tylototriton were clustered into a strong supported monophyletic clade, which is a sister clade to the genus Pleurodeles, this confirms the previous phylogenetic results.

  5. Assessment of environmental DNA for detecting presence of imperiled aquatic amphibian species in isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, Anna; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Barichivich, William J.; Spear, Stephen F.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Glenn, Travis C

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging tool that allows low-impact sampling for aquatic species by isolating DNA from water samples and screening for DNA sequences specific to species of interest. However, researchers have not tested this method in naturally acidic wetlands that provide breeding habitat for a number of imperiled species, including the frosted salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum), reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), striped newt (Notophthalmus perstriatus), and gopher frog (Lithobates capito). Our objectives for this study were to develop and optimize eDNA survey protocols and assays to complement and enhance capture-based survey methods for these amphibian species. We collected three or more water samples, dipnetted or trapped larval and adult amphibians, and conducted visual encounter surveys for egg masses for target species at 40 sites on 12 different longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts. We used quantitative PCRs to screen eDNA from each site for target species presence. We detected flatwoods salamanders at three sites with eDNA but did not detect them during physical surveys. Based on the sample location we assumed these eDNA detections to indicate the presence of frosted flatwoods salamanders. We did not detect reticulated flatwoods salamanders. We detected striped newts with physical and eDNA surveys at two wetlands. We detected gopher frogs at 12 sites total, three with eDNA alone, two with physical surveys alone, and seven with physical and eDNA surveys. We detected our target species with eDNA at 9 of 11 sites where they were present as indicated from traditional surveys and at six sites where they were not detected with traditional surveys. It was, however, critical to use at least three water samples per site for eDNA. Our results demonstrate eDNA surveys can be a useful complement to traditional survey methods for detecting imperiled pond-breeding amphibians. Environmental DNA may be particularly useful in situations

  6. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT); Comparacion de los resultados de quemado para reactores BWR con CASMO y SCALE 6.2 (TRITON/NEWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  7. Early ontogeny shows the same interspecific variation as natural history parameters in the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies) (Caudata, Salamandridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvijanović, M.; Ivanović, A.; Kolarov, N.T.; Džukić, G.; Kalezić, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    When the phenotypic divergence within a monophyletic group is characterised by parallel variation of different phenotypic traits, it is very likely that the environment through constraints and/or selection has affected the developmental pathways simultaneously. Such patterns of phenotypic divergence

  8. Effect of different restoration approaches on two species of newts (Amphibia: Caudata) in Central European lignite spoil heaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Vojtěch; Tichánek, Filip; Tropek, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, FEB 05 (2017), s. 310-315 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 158/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibians * biodiversity conservation * freshwaters Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.914, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857416306656

  9. Effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the phylogeography and demography of red knobby newt (Tylototriton shanjing) from southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Mingwang; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2013-01-01

    Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages corresponding to four population groups, and found that major glaciation events during the Pleistocene have triggered the intra-specific divergence. Coalescent simulations indicated that the populations retreated to different refugia located in southern Yunnan, northwestern Yunnan, the border region of western Yunnan with Myanmar, and middle-western Yunnan, respectively, during previous glacial periods in the Pleistocene, and these four refugia were not retained during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population expansions occurred during the last inter-glaciation, during which ice core and pollen data indicated that the temperature and precipitation gradually increased, and declines of population sizes started after the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum when the climate became cooler and dryer. The paleo-drainage system had no contribution to the current genetic structure and the rivers were not dispersal barriers for this salamander.

  10. Effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the phylogeography and demography of red knobby newt (Tylototriton shanjing from southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Yu

    Full Text Available Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages corresponding to four population groups, and found that major glaciation events during the Pleistocene have triggered the intra-specific divergence. Coalescent simulations indicated that the populations retreated to different refugia located in southern Yunnan, northwestern Yunnan, the border region of western Yunnan with Myanmar, and middle-western Yunnan, respectively, during previous glacial periods in the Pleistocene, and these four refugia were not retained during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population expansions occurred during the last inter-glaciation, during which ice core and pollen data indicated that the temperature and precipitation gradually increased, and declines of population sizes started after the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum when the climate became cooler and dryer. The paleo-drainage system had no contribution to the current genetic structure and the rivers were not dispersal barriers for this salamander.

  11. Effect of Pleistocene Climatic Oscillations on the Phylogeography and Demography of Red Knobby Newt (Tylototriton shanjing) from Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Yu; Mingwang Zhang; Dingqi Rao; Junxing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages correspond...

  12. Effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the phylogeography and demography of red knobby newt (Tylototriton shanjing) from southwestern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Mingwang; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic...

  13. Vertebral number is highly evolvable in salamanders and newts (family Salamandridae) and variably associated with climatic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Beukema, W.; Galis, F.; Ivanović, A.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, the relative proportion of the number of trunk and caudal vertebrae is an important determinant of body shape. While among amphibians frogs and toads show low variation in vertebrae numbers, in salamanders the numbers of trunk and caudal vertebrae vary widely, giving rise to

  14. Comparison of depletion results for a boiling water reactor fuel element with CASMO and SCALE 6.1 (TRITON/NEWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Morera, D.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G., E-mail: cmesado@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: dmorera@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@isirym.upv.es [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia (Spain). Institute for the Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety; Concejal, Alberto, E-mail: acbe@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construcion, S.A.U, Madrid (Spain); Soler, Amparo, E-mail: asoler@iberdrola.es [SEA Propulsion S. L., Madrid (Spain); Melara, Jose, E-mail: j.melara@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Generacion Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the results of depletion calculations with CASMO and SCALE 6.1 (TRITON) are compared. To achieve it, a region of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel element is modeled, using both codes. To take into account different operating conditions, the simulations are repeated with different void fraction, ranging from null void fraction to a void fraction closed to one. Special care was used to keep in mind that the homogenization of the materials and the two group approach was the same in both codes. Additionally, KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules are used. The k-effective calculated by KENO-VI is used to ensure that the starting point was correct and MCDANCOFF module is used to calculate the Dancoff factors in order to improve the model accuracy. To validate the whole process, a comparison of k{sub eff}, and cross-sections collapsed and homogenized is shown. The results show a very good agreement, with an average error around the 1.75%. Furthermore, an automatic process for translating CASMO data to SCALE input decks was developed. The reason for the translation is the fact that SCALE's TRITON module is a new code very powerful and continuously being developed. Thus, great advantage can be taken from the current and future SCALE features. This is hoped to produce more realistic models, and hence, increase the accuracy of neutronic libraries. (author)

  15. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  16. Longitudinal Variation and Waves in Jupiter's South Equatorial Wind Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.; Choi, D.; Allison, M. D.; Adamoli, G.; Mettig, H.-J.

    2012-03-01

    Jupiter's south equatorial winds and clouds are consistent with a high frequency, gravity-inertia, wave. A second, westward-moving, Rossby wave was also identified. Asymmetry with the north equatorial clouds are likely due to the Great Red Spot.

  17. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacies of four commercial insecticides and of two research compounds were tested against aphids (Aphis craccivora and Myzus persicae), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and red-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in intrinsic (oral administration), curative (direct contact...

  18. Genetic variation and differentiation of Gekko gecko from different populations based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences and karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin-Min; Li, Hui-Min; Zeng, Zhen-Hua; Zeng, De-Long; Guan, Qing-Xin

    2012-06-01

    Black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckos are distributed in different regions and have significant differences in morphological appearance, but have been regarded as the same species, Gekko gecko, in taxonomy. To determine whether black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckos are genetically differentiated, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1147 bp) from 110 individuals of Gekko gecko collected in 11 areas including Guangxi China, Yunnan China, Vietnam, and Laos. In addition, we performed karyotypic analyses of black-spotted tokay geckos from Guangxi China and red-spotted tokay geckos from Laos. These phylogenetic analyses showed that black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckos are divided into two branches in molecular phylogenetic trees. The average genetic distances are as follows: 0.12-0.47% among six haplotypes in the black-spotted tokay gecko group, 0.12-1.66% among five haplotypes in the red-spotted tokay gecko group, and 8.76-9.18% between the black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckos, respectively. The karyotypic analyses showed that the karyotype formula is 2n = 38 = 8m + 2sm + 2st + 26t in red-spotted tokay geckos from Laos compared with 2n = 38 = 8m + 2sm + 28t in black-spotted tokay geckos from Guangxi China. The differences in these two kinds of karyotypes were detected on the 15th chromosome. The clear differences in genetic levels between black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckos suggest a significant level of genetic differentiation between the two.

  19. MicroRNA dysregulation in response to RARβ2 inhibition reveals a negative feedback loop between MicroRNAs 1, 133a, and RARβ2 during tail and spinal cord regeneration in the adult newt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Amanda C; Carlone, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    The molecular events underlying epimorphic regeneration of the adult urodele amphibian tail and caudal spinal cord are undetermined. Given the dynamic nature of gene expression control by retinoic acid (RA) signaling and the pleiotropic effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on multiple mRNA targets in this complex system, we examined whether RA signaling through a specific receptor, RARβ2, alters expression of select miRNAs during spinal cord regeneration. An initial screen identified 18 highly conserved miRNAs dysregulated in regenerating tail and spinal cord tissues after inhibition of RARβ2 signaling with a selective antagonist, LE135. miRNAs let-7c, miR-1, and miR-223 were expressed within the ependymoglial cells, coincident spatially with the expression of RARβ2. Altering the expression pattern of these three miRNAs led to a significant inhibition of caudal ependymal tube outgrowth by 21 days post tail amputation. We demonstrated that miR-1 targets the 3'-untranslated region of RARβ2 mRNA in vitro; and in vivo, up-regulation of miR-1 led to a significant decrease in RARβ2 protein. These and previous data suggest that miR-1 and miR-133a, both members of the same miRNA gene cluster, may participate with RARβ2 in a negative feedback loop contributing to the regulation of the ependymal response after tail amputation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of natural flooding and manual trapping on the facilitation of invasive crayfish-native amphibian coexistence in a semi-arid perennial stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Lee B.; Bucciarelli, Gary; Vandergon, Thomas L.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.; Mattiasen, Evan; Sanders, Arthur; Riley, Seth P.D.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic amphibians are known to be vulnerable to a myriad of invasive predators. Invasive crayfish are thought to have eliminated native populations of amphibians in some streams in the semi-arid Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. Despite their toxic skin secretions that defend them from native predators, newts are vulnerable to crayfish attacks, and crayfish have been observed attacking adult newts, and eating newt egg masses and larvae. For 15 years, we have observed invasive crayfish and native California newts coexisting in one stream in the Santa Monica Mountains. During that period, we monitored the densities of both crayfish and newt egg mass densities and compared these to annual rainfall totals. After three seasons of below average rainfall, we reduced crayfish numbers by manual trapping. Our long-term data indicated that crayfish did not fare well in years when rainfall is above the historic average. This invasive predator did not evolve with high velocity streams, and observations indicated that southern California storm events washed crayfish downstream, killing many of them. Newts exhibit increased reproduction in years when crayfish numbers were reduced. A comparison with a nearby stream that does not contain crayfish indicated that newt reproduction positively responded to increased rainfall, but that fluctuations were much greater in the stream that contains crayfish. We suggest that rainfall patterns help explain invasive crayfish/newt coexistence and that management for future coexistence may benefit from manual trapping.

  1. Silicon compounds in the Jupiter atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, G.; Harteck, P.; Reeves, R. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of colored silicon compounds under nonequilibrium conditions is discussed with reference to the composition of the Jupiter atmosphere. It is shown that many of these reactions produce strongly colored intermediates that are relatively stable and similar in appearance to those observed on Jupiter. It is suggested that the silicon compounds could substantially contribute to the colors observed on Jupiter. The colored intermediates may be the result of relatively rapid amorphous silicon monoxide formation in vertical atmospheric currents in the region near the red spot and in the red spot itself.

  2. Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorphs in south-western Romania: a consequence of a human modified habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severus D. Covaciu-Marcov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorph population was identified for the first time ever in south-western Romania. The newts inhabiting a permanent but artificial habitat, surrounded by agricultural fields.

  3. Development of a robust monitoring tool for aquatic species: applications of molecular techniques to imperiled herpetofauna of the Southeastern US

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to determine the efficacy of eDNA procudures to detect flatwoods salamander, reticulated salamander, gopher frog, and the striped newt from wetlands and...

  4. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  5. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  6. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  7. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  8. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  9. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  10. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  11. A circum-corneal conjunctival nevus in a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, T.F.; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    An amelanotic, circum-corneal nevus in a 2-year-old child is described. The nevus presented at birth as a red spot in the nasal conjunctiva that subsequently enlarged to completely encircle the cornea. The tumour was partially removed three times, but at the age of 6 years, the nevus still covers...

  12. Military Working Dog Campus Revitalization: Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris crepitans blanchardi), Rio Grande leopard frog (Rana berlandieri), plains narrow mouth toad (Gastrophryne olivacea ), six-lined...Blanchard’s Cricket Frog Acris crepitans blanchardi Rio Grande Leopard Frog Rana berlandieri Plains Narrowmouth Toad Gastrophryne olivacea Red-spotted Toad

  13. Neuraminidase deficiency: case report and review of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I D; Young, E P; Mossman, J; Fielder, A R; Moore, J R

    1987-01-01

    A 12 year old boy with neuraminidase deficiency (sialidosis, mucolipidosis I) is described. His clinical features included coarse facies, cherry red spot, ataxia, myoclonus, and dysotosis multiplex. The level of neuraminidase activity in cultured fibroblasts was very low and intermediate levels were observed in both parents. The clinical disorders associated with neuraminidase deficiency are reviewed. Images PMID:3585942

  14. Pitfalls in Diagnosing Neuraminidase Deficiency : Psychosomatics and Normal Sialic Acid Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, Imre F; Ayuso, Viera Kalinina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33793259X; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817910; van Gassen, Koen L I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304819417; Cuppen, Inge|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314436529; van Hasselt, Peter M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814423; Visser, Gepke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229317057

    2015-01-01

    Neuraminidase deficiency (mucolipidosis I, sialidosis types I and II, cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder with an expanding clinical phenotype. Here, we report the striking diagnostic history of late-onset neuraminidase deficiency in two sisters, currently aged 14

  15. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  16. Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, William

    1984-01-01

    Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

  17. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  18. Ischemic cardiomyopathy revealed by central retinal artery occlusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report a case of central retinal artery occlusionrevealing an ischemic cardiomyopathy. A 54-year old smoker man presented at the hospital because of sudden visual loss in his left eye. There was cherry-red spot in the macula in his left eye. We performed a fluorescein angiogram and cervical color Doppler.

  19. Genetic population structuring and demographic history of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Biol. Evol. 18: 144-154. Tamaki K, Honza E (1991). Global tectonics and formation of marginal basins: role of the western Pacific. Episodes 14: 224-230. Tanaka H, Hirose K, Nogami K, Nogami K, Hattori K, Ishibashi N (1990). Sexual maturation and sex reversal in red-spotted grouper,. Epinephelus akaara.

  20. Gynaecological laparoscopy courses in the United Arab Emirates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    performing ovarian cystectomy, and performing laparoscopic salpingectomy using virtual reality (table. 2). Participants were initially oriented to equipments such as veress needle, trocars, different telescopes, camera, forceps, scissors and laparoscopic bags. Figure 2: Red spots drawn on sponge to simulate endometriosis ...

  1. 76 FR 62259 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... are sexually dimorphic. Males have black-edged red spots on the body and a bluish-green breast that intensifies in color at spawning time. Females have dark spots on the body that are larger and more diffuse... erytrogramma seminola) Rainbow snakes are iridescent, glossy black above, with three red stripes. The ventor is...

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-17

    Nov 17, 2015 ... Abstract. Here we report a case of central retinal artery occlusionrevealing an ischemic cardiomyopathy. A 54-year old smoker man presented at the hospital because of sudden visual loss in his left eye. There was cherry-red spot in the macula in his left eye. We performed a fluorescein angiogram and.

  3. Five year follow-up of two sisters with type II sialidosis: systemic and ophthalmic findings including OCT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rémi; Halimi, Emmanuel; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Holder, Muriel; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine

    2013-07-02

    The authors report a 5-year follow-up examination of two sisters diagnosed as having a juvenile form of type II sialidosis. Diagnosis occurred during a routine ophthalmic examination when the girls were 5 and 3 years old after bilateral macular cherry-red spots were revealed. Main clinical findings were hypotonia, hepatosplenomegaly, hearing loss, dysostosis, and respiratory distress. Ophthalmic symptoms were low visual acuity and nystagmus. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examination showed increased reflectivity of the retinal ganglion cells. Sialidosis may present as a mild form with slow progression. The cherry-red spots may be the first clue for proper diagnosis of storage disease. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examination unveiled the accumulation of sialic acid in the retinal ganglion cells and could potentially be used to monitor the progression of storage diseases. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Sialidosis type I: ophthalmological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Isa; Cachulo, Maria da Luz; Figueira, João; Silva, Rufino

    2014-10-16

    Sialidosis is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficit of neuraminidase. It is an autosomal recessive disease, heterogeneous in its onset, presentation and prognosis. We report a case of a male patient with molecular and enzymatic confirmation of the diagnosis. Symptoms began at age 26 with reduced visual acuity, bilateral cherry-red spots and later myoclonus. A brother, now deceased, had the same confirmed disease. We describe the symptoms and clinical findings of the patient, as well review the current knowledge on the topic. With this report, we highlight the importance of a clinical history integrating all the patient's symptoms in order to achieve the diagnosis. In the presence of a cherry-red spot, a comprehensive study is mandatory. Despite being a rare disease, sialidosis carries a significant burden for its patients and its diagnosis should always be considered in the appropriate setting. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with type 1 sialidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Hannah M; Roxburgh, Richard H; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Hutchinson, David O

    2016-09-01

    Type 1 sialidosis is a metabolic storage disorder characterised by the accumulation of sialylated oligosaccharides. The condition is also known as macular cherry-red spot and myoclonus syndrome due to the characteristic macular appearance in affected individuals. This case outlines the presentation of a patient with type 1 sialidosis, including ophthalmological assessment with retinal photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT scans showed thickening of the perimacular and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, thought to be due to the abnormal accumulation of metabolic products. The cherry-red spot appearance is due to the normal appearing macula being seen in contrast to the abnormally pale surrounding, thickened retinal nerve fibre layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Alpha-locus hexosaminidase genetic compound with juvenile gangliosidosis phenotype: clinical, genetic, and biochemical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, W G; Cohen, C S; Miranda, A F; Waran, S P; Chutorian, A M

    1980-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy developed progressive neurological deterioration in his third year, characterized by dementia, ataxia, myoclonic jerks, and bilateral macular cherry-red spots. Hexosaminidase A (HEX A) was partially decreased in the patient's serum, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts. Hexosaminidase was studied in serum and leukocytes from family members. Four members of the paternal branch appeared to be carriers of classical infantile Tay-Sachs allele, HEX alpha 2, probably receiving...

  8. New Horizons at Jupiter: New views of jovian meteorology, circulation, waves and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin; Momary, Thomas; Simon-Miller, Amy; Reuter, Dennis; Jennings, Don; Weaver, Harold; Cheng, Andrew; Spencer, John; Gladstone, Randy; Stern, Alan

    Enroute to Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft encountered Jupiter in January-March 2007, producing stunning new views and revelations about the planet's dynamic meteorology. The sharpest multi-spectral global views ever obtained in the near-infrared revealed spectroscopicallyidentifiable ammonia clouds (SIACs) near 30 degrees south latitude, the first such detection of discrete ammonia clouds southward of the Great Red Spot. Movies of these clouds obtained over four jovian days revealed their rapid development and dissipation, consistent with a lifetime for SIACs of a few days. Winds within the Little Red Spot (LRS) measured by the LORRI telescopic imager were found to be comparable to those previously measured for the Great Red Spot. The turbulent wake region northwest of the Great Red Spot, observed repeatedly by the LEISA near-infrared spectral mapper, was found to be atypically quiescent, absent the dynamic cloud systems observed repeatedly over the previous 28 years by the Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini spacecraft. Compared to previous spacecraft views, a significant thinning of clouds is reported for the southern half of the Equatorial Region. Mesoscale wave structures were observed by LORRI at low latitudes at a spatial resolution of ˜ 11 km, yielding a longitudinal wavelength of 300 km. Temporal coverage by MVIC resulted in the first measurement of phase velocity for such waves: ˜ 100 m/s. Lightning was discovered at both poles, the first such optical detection of polar lightning for any planet beyond the Earth. The mean polar lightning radiative flux is found to be comparable to that previously reported for the mid-latitudes and significantly greater than reported for the equatorial region, consistent with internal heating being the main driver of convection on Jupiter.

  9. Contingency Pest and Vector Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    timid , medium-sized spiders (ə inch long), and shiny black in color. The abdomens are variously marked with red spots or other shapes. The red...of water. Several standing pools may be drained into one, and the water pumped from this pool to the selected outfall. Filling and grading ...Fill and grade shallow pools to prevent mosquitoes from breeding in such places as beneath buildings, on improved grounds, or beside roadways. Filling

  10. Chaperone–Mediated Gene Therapy with Recombinant AAV-PPCA in a New Mouse Model of Type I Sialidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonten, Erik J.; Yogalingam, Gouri; Hu, Huimin; Gomero, Elida; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The lysosomal storage disease sialidosis is caused by a primary deficiency of the sialidase NEU1. Patients with type I sialidosis develop an attenuated, non-neuropathic form of the disease also named cherry red spot myoclonus syndrome, with symptoms arising during juvenile/ adult age. NEU1 requires binding to its chaperone, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), for lysosomal compartmentalization, stability and catalytic activation. We have generated a new mouse model of type I sialidosis tha...

  11. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  12. Extracellular Control of Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calve, S.; Simon, H.-G.

    Adult newts possess the ability to completely regenerate organs and appendages. Immediately after limb loss, the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes dramatic changes that may provide mechanical and biochemical cues to guide the formation of the blastema, which is comprised of uncommitted stem-like cells that proliferate to replace the lost structure. Skeletal muscle is a known reservoir for blastema cells but the mechanism by which it contributes progenitor cells is still unclear. To create physiologically relevant culture conditions for the testing of primary newt muscle cells in vitro, the spatio-temporal distribution of ECM components and the mechanical properties of newt muscle were analyzed. Tenascin-C and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found to be dramatically upregulated in the amputated limb and were co-expressed around regenerating skeletal muscle. The transverse stiffness of muscle measured in situ was used as a guide to generate silicone-based substrates of physiological stiffness. Culturing newt muscle cells under different conditions revealed that the cells are sensitive to both matrix coating and substrate stiffness: Myoblasts on HA-coated soft substrates display a rounded morphology and become more elongated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. Coating of soft substrates with matrigel or fibronectin enhanced cell spreading and eventual cell fusion.

  13. TRACKING STEM CELLS IN AN INHERENTLY REGENRATIVE ENVIRONMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hagensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative potential in humans is very limited. Like other mammals we rely heavily on fibrosis and scar formation in response to injury. On the contrary, urodele amphibians (salamanders and newts) such as the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) are champions of tissue regeneration among...

  14. All about Amphibians. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This videotape teaches children about their favorite amphibious creatures, as well as amphibians' nearest cousins--toads, newts, and salamanders. Young students discover how these amazing creatures can live both in and out of water, learn about the amphibious life cycle, and compare the differences between amphibians and reptiles. This videotape…

  15. Phylogeographic analysis reveals northerly refugia for the riverine amphibian Triturus dobrogicus (Caudata: Salamandridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vörös, J.; Mikulíček, Peter; Major, Á.; Recuero, E.; Arntzen, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 4 (2016), s. 974-991 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Danube River * microsatellites * mitochondrial DNA * newt * riverine barrier * riverine dispersal * Sava River Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  16. 76 FR 32911 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Striped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... (approximately 12 to 15 years) in order to cope with unfavorable stochastic environmental events (e.g., drought..., p. 610) found a decline in striped newts due to persistent drought conditions. Johnson (2002, p. 399... longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystems (Johnson 2001, p. 114; Johnson 2005, p. 95). Within metapopulations...

  17. Design of an ecological network for Piano di Navelli (Abruzzo); networks for LIFEE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, van der E.A.; Sluis, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a design for an ecological network at Piano di Navelli, Abruzzo, Italy. The design is based on habitat and corridor requirements of five indicator species: green lizard (Lacerta bilineata), Italian crested newt (Triturus carnifex)water shrew (Neomys fodiens), hedgehog (Erinaceus

  18. Costly neighbours: Heterospecific competitive interactions increase metabolic rates in dominant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, M.; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5177 (2017), č. článku 5177. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : interference competition * intraspecific variation * terrestrial salamander * energy metabolism * natural selection * newts Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. Data Mining Feature Subset Weighting and Selection Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    bass, carp, catfish, chub, dogfish, haddock, herring, pike, piranha, seahorse , sole, stingray, tuna Class 5 (4) frog, frog, newt, toad Class 6 (8... reproduction numeric patterns by data processing machines, effects of hereditary control, mutation type and crossing,” J. Theoret. Biol. , vol. 17, pp

  20. 75 FR 13720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Striped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... climate change on this species and its habitat. If we determine that listing the striped newt is warranted... olive- green to dark brown. The belly is yellow, usually sparsely marked with black specks. The skin of... pond where its skin changes into the aquatic adult form. If a breeding pond retains water and does not...

  1. Physiological Responses to Salinity Vary with Proximity to the Ocean in a Coastal Amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Brusch, George A; Hopkins, Zoë M; French, Susannah S

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater organisms are increasingly exposed to elevated salinity in their habitats, presenting physiological challenges to homeostasis. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to osmotic stress and yet are often subject to high salinity in a variety of inland and coastal environments around the world. Here, we examine the physiological responses to elevated salinity of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) inhabiting a coastal stream on the Pacific coast of North America and compare the physiological responses to salinity stress of newts living in close proximity to the ocean with those of newts living farther upstream. Although elevated salinity significantly affected the osmotic (body weight, plasma osmolality), stress (corticosterone), and immune (bactericidal ability) responses of newts, animals found closer to the ocean were generally less reactive to salt stress than those found farther upstream. Our results provide possible evidence for some physiological tolerance in this species to elevated salinity in coastal environments. As freshwater environments become increasingly saline and more stressful, understanding the physiological tolerances of vulnerable groups such as amphibians will become increasingly important to our understanding of their abilities to respond, to adapt, and, ultimately, to survive.

  2. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, November (2016), s. 110-114 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Caloric reserves * Ichthyosaura * Lissotriton * Metabolic rate * Newt * Oxygen consumption * Respirometry * Salamander * Thermal sensitivity * Wintering Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2016

  3. Sialidosis Type 1 with a Novel Mutation in the Neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Srinivasan, Varun M; Benakappa, Naveen; Benakappa, Asha

    2017-05-01

    A patient with Sialidosis type 1 with a novel variation in neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) is described. The patient developed ataxia and myoclonus at 9 y of age. He was born to a second degree consanguineous marriage couple. On examination child had cerebellar signs and bilateral macular cherry-red spots. MRI of the brain and electroencephalogram were normal. The enzyme analysis revealed deficiency of neuraminidase. Genetic analysis identified novel homozygous missense mutation c.742G > T (p.G248C) in exon 4 of NEU1 gene. At 13 y of age, the ataxia and had myoclonus progressed.

  4. A new species of Nemipterus (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) and first record of N. nematophorus (Bleeker) from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barry C; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2017-02-09

    A new species of threadfin bream, Nemipterus sugillatus, from Taiwan and Indonesia is described and figured. Nemipterus sugillatus n. sp. resembles N. virgatus (Houttuyn) in colour pattern but differs from the latter, notably in lacking a second yellow stripe along the base of the dorsal fin, and by the absence of a red spot at the origin of the lateral line. Nemipterus sugillatus n. sp. is also distinct from N. virgatus in having only 7 anal soft rays (versus 8) and in lacking a long trailing caudal filament. Nemipterus nematophorus Bleeker is reported for the first time from Taiwan. A key to the species of Nemipterus from Taiwan is provided.

  5. Latest Results on Jupiter's Atmosphere and Radiation Belts from the Juno Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) was designed to investigate Jupiter's atmosphere and radiation belts as one of a suite of instruments that form the core of the Juno mission. The traces of absolute nadir brightness temperature for the first six perijove pass has been used to infer a striking variation in the distribution of NH3, which traces a previously unexpected deep circulation. The accumulation of data from all perijove passes obtained to date demonstrate the longitudinal, temporal, and depth dependencies of observed structures. Partial 3D maps show the structure and depths of specific features on Jupiter, notably the polar regions and the Great Red Spot.

  6. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  7. Ocular features of multiple sulfatase deficiency and a new variant of metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, J B; Philippart, M; Isenberg, S J

    1984-01-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency, a newly recognized autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of several sulfatase enzymes, is characterized by psychomotor retardation, ichthyosis, and mild organomegaly. Patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy, also an autosomal recessive disorder, have a deficiency of a single sulfatase enzyme, arysulfatase A. The ocular features of a patient with multiple sulfatase deficiency and a patient with a new biochemical variant of metachromatic leukodystrophy are described. The patient with multiple sulfatase deficiency had a unique, peripheral lens opacity and a panretinal degeneration. The patient with a new variant of metachromatic leukodystrophy exhibited a cherry-red spot.

  8. Dynamics of the Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    vorticty consrvatio directly from the shallow water equations: dv .+ fk x v=-gVh. and sad da•+hV~v=O where h := h, - h, is the layer thidmess, h. is the...Jovian vortices, su(ch as the Great Red Spot ( GIRS ) of Jupiter and White Ovals. In particular we argue that the GIRS shows both finite L,. effects. On...located just south of the flow’s stagnation point. The southern part of the GIRS has grown ill size until it lies in a. region of large prograde shear

  9. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj, E-mail: kulahin@plab.ku.dk [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, Fruebjergvej 3, Box 58, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kiselyov, Vladislav [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kochoyan, Arthur [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, Fruebjergvej 3, Box 58, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kristensen, Ole; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gajhede, Michael [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-02-01

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures.

  10. Haplometra cylindracea (Zeder, 1800) (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae): variation in the dates of cercarial shedding for overwintering Galba truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P.; Dreyfuss, G.; Rondelaud, D.

    2011-01-01

    Natural infections of Galba truncatula with Haplometra cylindracea were followed from 2001 to 2009 to determine if their characteristics were similar when snails came from water collections frequented by Bufo bufo or by frogs and newts for their egg-laying. Snail samples were collected from both types of sites to count shed cercariae for three days and also free cercariae when snails were dissected. In sites only frequented by B. bufo, cercarial shedding occurred earlier than in those colonized by frogs and newts (March instead of April-May). In contrast, the number of cercariae shed during three successive days was significantly higher in May. This variation in the dates of cercarial shedding might be due, either to a synchronism between cercaria-releasing snails and the presence of the definitive host (tadpoles) in water collections, or to an earlier infection of overwintering snails in autumn by H. cylindracea miracidia in the case of toad-frequented sites. PMID:21678794

  11. How do we share food? Feeding of four amphibian species from an aquatic habitat in south–western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan, H. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding of four amphibian species (Triturus cristatus, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina variegata, Pelophylax ridibundus was studied in 2011, in south–western Romania. The diet of the newts was uniform and mostly composed of aquatic preys The diet of the anurans was more diversified, comprising more prey taxa, mostly terrestrial. The trophic niches of the two newt species overlapped highly but differed from those of the anurans. The trophic niches of the anurans differed from one another. The differences among the four species’ diets were determined by the use of different trophic resources, originating from different environments, and by their different sizes. The newts’ diet was less diversified because the aquatic habitat was small and poor in trophic availability. The anurans used the aquatic habitat as a base from where they captured terrestrial preys in the surrounding terrestrial environment.

  12. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Song, Fangfang; Li, Xiangyang; Rong, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Muxun; Yao, Ping; Hao, Liping; Yang, Nianhong; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2010-08-25

    Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM) and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001). Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001). The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  13. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  14. Gears and Power Transmission Systems for Helicopters and Turboprops; Conference Proceedings: Propulsion and Energetics Panel Symposium (64th) Held at Lisbon, Portugal on 8-12 October 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    points esitremement tiombreux squi curresnt dans Ie cadre die ces domaines critiques. Cest en songeant h cc probterne el aussi poutr repondre ii...tin newt requircments. the participants were engineers and management engaged in K & 1). manutfactutrintg. testing. certtftcatiioi. aiti education ...convinced me to accept this challenge. Here I am, hoping that all of us are going to have a productive and educational meeting, one in which we will

  15. Phase-II conjugation ability for PAH metabolism in amphibians: characteristics and inter-species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Haruki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines amphibian metabolic activity - particularly conjugation - by analysis of pyrene (a four ring, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector (FD), a mass spectrometry detector (MS) system and kinetic analysis of conjugation enzymes. Six amphibian species were exposed to pyrene (dissolved in water): African claw frog (Xenopus laevis); Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi); Montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris); Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa); Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster); and Clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus); plus one fish species, medaka (Oryzias latipes); and a fresh water snail (Clithon retropictus), and the resultant metabolites were collected. Identification of pyrene metabolites by HPLC and ion-trap MS system indicated that medaka mainly excreted pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG), while pyrene-1-sulfate (PYOS) was the main metabolite in all amphibian species. Pyrene metabolites in amphibians were different from those in invertebrate fresh water snails. Inter-species differences were also observed in pyrene metabolism among amphibians. Metabolite analysis showed that frogs relied more strongly on sulfate conjugation than did Japanese newts and clouded salamanders. Furthermore, urodelan amphibians, newts and salamanders, excreted glucose conjugates of pyrene that were not detected in the anuran amphibians. Kinetic analysis of conjugation by hepatic microsomes and cytosols indicated that differences in excreted metabolites reflected differences in enzymatic activities. Furthermore, pyrenediol (PYDOH) glucoside sulfate was detected in the Japanese newt sample. This novel metabolite has not been reported previously to this report, in which we have identified unique characteristics of amphibians in phase II pyrene metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Regeneration of organs and tissues in lower vertebrates during and after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitashov, V. I.; Brushlinskaya, N. V.; Grigoryan, E. N.; Tuchkova, S. Ya.; Anton, H. J.

    In this paper most important data obtained in studies on the effect of space flight conditions on regeneration in the adult newt are summarized. We demonstrate a phenomenon of synchronization of limb and lens regeneration and increase in its rate during and after space flight. We also describe a peculiarities of cell proliferation in lens, limb and tail regenerates and of the process of minced muscle regeneration.

  17. Purification and characterization of cholecystokinin from the skin of salamander Tylototriton verrucosus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wen-Bin; HAKIM, Ma; Luo, Lei; LI, Bo-Wen; Yang, Shi-Long; SONG, Yu-Zhu; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-01-01

    As a group of intestinal hormones and neurotransmitters, cholecystokinins (CCKs) regulate and affect pancreatic enzyme secretion, gastrointestinal motility, pain hypersensitivity, digestion and satiety, and generally contain a DYMGWMDFG sequence at the C-terminus. Many CCKs have been reported in mammals. However, only a few have been reported in amphibians, such as Hyla nigrovittata, Xenopus laevis, and Rana catesbeiana, with none reported in urodele amphibians like newts and salamanders. Her...

  18. Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorphs in south-western Romania: a consequence of a human modified habitat ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorph population was identified for the first time ever in south-western Romania. The occurrence of this paedomorphosis is explained by the particularities of the area, the newts inhabiting a permanent but artificial habitat, surrounded by agricultural fields. Thus, the presence of an acceptable aquatic habitat together with the absence of a suitable terrestrial one triggered the occurrence of paedomorphosis.

  19. Provenance of Ichthyosaura alpestris (Caudata: Salamandridae) introductions to France and New Zealand assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, Jan W.; King, Tania M.; Denoël, Mathieu; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Wallis, Graham P.

    2016-01-01

    The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a particularly vulnerable group, exacerbated by the devastating effects of chytrid fungi. We report the malicious translocation and establishment of the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) to its virtual antipode in North Island of New Zealand. We use network analysis of mitochondrial DNA hapl...

  20. The benefits of heterospecific oophagy in a top predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Demars, Bertrand

    2008-07-01

    Oophagy is a behavioural pattern that has been found in a large variety of predator species in the animal kingdom. In contrast to other modes of feeding, it is peculiar in that it involves the detection, capture and ingestion of immobile prey. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origin and persistence of this pattern, but they have rarely been tested. The aim of this study was to compare the benefits of a heterospecific oophagous tactic over a non-oophageous diet in terms of biomass intake. To this end, stomach contents were gathered by flushing the stomachs of male and female Alpine newts ( Mesotriton alpestris) found in forestry ruts (i.e. pools caused by traffic) during their reproductive period. Prey items were identified, classified into functional categories and their dry mass determined. Frog ( Rana temporaria) eggs are valuable prey items that give a higher biomass intake to individuals foraging on them than on those relying on invertebrates. Both sexes of newts practice oophagy but frog eggs are a transient resource that is only available during a part of their aquatic phase. Consequently, the newts adjust their diet to invertebrate predation later in the season after the peak of the frogs' breeding season. Oophagy is thus facultative and not obligate in the study species. The correlated occurrence of prey and predator, similarities between frog eggs and mobile potential prey (tadpoles), and high resource intake are all in favour of the occurrence and persistence of an oophagous feeding tactic.

  1. Species identification by conservation practitioners using online images: accuracy and agreement between experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Gail E; Bindemann, Markus; Griffiths, Richard A; Roberts, David L

    2018-01-01

    Emerging technologies have led to an increase in species observations being recorded via digital images. Such visual records are easily shared, and are often uploaded to online communities when help is required to identify or validate species. Although this is common practice, little is known about the accuracy of species identification from such images. Using online images of newts that are native and non-native to the UK, this study asked holders of great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) licences (issued by UK authorities to permit surveying for this species) to sort these images into groups, and to assign species names to those groups. All of these experts identified the native species, but agreement among these participants was low, with some being cautious in committing to definitive identifications. Individuals' accuracy was also independent of both their experience and self-assessed ability. Furthermore, mean accuracy was not uniform across species (69-96%). These findings demonstrate the difficulty of accurate identification of newts from a single image, and that expert judgements are variable, even within the same knowledgeable community. We suggest that identification decisions should be made on multiple images and verified by more than one expert, which could improve the reliability of species data.

  2. Species identification by conservation practitioners using online images: accuracy and agreement between experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail E. Austen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging technologies have led to an increase in species observations being recorded via digital images. Such visual records are easily shared, and are often uploaded to online communities when help is required to identify or validate species. Although this is common practice, little is known about the accuracy of species identification from such images. Using online images of newts that are native and non-native to the UK, this study asked holders of great crested newt (Triturus cristatus licences (issued by UK authorities to permit surveying for this species to sort these images into groups, and to assign species names to those groups. All of these experts identified the native species, but agreement among these participants was low, with some being cautious in committing to definitive identifications. Individuals’ accuracy was also independent of both their experience and self-assessed ability. Furthermore, mean accuracy was not uniform across species (69–96%. These findings demonstrate the difficulty of accurate identification of newts from a single image, and that expert judgements are variable, even within the same knowledgeable community. We suggest that identification decisions should be made on multiple images and verified by more than one expert, which could improve the reliability of species data.

  3. MORBILI PADA ANAK DALAM PENGOBATAN ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Dipta Nugraha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MEASLES IN CHILDREN WITH ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV ON TREATMENT ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbili is an acute viral infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted morbili. Morbili is a contagious acute viral infectious disease that is characterized by three stages: catarrhal stage, eruption stage and convalence stage. Another name morbili is measles, measles, or rubeola. Morbili caused by a virus that is classified as Family paramyxovirus, the virus genus morbili contained in nasopharyngeal secretions and blood during the prodromal period until 24 hours after the onset of spots. Case: Patient male, 6 years old, Hindu, Balinese tribe, came with complaints of febris since 5 days ago. Febris is not measured with a thermometer. The heat is felt up and down, getting better with medicine. Complaints red spots felt since 1 day ago. Originally discovered red spots appear in the neck area and then to the face and chest. The incidence of rash accompanied by itching and heat. This complaint is accompanied with nosebleeds 1 day ago, cough with sputum since 5 days ago and the red eye from one day ago. Patients feel the first time such complaints. Having a history of antiretroviral use regularly since 1.5 years old. Keywords: rash, morbili, HIV, antiretroviral drugs.

  4. [Tay-Sachs disease in non-Jewish infant in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease, also known as GM2 gangliosidosis or Hexosaminidase A deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic fatal disorder. The disease is known to appear in East European Ashkenazi Jews, North African Jews, and Quebec French Canadians exclusively, but, with different frequency and type of mutation. Its most common variant is the infantile type Tay-Sachs disease. Juvenile and late-onset forms of the disease are infrequent and slowly progressive. At nearly 3 to 6 months old, a baby with Tay-Sachs progressively loses his motor skills and attentiveness. Startle responses and hyperreflexia become prominent, especially on eliciting deep patellar and Achilles reflexes, as a consequence of neurodegeneration of the upper motor neuron. Other systemic damage ensues gradually; seizures, blindness, spasticity of limbs, inability to swallow and breathe, and eventually the baby dies at 1-4 years of age. All Tay-Sachs patients have a "cherry red spot", easily seen in the macula area of the retina, using an ophthalmoscope. The "cherry red spot" is the only normal part of the retina in these sick babies. The case presented here emphasizes that Tay-Sachs disease is sometimes misdiagnosed at first visits even by an experienced clinician, because of his lack of awareness that this disease is not exclusively a Jewish disease.

  5. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. A mismatch between the perceived fighting signal and fighting ability reveals survival and physiological costs for bearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac González-Santoyo

    Full Text Available Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink in territory owners, we investigated: a the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b survival cost and c three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed, experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers.

  7. Nail Involvement in Alopecia Areata: A Questionnaire-based Survey on Clinical Signs, Impact on Quality of Life and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne B.M. Roest

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is an immune-mediated disease causing temporary or permanent hair loss. Up to 46% of patients with AA also have nail involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the presence, types, and clinical implications of nail changes in patients with AA. This questionnaire-based survey evaluated 256 patients with AA. General demographic variables, specific nail changes, nail-related quality of life (QoL, and treatment history and need were evaluated. Prevalence of nail involvement in AA was 64.1%. The specific nail signs reported most frequently were pitting (29.7%, p = 0.008 and trachyonychia (18.0%. Red spots on the lunula were less frequent (5.1%, but very specific for severe AA. Nail-related QoL was only minimally affected by nail changes. In conclusion, nail involvement is common in patients with AA and presents mostly with pitting and trachyonychia. The presence of these nail changes reflects the severity of the disease, with red spots on the lunula as a predictor for severe alopecia

  8. Optical coherence tomography features in a case of Type I sialidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Hua; Lin, Ting-Yu; Kao, Shu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with progressive myoclonic epilepsy and unbalance gaits for 4 years. Slit lamp examination showed a punctate cataract and funduscopic examination revealed bilateral macular cherry-red spots. Macular scan of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed hyperreflectivity of the inner retinal layer and apparent hyperreflectivity of the photoreceptor layers in the foveal region. The clinical presentations were consistent with a Type I sialidosis which led to genetic analysis and revealed NEU1 mutation in this patient. He was under regular follow-up by ophthalmologist and neurologist. Sialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of alpha-N-acetyl neuraminidase caused by a mutation in the NEU1 gene. This results in abnormal intracellular accumulation of sialyloligosaccharides in brain neurons and ganglion cells of the retina. SD-OCT is a useful tool in detecting macular cherry-red spot and has a role in evaluating the extent of ganglion cell damage. It can aid in the differential diagnosis and long-term follow-up of the neurological metabolic disorders.

  9. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible. Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely. At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  10. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to

  11. Body size, swimming speed, or thermal sensitivity? Predator-imposed selection on amphibian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Smolinský, Radovan

    2015-11-02

    Many animals rely on their escape performance during predator encounters. Because of its dependence on body size and temperature, escape velocity is fully characterized by three measures, absolute value, size-corrected value, and its response to temperature (thermal sensitivity). The primary target of the selection imposed by predators is poorly understood. We examined predator (dragonfly larva)-imposed selection on prey (newt larvae) body size and characteristics of escape velocity using replicated and controlled predation experiments under seminatural conditions. Specifically, because these species experience a wide range of temperatures throughout their larval phases, we predict that larvae achieving high swimming velocities across temperatures will have a selective advantage over more thermally sensitive individuals. Nonzero selection differentials indicated that predators selected for prey body size and both absolute and size-corrected maximum swimming velocity. Comparison of selection differentials with control confirmed selection only on body size, i.e., dragonfly larvae preferably preyed on small newt larvae. Maximum swimming velocity and its thermal sensitivity showed low group repeatability, which contributed to non-detectable selection on both characteristics of escape performance. In the newt-dragonfly larvae interaction, body size plays a more important role than maximum values and thermal sensitivity of swimming velocity during predator escape. This corroborates the general importance of body size in predator-prey interactions. The absence of an appropriate control in predation experiments may lead to potentially misleading conclusions about the primary target of predator-imposed selection. Insights from predation experiments contribute to our understanding of the link between performance and fitness, and further improve mechanistic models of predator-prey interactions and food web dynamics.

  12. Regeneration of eye tissues is modulated by altered levels of gravity at 1g, 2g, and in microgravity during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Mitashov, Victor

    The pursuit of human space exploration requires detailed knowledge of microgravity-related changes in fundamental biological processes, and their effects on health. Normal regeneration of organs and tissues is one such fundamental process that allows maintenance of vitality and function of living organisms. Animal models of tissue regeneration include the newt (Pleurodeles waltl, Urodela) eye, which has been extensively used by our team in Russian Bion and Foton microgravity experiments since 1985, and in recent NASA 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge hypergravity experiments. In total, these experiments allow us to draw several broad conclusions: Newt lens regeneration is significantly altered in microgravity and hypergravity relative to 1g controls. Lenses formed in microgravity are larger and more developed than those regenerated in 1g controls; Microgravity alterations of lens regeneration can persist after spaceflight, and continue to affect repeated removal and regeneration of the lens after return to 1g; Microgravity increases the numbers of early stage regenerative proliferating BrdU-labeled cells in dorsal iris progenitors and in the lens regenerate. Regeneration under hypergravity conditions at 2g inhibits lens regeneration, and often causes retinal detachment. Molecular mechanisms regulating lens regeneration rate include FGF2 signaling, (a key pathway for eye tissue development and regeneration), and an expression of stress-related proteins - HSPs. In conclusion, regeneration of lens and other eye tissues in the newt is sensitive to, and regulated by the level of gravity mechanotransduction and developmental signaling pathways, with microgravity favoring stem cell progenitor proliferation, and gravity at 1g promoting terminal differentiation, while hypergravity at 2g often causes damage of delicate regenerating tissues.

  13. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca; Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5nM/L in drinking water and 178nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5nM/L and 178nM/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SCALE 5.1 Predictions of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this calculation report is to document the comparison to measurement of the isotopic concentrations for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel determined with the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 5.1 (Ref. ) epletion calculation method. Specifically, the depletion computer code and the cross-section library being evaluated are the twodimensional (2-D) transport and depletion module, TRITON/NEWT,2, 3 and the 44GROUPNDF5 (Ref. 4) cross-section library, respectively, in the SCALE .1 code system.

  15. Revisiting the relationship between regenerative ability and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifert Ashley W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contrary to the longstanding view that newts (Notophthalamus viridescens, but not axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum, can regenerate a lens, a recent report in BMC Biology by Panagiotis Tsonis and colleagues shows axolotls indeed possess this ability during early larval stages. In contrast, they show that zebrafish never posses this ability, even as embryos. This underscores the importance of comparing regenerative ability across species and reinforces the need to consider organ regeneration in the context of evolution, development, and aging. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/103

  16. Could we also be regenerative superheroes, like salamanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnese, Alessandra; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Development of methods to reawaken the semi-dormant regenerative potential that lies within adult human tissues would hold promise for the restoration of diseased or damaged organs and tissues. While most of the regeneration potential is suppressed in many vertebrates, including humans, during adult life, urodele amphibians (salamanders) retain their regenerative ability throughout adulthood. Studies in newts and axolotls, two salamander models, have provided significant knowledge about adult limb regeneration. In this review, we present a comparative analysis of salamander and mammalian regeneration and discuss how evolutionarily altered properties of the regenerative environment can be exploited to restore full regenerative potential in the human body. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Internet censorship: Congress moves toward final decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirken, B

    1995-12-01

    The House and the Senate have passed proposals restricting the online access to obscene or indecent information. AIDS activists and service organizations fear that the proposals will restrict the distribution of HIV/AIDS information. A House/Senate conference committee soon will meet for a final decision. Religious right organizations are pressing for additional restrictions, while civil liberties, arts, and libertarian groups have expressed opposition on freedom-of-speech grounds. Some conservatives, including Newt Gingrich (R-GA), believe that the proposals may retard the growth of online communication.

  18. Tail regeneration in Urodela: old model and new perspectives in studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, E.; Anton, H.; Mitashov, V.

    For better understanding of micro-"g" effect on nervous tissue regeneration we have chosen the regeneration of the Urodele tail, because it utilizes many developmental processes and represents the most convenient model for experiments in Space. The special interesting aspect lies in the ability of regenerates to differentiate the spinal cord (SC) and this, in turn, has a potential of practical application. Meanwhile there are conclusive evidences suggesting the production by SC cells the neurotrophic factors promoting cell proliferation and differentiation in growing tail regenerate. Previously our studies on tail regeneration in the adult newt showed that the force of gravity clearly inf luences the events underlying the regeneration. We reported the significant increase of tail regeneration rate and tissue volume of tail regenerates in the newts exposed to real and simulated low "g". In Bion 11 mission animals that were exposed 14 days in microgravity and whose tails were operated two and four weeks before launch demonstrated the regenerates achieved 1.5 - 2 times the volume of those in 1"g" control. Results of this experiment indicated also that the regeneration of central and peripheral neurons and nerve fibers was carrying out faster under low "g" conditions than in 1 "g" control. Similar data were obtained in several experiments remodeling physiological weightlessness by mean of the clinostat. It led us to the hypothesis that the stimulation of tail regeneration is linked with an over activation of neurotrophic factors produced by quickly growing SC neurons. Now we've completed the experiment on tail regeneration in the newts Tr. alpestris subjected to 5 day long clinorotation after 6 days post tail amputation. The rate of primary- and secondary regeneration was evaluated at different time points after treatment. Cell proliferation, differentiation and expression of neurotrophic proteins in SC and other major tissue-type of regenerate were investigated by

  19. Gravity Field of the Jovian System from Pioneer and Voyager Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. K.; Synnott, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Data sets from the Voyager and Pioneer flybys of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites are employed to characterize the Jovian magnetic field and the effects of the Io torus on transmissions. Both optical and Doppler radio data are considered, except for periods when the Jovian radiation environment disturbed the oscillator stability of the radio transmitters. Account is taken of small accelerations of the spacecraft by tidal forces of a single rising satellite, density differences in the Great Red Spot producing a columnar gravitational change, and three unknown objects in the inner Jovian system. Correction parameters are developed for the effects on the S-band data induced by the Jovian plasmasphere inwards from the Io torus. Calculations are then made of the planet and satellite masses, gravity harmonic coefficients, and orientation of the rotational pole. Large reductions in the uncertainties in previous mass esimates are obtained.

  20. Information theory and stochastics for multiscale nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majda, Andrew J; Grote, Marcus J

    2005-01-01

    This book introduces mathematicians to the fascinating emerging mathematical interplay between ideas from stochastics and information theory and important practical issues in studying complex multiscale nonlinear systems. It emphasizes the serendipity between modern applied mathematics and applications where rigorous analysis, the development of qualitative and/or asymptotic models, and numerical modeling all interact to explain complex phenomena. After a brief introduction to the emerging issues in multiscale modeling, the book has three main chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to information theory with novel applications to statistical mechanics, predictability, and Jupiter's Red Spot for geophysical flows. The second chapter discusses new mathematical issues regarding fluctuation-dissipation theorems for complex nonlinear systems including information flow, various approximations, and illustrates applications to various mathematical models. The third chapter discusses stochastic modeling of com...

  1. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Saraf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 22-year-old African American woman presented with bilateral vision loss associated with headache. Her ocular examination was significant for bilateral retinal arterial “boxcarring,” retinal whitening, retinal hemorrhages, and cherry red spots. She was diagnosed with bilateral central retinal artery occlusions and was hospitalized due to concomitant diagnosis of stroke and hypercoagulable state. She was also found to be in heart failure and kidney failure. Rheumatology was consulted and she was diagnosed with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Approximately 7 months after presentation, the patient’s vision improved and remained stable at 20/200 and 20/80.

  2. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2004-01-01

    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Rossby-wave turbulence in a rapidly rotating sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schaeffer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a quasi-geostrophic numerical model to study the turbulence of rotating flows in a sphere, with realistic Ekman friction and bulk viscous dissipation. The forcing is caused by the destabilization of an axisymmetric Stewartson shear layer, generated by differential rotation, resulting in a forcing at rather large scales. The equilibrium regime is strongly anisotropic and inhomogeneous but exhibits a steep m-5 spectrum in the azimuthal (periodic direction, at scales smaller than the injection scale. This spectrum has been proposed by Rhines for a Rossby wave turbulence. For some parameter range, we observe a turbulent flow dominated by a large scale vortex located in the shear layer, reminding us of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter.

  4. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  5. The planet Jupiter: The observer's handbook /2nd revised edition/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, B. M.; Moore, P.

    The book presents an account of observations of the planet Jupiter, complete to the year 1947 and including additional material to 1957, as well as the data revealed by these observations, revised in light of the Voyager results. Following remarks on the aims, methods and limitations of visual observations of the Jovian surface, attention is given to color and position observations, and observations of the individual polar regions, belts and zones, the Great Red Spot and South Tropical Disturbance, oscillating spots, and to the limitations, methods and achievements of photographic observations. A brief survey is presented of the satellite system and the mutual occultations and eclipses within it. Computational methods are also noted as regards the reduction of latitude measurements, times of apparent central meridian passage of a satellite shadow, and central meridian movements.

  6. Central retinal artery occlusion after phacoemulsification under peribulbar anaesthesia: Pathogenic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villa, S; Salazar Méndez, R; Cubillas Martín, M; Cuesta García, M

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old patient had uneventful cataract surgery in the right eye under peribulbar anaesthesia. The next day, a severe and progressive eyelid swelling was noted, caused by an unknown allergic reaction to povidone-iodine. The allergic signs dissapeared by the fifth day, but amaurosis and a cherry-red spot were detected. Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography confirmed an 80% ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. Retinal vascular occlusion after orbital loco-regional anaesthesia is rare. When this complication occurs, carotid disease, and local or systemic factors, should be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe visual loss caused by ocular perforation during chalazion removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Kevin M; Kreiger, Allan E; McCannel, Colin A

    2004-01-01

    To report two cases of ocular perforation during chalazion removal procedures leading to severe vision loss. Observational case series. Two patients presented with unilateral decreased vision after chalazion removal procedures. Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Examination revealed a cherry red spot and perforation site in the first patient. In the second patient, there was an intraocular gas bubble and ischemic retina. Local anesthetic injections for procedures such as chalazia removal can result in ocular perforation. We postulate that the intraocular injections led to extremely high pressures, compromising the blood supply to the retina and optic nerve. Anesthetic injections for all procedures, even chalazia removal, should be done with great caution. It is imperative to avoid injection if ocular perforation is suspected, as the high pressure may cause the majority of the visual morbidity.

  8. Clinical and serial MRI findings of a sialidosis type I patient with a novel missense mutation in the NEU1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekijima, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Katsuya; Kishida, Dai; Narita, Aya; Adachi, Kaori; Ohno, Kosaku; Nanba, Eiji; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    The case of a Japanese sialidosis type I patient with a novel NEU1 gene mutation is described. The patient developed an unsteady gait at age 14 and was referred to our hospital at age 16. On admission, subnormal intelligence, dysarthria, myoclonus, intentional tremors, limb and gait ataxia, hyperreflexia and macular cherry-red spots were observed. An enzymological analysis revealed a primary deficiency of neuraminidase. An NEU1 gene analysis identified two heterozygous missense mutations: p.P80L and p.D135N. The p.D135N mutation is a novel mutation that is considered to be associated with the mild clinical phenotype of sialidosis. Serial brain MRI showed diffuse brain atrophy progressing rapidly over the 41-month observation period.

  9. Sialidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Silvana; Canafoglia, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Sialidoses are autosomal recessive disorders caused by NEU1 gene mutations and are classified on the basis of their phenotype and onset age. Sialidosis type II, with infantile onset, has a more severe phenotype characterized by coarse facial features, hepatomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, and developmental delay while patients with the late and milder type, known as "cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome" develop myoclonic epilepsy, visual impairment and ataxia in the second or third decade of life. The diagnosis is usually suggested by increased urinary bound sialic acid excretion. We recently described genetically diagnosed patients with a specially mild phenotype, no retinal abnormalities and normal urinary sialic acid. This observation suggests that genetic analysis or the demonstration of the neuraminidase enzyme deficiency in cultured fibroblasts are needed to detect and diagnose mildest phenotypes.

  10. Type I sialidosis: a clinical, biochemical and neuroradiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, S; Villanova, M; Malandrini, A; van Diggelen, O P; Huijmans, J G; Ceuterick, C; Rufa, A; DeFalco, D; Ciacci, G; Martin, J J; Guazzi, G

    2000-01-01

    We report biochemical, morphological and neuroradiological findings in a 40-year-old woman affected with type I sialidosis. The clinical symptoms, consisting of a cerebellar syndrome, were first noted at the age of 17 years. The macular cherry-red spot was first observed after 23 years of disease. A CT scan performed at 21 years of age showed enlargement of the fourth ventricle. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain performed at the age of 40 showed severe atrophy of the cerebellum and pontine region; atrophy of cerebral hemispheres and of the corpus callosum was also observed. We emphasize the prolonged course of illness in this patient, observed over a long period of time. Of particular interest is the neuroradiological study showing our findings both at the beginning of the disease and after 20 years. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Galileo's First Images of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M J S; Head, J W; Ingersoll, A P; Greeley, R; McEwen, A S; Klaasen, K P; Senske, D; Pappalardo, R; Collins, G; Vasavada, A R; Sullivan, R; Simonelli, D; Geissler, P; Carr, M H; Davies, M E; Veverka, J; Gierasch, P J; Banfield, D; Bell, M; Chapman, C R; Anger, C; Greenberg, R; Neukum, G; Pilcher, C B; Beebe, R F; Burns, J A; Fanale, F; Ip, W; Johnson, T V; Morrison, D; Moore, J; Orton, G S; Thomas, P; West, R A

    1996-10-18

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on Io. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  12. Nail psoriasis - what a rheumatologist should know about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with prevalence of 1-3%. Nail psoriasis affects 10-90% of patients with plaque psoriasis. The aim of the article is to review the literature for the correlation between nail psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to provide rheumatologists a short review on features of nail psoriasis, methods of their assessment and possible clinical repercussions. The PubMed database was searched using the key words 'nail psoriasis' and 'psoriatic arthritis'. Psoriasis involving the nail matrix shows up as changes such as pitting, Beau lines, leukonychia, red spots in the lunula, or nail plate crumbling. Nail bed psoriasis manifests as onycholysis, oil drops (or salmon patches), dyschromia, splinter hemorrhages, or subungual hyperkeratosis. Nail psoriasis and psoriatic lesions in the gluteal cleft and on the scalp usually accompany PsA, especially in adult men.

  13. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4-15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically combed. Head lice were collected and examined. The neem seed extract shampoo proved to be highly effective against all stages of head lice. No obvious differences regarding the efficacy of the shampoo were observed between an exposure time of 10, 15 or 30 min. No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed.

  14. Neptune's small dark spot (D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small dark spot (D2) was obtained by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera. Banding surrounding the feature indicates unseen strong winds, while structures within the bright spot suggest both active upwelling of clouds and rotation about the center. A rotation rate has not yet been measured, but the V-shaped structure near the right edge of the bright area indicates that the spot rotates clockwise. Unlike the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, which rotates counterclockwise, if the D2 spot on Neptune rotates clockwise, the material will be descending in the dark oval region. The fact that infrared data will yield temperature information about the region above the clouds makes this observation especially valuable. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  15. [HIV-associated periodontal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, A

    1990-05-01

    During HIV infection different lesions may occur in the area of the gingiva and/or the periodontium. An increased frequency and severity of periodontal diseases has been observed. Different forms of Candida albicans infection have been clinically characterized as pseudomembranous, erythematous (atrophic) or hyperplastic form or as papillary variant. While infection with Candida albicans may occur frequently in other areas of the oral mucosa, candidiasis of the gingiva seems to be quite rare. Due to the underlying immunodeficiency, HIV-infected patients are prone to infection with and/or reactivation of different viruses, which may cause oral lesions as well. Recurrent progressive ulcerations may occur due to herpes simplex virus 1/2, while ulcerations with a punched-out appearance may result from disseminated CMV infection. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma may clinically present as bluish or red spots, which may increase into exophytic tumors during the progress of the disease.

  16. Hubble’s Global View of Jupiter During the Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Cosentino, Richard; Tollefson, Joshua; Johnson, Perianne

    2017-10-01

    With two observing programs designed for mapping clouds and hazes in Jupiter's atmosphere during the Juno mission, the Hubble Space Telescope is acquiring an unprecedented set of global maps for study. The Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy program (OPAL, PI: Simon) and the Wide Field Coverage for Juno program (WFCJ, PI: Wong) are designed to enable frequent multi-wavelength global mapping of Jupiter, with many maps timed specifically for Juno’s perijove passes. Filters span wavelengths from 212 to 894 nm. Besides offering global views for Juno observation context, they also reveal a wealth of information about interesting atmospheric dynamical features. We will summarize the latest findings from these global mapping programs, including changes in the Great Red Spot, zonal wind profile analysis, and persistent cyclone-generated waves in the North Equatorial Belt.

  17. Relative abundance of amphibians in forest canopy gaps of natural origin vs. timber harvest origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strojny, C. A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale canopy gaps created by logging may retain adequate habitat structure to maintain amphibian abundance. We used pitfalls with drift fences to measure relative abundance of amphibians in 44 harvested gaps, 19 natural treefall gaps, and 36 closed-canopy forest plots. Metamorphs had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps for Ambystoma maculatum, Lithobates catesbeianus, L. clamitans, and L. sylvaticus but we did not detect statistically significant (p < 0.1 differences among gap types for Lithobates palustris metamorphs. L. clamitans juveniles and L. sylvaticus juveniles and adults had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps. For juvenile-adult A. maculatum, we caught relatively fewer individuals in all gap types than in closed-canopy areas. Some groups with overall lower capture rates (immature Plethodon cinereus, juvenile L. palustris had mixed differences among gap types, and Notophthalmus viridescens (efts and adult P. cinereus showed no differences among gap types. One species, L. clamitans, was captured more often at gap edges than gap centers. These results suggest that harvest gaps, especially small gaps, provided habitat similar to natural gaps for some, but not all, amphibian species or life-stages.

  18. A possibly universal red chromophore for modeling color variations on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P. M.; Carlson, R. W.

    2017-07-01

    A new laboratory-generated chemical compound made from photodissociated ammonia (NH3) molecules reacting with acetylene (C2H2) was suggested as a possible coloring agent for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) by Carlson et al. (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115). Baines et al. (2016, Icarus, submitted) showed that the GRS spectrum measured by the visual channels of the Cassini VIMS instrument in 2000 could be accurately fit by a cloud model in which the chromophore appeared as a physically thin layer of small particles immediately above the main cloud layer of the GRS. Here we show that the same chromophore and same layer location can also provide close matches to the short wavelength spectra of many other cloud features on Jupiter, suggesting this material may be a nearly universal chromophore that could explain the various degrees of red coloration on Jupiter. This is a robust conclusion, even for 12% changes in VIMS calibration and large uncertainties in the refractive index of the main cloud layer due to uncertain fractions of NH4SH and NH3 in its cloud particles. The chromophore layer can account for color variations among north and south equatorial belts, equatorial zone, and the Great Red Spot, by varying particle size from 0.12 μm to 0.29 μm and 1-μm optical depth from 0.06 to 0.76. The total mass of the chromophore layer is much less variable, ranging from 18 to 30 μg/cm2, except in the equatorial zone, where it is only 10-13 μg/cm2. We also found a depression of the ammonia volume mixing ratio in the two belt regions, which averaged 0.4 - 0.5 ×10-4 immediately below the ammonia condensation level, while the other regions averaged twice that value.

  19. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  20. Jupiter's Spot Seen Glowing - Scientists Get First Look at Weather Inside the Solar System's Biggest Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    New ground-breaking thermal images obtained with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other powerful ground-based telescopes show swirls of warmer air and cooler regions never seen before within Jupiter's Great Red Spot, enabling scientists to make the first detailed interior weather map of the giant storm system linking its temperature, winds, pressure and composition with its colour. "This is our first detailed look inside the biggest storm of the Solar System," says Glenn Orton, who led the team of astronomers that made the study. "We once thought the Great Red Spot was a plain old oval without much structure, but these new results show that it is, in fact, extremely complicated." The observations reveal that the reddest colour of the Great Red Spot corresponds to a warm core within the otherwise cold storm system, and images show dark lanes at the edge of the storm where gases are descending into the deeper regions of the planet. The observations, detailed in a paper appearing in the journal Icarus, give scientists a sense of the circulation patterns within the solar system's best-known storm system. Sky gazers have been observing the Great Red Spot in one form or another for hundreds of years, with continuous observations of its current shape dating back to the 19th century. The spot, which is a cold region averaging about -160 degrees Celsius, is so wide that about three Earths could fit inside its boundaries. The thermal images were mostly obtained with the VISIR [1] instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, with additional data coming from the Gemini South telescope in Chile and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan's Subaru Telescope in Hawaii. The images have provided an unprecedented level of resolution and extended the coverage provided by NASA's Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. Together with observations of the deep cloud structure by the 3-metre NASA Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, the level of thermal detail observed

  1. Application of local gene induction by infrared laser-mediated microscope and temperature stimulator to amphibian regeneration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasumi-Kita, Aiko; Hayashi, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagayama, Chikashi; Hayashi, Shinichi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Urodele amphibians (newts and salamanders) and anuran amphibians (frogs) are excellent research models to reveal mechanisms of three-dimensional organ regeneration since they have exceptionally high regenerative capacity among tetrapods. However, the difficulty in manipulating gene expression in cells in a spatially restricted manner has so far hindered elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of organ regeneration in amphibians. Recently, local heat shock by laser irradiation has enabled local gene induction even at the single-cell level in teleost fishes, nematodes, fruit flies and plants. In this study, local heat shock was made with infrared laser irradiation (IR-LEGO) by using a gene expression inducible system in transgenic animals containing a heat shock promoter, and gene expression was successfully induced only in the target region of two amphibian species, Xenopus laevis and Pleurodeles waltl (a newt), at postembryonic stages. Furthermore, we induced spatially restricted but wider gene expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets by applying local heat shock by a temperature-controlled metal probe (temperature stimulator). The local gene manipulation systems, the IR-LEGO and the temperature stimulator, enable us to do a rigorous cell lineage trace with the combination of the Cre-LoxP system as well as to analyze gene function in a target region or cells with less off-target effects in the study of amphibian regeneration. © 2015 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  2. Amphibian and reptile abundance in riparian and upslope areas of five forest types in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, D.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    We compared species composition and relative abundance of herpetofauna between riparian and upslope habitats among 5 forest types (shrub, open sapling-pole, large sawtimber and old-growth conifer forests, and deciduous forests) in Western Oregon. Riparian- and upslope- associated species were identified based on capture frequencies from pitfall trapping. Species richness was similar among forest types but slightly greater in the shrub stands. The abundances of 3 species differed among forest types. Total captures was highest in deciduous forests, intermediate in the mature conifer forests, and lowest in the 2 young coniferous forests. Species richness was similar between stream and upslope habitats; however, captures were higher in riparian than upslope habitat. Tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei), Dunn's salamanders (Plethodon dunni), roughskin newts(Tanicha granulosa), Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) and red-legged frogs(Rana aurora) were captured more frequently in riparian than upslope habitats. Of these species the red-legged frog and Pacific giant salamander may depend on riparian habitat for at least part of their life requirements, while tailed frogs, Dunn's salamanders and roughskin newts appear to be riparian associated species. In addition, we found Oregon salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzi) were associated with upslope habitats. We suggest riparian management zones should be al least 75-100 m on each side of the stream and that management for upslope/and or old forest associates may be equally as important as for riparian species.

  3. Occurrence of amphibians in northern California coastal dune drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Kleeman, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Many coastal dune ecosystems have been degraded by non-native dune vegetation, but these systems might still provide valuable habitat for some taxa, including amphibians. Because restoration of degraded dune systems is occurring and likely to continue, we examined the occurrence of amphibians in drainages associated with a coastal dune ecosystem degraded by invasive plants (European Beachgrass, Ammophila arenaria, and Iceplant, Carpobrotus edulis). We found that occupancy of 3 amphibian species (California Red-legged Frog, Rana draytonii; Sierran Treefrog, Hyliola sierra; and Rough-skinned Newt, Taricha granulosa) among 21 coastal-dune drainages was high, with most coastal-dune drainages occupied by all 3 species. Furthermore, reproduction of Sierran Treefrogs and California Red-legged Frogs was estimated to occur in approximately ½ and ⅓ of the drainages, respectively. The probability of occurrence of Rough-skinned Newts and pre-metamorphic life stages of both anurans decreased during the study, perhaps because of ongoing drought in California or precipitation-induced changes in phenology during the final year of the study. Maintaining structural cover and moist features during dune restoration will likely benefit native amphibian populations inhabiting coastal-dune ecosystems.

  4. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  5. Experiment "Regeneration" Performed Aboard the Russian Spacecraft Foton-M2 in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Elonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Domaratskaya, Elena; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Aleinikova, Karina; Tairbekov, Murad; Mitashov, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosate llites showed that the rate of lens and tail regeneration in space wa s greater than on the ground. In parallel it was found that the numbe r of cells in S-phase was greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls. However, it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro-g per se. Molecular mechanisms under lying the change also remained obscure. These issues were addressed b y the joint Russian-American experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton -M2 in 2005. The method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU was developed. The experiment showed that during the flight the numbe r of S-phase cells in the regenerating eyes and tails increased. Thes e data together with those obtained earlier suggest that cell prolife ration increases in response to the effects of both micro-g and 1-g a fter return to Earth. The expression of bFGF in regenerating tissues of "flown" newts and ground controls was examined using immuno-histo chemistry. Obtained results suggest that this growth factor is a part icipant of the promotional effect of space flight upon cell prolifera tion in lens and tail regenerates.

  6. Functional joint regeneration is achieved using reintegration mechanism in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-02-01

    A functional joint requires integration of multiple tissues: the apposing skeletal elements should form an interlocking structure, and muscles should insert into skeletal tissues via tendons across the joint. Whereas newts can regenerate functional joints after amputation, Xenopus laevis regenerates a cartilaginous rod without joints, a "spike." Previously we reported that the reintegration mechanism between the remaining and regenerated tissues has a significant effect on regenerating joint morphogenesis during elbow joint regeneration in newt. Based on this insight into the importance of reintegration, we amputated frogs' limbs at the elbow joint and found that frogs could regenerate a functional elbow joint between the remaining tissues and regenerated spike. During regeneration, the regenerating cartilage was partially connected to the remaining articular cartilage to reform the interlocking structure of the elbow joint at the proximal end of the spike. Furthermore, the muscles of the remaining part inserted into the regenerated spike cartilage via tendons. This study might open up an avenue for analyzing molecular and cellular mechanisms of joint regeneration using Xenopus.

  7. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Stephan; Lukanov, Simeon; Naumov, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch’s newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis), vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis), and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis). This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch’s newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims. PMID:27688958

  8. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Natchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch’s newt (Triturus ivanbureschi possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis, vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis, and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis. This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch’s newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims.

  9. TETRODOTOXIN RESISTANCE IN GARTER SNAKES: AN EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSE OF PREDATORS TO DANGEROUS PREY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    1990-05-01

    The use of the "arms race" analogy as a conceptualization of evolutionary predator-prey interactions has been criticized because of the lack of evidence that predators can and do adapt to increased antipredator ability of prey. We present evidence that the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis has evolved resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX) in response to the toxicity of the newt Taricha granulosa on which the snake feeds. A bioassay (locomotor performance before and after injection of TTX) was used to obtain repeated measures of resistance for individual snakes. We studied interpopulation and interspecific variation by comparing resistance in Thamnophis sirtalis from populations occurring sympatrically and allopatrically with Taricha granulosa, and in Thamnophis ordinoides (which does not feed on the newt) occurring sympatrically with Taricha granulosa. We also examined intrapopulation variation in TTX resistance using snakes from a population known to feed on Taricha granulosa. Resistance differed significantly among individuals and litters; repeatability and heritability estimates of the assay were significantly different from zero, demonstrating the potential for response to selection. The population of Thamnophis sirtalis that occurs with Taricha granulosa exhibited levels of resistance much greater than either of the other groups. These results suggest that the predator-prey arms race analogy may be applicable to this system. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Tracking the amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans using a highly specific monoclonal antibody and lateral-flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael J; Bowkett, Andrew E; Bungard, Michael J; Beckman, Katie M; O'Brien, Michelle F; Bates, Kieran; Fisher, Matthew C; Stevens, Jamie R; Thornton, Christopher R

    2017-03-01

    The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) causes chytridiomycosis, a lethal epizootic disease of amphibians. Rapid identification of the pathogen and biosecurity is essential to prevent its spread, but current laboratory-based tests are time-consuming and require specialist equipment. Here, we describe the generation of an IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb), 5C4, specific to Bd as well as the related salamander and newt pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). The mAb, which binds to a glycoprotein antigen present on the surface of zoospores, sporangia and zoosporangia, was used to develop a lateral-flow assay (LFA) for rapid (15 min) detection of the pathogens. The LFA detects known lineages of Bd and also Bsal, as well as the closely related fungus Homolaphlyctis polyrhiza, but does not detect a wide range of related and unrelated fungi and oomycetes likely to be present in amphibian habitats. When combined with a simple swabbing procedure, the LFA was 100% accurate in detecting the water-soluble 5C4 antigen present in skin, foot and pelvic samples from frogs, newts and salamanders naturally infected with Bd or Bsal. Our results demonstrate the potential of the portable LFA as a rapid qualitative assay for tracking these amphibian pathogens and as an adjunct test to nucleic acid-based detection methods. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Updated distribution of hybrids between Lissotriton vulgaris and Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Gherghel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissotriton montandoni is an endemic newt species found only in the Carpathian Mountains and lives in sympatry with Lissotriton vulgaris in many aquatic habitats from the entire range of the former species in the Carpathian and Sudetes Mountains or in the hilly areas from the Subcarpathians. These two species usually generate hybrids where their parapatric ranges meet, especially along rivers that flow from the inside of the Carpathians, where valleys are used as ecological corridors by L. vulgaris. We surveyed several regions of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains between 2008 and 2011 and found 11 new populations of newts where hybrids between the two mentioned species were present. All new records of L. montandoni x L. vulgaris were described in the eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians, in Neamț County, a region known also from previous literature to be a ‘hot spot’ for hybrids between these two species. The present paper also presents an updated review of the distribution of Lissotriton hybrids in Romania.

  12. Cellular and Molecular Preconditions for Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Natural Reprogramming during Retinal Regeneration in Urodela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Markitantova, Yuliya V.

    2016-01-01

    Many regeneration processes in animals are based on the phenomenon of cell reprogramming followed by proliferation and differentiation in a different specialization direction. An insight into what makes natural (in vivo) cell reprogramming possible can help to solve a number of biomedical problems. In particular, the first problem is to reveal the intrinsic properties of the cells that are necessary and sufficient for reprogramming; the second, to evaluate these properties and, on this basis, to reveal potential endogenous sources for cell substitution in damaged tissues; and the third, to use the acquired data for developing approaches to in vitro cell reprogramming in order to obtain a cell reserve for damaged tissue repair. Normal cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in newts (Urodela) can change their specialization and transform into retinal neurons and ganglion cells (i.e., actualize their retinogenic potential). Therefore, they can serve as a model that provides the possibility to identify factors of the initial competence of vertebrate cells for reprogramming in vivo. This review deals mainly with the endogenous properties of native newt RPE cells themselves and, to a lesser extent, with exogenous mechanisms regulating the process of reprogramming, which are actively discussed. PMID:28536395

  13. Widespread occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Betsie B.; Walls, Susan C.; Mitchell, Joseph C.; Dodd, C. Kenneth; Irwin, Lisa K.; Green, David E.; Vazquez, Victoria M.; Petranka, James W.; Stevenson, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

     From 1999 to 2006, we sampled >1200 amphibians for the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis(Bd) at 30 sites in the southeastern USA. Using histological techniques or PCR assays, we detected chytrid infection in 10 species of aquatic-breeding amphibians in 6 states. The prevalence of chytrid infection was 17.8% for samples of postmetamorphic amphibians examined using skin swab-PCR assays (n = 202 samples from 12 species at 4 sites). In this subset of samples, anurans had a much higher prevalence of infection than caudates (39.2% vs. 5.5%, respectively). Mean prevalence in ranid frogs was 40.7%. The only infected salamanders were Notophthalmus viridescens at 3 sites. We found infected amphibians from late winter through late spring and in 1 autumn sample. Although we encountered moribund or dead amphibians at 9 sites, most mortality events were not attributed to Bd. Chytridiomycosis was established as the probable cause of illness or death in fewer than 10 individuals. Our observations suggest a pattern of widespread and subclinical infections. However, because most of the sites in our study were visited only once, we cannot dismiss the possibility that chytridiomycosis is adversely affecting some populations. Furthermore, although there is no evidence of chytrid-associated declines in our region, the presence of this pathogen is cause for concern given global climate change and other stressors. Although presence-absence surveys may still be needed for some taxa, such as bufonids, we recommend that future researchers focus on potential population-level effects at sites where Bd is now known to occur.

  14. Herpetofaunal community change in multiple habitats after fifteen years in a southwest Florida preserve, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Cassani

    Full Text Available Herpetofaunal declines have been documented globally, and southern Florida, USA, is an especially vulnerable region because of high impacts from hydrological perturbations and nonindigenous species. To assess the extent of recent change in herpetofauna community composition, we established a baseline inventory during 1995-97 at a managed preserve in a habitat rich area of southwest Florida, and repeated our sampling methods fifteen years later (2010-11. Nine drift fence arrays were placed in four habitat types: mesic flatwood, mesic hammock, depression marsh, and wet prairie. Trapping occurred daily for one week during 7-8 sampling runs in each period (57 and 49 total sampling days, respectively. Species richness was maintained in mesic hammock habitats but varied in the others. Catch rates of several native species (Anaxyrus terrestris, Lithobates grylio, Anolis carolinensis, Nerodia fasciata declined significantly. Other native species (Lithobates sphenocephalus, Siren lacertian, and Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola that were abundant in 1995-97 declined by greater than 50%. Catch rate of only two species (the nonindigenous Anolis sagrei and the native Diadophis punctatus increased significantly. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated similarity within habitat types but significant dissimilarity between sampling periods, confirming shifts in community composition. Analysis of individual species' contributions to overall similarity across habitats shows a shift from dominance of native species in the 1990s to increased importance of nonindigenous species in 2010-11. Although natural population fluctuations may have influenced differences between the two sampling periods, our results suggest considerable recent change in the structure and composition of this southwest Florida herpetofaunal community. The causes are unknown, but hydrological shifts and ecological impacts of nonindigenous species may have contributed.

  15. Optimization of plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in an AP1000 fuel assembly via a genetic search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com; King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We couple the NEWT module of SCALE to the MOGA module of DAKOTA. • Transmutation is optimized based on choice of coating and fuel. • Greatest transmutation achieved with PuZrO{sub 2}MgO fuel pins coated with Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, which contains approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are the preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a near-term solution. Previous simulation work demonstrated the potential to transmute transuranic elements in a modified light water reactor fuel pin. This study optimizes a quarter-assembly containing target fuels coated with spectral shift absorbers for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in light water reactors. The spectral shift absorber coating on the target fuel pin tunes the neutron energy spectrum experienced by the target fuel. A coupled model developed using the NEWT module from SCALE 6.1 and a genetic algorithm module from the DAKOTA optimization toolbox provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel pins in the present study. The optimization with the coupled NEWT/DAKOTA model proceeded in three stages. The first stage optimized a single-target fuel pin per quarter-assembly adjacent to the central instrumentation channel. The second stage evaluated a variety of quarter-assemblies with multiple target fuel pins from the first stage and the third stage re-optimized the pins in the optimal second stage quarter-assembly. An 8 wt% PuZrO{sub 2}MgO inert matrix fuel pin with a 1.44 mm radius and a 0.06 mm Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in a five target fuel pin per quarter-assembly configuration represents the optimal combination for the

  16. Eficacia de tres estrobilurinas para el control de mancha rojiza (Guignardia mangiferae y mancha negra (Guignardia citricarpa en frutos de limón, en Tucumán, República Argentina Efficiency of three strobilurins to control reddish spot (Guignardia mangiferae and black spot (Guignardia citricarpa in lemon fruits in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela M. Fogliata

    2011-06-01

    , processing 65% of this production in factories and commercializing 35% as fresh fruit, mainly for exports, which requires high quality, disease-free fruits. Two fungal species of Guignardia are present in Tucumán: one is G. citricarpa (Phyllosticta citricarpa and the other is G. mangiferae (P. capitalensis. The former is the causal agent of citrus black spot, a quarantine pathogen for major consumer markets, and the latter is a cosmopolitan fungus which causes red spot in lemon in Tucumán. Both diseases are controlled with copper, strobilurins, mancozeb, and benzimidazols. Five field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three strobilurins, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin, to control red spot (during the 2004/2005, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons and citrus black spot (in the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons in lemon fruits in Tucumán. One or two applications of strobilurins were made with copper oxychloride, in a program of four or five copper applications, every thirty days from petal fall. Treatments with copper oxychloride, alone or mixed with mancozeb, were used as chemical controls. The most effective treatments were those that included one or two strobilurin applications, without differences between them. They outdid copper treatments, equaling or surpassing copper-mancozeb mixture. These results demonstrated the efficacy of strobilurins to control both black spot and red spot in lemon.

  17. Missense and nonsense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene of different goat breeds: association with red and black coat colour phenotypes but with unexpected evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoli Roberta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agouti and Extension loci control the relative amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin production in melanocytes that, in turn, affects pigmentation of skin and hair. The Extension locus encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R whose permanent activation, caused by functional mutations, results in black coat colour, whereas other inactivating mutations cause red coat colour in different mammals. Results The whole coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced in goats of six different breeds showing different coat colours (Girgentana, white cream with usually small red spots in the face; Maltese, white with black cheeks and ears; Derivata di Siria, solid red; Murciano-Granadina, solid black or solid brown; Camosciata delle Alpi, brown with black stripes; Saanen, white; F1 goats and the parental animals. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified: one nonsense mutation (p.Q225X, three missense mutations (p.A81V, p.F250V, and p.C267W, and one silent mutation. The stop codon at position 225 should cause the production of a shorter MC1R protein whose functionality may be altered. These SNPs were investigated in a larger sample of animals belonging to the six breeds. The Girgentana breed was almost fixed for the p.225X allele. However, there was not complete association between the presence of red spots in the face and the presence of this allele in homozygous condition. The same allele was identified in the Derivata di Siria breed. However, its frequency was only 33%, despite the fact that these animals are completely red. The p.267W allele was present in all Murciano-Granadina black goats, whereas it was never identified in the brown ones. Moreover, the same substitution was present in almost all Maltese goats providing evidence of association between this mutation and black coat colour. Conclusion According to the results obtained in the investigated goat breeds, MC1R mutations may determine eumelanic and pheomelanic

  18. Supramolecular architecture of 5-bromo-7-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole.3H2O: Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, DFT computation, MD simulations and docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P. Krishna; Smitha, M.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Rao, R. Sreenivasa; Suchetan, P. A.; Giri, L.; Pavithran, Rani; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2017-12-01

    Crystal and molecular structure of newly synthesized compound 5-bromo-7-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole (BMMBI) has been authenticated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques; compile both experimental and theoretical results which are performed by DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method at ground state in gas phase. Visualize nature and type of intermolecular interactions and crucial role of these interactions in supra-molecular architecture has been investigated by use of a set of graphical tools 3D-Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D-fingerprint plots analysis. The title compound stabilized by strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds N⋯Hsbnd O and O⋯Hsbnd O, which are envisaged by dark red spots on dnorm mapped surfaces and weak Br⋯Br contacts envisaged by red spot on dnorm mapped surface. The detailed fundamental vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were aid by with help of Potential Energy distribution (PED) analysis by using GAR2PED program and shows good agreement with experimental values. Besides frontier orbitals analysis, global reactivity descriptors, natural bond orbitals and Mullikan charges analysis were performed by same basic set at ground state in gas phase. Potential reactive sites of the title compound have been identified by ALIE, Fukui functions and MEP, which are mapped to the electron density surfaces. Stability of BMMBI have been investigated from autoxidation process and pronounced interaction with water (hydrolysis) by using bond dissociation energies (BDE) and radial distribution functions (RDF), respectively after MD simulations. In order to identify molecule's most important reactive spots we have used a combination of DFT calculations and MD simulations. Reactivity study encompassed calculations of a set of quantities such as: HOMO-LUMO gap, MEP and ALIE surfaces, Fukui functions, bond dissociation energies and radial distribution functions. To confirm the potential

  19. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in False Color (Time Set 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.This mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. The clouds and haze over the White Ovals are high, extending into Jupiter's stratosphere. There is a lack of high haze over the cyclonic feature. Dark purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. The planetary limb runs along the right edge of the mosaic. Cloud patterns appear foreshortened as they approach the limb. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million km by the Solid State

  20. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in True Color (Time Set 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.This mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere.North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. The planetary limb runs along the right edge of the mosaic. Cloud patterns appear foreshortened as they approach the limb. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million km by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  1. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in True Color (Time Set 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.This mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere.North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in False Color (Time Set 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.This mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. The clouds and haze over the White Ovals are high, extending into Jupiter's stratosphere. There is a lack of high haze over the cyclonic feature. Dark purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission

  3. Missense and nonsense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene of different goat breeds: association with red and black coat colour phenotypes but with unexpected evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Luca; Beretti, Francesca; Riggio, Valentina; Dall'Olio, Stefania; González, Elena Gómez; Finocchiaro, Raffaella; Davoli, Roberta; Russo, Vincenzo; Portolano, Baldassare

    2009-08-25

    Agouti and Extension loci control the relative amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin production in melanocytes that, in turn, affects pigmentation of skin and hair. The Extension locus encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose permanent activation, caused by functional mutations, results in black coat colour, whereas other inactivating mutations cause red coat colour in different mammals. The whole coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced in goats of six different breeds showing different coat colours (Girgentana, white cream with usually small red spots in the face; Maltese, white with black cheeks and ears; Derivata di Siria, solid red; Murciano-Granadina, solid black or solid brown; Camosciata delle Alpi, brown with black stripes; Saanen, white; F1 goats and the parental animals). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: one nonsense mutation (p.Q225X), three missense mutations (p.A81V, p.F250V, and p.C267W), and one silent mutation. The stop codon at position 225 should cause the production of a shorter MC1R protein whose functionality may be altered. These SNPs were investigated in a larger sample of animals belonging to the six breeds. The Girgentana breed was almost fixed for the p.225X allele. However, there was not complete association between the presence of red spots in the face and the presence of this allele in homozygous condition. The same allele was identified in the Derivata di Siria breed. However, its frequency was only 33%, despite the fact that these animals are completely red. The p.267W allele was present in all Murciano-Granadina black goats, whereas it was never identified in the brown ones. Moreover, the same substitution was present in almost all Maltese goats providing evidence of association between this mutation and black coat colour. According to the results obtained in the investigated goat breeds, MC1R mutations may determine eumelanic and pheomelanic phenotypes. However, they are probably not the only

  4. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose

  5. Differential expression of aquaporin 3 in Triturus italicus from larval to adult epidermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Brunelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available By using immunohistochemical techniques applied to confocal microscopy, the presence of aquaporin 3 water channel in the epidermis of Triturus italicus (Amphibia, Urodela has been shown. We analysed the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3 during the larval, pre-metamorphic and adult phases; we also showed the localization of the water-channel protein AQP3 in free-swimming conditions and during aestivation in parallel with histological analysis of the skin, focusing on the possible relationship between protein expression and terrestrial habitats. Our results indicate that aquaporin is produced as the epidermis modifies during the functional maturation phase starting at the climax. Moreover, our data suggest an increase in enzyme expression in aestivating newts emphasizing the putative functional importance of differential expression related to a distinct phase of the biological cycle.

  6. New Criticality Safety Analysis Capabilities in SCALE 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Horwedel, James E [ORNL; Petrie Jr, Lester M [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Version 5.1 of the SCALE computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in 2006, contains several significant enhancements for nuclear criticality safety analysis. This paper highlights new capabilities in SCALE 5.1, including improved resonance self-shielding capabilities; ENDF/B-VI.7 cross-section and covariance data libraries; HTML output for KENO V.a; analytical calculations of KENO-VI volumes with GeeWiz/KENO3D; new CENTRMST/PMCST modules for processing ENDF/B-VI data in TSUNAMI; SCALE Generalized Geometry Package in NEWT; KENO Monte Carlo depletion in TRITON; and plotting of cross-section and covariance data in Javapeno.

  7. MRI tracking of SPIO labelled stem cells in a true regenerative environment, the regenerating limb of the axolotl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hagensen, Mette

    , facilitating the use of SPIOs in future chemically or genetically induced regenerative therapies. In addition, this study concludes that SPIO labelling and MRI tracking of axolotl stem cells allow for non-invasive longitudinal studies in this model, increasing the potential to draw knowledge from...... are generally restricted by their limited regenerative potential. Conversely, excellent animal models for regenerative studies exist in lower vertebrates such as the urodele amphibians (salamanders and newts), exemplified in the iconic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) capable of regenerating whole limbs...... in a regenerating axolotl limb model. Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) sensitive to MRI were used to track cells, and cell viability and regenerative capacity was investigated. Materials and Methods: Limb regeneration was induced by amputation of one hind limb of anaesthetised axolotls. The potential...

  8. Limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, András; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-01-01

    Limb regeneration is observed in certain members of the animal phyla. Some animals keep this ability during their entire life while others lose it at some time during development. How do animals regenerate limbs? Is it possible to find unifying, conserved mechanisms of limb regeneration or have different species evolved distinct means of replacing a lost limb? How is limb regeneration similar or different to limb development? Studies on many organisms, including echinoderms, arthropods, and chordates have provided significant knowledge about limb regeneration. In this focus article, we concentrate on tetrapod limb regeneration as studied in three model amphibians: newts, axolotls, and frogs. We review recent progress on tissue interactions during limb regeneration, and place those findings into an evolutionary context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. From healing to witchcraft: on ritual speech and roboticization in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Adrienne

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare Information Technology (HIT), touted as a panacea by U.S. political actors ranging from Newt Gingrich to Barack Obama, is central to emerging forms of healthcare governance which Holmes et al.-in their critique of the institutionalization of magical thinking brought about by Orwellian techno-Newspeak-have provocatively labeled fascistic. Drawing from data collected over 3 years of working with and teaching continuing education (CE) courses for thousands of registered nurses as lead political educator for the California Nurses Association/National Nurses Organizing Committee (CNA/NNOC), I argue that HIT is an integral component of a broader technological restructuring of healthcare and thus society, both of which are part of a social discourse that is tied to a transformative system of ritual speech, with profound implications for healthcare work, patient health, and democracy.

  10. Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae), a bladder fluke from the Ezo salamander Hynobius retardatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    The Ezo salamander, Hynobius retardatus, is endemic only to Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Gravid flukes of the family Gorgoderidae were discovered from the urinary bladder of H. retardatus. The parasites were identified as a new species named Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. In the neighboring Honshu island another bladder fluke, Phyllodistomum patellare, has already been found from the Japanese newt. The new species clearly differs from P. patellare in having a spherical ovary and very weakly lobed testes. The discovery of species of Phyllodistomum from urodelan amphibians is very uncommon in Eurasia. A molecular phylogeny based on 28S ribosomal DNA suggests that sphaeriid bivalves may serve as the first intermediate host for the new species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. The envenomation of general physiology throughout the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Jon T

    2017-10-11

    Toxins are the poisonous products of organisms. Toxins serve vital defensive and offensive functions for those that harbor them: stinging scorpions, pesticidal plants, sanguinary snakes, fearless frogs, sliming snails, noxious newts, and smarting spiders. For physiologists, toxins are integral chemical tools that hijack life's fundamental processes with remarkable molecular specificity. Our understanding of electrophysiological phenomena has been transformed time and time again with the help of some terrifying toxins. For this reason, studies of toxin mechanism are an important and enduring facet of The Journal of General Physiology (JGP). This Milestone in Physiology reflects on toxins studied in JGP over its first 100 years, what they have taught us, and what they have yet to reveal. © 2017 Sack.

  12. Conjecture: Can continuous regeneration lead to immortality? Studies in the MRL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber-Katz, Ellen; Leferovich, John; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise

    2006-01-01

    A particular mouse strain, the MRL mouse, has been shown to have unique healing properties that show normal replacement of tissue without scarring. The serendipitous discovery that the MRL mouse has a profound capacity for regeneration in some ways rivaling the classic newt and axolotl species raises the possibility that humans, too, may have an innate regenerative ability. We propose this mouse as a model for continuous regeneration with possible life-extending properties. We will use the classical "immortal" organism, the hydra, for comparison and examine those key phenotypes that contribute to their immortality as they are expressed in the MRL mouse versus control mouse strains. The phenotypes to be examined include the rate of proliferation and the rate of cell death, which leads to a continual turnover in cells without an increase in mass.

  13. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  14. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainties in Modeling: Assessment of Phase I Lattice to Core Model Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxelin, Pascal Nicolas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Best-estimate plus uncertainty analysis of reactors is replacing the traditional conservative (stacked uncertainty) method for safety and licensing analysis. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications, a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied. High temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) have several features that require techniques not used in light-water reactor analysis (e.g., coated-particle design and large graphite quantities at high temperatures). The International Atomic Energy Agency has therefore launched the Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling to study uncertainty propagation in the HTGR analysis chain. The benchmark problem defined for the prismatic design is represented by the General Atomics Modular HTGR 350. The main focus of this report is the compilation and discussion of the results obtained for various permutations of Exercise I 2c and the use of the cross section data in Exercise II 1a of the prismatic benchmark, which is defined as the last and first steps of the lattice and core simulation phases, respectively. The report summarizes the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) best estimate results obtained for Exercise I 2a (fresh single-fuel block), Exercise I 2b (depleted single-fuel block), and Exercise I 2c (super cell) in addition to the first results of an investigation into the cross section generation effects for the super-cell problem. The two dimensional deterministic code known as the New ESC based Weighting Transport (NEWT) included in the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 6.1.2 package was used for the cross section evaluation, and the results obtained were compared to the three dimensional stochastic SCALE module KENO VI. The NEWT cross section libraries were generated for several permutations of the current benchmark super-cell geometry and were then provided as input to the Phase II core calculation of the stand alone neutronics Exercise

  15. A mathematical model of a biological arms race with a dangerous prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Paul; Braselton, James; Braselton, Lorraine

    2002-09-07

    In a recent paper, Brodie and Brodie provide a very detailed description of advances and counter-measures among predator-prey communities with a poisonous prey that closely parallel an arms race in modern society. In this work, we provide a mathematical model and simulations that provide a theory as to how this might work. The model is built on a two-dimensional classical predator-prey model that is then adapted to account for the genetics and random mating. The deterministic formulation for the genetics for the prey population has been developed and used in other contexts. Adapting the model to allow for genetic variation in the predator is much more complicated. The model allows for the evolution of the poisonous prey and for the evolution of the resistant predator. The biological paradigm is that of the poisonous newt and the garter snake which has been studied extensively although the models are broad enough to cover other examples.

  16. Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    on diluted solutions of linear polymers, normally referred to as Booger fluids. These fluids have almost constant shear viscosities and elongational viscosities several order of magnitudes larger than the shear viscosities, at high Deborah numbers. The simplest possible model to describe the constitutive......During the resent years several publications (for instance Hyzyak and Koelling, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 71,73-88 (1997) and Gauri and Koelling, Rheol. Acta, 38, 458-470 (1999)) have concerned gas assisted displacement of viscoelastic fluids (polymer melts and polymeric solutions) contained...... in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...

  17. Wildlife disease. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, A; Blooi, M; Adriaensen, C; Van Rooij, P; Beukema, W; Fisher, M C; Farrer, R A; Schmidt, B R; Tobler, U; Goka, K; Lips, K R; Muletz, C; Zamudio, K R; Bosch, J; Lötters, S; Wombwell, E; Garner, T W J; Cunningham, A A; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A; Salvidio, S; Ducatelle, R; Nishikawa, K; Nguyen, T T; Kolby, J E; Van Bocxlaer, I; Bossuyt, F; Pasmans, F

    2014-10-31

    Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Investigations onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, E. A.

    The program of the 7-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 launched in July 1985 included experiments on two rhesus monkeys, ten Wistar SPF rats, ten newts, Drosophila flies, maize seedlings, lettuce sprouts, and unicellular organisms - Tetrahymena. The primate study demonstrated that transition to orbital flight was accompanied by a greater excitability of the vestibular apparatus and an increased linear blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery. The rat studies showed that atrophy of antigravity muscles and osteoporosis of limb bones developed even during short-term exposure to microgravity. The experiments on other living systems revealed no microgravity effects on the cell division rate, proliferative activity of cells of regenerating tissues and organs, energy metabolism of developing insects, structure or chemical composition of higher plant seedlings.

  19. A phylogeny of the Tylototriton asperrimus group (Caudata: Salamandridae) based on a mitochondrial study: suggestions for a taxonomic revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Ke; Lü, Shun-Qing; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Nguyen, Quang Truong; Nguyen, Thien Tao; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Che, Jing

    2011-12-01

    A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Asian newts of the Tylototriton asperrimus group was generated using data from two mitochondrial fragments including COI and the ND1-ND2 regions. Four distinct clades (A, B, C, D) were resolved with high nodal support within this monophyletic group. Clade A included T. asperrimus, T. hainanensis, T. notialis, "T. vietnamensis", and two unnamed salamander populations from Vietnam. Clade A, constituted the sister group of clades B + C. Newly identified clade C likely represents a new cryptic species. Clade C was the sister group of T. wenxianensis. The true T. vietnamensis exclusively constituted clade D. Our results bring into question some previous taxonomic decisions, and a revision is required. This study illustrates the necessity to include samples from type localities in taxonomic studies, and highlights the importance of fine-grained geographical sampling.

  20. Two new species of Tylototriton from Thailand (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Khonsue, Wichase; Pomchote, Porrawee; Matsui, Masafumi

    2013-11-20

    Three morphological groups are found in a salamandrid newt Tylototriton shanjing from Thailand. We describe two of them as new species, one from northern and the other from northeastern Thailand, based on molecular and morphological data, however we could not make a taxonomic decision on the remaining one group because of the lack of voucher specimens and sufficient genetic data. The northern species differs morphologically from all known congeners by having the combination of orange to reddish brown markings, narrow and sharply protruding dorsolateral bony ridges on head, weakly segmented vertebral ridge, and long and high tail. The northeastern species is characterized by having the combination of yellow, orange, or reddish brown markings, wide and moderately protruding dorsolateral bony ridges on head, smooth vertebral ridge, black limbs, and black tail except for edges. Validity of taxonomic subdivision of the genus Tylototriton is discussed.

  1. DISPERSAL IN THE WOOD FROG (RANA SYLVATICA): IMPLICATIONS FOR GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berven, Keith A; Grudzien, Thaddeus A

    1990-12-01

    Recapture of marked juvenile and adult wood frogs in five Appalachian Mountain ponds showed adults to be 100% faithful to the ponds in which they first bred, but approximately 18% of the juveniles dispersed to breed in ponds other than the one of origin. Effective population sizes were generally smaller than the population censuses and genetic neighborhoods had an average radius of 1,126 meters. Values of standardized genetic variance based on effective population size and mating success were relatively small. Genetic population structure estimated from the dispersal data suggested that ponds within about a 1,000 meter radius should show little genetic differentiation; ponds separated by a distance greater than 1,000 meters should experience little gene flow and show higher genetic differentiation. Wood frogs in these ponds do not show a meta-population structure as suggested for newts. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  3. The Effect of Human Impact on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence in Taricha torosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, V.; Macario, E.; Tumey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is emerging as a major cause of the amphibian extinction. As amphibians serve an important role as indicator species in their ecosystem and play a vital role in the food chain, Bd will not only affect the amphibian population but also the health of the environment. Bd is an aquatic fungus that blocks the porous skin of amphibians which interrupts electrolyte, gas and water transfer. This imbalances the electrolyte system which causes cells and organs to malfunction, therefore killing the amphibian. While frogs are more common for Bd, it is not often found in newts. However, Dr. Vance Vredenburg recently found an outbreak of Bd in Taricha torosa in Marin Headlands, California. This location was used in the research as the sample site with most human impact and was expected to have the highest prevalence according to the proposed hypothesis that more human impact will correspond with a higher prevalence of Bd. Decreasing the level of human impact, Fairfield Osborn Preserve and Galbreath Preserve were picked as the other sample sites. After the samples went through qPCR, all of them came back negative for Bd. These results did not support the hypothesis, however, it contributed data to explaining the dynamics of Bd when combined with Dr. Vance Vredenburg's data from 2 months earlier. Within the two months, there was a huge difference in the prevalence of Bd as it dropped from 88% to 0%. This shows that Taricha torosa does in fact get Bd. However, it is rarely detected because Bd is fast-acting and has high mortality rates. Therefore, it is least likely for current nonspecific surveys to swab the newts during a short but lethal Bd outbreak.

  4. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is an indispensable element of any substantial attempt in reactor simulation validation. The quantification of uncertainties in nuclear engineering has grown more important and the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) initiated in 2012 aims to investigate the various uncertainty quantification methodologies for this type of reactors. The first phase of the CRP is dedicated to the estimation of cell and lattice model uncertainties due to the neutron cross sections co-variances. Phase II is oriented towards the investigation of propagated uncertainties from the lattice to the coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics core calculations. Nominal results for the prismatic single block (Ex.I-2a) and super cell models (Ex.I-2c) have been obtained using the SCALE 6.1.3 two-dimensional lattice code NEWT coupled to the TRITON sequence for cross section generation. In this work, the TRITON/NEWT-flux-weighted cross sections obtained for Ex.I-2a and various models of Ex.I-2c is utilized to perform a sensitivity analysis of the MHTGR-350 core power densities and eigenvalues. The core solutions are obtained with the INL coupled code PHISICS/RELAP5-3D, utilizing a fixed-temperature feedback for Ex. II-1a.. It is observed that the core power density does not vary significantly in shape, but the magnitude of these variations increases as the moderator-to-fuel ratio increases in the super cell lattice models.

  5. Rossby vortices, spiral structures, solitons astrophysics and plasma physics in shallow water experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nezlin, Mikhail V

    1993-01-01

    This book can be looked upon in more ways than one. On the one hand, it describes strikingly interesting and lucid hydrodynamic experiments done in the style of the "good old days" when the physicist needed little more than a piece of string and some sealing wax. On the other hand, it demonstrates how a profound physical analogy can help to get a synoptic view on a broad range of nonlinear phenomena involving self-organization of vortical structures in planetary atmo­ spheres and oceans, in galaxies and in plasmas. In particular, this approach has elucidated the nature and the mechanism of such grand phenomena as the Great of galaxies. A number of our Red Spot vortex on Jupiter and the spiral arms predictions concerning the dynamics of spiral galaxies are now being confirmed by astronomical observations stimulated by our experiments. This book is based on the material most of which was accumulated during 1981-88 in close cooperation with our colleagues, experimenters from the Plasma Physics Department of the...

  6. GM2-Gangliosidosis (Sandhoff and Tay Sachs disease): Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jafari, Narjes; Nejad Biglari, Habibeh; Jabbeh Dari, Sayena; Ahmad Abadi, Farzad; Alaee, Mohammad-Reza; Nemati, Hamid; Saket, Sasan; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hasan; Taghdiri, Mohammad-Mahdi; Ghofrani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    GM2-Gangliosidosis disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that includes two disorders (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease).These disorders cause a progressive deterioration of nerve cells and inherited deficiency in creating hexosaminidases A, B, and AB. Patients who were diagnosed withGM2-Gangliosidosis in the Neurology Department of Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2014were included in our study. The disorder was confirmed by neurometabolic and enzyme level detection of hexosaminidases A, B, and AB in reference to Wagnester Laboratory in Germany. We assessed age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical manifestations, and neuroimaging findings of 9 patients with Sandhoff disease and 9 with Tay Sachs disease. 83% of our patients were the offspring of consanguineous marriages. All of them had a developmental disorder as a chief complaint. 38%of patients had a history of developmental delay or regression and 22% had seizures. The patients with Sandhoff and Tay Sachs disease were followed for approximately 5 years and the follow-up showed all patients were bedridden or had expired due to refractory seizures, pneumonia aspiration, or swallowing disorders. Neuro-imaging findings included bilateral thalamic involvement, brain atrophy, and hypo myelination in near half of our patients (48%). According to the results of this study, we suggest that cherry-red spots, hyperacusis, refractory seizures, and relative parents in children with developmental delay and/or regression should be considered for assessment of GM2-Gangliosidosis disease.

  7. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  8. Sudden unilateral visual loss after autologous fat injection into the nasolabial fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyouk Park

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sang Hyouk Park, Hae Jung Sun, Kyung Seek ChoiDepartment of ophthalmology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: A 27-year-old female presented with sudden visual loss of her right eye after receiving an autologous fat injection into the right nasolabial fold. Fundus examination of the right eye showed multiple whitish patchy lesions with macular edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed deterioration of choroidal circulation with patchy choroidal filling and arm-to-retina circulation time and retinal arteriovenous passage time were delayed to 30 seconds and 20 seconds, respectively. There was no response in flash visual evoked potential (VEP. High dose steroid therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g/day/i.v. was done and about 2 weeks later, the disc edema subsided and retinal arteriovenous passage time of fluorescein angiogram was normalized but there was no improvement in visual acuity. Absence of a cherry red spot, deterioration of choroidal circulation with patchy choroidal fillings seen in fluorescein angiogram, and no response in flash VEP suggests multiple choroidal infarction due to perfusion defect of the short posterior ciliary artery. The autologous fat injected is thought to have entered the dorsal nasal artery and the retrograde migration of the emboli to the ophthalmic artery might have caused the multiple occlusions of the short posterior ciliary artery.Keywords: autologous fat injection, ciliary artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy

  9. Determining the degree of powder homogeneity using PC-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuragić Olivera M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of powders and the quality control of the obtained mixtures are critical operations involved in the processing of granular materials in chemical, metallurgical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Studies on mixing efficiency and the time needed for achieving homogeneity in the powder mashes production have significant importance. Depending on the characteristic of the materials, a number of methods have been used for the homogeneity tests. Very often, the degree of mixing has been determined by analyzing images of particle arrays in the sample using microscopy, photography and/or video tools. In this paper, a new PC-based method for determining the number of particles in the powder homogeneity tests has been developed. Microtracers®, red iron particles, were used as external tracer added before mixing. Iron particles in the samples of the mixtures were separated by rotary magnet and spread onto a filter paper. The filter paper was sprayed with 50% solution of ethanol for color development and the particles counted where the number of spots presented the concentration of added tracer. The number of spots was counted manually, as well as by the developed PC program. The program which analyzes scanned filter papers with spots is based on digital image analyses, where red spots were converted through few filters into a black and white, and counted. Results obtained by manual and PC counting were compared. A high correlation was established between the two counting methods.

  10. Co-existence of phenylketonuria either with maple syrup urine disease or Sandhoff disease in two patients from Iran: emphasizing the role of consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Uitto, Jouni; Youssefian, Leila; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Shirzad, Tina; Salehpour, Shadab; Zeinali, Sirous

    2016-10-01

    Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. IEMs are one of the major concerns in Iran due to its extensive consanguineous marriages. Herein, we report two patients with two co-existent IEMs: a girl affected by classic phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a male patient affected with Sandhoff disease and PKU, where Sandhoff disease was suspected due to the presence of a cherry-red spot in the eyes at 6 months which is unrelated to PKU. Sequencing of candidate genes in the first patient revealed one novel and three recurrent compound heterozygous mutations of p.Ser231Pro and p.Ala300Ser in the PAH gene and p.Glu330Lys and p.Arg170Cys mutations in the BCKDHB gene. Genetic testing results in the second patient showed previously reported homozygous mutations of p.Arg261Gln in the PAH and p.Arg533Cys mutation in the HEXB gene. Genetic testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of both diseases in both patients. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first report of the co-existence of two distinct genetic disorders in two individuals from Iran. Co-existent different IEMs in patients complicated the clinical diagnosis and management of the diseases.

  11. Jovian Upheaval and its Impact on Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke

    2009-07-01

    We propose observations of Jupiter with global coverage at highresolution to quantify changes in its atmosphere during andfollowing the global upheaval. Only HST has the capability toobtain images with enough spatial resolution and contrast toextract velocity fields {we will use our newly developedtechnique to accomplish this}, and with WFC3 we can image Jupiterin its entirety in a single exposure. We are in particularinterested in the Red Oval BA: Will the Oval be long-lived,remain red, or turn white again, disappear? Both the merger ofits precursors, and change in color has never before beenwitnessed. The Great Red Spot: This storm system appears todecrease in size and has become rounder, both as derived from itsassociated cloud deck, but also from its potential vorticity, amore dynamically-relevant quantity. How will the GRS evolve? Willit swallow the new vortices detected in amateur images at thissame latitude band? How will this effect the potential vorticity?In addition, we hope to understand Disturbances and stagnationpoints, both of which were detected during the present globalupheaval: are these cyclonic regions, can they spawn anticyclones{as suggested by amateur images}?

  12. Gravitational dynamics in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Kenneth Ray

    2003-09-01

    Due to the apparent ease with which they can be numerically simulated, the one-dimensional self- gravitating sheet system (OGS) was first introduced by astronomers to explore different modes of gravitational evolution; including violent relaxation and the approach to thermal equilibrium. Careful work by dynamicists and statistical physicists have shown that basic claims made by astronomers regarding these models were incorrect. Unusual features of the evolution include long-lasting large-scale structures that can be thought of as one- dimensional analogues of Jupiter's red spot or a galactic spiral density wave or bar. The existence of these structures demonstrates that gravitational evolution is not entirely dominated by the second law of thermodynamics and may also contradict the Arnold diffusion ansatz. Thus the OGS can be thought of as the non-extensive analogue of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model of dynamical systems. This dissertation details three separate studies designed to probe the dynamical and stochastic properties of the OGS. These studies make use of stochastic modeling, local and global time averaging, and temporal and spatial correlation functions for the equal mass system, and in addition, equipartition and mass segregation for the two mass system. The results indicate that global measures of the macroscopic behavior appear to be converging to their equilibrium values in a finite time, while other measures that represent the more local properties of the system are not. It is possible, however, that these may still converge on a timescale beyond those of current simulations.

  13. Mosaic uniparental disomy results in GM1 gangliosidosis with normal enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kenneth A; Bennett, Mark F; Chow, Chung W; Carden, Susan M; Mandelstam, Simone A; Bahlo, Melanie; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2018-01-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders are traditionally diagnosed using broad and expensive panels of screening tests, often including invasive skin and muscle biopsy. Proponents of next-generation genetic sequencing have argued that replacing these screening panels with whole exome sequencing (WES) would save money. Here, we present a complex patient in whom WES allowed diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis, caused by homozygous GLB1 mutations, resulting in β-galactosidase deficiency. A 10-year-old girl had progressive neurologic deterioration, macular cherry-red spot, and cornea verticillata. She had marked clinical improvement with initiation of the ketogenic diet. Comparative genomic hybridization microarray showed mosaic chromosome 3 paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). GM1 gangliosidosis was suspected, however β-galactosidase assay was normal. Trio WES identified a paternally-inherited pathogenic splice-site GLB1 mutation (c.75+2dupT). The girl had GM1 gangliosidosis; however, enzymatic testing in blood was normal, presumably compensated for by non-UPD cells. Severe neurologic dysfunction occurred due to disruptive effects of UPD brain cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigation of Small Bowel Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Patients Using Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Sakai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is reportedly associated with an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and can cause HIV enteropathy, which occurs independently of opportunistic infections. However, the characteristics of small bowel abnormalities attributable to HIV infection are rarely investigated. In the present study, we assessed the intestinal mucosal changes found in HIV-infected patients and compared them with the mucosa of healthy control subjects using capsule endoscopy (CE. Three of the 27 HIV-infected patients harbored gastrointestinal opportunistic infections and were thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The endoscopic findings of CE in HIV-infected patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (55% versus 10%, P=0.002; however, most lesions, such as red spots or tiny erosions, were unlikely to cause abdominal symptoms. After validating the efficacy of CE for the diagnosis of villous atrophy, we found that the prevalence of villous atrophy was 54% (13/24 among HIV-infected patients. Interestingly, villous atrophy persisted in patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy, though most of them exhibited reconstituted peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. Although we could not draw any conclusions regarding the development of small bowel abnormalities in HIV-infected patients, our results may provide some insight regarding the pathogenesis of HIV enteropathy.

  15. Rotating shallow water modeling of planetary,astrophysical and plasma vortical structures (plasma transport across a magnetic field,model of the jupiter's GRS, prediction of existence of giant vortices in spiral galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nezlin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of results have been described in this paper. Firstly, an experimental study of the Rossby vortex meridional drift on the rotating shallow water has been carried out. Owing to the stringent physical analogy between the Rossby vortices and drift vortices in the magnetized plasma, the results obtained have allowed one to make a conclusion that the transport rate of the plasma, trapped by the drift vortices, across the magnetic field is equivalent to the “gyro-Bohm” diffusion coefficient. Secondly, a model of big vortices of the type of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, dominating in the atmospheres of the outer planets, has been produced. Thirdly, the rotating shallow water modeling has been carried out of the hydrodynamical generation mechanism of spiral structures in galaxies. Trailing spiral waves of various azimuthal modes, generated by a shear flow between fast rotating “nucleus” and slow rotating periphery, were produced. The spirals are similar to those existing in the real galaxies. The hydrodynamical concept of the spiral structure formation in galaxies has been substantiated. Strong anticyclonic vortices between the spiral arms of the structures under study have been discovered for the first time. The existence of analogous vortices in real galaxies has been predicted. (This prediction has been reliably confirmed recently in special astronomical observations, carried out on the basis of the mentioned laboratory modeling and the prediction made – see the paper by A. Fridman et al. (Astrophysics and Space Science, 1997, 252, 115.

  16. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Mutations in sialidosis impair sialidase binding to the lysosomal multienzyme complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukong, K E; Landry, K; Elsliger, M A; Chang, Y; Lefrancois, S; Morales, C R; Pshezhetsky, A V

    2001-05-18

    Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the genetic deficiency of lysosomal sialidase, which catalyzes the catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates. The disease is associated with progressive impaired vision, macular cherry-red spots, and myoclonus (sialidosis type I) or with skeletal dysplasia, Hurler-like phenotype, dysostosis multiplex, mental retardation, and hepatosplenomegaly (sialidosis type II). We analyzed the effect of the missense mutations G68V, S182G, G227R, F260Y, L270F, A298V, G328S, and L363P, which are identified in the sialidosis type I and sialidosis type II patients, on the activity, stability, and intracellular distribution of sialidase. We found that three mutations, F260Y, L270F, and A298V, which are clustered in the same region on the surface of the sialidase molecule, dramatically reduced the enzyme activity and caused a rapid intralysosomal degradation of the expressed protein. We suggested that this region might be involved in sialidase binding with lysosomal cathepsin A and/or beta-galactosidase in the multienzyme lysosomal complex required for the expression of sialidase activity. Transgenic expression of mutants followed by density gradient centrifugation of cellular extracts confirmed this hypothesis and showed that sialidase deficiency in some sialidosis patients results from disruption of the lysosomal multienzyme complex.

  18. Chaperone-mediated gene therapy with recombinant AAV-PPCA in a new mouse model of type I sialidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, Erik J; Yogalingam, Gouri; Hu, Huimin; Gomero, Elida; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    The lysosomal storage disease sialidosis is caused by a primary deficiency of the sialidase N-acetyl-α-neuraminidase-1 (NEU1). Patients with type I sialidosis develop an attenuated, non-neuropathic form of the disease also named cherry red spot myoclonus syndrome, with symptoms arising during juvenile/ adult age. NEU1 requires binding to its chaperone, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), for lysosomal compartmentalization, stability and catalytic activation. We have generated a new mouse model of type I sialidosis that ubiquitously expresses a NEU1 variant carrying a V54M amino acid substitution identified in an adult patient with type I sialidosis. Mutant mice developed signs of lysosomal disease after 1year of age, predominantly in the kidney, albeit low residual NEU1 activity was detected in most organs and cell types. We demonstrate that the activity of the mutant enzyme could be effectively increased in all systemic tissues by chaperone-mediated gene therapy with a liver-tropic recombinant AAV2/8 vector expressing PPCA. This resulted in clear amelioration of the disease phenotype. These results suggest that at least some of the NEU1 mutations associated with type I sialidosis may respond to PPCA-chaperone-mediated gene therapy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Expanding sialidosis spectrum by genome-wide screening: NEU1 mutations in adult-onset myoclonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canafoglia, Laura; Robbiano, Angela; Pareyson, Davide; Panzica, Ferruccio; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Venerando, Anna; Gellera, Cinzia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Zara, Federico

    2014-06-03

    To identify the genetic cause of a familial form of late-onset action myoclonus in 2 unrelated patients. Both probands had 2 siblings displaying a similar disorder. Extensive laboratory examinations, including biochemical assessment for urine sialic acid in the 2 probands, were negative. Exome sequencing was performed in the probands using an Illumina platform. Segregation analysis of putative mutations was performed in all family members by standard Sanger sequencing protocols. NEU1 mutations were detected in 3 siblings of each family with prominent cortical myoclonus presenting in the third decade of life and having a mild and slowly progressive course. They did not have macular cherry-red spot and their urinary sialic acid excretion was within normal values. Genetic analysis demonstrated a homozygous mutation in family 1 (c.200G>T, p.S67I) and 2 compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.679G>A, p.G227R; c.913C>T, p.R305C). Our observation indicates that sialidosis should be suspected and the NEU1 gene analyzed in patients with isolated action myoclonus presenting in adulthood in the absence of other typical clinical and laboratory findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Chaperone–Mediated Gene Therapy with Recombinant AAV-PPCA in a New Mouse Model of Type I Sialidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, Erik J.; Yogalingam, Gouri; Hu, Huimin; Gomero, Elida; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The lysosomal storage disease sialidosis is caused by a primary deficiency of the sialidase NEU1. Patients with type I sialidosis develop an attenuated, non-neuropathic form of the disease also named cherry red spot myoclonus syndrome, with symptoms arising during juvenile/ adult age. NEU1 requires binding to its chaperone, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), for lysosomal compartmentalization, stability and catalytic activation. We have generated a new mouse model of type I sialidosis that ubiquitously expresses a NEU1 variant carrying a V54M amino acid substitution identified in an adult patient with type I sialidosis. Mutant mice developed signs of lysosomal disease after 1 year of age, predominantly in the kidney, albeit low residual NEU1 activity was detected in most organs and cell types. We demonstrate that the activity of the mutant enzyme could be effectively increased in all systemic tissues by chaperone–mediated gene therapy with a liver-tropic recombinant AAV2/8 vector expressing PPCA. This resulted in clear amelioration of the disease phenotype. These results suggest that at least some of the NEU1 mutations associated with type I sialidosis may respond to PPCA-chaperone-mediated gene therapy. PMID:23770387

  1. Characterization of severe action myoclonus in sialidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canafoglia, Laura; Franceschetti, Silvana; Uziel, Graziella; Ciano, Claudia; Scaioli, Vidmer; Guerrini, Renzo; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio

    2011-03-01

    To asses the characteristics of severe action myoclonus in three patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) due to sialidosis. We assessed EEG-EMG coherence, relative power (RP) and bandwidth (BW) of the EMG-peak associated with myoclonus; we also evaluated somatosensory evoked potentials and long-loop reflexes (LLRs). We compared the findings with those obtained in ten Unverricht-Lundborg (UL) patients. The presentation of sialidosis included macular cherry-red spot, skeletal malformation and polyneuropathy in the infantile form and optic atrophy in the juvenile form. From its onset in adolescence myoclonus rapidly worsened, quickly leading to severe disability. In sialidosis patients, the EMG-peak was characterised by higher RP (psialidosis and UL patients, the coherence values and the RP of the EMG-peak were directly correlated with the severity of the myoclonus; while BW values were inversely correlated. All these measures showed extreme values in sialidosis patients. In the sialidosis patients, the strongly rhythmic recurrence of the jerks reflected on LLR, which included multiple components. Subtle differences indicate an especially high level of cortical motor synchronization in the sialidosis patients, which may account for their particularly severe motor impairment. Neurophysiological indexes indicating high EEG-EMG synchronization parallels the severity of the myoclonus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Case of Incomplete Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Short Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Makino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, incomplete central retinal artery occlusion associated with short posterior ciliary artery occlusion is extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case of a 62-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with of transient blindness in his right eye. At initial examination, the patient’s best-corrected visual acuity was 18/20 in the right eye. Fundus examination showed multiple soft exudates around the optic disc and mild macular retinal edema in his right eye; however, a cherry red spot on the macula was not detected. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed dye inflow into the nasal choroidal hemisphere that is supplied by the short posterior ciliary artery. The following day, the patient’s visual acuity improved to 20/20. Soft exudates around the optic disc increased during observation and gradually disappeared. His hemodynamic parameters revealed subclavian steal syndrome as examined by cervical ultrasonography and digital subtraction angiography. We speculate that his transient blindness was due to ophthalmic artery spasms. In this particular case, spasms of the ophthalmic artery and occlusion of the short posterior ciliary artery occurred simultaneously. As the short posterior ciliary artery branches from the ophthalmic artery, the anatomical location of the lesion might be near the branching of both arteries.

  3. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) in red and melanised foci in white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørgen, Håvard; Wessel, Øystein; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Sveier, Harald; Sæbø, Håkon Rydland; Enger, Katrine Bones; Monsen, Eirik; Kvellestad, Agnar; Rimstad, Espen; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2015-09-08

    Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different populations of captive and wild salmon for the occurrence of both types of changes, which were investigated for the presence of different viruses by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. The occurrence of red or melanised foci varied significantly between the populations, from none in wild fish control group, low prevalence of small foci in fish kept in in-house tanks, to high prevalence of large foci in farm-raised salmon. Large amounts of Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) antigen were detected in all foci. No other viruses were detected. Red focal changes contained significantly higher levels of PRV RNA than apparently non-affected areas in white muscle of the same individuals. Some changes displayed a transient form between a red and melanised pathotype, indicating a progression from an acute to a chronic manifestation. We conclude that PRV is associated with the focal pathological changes in the white muscle of farmed Atlantic salmon and is a premise for the development of focal melanised changes.

  4. Foveal spot: a report of thirteen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Duncan, Jacque; Brucker, Allison; Prenner, Jonathan L; Brucker, Alexander J

    2003-06-01

    To describe the natural history of a series of patients with a small foveal or juxtafoveal red lesion. Retrospective chart review of 13 patients with a small foveal or juxtafoveal red spot. Long-term follow-up examination was obtained in seven patients. Thirteen patients with a mean age of 34.6 years are reported. Initial visual complaints ranged from no complaints to mild blurring and central distortion of vision. None of the patients had a history of sun gazing or known macular disease. Eleven of the 13 patients had best-corrected visual acuities in the involved eye that were better than 20/30. The lesions were bilateral in five patients and unilateral in eight. When performed, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were unremarkable. Follow-up was obtained in seven patients (mean, 58 months), and visual acuity remained stable in all affected eyes. In all patients, the lesions remained stable without expansion or alteration of the foveal appearance over the course of follow-up. This report identifies a foveal or juxtafoveal, irregular, apparently intraretinal, red lesion of unclear cause. Long-term follow-up of these patients has demonstrated stable visual acuity and lesion appearance.

  5. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of absolute color on Jupiter from Hubble Space Telescope imaging data shows that the Great Red Spot (GRS) is not the reddest region of the planet. Rather, a transient red cyclone visible in 1995 and the North Equatorial Belt both show redder spectra than the GRS (i.e., more absorption at blue and green wavelengths). This cyclone is unique among vortices in that it is intensely colored yet low altitude, unlike the GRS. Temporal analysis shows that the darkest regions of the NEB are relative constant in color from 1995 to 2008, while the slope of the GRS core may vary slightly. Principal component analysis shows several spectral components are needed, in agreement with past work, and further highlights the differences between regions. These color differences may be indicative of the same chromophore(s) under different conditions, such as mixing with white clouds, longer UV irradiation at higher altitude, and thermal processing, or may indicate abundance variations in colored compounds. A single compound does not fit the spectrum of any region well and mixes of multiple compounds including NH4SH, photolyzed NH3, hydrocarbons, and possibly P4, are likely needed to fully match each spectrum.

  6. A new species of the cardinalfish genus Siphamia (Perciformes, Apogonidae) from West Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Ofer; Allen, Gerald R; Erdmann, Mark V; Gouws, Gavin

    2014-11-06

    A new species of the cardinalfish genus Siphamia is described from specimens collected in the Province of West Papua, Indonesia, at depths of 50-72 m. Siphamia papuensis n. sp. has a striated light organ which makes it a member of the S. tubifer species group. Within this group it is closely related to S. argentea, sharing with the latter 13 pectoral-fin rays, 9 developed gill rakers and an irregular pattern of yellowish green bars on the body. It differs from S. argentea in having an incomplete lateral line and in lacking dark marks on the head, and at the origin and end of the dorsal-fin and anal-fin bases, as well as the absence of red spots along the light organ and along the back. Japanese records of S. tubulata are reidentified as S. argentea, and new locality records for S. argentea and S. stenotes are reported. Analysis of sequence data from a 16S rDNA fragment revealed the clear separation of S. papuensis n. sp., S. argentea and other included Siphamia species (S. jebbi, S. tubifer and S. stenotes). 

  7. [Skin and eating, their relationship to myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomb, Roland

    2009-01-01

    When eating certain foods, one also eats some of its imaginary, physical or moral characteristics by analogy. The skin does not escape this "eating magic", since the skin's appearance is said to mirror one's self and above all one's nutrition. Since pleasure implies transgression, dieting exists to punish and reestablish taboos but also to insure redemption. Patients often distrust certain food that allegedly "damage one's complexion" or "provoke redness, spots and itching". Lists of such foods vary amongst patients, but share common features: these foods are "hot", in Arabic Hâmî. Such concepts, common currency within the Lebanese population, are residues of Aristotle and Hippocrates's medical categorizations. They were developed through centuries by Arab physicians, and remain nowadays among Middle-Easterners as dietary restrictions only. Some physicians therefore feel free to prohibit foods that adolescents are particularly fond of, especially when treating acne. Nutrition has an undeniable importance in a single domain--food allergies. These allergies, frequent amongst infants, are much rarer in adult life. It is thus important to carefully examine patients and investigate their cases in order to determine whether alleged allergies are real and to diagnose them correctly.

  8. Addition of a Hydrological Cycle to the EPIC Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, T. E.; Palotai, C. J.

    2002-09-01

    We present a progress report on the development of the EPIC atmospheric model to include clouds, moist convection, and precipitation. Two major goals are: i) to study the influence that convective water clouds have on Jupiter's jets and vortices, such as those to the northwest of the Great Red Spot, and ii) to predict ammonia-cloud evolution for direct comparison to visual images (instead of relying on surrogates for clouds like potential vorticity). Data structures in the model are now set up to handle the vapor, liquid, and solid phases of the most common chemical species in planetary atmospheres. We have adapted the Prather conservation of second-order moments advection scheme to the model, which yields high accuracy for dealing with cloud edges. In collaboration with computer scientists H. Dietz and T. Mattox at the U. Kentucky, we have built a dedicated 40-node parallel computer that achieves 34 Gflops (double precision) at 74 cents per Mflop, and have updated the EPIC-model code to use cache-aware memory layouts and other modern optimizations. The latest test-case results of cloud evolution in the model will be presented. This research is funded by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and EPSCoR programs.

  9. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  10. Fixation light hue bias revisited: implications for using adaptive optics to study color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, H J; Blaschke, J; Patolia, J; Koenig, D E

    2012-03-01

    Current vision science adaptive optics systems use near infrared wavefront sensor 'beacons' that appear as red spots in the visual field. Colored fixation targets are known to influence the perceived color of macroscopic visual stimuli (Jameson, D., & Hurvich, L. M. (1967). Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control. Vision Research, 7, 805-809.), suggesting that the wavefront sensor beacon may also influence perceived color for stimuli displayed with adaptive optics. Despite its importance for proper interpretation of adaptive optics experiments on the fine scale interaction of the retinal mosaic and spatial and color vision, this potential bias has not yet been quantified or addressed. Here we measure the impact of the wavefront sensor beacon on color appearance for dim, monochromatic point sources in five subjects. The presence of the beacon altered color reports both when used as a fixation target as well as when displaced in the visual field with a chromatically neutral fixation target. This influence must be taken into account when interpreting previous experiments and new methods of adaptive correction should be used in future experiments using adaptive optics to study color. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Picture this! grasping the dimensions of time and space

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical concepts can be truly hard to comprehend, especially those of planetary sizes and distances from Earth and from each other. These concepts are made more comprehensible by the group of illustrations in this book, which put, in scale, side by side extraterrestrial objects with objects on Earth we can more easily relate to. For example, study the pictures of Earth floating above Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and the asteroid Itokawa resting beside Toronto’s CN Tower. These mind-bending images bring things better into perspective and will help you understand the size and scale of our Solar System. In later chapters, you will be told how close the visionaries of the past came to guessing what today’s explorers would find. Astronomer/painter Lucien Rudaux’s masterpieces of Mars dust storms anticipated Viking and Mars rover images by nearly a century. Space artist Ludek Pesek envisioned astronauts setting up camp on the lunar surface in scenes hauntingly similar to photos taken by Apollo a...

  12. ``Gold corrosion'': red stains on a gold Austrian Ducat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, G.; Montanari, R.; Kaciulis, S.; Montesperelli, G.; Denk, R.

    Stains of different colours have been observed on historic and modern gold coins in several countries. An Austrian Ducat at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has developed some red spots on its surface over the years. The same defects have also been observed in modern coins of higher gold purity. The spots have been examined by OM, SEM, EDS, XPS and AES. Optical microscopy showed that ``red'' defects exhibit in fact a nuance of colours. The surface analysis put in evidence the presence in the stains, in addition to gold, of silver and sulphur. The values of the modified Auger parameter α' of silver correspond to those of Ag2S; thus, it can be assumed that the stains are composed of silver sulphide (Ag2S). It was not possible to determine whether the presence of silver on the surface is due to segregation towards the surface or to external particles of silver embedded in the matrix. Depth profiling performed on modern coins suffering from the same problem allowed us to demonstrate that the nuance of colours is due to the inhomogeneous thickness of the spots. Moreover, it was demonstrated that spots are formed by two layers: an outer layer of silver sulphide and an inner layer of silver.

  13. Effects of stocking hatchery fish on the phenotype of indigenous populations in the amago salmon Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K; Furukawa, M; Kubota, M; Harada, Y

    2012-07-01

    The expression of colour marks (parr marks, red and black spots) of the amago salmon Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae was compared with microsatellite information, to see the effects of stocking hatchery fish on the phenotype of indigenous populations, which face extinction through extensive stocking. A Bayesian-based assignment test suggested introgression of two exotic clusters into one indigenous cluster in the stocked area and its vicinity. The number of parr marks was significantly higher in one hatchery-origin population, which exclusively comprised one exotic cluster. An increased number of red spots in stocked hatchery fish was probably a consequence of hatchery feeding conditions. The number of black spots was correlated with body size in many populations, except for hatchery and heavily introgressed populations. Coefficients of correlation and regression of black spots with body size, which were largest in indigenous populations, decreased with an increase of introgression by hatchery fish. As indigenous populations have low genetic diversity with high relatedness, it was inferred that the height of correlation and regression coefficients in black spots is caused by high genetic homogeneity and fixation of alleles in loci related to the increase of black spots, both of which might have collapsed with introgression by hatchery fish. These results suggest the possibility that introgression by stocked fish causes a change of phenotype in indigenous populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Allometry in damselfly ornamental and genital traits: solving some pitfalls of allometry and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; López-Valenzuela, A; Brunel, O

    2010-12-01

    Static allometry of sexually selected traits has been the subject of intense research recently. However, some pitfalls for this kind of research are: (a) the functions of sexual traits are largely unknown; (b) more than one body size indicator must be measured; and, (c) allometry must be examined under different environmental circumstances to see whether allometric values change. Using Hetaerina americana damselflies, we investigated the type of allometry exhibited by a wing red spot and aedeagal width. These traits are positively selected during pre-copulatory male-male contests and post-copulatory female stimulation, respectively. As body size indicators, we used wing length and head width. It has been documented that expression of both sexual traits varies throughout the year. Thus, allometry was examined in different times of the year. We also investigated the allometry of aedeagal width and vaginal width at the zone where female stimulation takes place. We found no clear pattern of any allometric relationship for male and female traits and for both body size indicators at all times sampled. Our results contrast with patterns of negative allometry exhibited by genital traits in other animals.

  16. Central retinal artery occlusion resembling Purtscher-like retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etomi T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Norio Okamoto2, Hidehiro Oku1, Yuko Kanbara1, Tomohiko Etomi1, Masahiro Tonari1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan; 2Okamoto Eye Clinic, Suita, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This paper reports three cases of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO with Purtscher-like retinopathy and good recovery of visual function. The three cases of CRAO had similar fundus changes, ie, cotton wool patches surrounding the optic disc and whitening of the retina surrounding the fovea with a cherry red spot. Fluorescein angiography showed a delay of arm-to-retina circulation time and a partial defect of choroid circulation. Although the three cases were treated by different regimens of steroid pulse therapy and antiplatelet therapy, visual function recovered well and all disturbances of the retinal and choroid circulations resolved. Although eyes with a CRAO normally have a poor visual prognosis, our three cases responded well to the treatments and recovered good visual function. Thus, cases showing fundus changes similar to our three cases may have a pathogenesis different from that of a complete CRAO.Keywords: central retinal artery occlusion, cotton wool patches, Purtscher retinopathy, steroid therapy

  17. Encoding of reward expectation by monkey anterior insular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhiki, Takashi; Richmond, Barry J; Shidara, Munetaka

    2012-06-01

    The insula, a cortical brain region that is known to encode information about autonomic, visceral, and olfactory functions, has recently been shown to encode information during reward-seeking tasks in both single neuronal recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. To examine the reward-related activation, we recorded from 170 single neurons in anterior insula of 2 monkeys during a multitrial reward schedule task, where the monkeys had to complete a schedule of 1, 2, 3, or 4 trials to earn a reward. In one block of trials a visual cue indicated whether a reward would or would not be delivered in the current trial after the monkey successfully detected that a red spot turned green, and in other blocks the visual cue was random with respect to reward delivery. Over one-quarter of 131 responsive neurons were activated when the current trial would (certain or uncertain) be rewarded if performed correctly. These same neurons failed to respond in trials that were certain, as indicated by the cue, to be unrewarded. Another group of neurons responded when the reward was delivered, similar to results reported previously. The dynamics of population activity in anterior insula also showed strong signals related to knowing when a reward is coming. The most parsimonious explanation is that this activity codes for a type of expected outcome, where the expectation encompasses both certain and uncertain rewards.

  18. PGI chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) traceability by means of HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritota, Mena; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2013-05-01

    Analytical traceability of PGI and PDO foods (Protected Geographical Indication and Protected Denomination Origin respectively) is one of the most challenging tasks of current applied research. Here we proposed a metabolomic approach based on the combination of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS-NMR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis, i.e. PLS-DA, as a reliable tool for the traceability of Italian PGI chicories (Cichorium intybus L.), i.e. Radicchio Rosso di Treviso and Radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco, also known as red and red-spotted, respectively. The metabolic profile was gained by means of HRMAS-NMR, and multivariate data analysis allowed us to build statistical models capable of providing clear discrimination among the two varieties and classification according to the geographical origin. Based on Variable Importance in Projection values, the molecular markers for classifying the different types of red chicories analysed were found accounting for both the cultivar and the place of origin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Cloud Microphysics Model for the Gas Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, Csaba J.; Le Beau, Raymond P.; Shankar, Ramanakumar; Flom, Abigail; Lashley, Jacob; McCabe, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have significantly increased the quality and the number of observed meteorological features on the jovian planets, revealing banded cloud structures and discrete features. Our current understanding of the formation and decay of those clouds also defines the conceptual modes about the underlying atmospheric dynamics. The full interpretation of the new observational data set and the related theories requires modeling these features in a general circulation model (GCM). Here, we present details of our bulk cloud microphysics model that was designed to simulate clouds in the Explicit Planetary Hybrid-Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) GCM for the jovian planets. The cloud module includes hydrological cycles for each condensable species that consist of interactive vapor, cloud and precipitation phases and it also accounts for latent heating and cooling throughout the transfer processes (Palotai and Dowling, 2008. Icarus, 194, 303-326). Previously, the self-organizing clouds in our simulations successfully reproduced the vertical and horizontal ammonia cloud structure in the vicinity of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Oval BA (Palotai et al. 2014, Icarus, 232, 141-156). In our recent work, we extended this model to include water clouds on Jupiter and Saturn, ammonia clouds on Saturn, and methane clouds on Uranus and Neptune. Details of our cloud parameterization scheme, our initial results and their comparison with observations will be shown. The latest version of EPIC model is available as open source software from NASA's PDS Atmospheres Node.

  20. Hemiretinal Artery Occlusion in an 11-Year-Old Child with Dextrocardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E. Arévalo Simental

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of hemiretinal artery occlusion in a child with dextrocardia, visceral heterotaxia, and secondary polycythemia. Methods. Complete clinical examination, fundus photography, and retinal fluorescein angiography were performed. Laboratory testing included complete blood cell count, homocysteine, protein c, protein s, activated protein s, methyltetrahydrofolate and homocysteine activator genes, factor leiden V gene, antithrombin III, and activated protein c resistance. In addition, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram and cardiac catheterism were performed. Results. We report an 11-year-old boy with a sudden, painless visual loss in his right eye. His past medical history is remarkable for a congenital cardiac disease. He presented with vision of light perception in the right eye and a relative afferent pupillary defect. Fundus findings included a macular cherry-red spot and inferior hemiretinal whitening consistent with hemiretinal artery occlusion. Laboratory testing showed increased red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. The patient was treated with four phlebotomies with improvement of RBC count and after one month reperfusion of the retina and a visual acuity of 20/200 were observed. Thrombophilia and cardiac screening were negative, except for secondary polycythemia. Conclusion. Hemiretinal artery occlusion is extremely rare in children and is often associated with congenital cardiac disease and hypercoagulative states.

  1. The effect of hypergravity on the lens, cornea and tail regeneration in Urodela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Dvorochkin, N.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Yousuf, R.; Radugina, E. A.; Almeida, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    In previous experiments onboard Russian Bion/Foton satellites it was found that exposure to microgravity causes changes in eye lens regeneration of Urodela. The changes included higher rate of regeneration, increased cell proliferation in lens anlage, and synchronization of lens restoration. Similar changes were observed regarding tail regeneration. Recently, investigations were performed to find out whether exposure to hypergravity could also alter lens, cornea and tail regeneration in the newt P. waltl. Nine days prior to exposure the left lens was surgically removed through corneal incision and distal 1/3 of the tail was amputated, thus initiating regeneration. The experimental animals were allowed to recover for 9 days at 1 g and then exposed to 2 g for 12 days in an 8 ft diameter centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The experimental animals were divided into 1 g controls, 2 g centrifugation animals, basal controls, and aquarium controls. Lens and corneal regeneration appeared to be inhibited in 2 g group compared to 1 g animals. In all 1 g controls, lens regeneration reached stages VII-IX in a synchronous fashion and corneal regeneration was nearly complete. In the 2 g newts, neural retinal detachment from the pigmented epithelium was seen in most operated eyes. It was also observed in the non-operated (right) eyes of the animals exposed to 2 g. The level of retinal detachment varied and could have been caused by hypergravity-induced high intraocular pressure. Regeneration (when it could be assessed) proceeded asynchronously, reaching stages from II to IX. Corneal restoration was also noticeably delayed and corneal morphology changed. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU; the results were not comparable to the 1 g data because of retinal detachment. Previous investigations demonstrated that lens regeneration was controlled by the neural retina; therefore, lower regeneration rate at 2 g was, at least in part, associated with retinal detachment. FGF2

  2. Jupiter's White Ovals/True and False Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon-shaped vortex seen here between the well-formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south latitude relative to the center of the planet and 100 degrees west longitude, and rotates in a clockwise direction about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived white ovals that formed to the south of the Great Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Great Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense.The east-to-west dimension of the left-most white oval is 9,000 kilometers (5,592 miles) across. For comparison, the diameter of Earth is 12,756 kilometers, or 7,928 miles. The white ovals drift in longitude relative to one another and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure. To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere.The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. The clouds and haze over the white ovals are high, extending into Jupiter's stratosphere. There is a lack of high haze over the cyclonic feature. Dark purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere

  3. Atmospheric Waves and Dynamics Beneath Jupiters Clouds from Radio Wavelength Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Richard G.; Butler, Bryan; Sault, Bob; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Simon, Amy; De Pater, Imke

    2017-01-01

    We observed Jupiter at wavelengths near 2 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in February 2015. These frequencies are mostly sensitive to variations in ammonia abundance and probe between approx. 0.5- 2.0 bars of pressure in Jupiters atmosphere; within and below the visible cloud deck which has its base near 0.7 bars. The resultant observed data were projected into a cylindrical map of the planet with spatial resolution of approx. 1500 km at the equator. We have examined the data for atmospheric waves and observed a prominent bright belt of radio hotspot features near 10 N, likely connected to the same equatorial wave associated with the 5-m hotspots. We conducted a passive tracer power spectral wave analysis for the entire map and latitude regions corresponding to eastward and westward jets and compare our results to previous studies. The power spectra analysis revealed that the atmosphere sampled in our observation (excluding the NEB region) is in a 2-D turbulent regime and its dynamics are predominately governed by the shallow water equations. The Great Red Spot (GRS) is also very prominent and has a noticeable meridional asymmetry and we compare it, and nearby storms, with optical images. We find that the meridional radio profile has a global north-south hemisphere distinction and find correlations of it to optical intensity banding and to shear zones of the zonal wind profile over select regions of latitude. Amateur optical images taken before and after our observation complemented the radio wave- length map to investigate dynamics of the equatorial region in Jupiters atmosphere. We find that two radio hotspots at 2 cm are well correlated with optical plumes in the NEB, additionally revealing they are not the same 5 m hotspot features correlated with optical dark patches between adjacent plumes. This analysis exploits the VLAs upgraded sensitivity and explores the opportunities now possible when studying gas giants, especially atmospheric

  4. [High speed separation and quantitation of Ralstonia solanacearum of different virulence using high performance ion exchange chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan; Ma, Cheng; Liu, Shutao; Wu, Lingling; Rao, Pingfan

    2007-01-01

    High performance ion exchange chromatography coupled with laser light scattering instrument was employed for the rapid separation and quantitation of Ralstonia solanacearum of different virulence. The pure culture of Ralstonia solanacearum was successfully separated into three characteristic fractions. Each fraction was collected and inoculated onto 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) plates to identify its virulence. The shapes and colors of the colonies were imaged, and the average attenuation index (attenuation index = red spot diameter of colony/total colony diameter) of ten colonies of each fraction was carefully determined. Furthermore, each fraction was inoculated into SPA liquid media at 30 degrees C with shaking (200 r/min) for 48 h, the cells were harvested, suspended at a density of 1.2 x 10(9) cfu/mL, and applied to infect tomato tissue culture plantlets using leaf-cutting method. The infection mortality of the tomato tissue culture plantlets was recorded from 1 to 9 days after inoculation. The results showed that the virulences of each fraction were different on the basis of attenuation index and infection mortality. The virulence of peak 3 fraction was the strongest. On the contrary, the virulence of peak 1 fraction was the weakest. In addition, the linear relationships between different injection volumes (1 - 180 microL) and their peak areas were investigated. The linearity was good within the range of the bacterial number of 9 x 10(6) - 9 x 10(8) (r = 0.99). This method can be potentially used as a novel tool for the rapid separation and quantitation of Ralstonia solanacearum of different virulences.

  5. AGU awards the Twentieth Presentation of the James B. Macelwane Award to Ronald J. Prinn, David Southwood, and Donald J. Weidner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James C. G.; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Russell, Christopher T.; Southwood, David; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Weidner, Donald J.

    Mr. President, ladies, and gentlemen: We are honoring tonight a young scientist who combines an unusually broad knowledge of the chemistry and dynamics of planetary atmospheres with a healthy skepticism regarding established dogma and a marvelous ability to shrug off the displeasure of established dogmatists.Ron Prinn's theoretical research has significantly influenced our understanding of the terrestrial stratosphere as well as the atmospheres of Venus and Jupiter. Since 1980, when he joined the Department of Meteorology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he has been a leading participant in collaborative efforts to develop numerical models of the stratosphere combining comprehensive chemistry with realistic dynamics. Such models have been a rich source of controversy in our continuing efforts to predict man's potential impact on the ozone layer. Prinn's work on the chemistry of sulfur gases in the atmosphere of Venus, published in 1973 and 1975, foreshadowed the explosive growth of interest in the sulfur chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere. By delimiting conditions for the predominance of either sulfur or sulfuric acid in the clouds of Venus, his work provided a basis for the interpretation of Pioneer Venus data. It was Prinn who suggested that the spectacular dark markings on ultraviolet images of Venus are caused by sulfur. More recently he has discussed the contribution of phosphorus to the color of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Not forsaking the mother planet, he is currently engaged in efforts to determine from field measurements whether there is any truth in the well-established theory that freon, methyl chloroform, and nitrous oxide are chemically inert in the troposphere.

  6. Infrared rotational light curves on Jupiter induced by wave activities and cloud patterns andimplications on brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huazhi; Zhang, Xi; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Fernandes,, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Warren, Ari; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit infrared rotational light curves with amplitude varying from a fewpercent to twenty percent (Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750,105). Recently, it was claimed that weather patterns, especially planetary-scale waves in thebelts and cloud spots, are responsible for the light curves and their evolutions on brown dwarfs(Apai et al. 2017, Science, 357, 683). Here we present a clear relationship between the direct IRemission maps and light curves of Jupiter at multiple wavelengths, which might be similar withthat on cold brown dwarfs. Based on infrared disk maps from Subaru/COMICS and VLT/VISIR,we constructed full maps of Jupiter and rotational light curves at different wavelengths in thethermal infrared. We discovered a strong relationship between the light curves and weatherpatterns on Jupiter. The light curves also exhibit strong multi-bands phase shifts and temporalvariations, similar to that detected on brown dwarfs. Together with the spectra fromTEXES/IRTF, our observations further provide detailed information of the spatial variations oftemperature, ammonia clouds and aerosols in the troposphere of Jupiter (Fletcher et al. 2016,Icarus, 2016 128) and their influences on the shapes of the light curves. We conclude that waveactivities in Jupiter’s belts (Fletcher et al. 2017, GRL, 44, 7140), cloud holes, and long-livedvortices such as the Great Red Spot and ovals control the shapes of IR light curves and multi-wavelength phase shifts on Jupiter. Our finding supports the hypothesis that observed lightcurves on brown dwarfs are induced by planetary-scale waves and cloud spots.

  7. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: overview and transcatheter embolotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugash, R.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    The majority of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs) are found in people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a condition also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. HHT is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder in which abnormal blood vessels cause bleeding and arteriovenous shunting. The 2 basic lesions of HHT - telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) - are closely related. Multisystem involvement leads to a staggering array of clinical manifestations, making HHT one of medicine's less familiar 'great pretenders'. Telangiectasias are dilated blood vessels, typically located in mucocutaneous surfaces (i.e., skin, conjunctiva, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract). Small telangiectasias are simply dilated post-capillary venules, whereas larger telangiectasias are made up of dilated arterioles and venules, often with no intervening capillary. They are, in essence, diminutive AVMs. These tiny lesions are visible as punctate bright red spots on skin and mucosal surfaces (Fig. 1). Their fragility and superficial location account for the disabling epistaxis and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, which are so common with HHT. Hematuria (caused by urothelial telangiectasias) occurs occasionally but is not a prominent feature of the disease. Although tracheobronchial telangiectasias do occur and may cause hemoptysis, severe hemoptysis is typically related to pAVM rupture. AVMs are direct artery-to-vein connections. Though larger and far more impressive radiologically than telangiectasias, AVMs are more likely to be clinically silent until they either declare themselves in a catastrophic fashion or are detected by screening tests. In contrast to telangiectasias, which are generally found in epithelial surfaces, AVMs tend to develop within organs, most commonly the lung and brain. As screening methods evolve, liver involvement with both telangiectasias and complex AVMs is being recognized

  8. Enhanced diagnostic yield with prolonged small bowel transit time during capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Kapoor, Sumit; Clarke, John O; Bucobo, Juan Carlos; Giday, Samuel A; Magno, Priscilla; Yong, Elaine; Mullin, Gerard E

    2008-01-01

    The effect of small bowel transit time (SBTT) on diagnostic yield during capsule endoscopy (CE) has not been previously evaluated. Our study aim was to assess the effect of SBTT on the likelihood of detecting intestinal pathology during CE. We reviewed collected data on CE studies performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2006 to June 2007. In patients investigated for anemia or obscure bleeding, the following lesions were considered relevant: ulcers, erosions, AVMs, red spots, varices, vascular ectasias, and presence of blood. In patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain, ulcers, erosions, and blood were considered relevant. Age, gender, study indication, hospital status, and quality of bowel preparation were identified as candidate risk factors affecting SBTT. Univariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to study the effect of SBTT on diagnostic yield. Total of 212 CE studies were analyzed; most were in outpatients (n=175, 82.9%) and with excellent bowel preparation (n=177, 83.5%). Mean SBTT was 237.0 min (3.9 hrs). Age, gender, bowel prep, hospital status, and study indication did not significantly affect SBTT. However, increased SBTT was independently associated with increased diagnostic yield; OR=1.7 in SBTT=2-4 hr (p=0.41), OR=1.8 in SBTT=4-6 hrs (p=0.30), OR=9.6 in SBTT=6-8 hrs (p=0.05). Prolonged SBTT during CE (>6 hr) is associated with an increased diagnostic yield. This may be due to a positive effect on image quality during a "slower" study. The use of promotility agents may adversely affect the ability of CE to detect significant intestinal pathology.

  9. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-10-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of 140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a 7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of 20 deg and a speed of 100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  10. The ammonia absorption behavior on Jupiter during 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; V.G.Tejfel, V.D.Vdovichenko, A.M.Karimov, P.G.Lysenko, , G.A.Kirienko, , V.A.Filippov, G.A.Kharitonova, A.S. Khozhenetz

    2017-10-01

    V.G.Tejfel, V.D.Vdovichenko, A.M.Karimov, P.G.Lysenko, , G.A.Kirienko, , V.A.Filippov, G.A.Kharitonova, A.S. KhozhenetzFessenkov Astrophysical Institute, Almaty, KazakhstanWe measured the intensity of the 645 and 787 nm NH3 absorption bands in five latitudinal belts of Jupiter (STrZ, SEB, EZ, NEB and NTrZ) during almost full period of its revolution around the Sun: from 2005 to 2015. The variations in the equivalent widths of the bands were investigated. The permanently lowered intensity of the 787 nm NH3 band in NEB is confirmed. There are also some systematic differences in latitudinal and temporal variations between the 645 and 787 nm ammonia bands. The equivalent width of the 787 nm NH3 band was averaged for all years of observations. Its maximum (W = 18.95 ± 0.75 A) corresponds to EZ, its minimum (W = 15.82 ± 0.68 A) corresponds to NEB. The 645 nm NH3 band shows the maximum in SEB (W = 6.78 ± 0.45 A), and the minimum in NTrZ (W = 5.38 ± 0.36 A). The weakened ammonia absorption is also observed in the Great Red Spot. However, this is due to the increased density of the clouds inside the Spot storm, but not to decreased gaseous ammonia abundance, in contrast to NEB. The brightness temperature of GRS in the infrared and millimeter ranges of thermal radiation is lower, in contrast to NEB, where an increased brightness temperature is observed. The enhanced cloud density may explain also a pretty high brightness of GRS observed in strong methane absorption bands such as the 887 nm CH4 band and more long waved ones.

  11. Penyakit-Penyakit Penting Buah Naga di Tiga Sentra Pertanaman di Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the causal agent of some dragon fruit disease emerging in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY and Central Java. Samples were taken from the dragon fruit plantation from the district of Sleman and Kulonprogo, Province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta as well as Magelang, Province of Central Java. Isolation of pathogen from symptomatic plant tissue was performed on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA for fungi and Nutrient Agar (NA for bacteria and continued with Koch's postulates testing. The results of field observation showed that the disease commonly occured in all 3 plantations of dragon fruit were stem rot caused by Erwinia sp. and scab caused by Pestalotiopsis sp. Other miscellaneous diseases found among the plantations were brown spot (Fusarium sp., anthracnose (Colletotrichum sp., mosaic that might be caused by Cactus Virus X, root knotnematode (Meloidogyne sp., black rot and red spot which were still unidentified. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penyakit-penyait penting pada tanaman buah naga yang ditanam pada sentra pertanaman buah naga di Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY dan Jawa Tengah, serta untuk mengidentifikasi penyebab penyakit penting tersebut. Sampel tanaman buah naga diambil dari pertanaman buah naga di Kabupaten Sleman dan Kulon Progo untuk Provinsi DIY serta Magelang untuk Propinsi Jawa Tengah. Isolasi patogen dari jaringan tanaman bergejala dilakukan pada medium Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA untuk jamur dan Nutrient Agar (NA untuk bakteri serta dilanjutkan dengan uji Postulat Koch. Hasil pengamatan di lapangan menunjukkan bahwa penyakit yang umum terdapat di 3 lokasi pertanaman buah naga tersebut adalah busuk batang yang disebabkan oleh Erwinia sp. dan kudis yang disebabkan oleh Pestalotiopsis sp. Adapun penyakit-penyakit lain yang dijumpai antara lain bercak coklat (Fusarium sp., antraknosa (Colletotrichum sp., mosaik yang kemungkinan disebabkan oleh Cactus Virus X, puru akar

  12. Characterization of the sialidase molecular defects in sialidosis patients suggests the structural organization of the lysosomal multienzyme complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukong, K E; Elsliger, M A; Chang, Y; Richard, C; Thomas, G; Carey, W; Tylki-Szymanska, A; Czartoryska, B; Buchholz, T; Criado, G R; Palmeri, S; Pshezhetsky, A V

    2000-04-12

    Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the genetic deficiency of lysosomal sialidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sialoglycoconjugates. The disease is associated with progressive impaired vision, macular cherry-red spots and myoclonus (sialidosis type I) or with skeletal dysplasia, Hurler-like phenotype, dysostosis multiplex, mental retardation and hepatosplenomegaly (sialidosis type II). We have analyzed the genomic DNA from nine sialidosis patients of multiple ethnic origin in order to find mutations responsible for the enzyme deficiency. The activity of the identified variants was studied by transgenic expression. One patient had a frameshift mutation (G623delG deletion), which introduced a stop codon, truncating 113 amino acids. All others had missense mutations: G679G-->A (Gly227Arg), C893C-->T (Ala298Val), G203G-->T (Gly68Val), A544A-->G (Ser182Gly) C808C-->T (Leu270Phe) and G982G-->A (Gly328Ser). We have modeled the three-dimensional structure of sialidase based on the atomic coordinates of the homologous bacterial sialidases, located the positions of mutations and estimated their potential effect. This analysis showed that five mutations are clustered in one region on the surface of the sialidase molecule. These mutations dramatically reduce the enzyme activity and cause a rapid intralysosomal degradation of the expressed protein. We hypothesize that this region may be involved in the interface of sialidase binding with lysosomal cathepsin A and/or beta-galactosidase in their high-molecular-weight complex required for the expression of sialidase activity in the lysosome.

  13. Automatic discrimination of color retinal images using the bag of words approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, I.; Sidibé, D.; Meriaudeau, F.

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age related macular degeneration (ARMD) are among the major causes of visual impairment all over the world. DR is mainly characterized by small red spots, namely microaneurysms and bright lesions, specifically exudates. However, ARMD is mainly identified by tiny yellow or white deposits called drusen. Since exudates might be the only visible signs of the early diabetic retinopathy, there is an increase demand for automatic diagnosis of retinopathy. Exudates and drusen may share similar appearances; as a result discriminating between them plays a key role in improving screening performance. In this research, we investigative the role of bag of words approach in the automatic diagnosis of retinopathy diabetes. Initially, the color retinal images are preprocessed in order to reduce the intra and inter patient variability. Subsequently, SURF (Speeded up Robust Features), HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients), and LBP (Local Binary Patterns) descriptors are extracted. We proposed to use single-based and multiple-based methods to construct the visual dictionary by combining the histogram of word occurrences from each dictionary and building a single histogram. Finally, this histogram representation is fed into a support vector machine with linear kernel for classification. The introduced approach is evaluated for automatic diagnosis of normal and abnormal color retinal images with bright lesions such as drusen and exudates. This approach has been implemented on 430 color retinal images, including six publicly available datasets, in addition to one local dataset. The mean accuracies achieved are 97.2% and 99.77% for single-based and multiple-based dictionaries respectively.

  14. Optimization of Betanodavirus culture and enumeration in striped snakehead fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, Paul; Tweedie, Alison; Whittington, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    An optimized culture method for detection of infection of fish with the Red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype of betanodavirus in striped snakehead (SSN-1, Channa striatus) cells is described. Inoculation of fish tissue homogenates at the same time or within 4 hr of seeding the SSN-1 cells was as sensitive as the method recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health, where homogenates were adsorbed onto an established cell monolayer. Such modification halved the time required and the costs of consumables, and reduced the potential for error when processing large numbers of samples. Positive culture results were obtained from 88.3% of 392 fish tissue homogenates in which RGNNV was detected using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay; 99.7% of 943 tissue homogenates, which were qRT-PCR negative, were cell culture negative. Cytopathic effect (CPE) was characterized by large intracytoplasmic vacuoles in 0.1-60% of cells. Detachment of affected cells from the culture surface resulting in progressive disruption of the monolayer occurred in 46.4% of primary cultures and 96.0% of subcultures of positive samples. Identification of CPE that did not disrupt the cell monolayer increased estimates of the 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) by 1.07-2.79 logs (95% confidence interval). The predicted mean TCID(50)/ml was 3.3 logs higher when cells were inoculated less than 36 hr after subculture at less than 80% confluence compared to cells inoculated at greater than 80% confluence and more than 36 hr after subculture (P < 0.05). © 2011 The Author(s)

  15. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 10(5)copies (equivalent to 10(2)50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 10(5)copies/liter. The application of this method to seven band grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to seven band grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The Effect of Surface Topography on the Nonlinear Dynamics of Rossby Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, S. I.; Desjardins, O.; Pitsch, H.

    2003-01-01

    Boussinesq convection in rotating systems attracts a sustained attention of the fluid dynamics community, because it has intricate non-linear dynamics (Cross & Hohenberg 1993) and plays an important role in geophysical and astrophysical applications, such as the motion of the liquid outer core of Earth, the Red Spot in Jupiter, the giant cells in the Sun etc. (Alridge et al. 1990). A fundamental distinction between the real geo- and astrophysical problems and the idealized laboratory studies is that natural systems are inhomogeneous (Alridge et al. 1990). Heterogeneities modulate the flow and influence significantly the dynamics of convective patterns (Alridge et al. 1990; Hide 1971). The effect of modulations on pattern formation and transition to turbulence in Boussinesq convection is far from being completely understood (Cross & Hohenberg 1993; Aranson & Kramer 2002). It is generally accepted that in the liquid outer core of the Earth the transport of the angular momentum and internal heat occurs via thermal Rossby waves (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). These waves been visualized in laboratory experiments in rotating liquid-filled spheres and concentric spherical shells (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). The basic dynamical features of Rossby waves have been reproduced in a cylindrical annulus, a system much simpler than the spherical ones (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). For convection in a cylindrical annulus, the fluid motion is two-dimensional, and gravity is replaced by a centrifugal force, (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). Hide (1971) has suggested that the momentum and heat transport in the core might be influenced significantly by so-called bumps, which are heterogeneities on the mantle-core boundary. To model the effect of surface topography on the transport of momentum and energy in the liquid outer core of the Earth, Bell & Soward (1996), Herrmann & Busse (1998) and Westerburg & Busse (2001) have studied the nonlinear dynamics

  17. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Meteyer, C.U.; Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, J.; Case, S.T.; Chinchar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 viruses were isolated from tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli and A. tigrinum melanostictum) involved in North Dakota and Utah (USA) mortality events and spotted salamander (A. maculatum) larvae in a third event in Maine (USA). Although sympatric caudates and anurans were present at all three sites only ambystomid larvae appeared to be affected. Mortality at the North Dakota site was in the thousands while at the Utah and Maine sites mortality was in the hundreds. Sick larvae were lethargic and slow moving. They swam in circles with obvious buoyancy problems and were unable to remain upright. On the ventral surface, near the gills and hind limbs, red spots or swollen areas were noted. Necropsy findings included: hemorrhages and ulceration of the skin, subcutaneous and intramuscular edema, swollen and pale livers with multifocal hemorrhage, and distended fluid-filled intestines with areas of hemorrhage. Light microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusions, suggestive of a viral infection, in a variety of organs. Electron microscopy of ultra thin sections of the same tissues revealed iridovirus-like particles within the inclusions. These viruses were isolated from a variety of organs, indicating a systemic infection. Representative viral isolates from the three mortality events were characterized using molecular assays. Characterization confirmed that the viral isolates were iridoviruses and that the two tiger salamander isolates were similar and could be distinguished from the spotted salamander isolate. The spotted salamander isolate was similar to frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, while the tiger salamander isolates were not. These data indicate that different species of salamanders can become infected and die in association with different iridoviruses. Challenge assays are required to determine the fish and amphibian host range of these isolates and to assess the susceptibility of tiger and spotted salamanders to

  18. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  19. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  20. Atypical juvenile presentation of GM2 gangliosidosis AB in a patient compound-heterozygote for c.259G>T and c.164C>T mutations in the GM2A gene

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    Carla Martins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant is an extremely rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the GM2A gene that encodes GM2 ganglioside activator protein (GM2AP. GM2AP is necessary for solubilisation of GM2 ganglioside in endolysosomes and its presentation to β-hexosaminidase A. Conversely GM2AP deficiency impairs lysosomal catabolism of GM2 ganglioside, leading to its storage in cells and tissues. We describe a 9-year-old child with an unusual juvenile clinical onset of GM2-gangliosidosis AB. At the age of 3 years he presented with global developmental delay, progressive epilepsy, intellectual disability, axial hypertonia, spasticity, seizures and ataxia, but without the macular cherry-red spots typical for GM2 gangliosidosis. Brain MRI detected a rapid onset of diffuse atrophy, whereas whole exome sequencing showed that the patient is a compound heterozygote for two mutations in GM2A: a novel nonsense mutation, c.259G>T (p.E87X and a missense mutation c.164C>T (p.P55L that was recently identified in homozygosity in patients of a Saudi family with a progressive chorea-dementia syndrome. Western blot analysis showed an absence of GM2AP in cultured fibroblasts from the patient, suggesting that both mutations interfere with the synthesis and/or folding of the protein. Finally, impaired catabolism of GM2 ganglioside in the patient's fibroblasts was demonstrated by metabolic labeling with fluorescently labeled GM1 ganglioside and by immunohistochemistry with anti-GM2 and anti-GM3 antibodies. Our observation expands the molecular and clinical spectrum of molecular defects linked to GM2-gangliosidosis and suggests novel diagnostic approach by whole exome sequencing and perhaps ganglioside analysis in cultured patient's cells.

  1. Development and Validation Of Thin Layer Chromatograpy-Densitometry Method for Determinationa and Quantification of Sinthetic Red Coloring Agent in Sauce Sambel Sachet

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    Fithriani Armin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chili sauce sachet A, B and C containing synthetic red coloring agent  were taken from three fast food premises in Padang. Synthetic red coloring agent  were a food additives used by food manufacturers to enhance color of food products. The use of food coloring agent in Indonesia were regulated   in The Rule of Head of the Supervisory Food Board of the Republic of Indonesia Number 37 Year 2013 about the Limit Use of Food Coloring Agent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC -densitometry was  a precision method for the analysis of food additives. Development and validation of TLC method for chromatographic separation used GF254 silica plate eluted with a mixture of ethanol: butanol: distilled water (4: 5: 5 and spots were detected visually. A red spots on the sample B was identified as Ponceau 4R with Rf value of 0.76. It was then followed by quantitative analysis using densitometry. The linearity of the method  was found in the range of 2-10μg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.994. Precision intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation was shown from 1.11% and 2.69% respectively. Accuracy of the method was shown on the percentage of recovery of the 3 different concentrations of solution which gave the average percentage of 108.17%. Limit of detection and limit quantitation was 0.8306μg/ml and 2.7687μg/ml.  The concentration of Ponceau 4R in the sample B was 11.9520mg/kg of material. This value was not exceeded the  maximum concentration of food coloring agent as stated in the rule which should not be above 70mg/kg of material.

  2. Variable assessment of wing colouration in aerial contests of the red-winged damselfly Mnesarete pudica (Zygoptera, Calopterygidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Appel, Esther; Kovalev, Alexander; Bispo, Pitágoras C.

    2015-04-01

    Wing pigmentation is a trait that predicts the outcome of male contests in some damselflies. Thus, it is reasonable to suppose that males would have the ability to assess wing pigmentation and adjust investment in a fight according to the costs that the rival may potentially impose. Males of the damselfly Mnesarete pudica exhibit red-coloured wings and complex courtship behaviour and engage in striking male-male fights. In this study, we investigated male assessment behaviour during aerial contests. Theory suggests that the relationship between male resource-holding potential (RHP) and contest duration describes the kind of assessment adopted by males: self-assessment, opponent-only assessment or mutual assessment. A recent theory also suggests that weak and strong males exhibit variations in the assessment strategies adopted. We estimated male RHP through male body size and wing colouration (i.e. pigmentation, wing reflectance spectra and transmission spectra) and studied the relationship between male RHP and contest duration from video-documented behavioural observations of naturally occurring individual contests in the field. The results showed that males with more opaque wings and larger red spots were more likely to win contests. The relationships between RHP and contest durations partly supported the self-assessment and the mutual assessment models. We then experimentally augmented the pigmented area of the wings, in order to evaluate whether strong and weak males assess rivals' RHP through wing pigmentation. Our experimental manipulation, however, clearly demonstrated that strong males assess rivals' wing pigmentation. We finally suggest that there is a variation in the assessment strategy adopted by males.

  3. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  4. Studies of Dark Spots and Their Companion Clouds on the Ice Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhure, Sakhee; Sankar, Ramanakumar; Hadland, Nathan; Palotai, Csaba J.; Le Beau, Raymond P.; Koutas, Nikko

    2017-10-01

    Observations of ice giant planets in our Solar System have shown several large-scale dark spots with varying lifespans. Some of these features were directly observed, others were diagnosed from their orographic companion clouds. Historically, numerical simulations have been able to model certain characteristics of these storms such as the shape variability of the Neptune Great Dark Spot (GDS-89) (Deng and Le Beau, 2006), but have not been able to match observed drift rates and lifespans using the standard zonal wind profiles (Hammel et al. 2009). Common amongst these studies has been the lack of condensable species in the atmosphere and an explicit treatment of cloud microphysics. Yet, observations show that dark spots can affect neighboring cloud features, such as in the case of bright companion clouds or the “Berg” on Uranus. An analysis of the cloud structure is therefore required to gain a better understanding of the underlying atmospheric physics and dynamics of these vortices.For our simulations, we use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) general circulation model (Dowling et al. 1998, 2006) and adapt its jovian cloud microphysics module which successfully reproduced the cloud structure of jovian storms, such as the Great Red Spot and the Oval BA (Palotai and Dowling 2008, Palotai et al. 2014). EPIC was recently updated to account for the condensation of methane and hydrogen sulfide (Palotai et al. 2016), which allows us to account for both the high-altitude methane ice-cloud and the deep atmosphere hydrogen sulfide ice-cloud layers.In this work, we simulate large-scale vortices on Uranus and Neptune with varying cloud microphysical parameters such as the deep abundance and the ambient supersaturation. We examine the effect of cloud formation on their lifespan and drift rates to better understand the underlying processes which drive these storms.

  5. A signature of dynamic biogeography: enclaves indicate past species replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielstra, B; Burke, T; Butlin, R K; Arntzen, J W

    2017-12-13

    Understanding how species have replaced each other in the past is important to predicting future species turnover. While past species replacement is difficult to detect after the fact, the process may be inferred from present-day distribution patterns. Species with abutting ranges sometimes show a characteristic distribution pattern, where a section of one species range is enveloped by that of the other. Such an enclave could indicate past species replacement: when a species is partly supplanted by a competitor, but a population endures locally while the invading species moves around and past it, an enclave forms. If the two species hybridize and backcross, the receding species is predicted to leave genetic traces within the expanding one under a scenario of species replacement. By screening dozens of genes in hybridizing crested newts, we uncover genetic remnants of the ancestral species, now inhabiting an enclave, in the range of the surrounding invading species. This independent genetic evidence supports the past distribution dynamics we predicted from the enclave. We suggest that enclaves provide a valuable tool in understanding historical species replacement, which is important because a major conservation concern arising from anthropogenic climate change is increased species replacement in the future. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. A new species of the genus Paramesotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Fujian, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiyong; Wu, Yunke; Zhou, Jiajun; Che, Jing

    2016-12-12

    New amphibian species have been constantly discovered throughout southern China, including from areas close to heavily populated cities that remain poorly surveyed for amphibian diversity. We describe a new species of the newt genus Paramesotriton from Fujian, a developed province on the southeastern coast of mainland China. The mitochondrial genealogy suggests that the new species is the sister taxon to Paramesotriton hongkongensis, separated by an uncorrected pairwise distances of 5.8% at the ND2 gene fragment analyzed. In addition to the genetic divergence, the new species can be readily differentiated from its congeners by having: a very rough skin; a continuous, orange, vertebral ridge; few warts on each side of the vertebral ridge; numerous small irregular orange-red or yellow spots on the chin, venter, underside of axillae, flanks, lateral side of the tail, base of limbs and cloaca; a small groove at the base of the vomerine tooth series; relatively long tail, relatively flat cloaca in females; normally developed eyes, and the absence of vestigial gills and gill filaments in adults.

  7. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships between neuronal cell adhesion molecule and LHRH neurons in the urodele brain: a developmental immunohistochemical study

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    S Gianola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysialic acid (PSA, a homopolymer attached to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM is considered a major hallmark of vertebrate cell migration. We studied the distribution of PSA-NCAM by immunohistochemistry, during brain development, in two urodele amphibians, Pleurodeles waltl and the neotenic newt Ambystoma mexicanum. In both species a gradual increase of immunolabelling was observed throughout the brain from developmental stage 30 to stage 52. At the onset of metamorphosis, some differences became evident: in Pleurodeles immunostaining was gradually restricted to the olfactory system while in Ambystoma, PSA-NCAM maintained a more extended distribution (for example throughout the telencephalic walls suggesting, for the brain of this latter species, a rather preserved neuronal plasticity. The aim of the present work was to correlate the above described PSA-NCAMimmunoreactivity (IR with the distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH containing neurons, which represent a well known example of neural elements migrating from the olfactory placode. LHRH-IR, undetectable till stage 30, was later found together with PSA-NCAM-IR in both the olfactory system and septo-hypothalamic areas. Such observations further support a role of PSA in providing a migration route toward the establishment of a part, at least, of the urodele LHRH system. The possible functional meaning of the LHRH-containing neurons localized between dorsal and ventral thalamus of Ambystoma, never reported before in this area, almost devoid of PSANCAM- IR, is discussed.

  9. Regeneration of soft tissues is promoted by MMP1 treatment after digit amputation in mice.

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    Xiaodong Mu

    Full Text Available The ratio of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs to the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs in wounded tissues strictly control the protease activity of MMPs, and therefore regulate the progress of wound closure, tissue regeneration and scar formation. Some amphibians (i.e. axolotl/newt demonstrate complete regeneration of missing or wounded digits and even limbs; MMPs play a critical role during amphibian regeneration. Conversely, mammalian wound healing re-establishes tissue integrity, but at the expense of scar tissue formation. The differences between amphibian regeneration and mammalian wound healing can be attributed to the greater ratio of MMPs to TIMPs in amphibian tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of MMP1 to effectively promote skeletal muscle regeneration by favoring extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling to enhance cell proliferation and migration. In this study, MMP1 was administered to the digits amputated at the mid-second phalanx of adult mice to observe its effect on digit regeneration. Results indicated that the regeneration of soft tissue and the rate of wound closure were significantly improved by MMP1 administration, but the elongation of the skeletal tissue was insignificantly affected. During digit regeneration, more mutipotent progenitor cells, capillary vasculature and neuromuscular-related tissues were observed in MMP1 treated tissues; moreover, there was less fibrotic tissue formed in treated digits. In summary, MMP1 was found to be effective in promoting wound healing in amputated digits of adult mice.

  10. Tetrodotoxin – Distribution and Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms, and Cases of Human Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Arakawa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX. In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  11. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  12. Covariances of the few-group homogenized cross-sections for diffusion calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Cervera, S.; Castro, S.; García-Herranz, N.

    2015-07-01

    In the context of the NEA/OECD benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM), Exercise I-3 consists of neutronic calculations to propagate uncertainties to core parameters such as k-effective or power distribution. In core simulators, the input uncertainties arise, among others, from few-group lattice-averaged cross-section uncertainties. In this paper, an analysis of those uncertainties due to nuclear data is performed. The core analyzed in Exercise I-3 is the initial loading of the PWR TMI-1, composed by 11 different types of fuel assemblies. By statistically sampling the nuclear data input, the sequence SAMPLER from SCALE system (using its NEWT lattice code) allows to obtain the few-group homogenized cross-sections and with a statistical analysis generates the covariance matrices. The correlations among different reactions and energy groups of the covariance matrices are analyzed. The impact of burnable poisons, control rods or the environment of the assembly is also assessed. It is shown the importance of the correlation between different assembly types. The global covariance matrix will permit to compute the uncertainties in k-eff in a core simulator, once sensitivity coefficients are known. Only if the complete covariance matrix is considered, similar uncertainties to the ones provided by other methodologies are obtained. (Author)

  13. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  14. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  15. Roles of Hippo signaling pathway in size control of organ regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Animals have an intrinsic regeneration ability for injured tissues and organs. Species that have high regeneration ability such as newts can regenerate an organ with exactly the same size and shape as those of the original one. It has been unclear how a regenerating organ grows and ceases growth at an appropriate size. Organ size control in regeneration is seen in various organs of various species that have high regeneration ability. In animal species that do not have sufficient regeneration ability, a wound heals (the injury is closed, but lost parts are not regenerated), but an organ cannot be restored to its original size. On the other hand, perturbation of regeneration sometimes results in oversized or extra structures. In this sense, organ size control plays essential roles in proper regeneration. In this article, we introduce the concept of size control in organ regeneration regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. We focused on the transcriptional regulator Yap, which shuttles between the nuclei and cytoplasm to exert a regulatory function in a context-dependent manner. The Yap-mediated Hippo pathway is thought to sense cell density, extracellular matrix (ECM) contact and cell position and to regulate gene expression for control of organ size. This mechanism can reasonably explain size control of organ regeneration. © 2015 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  16. Spinal cord regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles proceeds through activation of Sox2-positive cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast to mammals, amphibians, such as adult urodeles (for example, newts) and anuran larvae (for example, Xenopus) can regenerate their spinal cord after injury. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. Results Here, we report that tail amputation results in a global increase of Sox2 levels and proliferation of Sox2+ cells. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 diminished proliferation of spinal cord resident cells affecting tail regeneration after amputation, suggesting that spinal cord regeneration is crucial for the whole process. After spinal cord transection, Sox2+ cells are found in the ablation gap forming aggregates. Furthermore, Sox2 levels correlated with regenerative capabilities during metamorphosis, observing a decrease in Sox2 levels at non-regenerative stages. Conclusions Sox2+ cells contribute to the regeneration of spinal cord after tail amputation and transection. Sox2 levels decreases during metamorphosis concomitantly with the lost of regenerative capabilities. Our results lead to a working hypothesis in which spinal cord damage activates proliferation and/or migration of Sox2+ cells, thus allowing regeneration of the spinal cord after tail amputation or reconstitution of the ependymal epithelium after spinal cord transection. PMID:22537391

  17. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Fertilization is indispensable not only for restoring diploid genomes but also for the initiation of early embryonic cell cycles in sexual reproduction. While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm is permitted but only one sperm nucleus participates in the formation of a zygote nucleus. Polyspermy requires that the sperm transmit the egg activation signal more slowly, thus allowing the egg to accept several sperm. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by the fertilizing sperm is both necessary and sufficient for egg activation in polyspermy. Multiple small Ca(2+) waves induced by several fertilizing sperm result in a long-lasting Ca(2+) rise, which is a characteristic of polyspermic amphibian eggs. We introduced a novel soluble sperm factor for egg activation, sperm-specific citrate synthase, into polyspermic newt eggs to cause Ca(2+) waves. Citrate synthase may perform dual functions: as an enzyme in mitochondria and as a Ca(2+)-inducing factor in egg cytoplasm. We also discuss the close relationship between the mode of fertilization and the Ca(2+) rise at egg activation and consider changes in this process through evolution in vertebrates.

  18. EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSE OF PREDATORS TO DANGEROUS PREY: PREADAPTATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF TETRODOTOXIN RESISTANCE IN GARTER SNAKES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motychak, Jeffrey E; Brodie, Edmund D; Iii, Edmund D Brodie

    1999-10-01

    Coevolutionary interactions typically involve only a few specialized taxa. The factors that cause some taxa and not others to respond evolutionarily to selection by another species are poorly understood. Preadaptation may render some species predisposed for evolutionary response to new pressures, whereas a lack of genetic variation may limit the evolutionary potential of other taxa. We evaluate these factors in the predator-prey interaction between toxic newts (Taricha granulosa) and their resistant garter snake predators (Thamnophis sirtalis). Using a bioassay of resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX), the primary toxin in the prey, we examined phenotypic evolution in the genus Thamnophis. Reconstruction of ancestral character states suggests that the entire genus Thamnophis, and possibly natricine snakes in general, has slightly elevated TTX resistance compared to other lineages of snakes. While this suggests that T. sirtalis is indeed predisposed to evolving TTX resistance, it also indicates that the potential exists in sympatric congeners not expressing elevated levels of TTX resistance. We also detected significant family level variation for TTX resistance in a species of Thamnophis that does not exhibit elaborated levels of the trait. This finding suggests that evolutionary response in other taxa is not limited by genetic variability. In this predator-prey system, species and population differences in resistance appear to be largely determined by variation in the selective environment rather than preadaptation or constraint. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of hyaluronate in regenerating tail of lizards and amphibians supports an immune-suppressive role to favor regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-10-31

    Hyaluronate is produced in high amount during the initial stages of regeneration of the tail and limbs of lizards, newts, and frog tadpoles. The fine distribution of hyaluronate in the regenerating tail blastemas has been assessed by ultrastructural immunolocalization of the Hyaluronate Binding Protein (HABP), a protein that indirectly reveals the presence of hyaluronate in tissues. The present electron microscopic study shows that HABP is detected in the cytoplasm but this proteins is mainly localized on the surfaces of cells in the wound epidermis and mesenchymal cells of the blastema. HABP appears, therefore, accumulated along the cell surface, indicating that hyaluronate coats these embryonic-like cells and their antigens. The high level of hyaluronate in the blastema, aside favoring tissue hydration, cell movements, and remodeling for blastema formation and growth, likely elicits a protection from the possible immune-reaction of lymphocytes and macrophages to embryonic-fetal-like antigens present on the surface of blastema and epidermal cells. Their survival, therefore, allows the continuous multiplication of these cells in regions rich in hyaluronate, promoting the regeneration of a new tail or limbs. The study suggests that organ regeneration in vertebrates is only possible in the presence of high hyaluronate content and hydration. These two conditions facilitate cell movement, immune-protection, and activate the Wnt signaling pathway, like during development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anterior gradient 2 is induced in cutaneous wound and promotes wound healing through its adhesion domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Mangukiya, Hitesh Bhagavanbhai; Mashausi, Dhahiri Saidi; Guo, Hao; Negi, Hema; Merugu, Siva Bharath; Wu, Zhenghua; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), a member of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, is both located in cytoplasm and secreted into extracellular matrix. The orthologs of AGR2 have been linked to limb regeneration in newt and wound healing in zebrafish. In mammals, AGR2 influences multiple cell signaling pathways in tumor formation and in normal cell functions related to new tissue formation like angiogenesis. However, the function of AGR2 in mammalian wound healing remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate AGR2 expression and its function during skin wound healing and the possible application of external AGR2 in cutaneous wound to accelerate the healing process. Our results showed that AGR2 expression was induced in the migrating epidermal tongue and hyperplastic epidermis after skin excision. Topical application of recombinant AGR2 significantly accelerated wound-healing process by increasing the migration of keratinocytes (Kera.) and the recruitment of fibroblasts (Fibro.) near the wounded area. External AGR2 also promoted the migration of Kera. and Fibro. in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The adhesion domain of AGR2 was required for the formation of focal adhesions in migrating Fibro., leading to the directional migration along AGR2 gradient. These results indicate that recombinant AGR2 accelerates skin wound healing through regulation of Kera. and Fibro. migration, thus demonstrating its potential utility as an alternative strategy of the therapeutics to accelerate the healing of acute or chronic skin wounds. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2016-09-07

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  2. A fish that uses its hydrodynamic tongue to feed on land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Krijn B.; Heiss, Egon; Aerts, Peter; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2015-01-01

    To capture and swallow food on land, a sticky tongue supported by the hyoid and gill arch skeleton has evolved in land vertebrates from aquatic ancestors that used mouth-cavity-expanding actions of the hyoid to suck food into the mouth. However, the evolutionary pathway bridging this drastic shift in feeding mechanism and associated hyoid motions remains unknown. Modern fish that feed on land may help to unravel the physical constraints and biomechanical solutions that led to terrestrialization of fish-feeding systems. Here, we show that the mudskipper emerges onto land with its mouth cavity filled with water, which it uses as a protruding and retracting ‘hydrodynamic tongue’ during the initial capture and subsequent intra-oral transport of food. Our analyses link this hydrodynamic action of the intra-oral water to a sequence of compressive and expansive cranial motions that diverge from the general pattern known for suction feeding in fishes. However, the hyoid motion pattern showed a remarkable resemblance to newts during tongue prehension. Consequently, although alternative scenarios cannot be excluded, hydrodynamic tongue usage may be a transitional step onto which the evolution of adhesive mucosa and intrinsic lingual muscles can be added to gain further independence from water for terrestrial foraging. PMID:25788596

  3. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Liu, Han; Shen, Chuanbin; Rong, Mingqiang; Zhang, Zhiye; Lai, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Although it is well known that wound healing proceeds incredibly quickly in urodele amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, little is known about skin-wound healing, and no bioactive/effector substance that contributes to wound healing has been identified from these animals. As a step toward understanding salamander wound healing and skin regeneration, a potential wound-healing-promoting peptide (tylotoin; KCVRQNNKRVCK) was identified from salamander skin of Tylototriton verrucosus. It shows comparable wound-healing-promoting ability (EC50=11.14 μg/ml) with epidermal growth factor (EGF; NSDSECPLSHDGYCLHDGVCMYIEALDKYACNCVVGYIGERCQYRDLKWWELR) in a murine model of full-thickness dermal wound. Tylotoin directly enhances the motility and proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, resulting in accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation in the wound site. Tylotoin also promotes the release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are essential in the wound healing response. Gene-encoded tylotoin secreted in salamander skin is possibly an effector molecule for skin wound healing. This study may facilitate understanding of the cellular and molecular events that underlie quick wound healing in salamanders. © FASEB.

  4. Purification and characterization of cholecystokinin from the skin of salamander Tylototriton verrucosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Bin; Hakim, Ma; Luo, Lei; Li, Bo-Wen; Yang, Shi-Long; Song, Yu-Zhu; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-05-18

    As a group of intestinal hormones and neurotransmitters, cholecystokinins (CCKs) regulate and affect pancreatic enzyme secretion, gastrointestinal motility, pain hypersensitivity, digestion and satiety, and generally contain a DYMGWMDFG sequence at the C-terminus. Many CCKs have been reported in mammals. However, only a few have been reported in amphibians, such as Hyla nigrovittata, Xenopus laevis, and Rana catesbeiana, with none reported in urodele amphibians like newts and salamanders. Here, a CCK called CCK-TV was identified and characterized from the skin of the salamander Tylototriton verrucosus. This CCK contained an amino acid sequence of DYMGWMDF-NH2 as seen in other CCKs. A cDNA encoding the CCK precursor containing 129 amino acid residues was cloned from the cDNA library of T. verrucosus skin. The CCK-TV had the potential to induce the contraction of smooth muscle strips isolated from porcine gallbladder, eliciting contraction at a concentration of 5.0 x 10⁻¹¹ mol/L and inducing maximal contraction at a concentration of 2.0 x 10⁻⁶ mol/L. The EC50 was 13.6 nmol/L. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the presence of a CCK in an urodele amphibian.

  5. Mode of action and functional significance of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo eHaraguchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies over the past two decades have demonstrated that the brain and other nervous systems possess key steroidogenic enzymes and produces pregnenolone and other various neurosteroids in vertebrates in general. Recently, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a novel bioactive neurosteroid, was identified in the brain of newts and quail. Importantly, this novel neurosteroid is produced from pregnenolone through the enzymatic activity of cytochrome P4507alpha and acts on brain tissue as a neuronal modulator to stimulate locomotor activity in these vertebrates. Subsequently, the mode of action of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone was demonstrated. 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone stimulates locomotor activity through activation of the dopaminergic system. To understand the functional significance of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the regulation of locomotor activity, diurnal and seasonal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis were further characterized. Melatonin derived from the pineal gland and eyes regulates 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, thus inducing diurnal locomotor changes. Prolactin, an adenohypophyseal hormone, regulates 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, and also induces seasonal locomotor changes. In addition, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone mediates corticosterone action to modulate locomotor activity under stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the mode of action and functional significance of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a newly identified bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity.

  6. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  7. Una consideración sobre el espacio en Leonardo da Vinci, desde la ciencia, el arte y la filosofía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Vallejo Clavijo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de captar, transmitir y comunicar la realidad a través del sen- tido de la vista, la experiencia vivida y la habilidad manual constituye uno de los propósitos más importantes en las obras de Leonardo da Vinci. S e aclar a, sin embargo, que al querer abordar el espacio en una pintura o en un dibujo, el proceso de elaboración de este debe inicialmente centrarse en operaciones mentales, dado que ellas mismas residen en el espíritu del pintor. Para Da Vinci, el espacio es concebido desde una peculiar visión de la matemática y la geometría, puesto que ellas mismas son conc ebidas desde una perspec tiva dinámica y visual. De la misma manera, el criter io adoptado par a analizar el desplazamiento del cuer po en el espacio es lo visual , lo cualitativo, acorde con el realismo aristotélico. El tránsit o de in tegración que presenta el artista entre la teoría y la práctica vendr á a c onstituirse en el eje fundamental de la ciencia moderna, en par ticular en la física newt oniana, dado su carácter operativo .

  8. Female sperm storage in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M

    2002-02-01

    The three orders of extant amphibians are Gymnophiona, Anura, and Urodela. Although all gymnophionans apparently have internal fertilization and many are viviparous, female sperm storage is unknown. Internal fertilization has convergently evolved in a few anurans, but females of just one species, Ascaphus truei, are known to possess oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs). The SSTs of A. truei are similar anatomically to such glands in squamate reptiles. This similarity is convergence due to similar functional adaptations and/or internal design constraints. In salamanders and newts (Urodela), absence of sperm storage in females is the ancestral condition (three families). In the derived condition, sperm storage occurs in cloacal glands called spermathecae, and their possession is a synapomorphy for females in the suborder Salamandroidea (seven families). Salamandroids are the only vertebrates with cloacal sperm storage glands. In this paper, a phenetic analysis of variation in spermathecal characters reveals patterns of convergence in certain spermathecal characters in unrelated taxa that breed in similar habitats. In the family Salamandridae, a role in sperm nutrition for the spermathecal epithelium is questioned, and the widespread occurrence of spermiophagy is related to other reproductive strategies. I propose how the packaging of sperm in structurally different types of spermathecae may influence male paternity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Anthropogenic and ecological drivers of amphibian disease (ranavirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C North

    Full Text Available Ranaviruses are causing mass amphibian die-offs in North America, Europe and Asia, and have been implicated in the decline of common frog (Rana temporaria populations in the UK. Despite this, we have very little understanding of the environmental drivers of disease occurrence and prevalence. Using a long term (1992-2000 dataset of public reports of amphibian mortalities, we assess a set of potential predictors of the occurrence and prevalence of Ranavirus-consistent common frog mortality events in Britain. We reveal the influence of biotic and abiotic drivers of this disease, with many of these abiotic characteristics being anthropogenic. Whilst controlling for the geographic distribution of mortality events, disease prevalence increases with increasing frog population density, presence of fish and wild newts, increasing pond depth and the use of garden chemicals. The presence of an alternative host reduces prevalence, potentially indicating a dilution effect. Ranavirosis occurrence is associated with the presence of toads, an urban setting and the use of fish care products, providing insight into the causes of emergence of disease. Links between occurrence, prevalence, pond characteristics and garden management practices provides useful management implications for reducing the impacts of Ranavirus in the wild.

  10. Uncertainty in the delayed neutron fraction in fuel assembly depletion calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aures Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of the delayed neutron fraction of light water reactor and sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel assemblies. For these analyses, the sampling-based XSUSA methodology is used to propagate cross section uncertainties in neutron transport and depletion calculations. Cross section data is varied according to the SCALE 6.1 covariance library. Since this library includes nu-bar uncertainties only for the total values, it has been supplemented by delayed nu-bar uncertainties from the covariance data of the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library. The neutron transport and depletion calculations are performed with the TRITON/NEWT sequence of the SCALE 6.1 package. The evolution of the delayed neutron fraction uncertainty over burn-up is analysed without and with the consideration of delayed nu-bar uncertainties. Moreover, the main contributors to the result uncertainty are determined. In all cases, the delayed nu-bar uncertainties increase the delayed neutron fraction uncertainty. Depending on the fuel composition, the delayed nu-bar values of uranium and plutonium in fact give the main contributions to the delayed neutron fraction uncertainty for the LWR fuel assemblies. For the SFR case, the uncertainty of the scattering cross section of U-238 is the main contributor.

  11. Atmospheric waves and dynamics beneath Jupiter's clouds from radio wavelength observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Richard G.; Butler, Bryan; Sault, Bob; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; de Pater, Imke

    2017-08-01

    We observed Jupiter at wavelengths near 2 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in February 2015. These frequencies are mostly sensitive to variations in ammonia abundance and probe between ∼ 0.5 - 2.0 bars of pressure in Jupiter's atmosphere; within and below the visible cloud deck which has its base near 0.7 bars. The resultant observed data were projected into a cylindrical map of the planet with spatial resolution of ∼1500 km at the equator. We have examined the data for atmospheric waves and observed a prominent bright belt of radio hotspot features near 10°N, likely connected to the same equatorial wave associated with the 5-μm hotspots. We conducted a passive tracer power spectral wave analysis for the entire map and latitude regions corresponding to eastward and westward jets and compare our results to previous studies. The power spectra analysis revealed that the atmosphere sampled in our observation (excluding the NEB region) is in a 2-D turbulent regime and its dynamics are predominately governed by the shallow water equations. The Great Red Spot (GRS) is also very prominent and has a noticeable meridional asymmetry and we compare it, and nearby storms, with optical images. We find that the meridional radio profile has a global north-south hemisphere distinction and find correlations of it to optical intensity banding and to shear zones of the zonal wind profile over select regions of latitude. Amateur optical images taken before and after our observation complemented the radio wavelength map to investigate dynamics of the equatorial region in Jupiter's atmosphere. We find that two radio hotspots at 2 cm are well correlated with optical plumes in the NEB, additionally revealing they are not the same 5 μm hotspot features correlated with optical dark patches between adjacent plumes. This analysis exploits the VLA's upgraded sensitivity and explores the opportunities now possible when studying gas giants, especially atmospheric dynamics

  12. Mechanism for the Coupled Photochemistry of Ammonia and Acetylene: Implications for Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Thomas C.

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory studies provide a fundamental understanding of photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres. Photochemical reactions taking place on giant planets like Jupiter and possibly comets and the interstellar medium are the subject of this research. Reaction pathways are proposed for the coupled photochemistry of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H2 (acetylene) within the context Jupiter's atmosphere. We then extend the discussion to the Great Red Spot, Extra-Solar Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis. Reaction rates in the form of quantum yields were measured for the decomposition of reactants and the formation of products and stable intermediates: HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH3CN (acetonitrile), CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 (acetaldazine), CH3CH = N-NH2 (acetaldehyde hydrazone), C2H5NH2 (ethylamine), CH3NH2 (methylamine) and C2H4 (ethene) in the photolysis of NH3/C2H2 mixtures. Some of these compounds, formed in our investigation of pathways for HCN synthesis, were not encountered previously in observational, theoretical or laboratory photochemical studies. The quantum yields obtained allowed for the formulation of a reaction mechanism that attempts to explain the observed results under varying experimental conditions. In general, the results of this work are consistent with the initial observations of Ferris and Ishikawa (1988). However, their proposed reaction pathway which centers on the photolysis of CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 does not explain all of the results obtained in this study. The formation of CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 by a radical combination reaction of CH3CH = N• was shown in this work to be inconsistent with other experiments where the CH3CH = N• radical is thought to form but where no CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 was detected. The importance of the role of H atom abstraction reactions was demonstrated and an alternative pathway for CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 formation involving nucleophilic reaction between N2H4 and CH3CH = NH is advanced.

  13. An Astronomer In The Classroom: Observatoire de Paris's Partnership Between Teachers and Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Barban, C.

    2006-08-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is offering a partnership between teachers and astronomers. The principle is simple: any teacher wishing to undertake a pedagogical project in astronomy, in the classroom or involving the entire school, can request the help of a mentor. An astronomer from the Observatoire de Paris will then follow the teacher's project progress and offer advice and scientific support throughout the school year. The projects may take different forms: construction projects (models, instruments), lectures, posters, exhibitions, etc. The type of assistance offered is as varied as the projects: lecture(s) in class, telephone and e-mail exchanges, visits to the Observatoire; an almost made-to-measure approach that delighted the thirty or so groups that benefited such partnership in the 2005-2006 academic year. And this number is continuously growing. There was a rich variety of projects undertaken, from mounting a show and building a solar clock to visiting a high altitude observatory, or resolving the mystery of Jupiter's great red spot. The Universe and its mysteries fascinate the young (and the not so- young) and provide a multitude of scientific topics that can be exploited in class. Astronomy offers the added advantage of being a multidisciplinary field. Thus, if most projects are generally initiated by a motivated teacher, they are often taken over by teachers in other subjects: Life and Earth Sciences (SVT), history, mathematics, French, and so forth. The project may consist in an astronomy workshop or be part of the school curriculum. Whatever the case, the astronomer's task is not to replace the teacher or the textbooks, but to propose activities or experiments that are easy to implement. Representing the Solar system on a school-yard scale, for instance, is a perfect way to make youngsters realize that the Universe consists mostly of empty space. There is no shortage of topics, and the students' enthusiasm, seldom absent, is the best reward for the

  14. Bean – an important element of a healthy diet. Nutritional values analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wawryka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are a rich source of various nutrients. In the Polish culture, one of the varieties of beans has a special significance. Due to the appearance of seeds – on the bright seeds there are dark red spots in the shape of the Piast eagle – at the times of annexation, it was recognised as a symbol of patriotism. Cultivation was therefore banned then by the authority. Today, this bean variety was entered on the list of traditional products in Poland. Bean in Poland is one of the twelve Christmas Eve dishes. Health benefits of legumes have been known since the ancient times in many countries. Anticancer properties are due to the presence of enzymes which affect the division, differentiation, and apoptosis cells in the body. Rich in phytoestrogens, especially isoflavones, they protect women against the development of hormone-dependent cancers and reduce the symptoms associated with menopause. Rich in fibre, they regulate the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have prebiotic properties. They also reduce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. By influencing the expression of genes involved in β-oxidative fats and gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, they reduce triglyceride levels, LDL cholesterol and increase the levels of HDL cholesterol. Moreover, they help to maintain a normal body weight and reduce high blood pressure. It is therefore recommended particularly for people suffering from the metabolic syndrome or predisposed to its occurrence. It is advised to increase the content of legumes in our diet because of the health benefits and taste.

  15. Impact of duplicate gene copies on phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nélida; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Yee, Emily N; Liswi, Saif W; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2009-05-13

    The increase in availability of genomic sequences for a wide range of organisms has revealed gene duplication to be a relatively common event. Encounters with duplicate gene copies have consequently become almost inevitable in the context of collecting gene sequences for inferring species trees. Here we examine the effect of incorporating duplicate gene copies evolving at different rates on tree reconstruction and time estimation of recent and deep divergences in butterflies. Sequences from ultraviolet-sensitive (UVRh), blue-sensitive (BRh), and long-wavelength sensitive (LWRh) opsins,EF-1 and COI were obtained from 27 taxa representing the five major butterfly families (5535 bp total). Both BRh and LWRh are present in multiple copies in some butterfly lineages and the different copies evolve at different rates. Regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used, we found that analyses of combined data sets using either slower or faster evolving copies of duplicate genes resulted in a single topology in agreement with our current understanding of butterfly family relationships based on morphology and molecules. Interestingly, individual analyses of BRh and LWRh sequences also recovered these family-level relationships. Two different relaxed clock methods resulted in similar divergence time estimates at the shallower nodes in the tree, regardless of whether faster or slower evolving copies were used, with larger discrepancies observed at deeper nodes in the phylogeny. The time of divergence between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and the queen D. gilippus (15.3-35.6 Mya) was found to be much older than the time of divergence between monarch co-mimic Limenitis archippus and red-spotted purple L. arthemis (4.7-13.6 Mya), and overlapping with the time of divergence of the co-mimetic passionflower butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene (13.5-26.1 Mya). Our family-level results are congruent with recent estimates found in the literature and indicate

  16. JunoCam Images of Jupiter: A Juno Citizen Science Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Candice; Ravine, Michael; Bolton, Scott; Caplinger, Mike; Eichstadt, Gerald; Jensen, Elsa; Momary, Thomas W.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John

    2017-10-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter carries a visible imager on its payload primarily for outreach. The vision of JunoCam’s outreach plan was for the public to participate in, not just observe, a science investigation. Four webpage components were developed for uploading and downloading comments and images, following the steps a traditional imaging team would do: Planning, Discussion, Voting, and Processing, hosted at https://missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam. Lightly processed and raw JunoCam data are posted. JunoCam images through broadband red, green and blue filters and a narrowband methane filter centered at 889 nm mounted directly on the detector. JunoCam is a push-frame imager with a 58 deg wide field of view covering a 1600 pixel width, and builds the second dimension of the image as the spacecraft rotates. This design enables capture of the entire pole of Jupiter in a single image at low emission angle when Juno is ~1 hour from perijove (closest approach). At perijove the wide field of view images are high-resolution while still capturing entire storms, e.g. the Great Red Spot. The public is invited to download JunoCam images, process them, and then upload their products. Over 2000 images have been uploaded to the JunoCam public image gallery. Contributions range from scientific quality to artful whimsy. Artistic works are inspired by Van Gogh and Monet. Works of whimsy include how Jupiter might look through the viewport of the Millennium Falcon, or to an angel perched on a lookout, or through a kaleidoscope. Citizen scientists have also engaged in serious quantitative analysis of the images, mapping images to storms and disruptions of the belts and zones that have been tracked from the earth. They are developing a phase function for Jupiter that allows the images to be flattened from the subsolar point to the terminator, and studying high hazes. Citizen scientists are also developing time-lapse movies, measuring wind flow, tracking circulation patterns in the

  17. Impact of duplicate gene copies on phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liswi Saif W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in availability of genomic sequences for a wide range of organisms has revealed gene duplication to be a relatively common event. Encounters with duplicate gene copies have consequently become almost inevitable in the context of collecting gene sequences for inferring species trees. Here we examine the effect of incorporating duplicate gene copies evolving at different rates on tree reconstruction and time estimation of recent and deep divergences in butterflies. Results Sequences from ultraviolet-sensitive (UVRh, blue-sensitive (BRh, and long-wavelength sensitive (LWRh opsins,EF-1α and COI were obtained from 27 taxa representing the five major butterfly families (5535 bp total. Both BRh and LWRh are present in multiple copies in some butterfly lineages and the different copies evolve at different rates. Regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used, we found that analyses of combined data sets using either slower or faster evolving copies of duplicate genes resulted in a single topology in agreement with our current understanding of butterfly family relationships based on morphology and molecules. Interestingly, individual analyses of BRh and LWRh sequences also recovered these family-level relationships. Two different relaxed clock methods resulted in similar divergence time estimates at the shallower nodes in the tree, regardless of whether faster or slower evolving copies were used, with larger discrepancies observed at deeper nodes in the phylogeny. The time of divergence between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and the queen D. gilippus (15.3–35.6 Mya was found to be much older than the time of divergence between monarch co-mimic Limenitis archippus and red-spotted purple L. arthemis (4.7–13.6 Mya, and overlapping with the time of divergence of the co-mimetic passionflower butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene (13.5–26.1 Mya. Our family-level results are congruent with

  18. Variability of Jupiter’s Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-10-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-μm hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5°N (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-μm thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-μm hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-μm radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-μm radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-μm maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-μm hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possible re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  19. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  20. Mechanism for the Coupled Photochemistry of Ammonia and Acetylene: Implications for Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Thomas C

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory studies provide a fundamental understanding of photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres. Photochemical reactions taking place on giant planets like Jupiter and possibly comets and the interstellar medium are the subject of this research. Reaction pathways are proposed for the coupled photochemistry of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H2 (acetylene) within the context Jupiter's atmosphere. We then extend the discussion to the Great Red Spot, Extra-Solar Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis. Reaction rates in the form of quantum yields were measured for the decomposition of reactants and the formation of products and stable intermediates: HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH3CN (acetonitrile), CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 (acetaldazine), CH3CH = N-NH2 (acetaldehyde hydrazone), C2H5NH2 (ethylamine), CH3NH2 (methylamine) and C2H4 (ethene) in the photolysis of NH3/C2H2 mixtures. Some of these compounds, formed in our investigation of pathways for HCN synthesis, were not encountered previously in observational, theoretical or laboratory photochemical studies. The quantum yields obtained allowed for the formulation of a reaction mechanism that attempts to explain the observed results under varying experimental conditions. In general, the results of this work are consistent with the initial observations of Ferris and Ishikawa (1988). However, their proposed reaction pathway which centers on the photolysis of CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 does not explain all of the results obtained in this study. The formation of CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 by a radical combination reaction of CH3CH = N• was shown in this work to be inconsistent with other experiments where the CH3CH = N• radical is thought to form but where no CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 was detected. The importance of the role of H atom abstraction reactions was demonstrated and an alternative pathway for CH3CH = N-N = CHCH3 formation involving nucleophilic reaction between N2H4 and CH3CH = NH is advanced.

  1. A polarimetric investigation of Jupiter: Disk-resolved imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, W.; Stam, D. M.; Bagnulo, S.; Borisov, G.; Devogèle, M.; Cellino, A.; Rivet, J. P.; Bendjoya, P.; Vernet, D.; Paolini, G.; Pollacco, D.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Polarimetry is a powerful remote sensing tool to characterise solar system planets and, potentially, to detect and characterise exoplanets. The linear polarisation of a planet as a function of wavelength and phase angle is sensitive to the cloud and haze particle properties in planetary atmospheres, as well as to their altitudes and optical thicknesses. Aims: We present for the first time polarimetric signals of Jupiter mapped over the entire disk, showing features such as contrasts between the belts and zones, the polar regions, and the Great Red Spot. We investigate the use of these maps for atmospheric characterisation and discuss the potential application of polarimetry to the study of the atmospheres of exoplanets. Methods: We have obtained polarimetric images of Jupiter, in the B, V, and R filters, over a phase angle range of α = 4°-10.5°. In addition, we have obtained two spectropolarimetric datasets, over the wavelength range 500-850 nm. An atmospheric model was sought for all of the datasets, which was consistent with the observed behaviour over the wavelength and phase angle range. Results: The polarimetric maps show clear latitudinal structure, with increasing polarisation towards the polar regions, in all filters. The spectropolarimetric datasets show a decrease in polarisation as a function of wavelength along with changes in the polarisation in methane absorption bands. A model fit was achieved by varying the cloud height and haze optical thickness; this can roughly produce the variation across latitude for the V and R filters, but not for the B filter data. The same model particles are also able to produce a close fit to the spectropolarimetric data. The atmosphere of Jupiter is known to be complex in structure, and data taken at intermediate phase angles (unreachable for Earth-based telescopes) seems essential for a complete characterisation of the atmospheric constituents. Because exoplanets orbit other stars, they are observable at

  2. Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.

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    Mehul Mistri

    Full Text Available Tay Sachs disease (TSD is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients. Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K, c.964 G>A (p.D322N, c.964 G>T (p.D322Y, c.1178C>G (p.R393P and c.1385A>T (p.E462V, c.1432 G>A (p.G478R and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W. The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V.

  3. Jupiter and its Galilean Satellites as viewed from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-368, 22 May 2003 Jupiter/Galilean Satellites: When Galileo first turned his telescope toward Jupiter four centuries ago, he saw that the giant planet had four large satellites, or moons. These, the largest of dozens of moons that orbit Jupiter, later became known as the Galilean satellites. The larger two, Callisto and Ganymede, are roughly the size of the planet Mercury; the smallest, Io and Europa, are approximately the size of Earth's Moon. This MGS MOC image, obtained from Mars orbit on 8 May 2003, shows Jupiter and three of the four Galilean satellites: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. At the time, Io was behind Jupiter as seen from Mars, and Jupiter's giant red spot had rotated out of view. This image has been specially processed to show both Jupiter and its satellites, since Jupiter, at an apparent magnitude of -1.8, was much brighter than the three satellites.A note about the coloring process: The MGS MOC high resolution camera only takes grayscale (black-and-white) images. To 'colorize' the image, a recent Cassini image acquired during its Jupiter flyby was used to color the MOC Jupiter picture. The procedure used was as follows: the Cassini color image was converted from 24-bit color to 8-bit color using a JPEG to GIF conversion program. The 8-bit color image was converted to 8-bit grayscale and an associated lookup table mapping each gray value of that image to a red-green-blue color triplet (RGB). Each color triplet was root-sum-squared (RSS), and sorted in increasing RSS value. These sorted lists were brightness-to-color maps for their respective images. Each brightness-to-color map was then used to convert the 8-bit grayscale MOC image to an 8-bit color image. This 8-bit color image was then converted to a 24-bit color image. The color image was edited to return the background to black. Jupiter's Galilean Satellites were not colored.

  4. Unapal-Llanogrande, nuevo cultivar de zapallo adaptado a las condiciones del valle geográfico del río Cauca, Colombia Unapal Llanogrande, pumkim new cultivar adapted to the Cauca Valley, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Iván Estrada Salazar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo cultivar de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Unapal-Llanogrande se originó a partir de la población básica P-34 obtenida en la segunda colección colombiana de germoplasma realizada por Montes (2003. La población heterogénea (P-34 fue sometida a tres ciclos de selección recurrente fenotípica para los caracteres: producción por planta, prolificidad, tamaño de fruto pequeño (2 - 3 kg, calidad de fruto y sanidad de la planta. El cultivar expresa alta uniformidad y estabilidad fenotípica para hábito de crecimiento postrado con moderado número de guías, tallo cilíndrico angular y pubescente, hojas lobuladas reniformes pequeñas, con alta frecuencia de manchas plateadas, floración monoica, inicio de floración estaminada y pistilada entre 60-70 días después de la emergencia, inicio de cosecha de 130 a140 días, con plantas de alta prolificidad (9 a 11 frutos y alto rendimiento (entre 10 y 20 kg/planta. El fruto es redondo con superficie lisa, sin costillar, de color verde brillante y manchas amarillas o rojizas en la madurez, el peso varía entre 1.5 y 3.0 kg, el diámetro de pulpa entre 3.8 y 4.8 cm y el de cavidad placentaria entre 9 y 12 cm. El color de pulpa es amarillo intenso.Unapal-Llanogrande, is a pumkin (Cucurbita moschata breeding population, originated from the second germoplasm colombian colection obtained for Consuelo Montes (2003. The heterogeneous population P-34 was subjected to three cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection that were carried out at Experimental Center of the National University of Colombia, Palmira, Valle del Cauca. Plant production, plant prolific, small fruit weight, fruit quality and tolerance to diseases and pests were evaluated. The Unapal-Llanogrande, had height uniformity and stability postrate growth habit, low number of branch per plant, 60-70 days to male and female flowering, 130-140 days to harvesting. Fruits had a round shape, green whit yellow an red spot colors at maturity, fruit

  5. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

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    LI Yuling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBC. MethodsA total of 235 patients with HBC who were admitted to our hospitals from October 2008 to October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The infection rate of H. pylori in those patients was calculated. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices and 97 patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG, the infection rate of H. pylori was compared between those with different degrees of esophagogastric varices or PHG. In the 32 patients whose blood ammonia was determined, the level of blood ammonia was compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. Between-group comparison of continuous data was performed by t test and analysis of variance, and between-group comparison of categorical data was performed by χ2 test. ResultsThe infection rate of H. pylori in the 235 patients with HBC was 80.85% (190/235. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices, who had tortuous serpentine uplift or bead-like changes of esophageal varices and tumor-like changes (with or without gastric erosion of gastric varices visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild, moderate, and severe varices (50.55% (46/91 vs 43.59% (17/39 vs 76% (19/25, χ2=6.913, P<0.05. In the 97 patients with PHG, who had snake skin-like changes, cherry red spots, scarlet rash, and erosion bleeding of gastric mucosa visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild and severe PHG (43.33% (26/60 vs 67.57% (25/37, χ2=5.391, P<005.In patients whose blood ammonia was determined, patients in H. pylori-positive group had a significantly higher average concentration of blood ammonia than those in H. pylori-negative group (62.76±13.43 vs 47.20±12.51 μmol/L, t= 3.39, P<0

  6. Stellar Work of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This painterly portrait of a star-forming cloud, called NGC 346, is a combination of multiwavelength light from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (infrared), the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope (visible), and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton space telescope (X-ray). The infrared observations highlight cold dust in red, visible data show glowing gas in green, and X-rays show very warm gas in blue. Ordinary stars appear as blue spots with white centers, while young stars enshrouded in dust appear as red spots with white centers. The colorful picture demonstrates that stars in this region are being created by two different types of triggered star formation one involving wind, and the other, radiation. Triggered star formation occurs when massive stars spur new, smaller stars into existence. The first radiation-based mechanism is demonstrated near the center of the cloud. There, radiation from the massive stars is eating away at the surrounding dust cloud, creating shock waves that compress gas and dust into new stars. This compressed material appears as an arc-shaped orange-red filament, while the new stars within this filament are still blanketed with dust and cannot be seen. The second wind-based mechanism is at play higher up in the cloud. The isolated, pinkish blob of stars at the upper left was triggered by winds from a massive star located to the left of it. This massive star blew up in a supernova explosion 50,000 years ago, but before it died, its winds pushed gas and dust together into new stars. While this massive star cannot be seen in the image, a bubble created when it exploded can be seen near the large, white spot with a blue halo at the upper left (this white spot is actually a collection of three stars). NGC 346 is the brightest star-forming region in the Small Magellanic Cloud, an irregular dwarf galaxy that orbits our Milky Way galaxy, 210,000 light-years away.

  7. Is the detection of aquatic environmental DNA influenced by substrate type?

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    Andrew S Buxton

    Full Text Available The use of environmental DNA (eDNA to assess the presence-absence of rare, cryptic or invasive species is hindered by a poor understanding of the factors that can remove DNA from the system. In aquatic systems, eDNA can be transported out either horizontally in water flows or vertically by incorporation into the sediment. Equally, eDNA may be broken down by various biotic and abiotic processes if the target organism leaves the system. We use occupancy modelling and a replicated mesocosm experiment to examine how detection probability of eDNA changes once the target species is no longer present. We hypothesise that detection probability falls faster with a sediment which has a large number of DNA binding sites such as topsoil or clay, over lower DNA binding capacity substrates such as sand. Water removed from ponds containing the target species (the great crested newt initially showed high detection probabilities, but these fell to between 40% and 60% over the first 10 days and to between 10% and 22% by day 15: eDNA remained detectable at very low levels until day 22. Very little difference in detection was observed between the control group (no substrate and the sand substrate. A small reduction in detection probability was observed between the control and clay substrates, but this was not significant. However, a highly significant reduction in detection probability was observed with a topsoil substrate. This result is likely to have stemmed from increased levels of PCR inhibition, suggesting that incorporation of DNA into the sentiment is of only limited importance. Surveys of aquatic species using eDNA clearly need to take account of substrate type as well as other environmental factors when collecting samples, analysing data and interpreting the results.

  8. Anti-choice groups target reproductive rights in Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-16

    In a May 3 memo, the GOP "Family Caucus" presented its legislative agenda for the remainder of the 104th Congress. Chaired by Representative Tom Coburn (R-OK), the anti-choice caucus promotes family and social issues, and emphasizes religious liberty and parental rights. It is seeking to eliminate funding for Title X of the Public Health Service Act, which provides grants to domestic family planning providers; repeal the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE); curtail fetal tissue research; restrict the production and sale of RU486; reduce funding for the US Agency for International Development (USAID); and hinder US representation at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women. On May 17, the Virginia-based Christian Coalition unveiled a ten-point "Contract with the American Family," which targets reproductive health care by restricting late-term abortions, reversing the Medicaid requirement that states cover abortions in cases of rape or incest, and eliminating funding for Title X and international family planning. Director Ralph Reed was joined at the group's press conference in the Capitol by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA) and Senator Phil Gramm (R-TX), both of whom are anti-abortion. Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole (R-KS), who is also anti-choice, met with Reed in his office later that day. Anti-choice representatives and senators met with some success in the last month in restricting US funding for family planning programs abroad, US participation in international meetings, and the performance of abortions at military facilities. Representative Charles Canady (R-FL) has introduced a bill banning modified dilation and evacuation abortions, and Representative Robert Dornan (R-CA) has introduced the "Family Planning Programs Repeal Act" (HR 1623).

  9. Comparison of SERPENT and SCALE methodology for LWRs transport calculations and additionally uncertainty analysis for cross-section perturbation with SAMPLER module

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    Labarile Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear safety research, the quality of the results of simulation codes is widely determined by the reactor design and safe operation, and the description of neutron transport in the reactor core is a feature of particular importance. Moreover, for the long effort that is made, there remain uncertainties in simulation results due to the neutronic data and input specification that need a huge effort to be eliminated. A realistic estimation of these uncertainties is required for finding out the reliability of the results. This explains the increasing demand in recent years for calculations in the nuclear fields with best-estimate codes that proved confidence bounds of simulation results. All this has lead to the Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs of the NEA. The UAM-Benchmark coupling multi-physics and multi-scale analysis using as a basis complete sets of input specifications of boiling water reactors (BWR and pressurized water reactors (PWR. In this study, the results of the transport calculations carried out using the SCALE-6.2 program (TRITON/NEWT and TRITON/KENO modules as well as Monte Carlo SERPENT code, are presented. Additionally, they have been made uncertainties calculation for a PWR 15 × 15 and a BWR 7 × 7 fuel elements, in two different configurations (with and without control rod, and two different states, Hot Full Power (HFP and Hot Zero Power (HZP, using the TSUNAMI module, which uses the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT, and SAMPLER, which uses stochastic sampling techniques for cross-sections perturbations. The results obtained and validated are compared with references results and similar studies presented in the exercise I-2 (Lattice Physics of UAM-Benchmark.

  10. Analysis of the treadmilling model during metaphase of mitosis using fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, P; Salmon, E D

    1986-03-01

    One recent hypothesis for the mechanism of chromosome movement during mitosis predicts that a continual, uniform, poleward flow or "treadmilling" of microtubules occurs within the half-spindle between the chromosomes and the poles during mitosis (Margolis, R. L., and L. Wilson, 1981, Nature (Lond.), 293:705-711). We have tested this treadmilling hypothesis using fluorescent analog cytochemistry and measurements of fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching to examine microtubule behavior during metaphase of mitosis. Mitotic BSC 1 mammalian tissue culture cells or newt lung epithelial cells were microinjected with brain tubulin labeled with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazin-2-yl) amino fluorescein (DTAF) to provide a fluorescent tracer of the endogenous tubulin pool. Using a laser microbeam, fluorescence in the half-spindle was photobleached in either a narrow 1.6 micron wide bar pattern across the half-spingle or in a circular area of 2.8 or 4.5 micron diameter. Fluorescence recovery in the spindle fibers, measured using video microscopy or photometric techniques, occurs as bleached DTAF-tubulin subunits within the microtubules are exchanged for unbleached DTAF-tubulin in the cytosol by steady-state microtubule assembly-disassembly pathways. Recovery of 75% of the bleached fluorescence follows first-order kinetics and has an average half-time of 37 sec, at 31-33 degrees C. No translocation of the bleached bar region could be detected during fluorescence recovery, and the rate of recovery was independent of the size of the bleached spot. These results reveal that, for 75% of the half-spindle microtubules, FRAP does not occur by a synchronous treadmilling mechanism.

  11. UV microbeam irradiations of the mitotic spindle. II. Spindle fiber dynamics and force production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurck, T.P.; Stonington, O.G.; Snyder, J.A.; Pickett-Heaps, J.D.; Bajer, A.; Mole-Bajer, J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Metaphase and anaphase spindles in cultured newt and PtK1 cells were irradiated with a UV microbeam (285 nM), creating areas of reduced birefringence (ARBs) in 3 s that selectively either severed a few fibers or cut across the half spindle. In either case, the birefringence at the polewards edge of the ARB rapidly faded polewards, while it remained fairly constant at the other, kinetochore edge. Shorter astral fibers, however, remained present in the enlarged ARB; presumably these had not been cut by the irradiation. After this enlargement of the ARB, metaphase spindles recovered rapidly as the detached pole moved back towards the chromosomes, reestablishing spindle fibers as the ARB closed; this happened when the ARB cut a few fibers or across the entire half spindle. We never detected elongation of the cut kinetochore fibers. Rather, astral fibers growing from the pole appeared to bridge and then close the ARB, just before the movement of the pole toward the chromosomes. When a second irradiation was directed into the closing ARB, the polewards movement again stopped before it restarted. In all metaphase cells, once the pole had reestablished connection with the chromosomes, the unirradiated half spindle then also shortened to create a smaller symmetrical spindle capable of normal anaphase later. Anaphase cells did not recover this way; the severed pole remained detached but the chromosomes continued a modified form of movement, clumping into a telophase-like group. The results are discussed in terms of controls operating on spindle microtubule stability and mechanisms of mitotic force generation.

  12. Performance of U3Si2 Fuel in a Reactivity Insertion Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Cuadra, Arantxa; Todosow, Michael; Gamble, Kyle A.; Medvedev, Pavel G.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we examined the performance of the U3Si2 fuel cladded with Zircaloy (Zr) in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) in a PWR core. The power excursion as a result of a $1 reactivity insertion was calculated by a TRACE PWR plant model using point-kinetics, for alternative cores with UO2 and U3Si2 fuel assemblies. The point-kinetics parameters (feedback coefficients, prompt-neutron lifetime and group constants for six delayed-neutron groups) were obtained from beginning-of-cycle equilibrium full core calculations with PARCS. In the PARCS core calculations, the few-group parameters were developed utilizing the TRITON/NEWT tools in the SCALE package. In order to assess the fuel response in finer detail (e.g. the maximum fuel temperature) the power shape and thermal boundary conditions from the TRACE/PARCS calculations were used to drive a BISON model of a fuel pin with U3Si2 and UO2 respectively. For a $1 reactivity transient both TRACE and BISON predicted a higher maximum fuel temperature for the UO2 fuel than the U3Si2 fuel. Furthermore, BISON is noted to calculate a narrower gap and a higher gap heat transfer coefficient than TRACE. This resulted in BISON predicting consistently lower fuel temperatures than TRACE. This study also provides a systematic comparison between TRACE and BISON using consistent transient boundary conditions. The TRACE analysis of the RIA only reflects the core-wide response in power. A refinement to the analysis would be to predict the local peaking in a three-dimensional core as a result of control rod ejection.

  13. Exploring the Distribution of the Spreading Lethal Salamander Chytrid Fungus in Its Invasive Range in Europe - A Macroecological Approach.

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    Stephan Feldmeier

    Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution. We computed Bsal Maxent models for two predictor sets, which represent different temporal resolutions, using three different background extents to account for different invasion stage scenarios. Beside 'classical' bioclimate, we employed weather data, which allowed us to emphasize predictors in accordance with the known pathogen's biology. The most important predictors as well as spatial predictions varied between invasion scenarios and predictor sets. The most reasonable model was based on weather data and the scenario of a recent pathogen introduction. It identified temperature predictors, which represent optimal growing conditions and heat limiting conditions, as the most explaining drivers of the current distribution. This model also predicted large areas in the study region as suitable for Bsal. The other models predicted considerably less, but shared some areas which we interpreted as most likely high risk zones. Our results indicate that growth relevant temperatures measured under laboratory conditions might also be relevant on a macroecological scale, if predictors with a high temporal resolution and relevance are used. Additionally, the conditions in our study area support the possibility of a further Bsal spread, especially when considering that our models might tend to

  14. Exploring the Distribution of the Spreading Lethal Salamander Chytrid Fungus in Its Invasive Range in Europe – A Macroecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Stephan; Schefczyk, Lukas; Wagner, Norman; Heinemann, Günther; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution. We computed Bsal Maxent models for two predictor sets, which represent different temporal resolutions, using three different background extents to account for different invasion stage scenarios. Beside ‘classical’ bioclimate, we employed weather data, which allowed us to emphasize predictors in accordance with the known pathogen’s biology. The most important predictors as well as spatial predictions varied between invasion scenarios and predictor sets. The most reasonable model was based on weather data and the scenario of a recent pathogen introduction. It identified temperature predictors, which represent optimal growing conditions and heat limiting conditions, as the most explaining drivers of the current distribution. This model also predicted large areas in the study region as suitable for Bsal. The other models predicted considerably less, but shared some areas which we interpreted as most likely high risk zones. Our results indicate that growth relevant temperatures measured under laboratory conditions might also be relevant on a macroecological scale, if predictors with a high temporal resolution and relevance are used. Additionally, the conditions in our study area support the possibility of a further Bsal spread, especially when considering that our models might tend to underestimate the

  15. Exploring the Distribution of the Spreading Lethal Salamander Chytrid Fungus in Its Invasive Range in Europe - A Macroecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Stephan; Schefczyk, Lukas; Wagner, Norman; Heinemann, Günther; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution. We computed Bsal Maxent models for two predictor sets, which represent different temporal resolutions, using three different background extents to account for different invasion stage scenarios. Beside 'classical' bioclimate, we employed weather data, which allowed us to emphasize predictors in accordance with the known pathogen's biology. The most important predictors as well as spatial predictions varied between invasion scenarios and predictor sets. The most reasonable model was based on weather data and the scenario of a recent pathogen introduction. It identified temperature predictors, which represent optimal growing conditions and heat limiting conditions, as the most explaining drivers of the current distribution. This model also predicted large areas in the study region as suitable for Bsal. The other models predicted considerably less, but shared some areas which we interpreted as most likely high risk zones. Our results indicate that growth relevant temperatures measured under laboratory conditions might also be relevant on a macroecological scale, if predictors with a high temporal resolution and relevance are used. Additionally, the conditions in our study area support the possibility of a further Bsal spread, especially when considering that our models might tend to underestimate the potential

  16. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development of individuaĺs behavioral and morphological characteristics. In recent decades, digit ratio attracted a great attention in biology and psychology. However, for unmasking the biological basis of the phenomenon, extensive studies on non-human animals are necessary. Despite it was hypothesized that digit ratio is well conserved in all Tetrapoda, and there exist studies on mammals, birds, and reptiles, there are only two such study on anuran amphibians. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the 2D:4D in the most basal salamanders, Caudata. We have studied digit ratio in four species of newts: Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, and Lissotriton vulgaris, using museum collection. We used computerized measuring of each limbś photos. We have found out that, in M. alpestris, females 2D:4D of all four limbs were significantly larger than in males. In L. montandoni and L. vulgaris, only 2D:4D of rear limbs significantly differed, in females being larger. In T. cristatus, digit ratios of males and females did not statistically differ. Thus, the results confirmed our hypothesis that at least in M. alpestris, L. montandoni, and L. vulgaris, females seem to have larger 2D:4D comparing to males, the pattern known from most mammals and opposite to birds, reptiles and anuran amphibians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Hanifin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

  18. Stable Isotopes Reveal Trophic Partitioning and Trophic Plasticity of a Larval Amphibian Guild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Rosa; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Caut, Stephane; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Temporary ponds are highly variable systems where resource availability and community structure change extensively over time, and consequently the food web is highly dynamic. Amphibians play a critical role both as consumers and prey in aquatic communities and yet there is still little information on the trophic status of most amphibians. More importantly, little is known about the extent to which they can alter their trophic ecology in response to changing conditions. We experimentally investigated the effects of increased amphibian density, presence of intraguild competitors, and presence of native and invasive predators (either free or caged) on the trophic status of a Mediterranean amphibian guild, using stable isotopes. We observed variations in δ13C and δ15N isotopic values among amphibian species and treatments and differences in their food sources. Macrophytes were the most important food resource for spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) and relatively important for all anurans within the guild. High density and presence of P. cultripes tadpoles markedly reduced macrophyte biomass, forcing tadpoles to increase their feeding on detritus, algae and zooplankton, resulting in lower δ13C values. Native dytiscid predators only changed the isotopic signature of newts whereas invasive red swamp crayfish had an enormous impact on environmental conditions and greatly affected the isotopic values of amphibians. Crayfish forced tadpoles to increase detritus ingestion or other resources depleted in δ13C. We found that the opportunistic amphibian feeding was greatly conditioned by intra- and interspecific competition whereas non-consumptive predator effects were negligible. Determining the trophic plasticity of amphibians can help us understand natural and anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems and assess amphibians' ability to adjust to different environmental conditions.

  19. Stable Isotopes Reveal Trophic Partitioning and Trophic Plasticity of a Larval Amphibian Guild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Arribas

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds are highly variable systems where resource availability and community structure change extensively over time, and consequently the food web is highly dynamic. Amphibians play a critical role both as consumers and prey in aquatic communities and yet there is still little information on the trophic status of most amphibians. More importantly, little is known about the extent to which they can alter their trophic ecology in response to changing conditions. We experimentally investigated the effects of increased amphibian density, presence of intraguild competitors, and presence of native and invasive predators (either free or caged on the trophic status of a Mediterranean amphibian guild, using stable isotopes. We observed variations in δ13C and δ15N isotopic values among amphibian species and treatments and differences in their food sources. Macrophytes were the most important food resource for spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes and relatively important for all anurans within the guild. High density and presence of P. cultripes tadpoles markedly reduced macrophyte biomass, forcing tadpoles to increase their feeding on detritus, algae and zooplankton, resulting in lower δ13C values. Native dytiscid predators only changed the isotopic signature of newts whereas invasive red swamp crayfish had an enormous impact on environmental conditions and greatly affected the isotopic values of amphibians. Crayfish forced tadpoles to increase detritus ingestion or other resources depleted in δ13C. We found that the opportunistic amphibian feeding was greatly conditioned by intra- and interspecific competition whereas non-consumptive predator effects were negligible. Determining the trophic plasticity of amphibians can help us understand natural and anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems and assess amphibians' ability to adjust to different environmental conditions.

  20. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  1. Is the detection of aquatic environmental DNA influenced by substrate type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Andrew S; Groombridge, Jim J; Griffiths, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess the presence-absence of rare, cryptic or invasive species is hindered by a poor understanding of the factors that can remove DNA from the system. In aquatic systems, eDNA can be transported out either horizontally in water flows or vertically by incorporation into the sediment. Equally, eDNA may be broken down by various biotic and abiotic processes if the target organism leaves the system. We use occupancy modelling and a replicated mesocosm experiment to examine how detection probability of eDNA changes once the target species is no longer present. We hypothesise that detection probability falls faster with a sediment which has a large number of DNA binding sites such as topsoil or clay, over lower DNA binding capacity substrates such as sand. Water removed from ponds containing the target species (the great crested newt) initially showed high detection probabilities, but these fell to between 40% and 60% over the first 10 days and to between 10% and 22% by day 15: eDNA remained detectable at very low levels until day 22. Very little difference in detection was observed between the control group (no substrate) and the sand substrate. A small reduction in detection probability was observed between the control and clay substrates, but this was not significant. However, a highly significant reduction in detection probability was observed with a topsoil substrate. This result is likely to have stemmed from increased levels of PCR inhibition, suggesting that incorporation of DNA into the sentiment is of only limited importance. Surveys of aquatic species using eDNA clearly need to take account of substrate type as well as other environmental factors when collecting samples, analysing data and interpreting the results.

  2. Partial Characterization of the Sox2+ Cell Population in an Adult Murine Model of Digit Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vineet; Siu, Bernard F.; Chao, Hsu; Hirschi, Karen K.; Raborn, Eric; Johnson, Scott A.; Tottey, Stephen; Hurley, Katherine B.; Medberry, Chris J.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue regeneration in response to injury in adult mammals is generally limited to select tissues. Nonmammalian species such as newts and axolotls undergo regeneration of complex tissues such as limbs and digits via recruitment and accumulation of local and circulating multipotent progenitors preprogrammed to recapitulate the missing tissue. Directed recruitment and activation of progenitor cells at a site of injury in adult mammals may alter the default wound-healing response from scar tissue toward regeneration. Bioactive molecules derived from proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo to the site of injury. The present study further characterized the population of cells accumulating at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products in a well-established model of murine digit amputation. After a mid-second phalanx digit amputation in 6–8-week-old adult mice, treatment with ECM degradation products resulted in the accumulation of a heterogeneous population of cells, a subset of which expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a marker of pluripotent and adult progenitor cells. Sox2+ cells were localized lateral to the amputated P2 bone and coexpressed progenitor cell markers CD90 and Sca1. Transgenic Sox2 eGFP/+ and bone marrow chimeric mice showed that the bone marrow and blood circulation did not contribute to the Sox2+ cell population. The present study showed that, in addition to circulating progenitor cells, resident tissue-derived cells also populate at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products. Although future work is necessary to determine the contribution of Sox2+ cells to functional tissue at the site of injury, recruitment and/or activation of local tissue-derived cells may be a viable approach to tissue engineering of more complex tissues in adult mammals. PMID:22530556

  3. Target fuels for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Shayer, Z., E-mail: zshayer@mines.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate transmutation fuels for plutonium and minor actinide destruction in LWRs. • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We evaluate spectral shift absorber coatings to improve transmutation performance. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, containing approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are a preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a nearer-term solution. This study considers a method for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in existing light water reactors and evaluates a variety of transmutation fuels to provide a common basis for comparison and to determine if any single target fuel provides superior transmutation properties. A model developed using the NEWT module in the SCALE 6.1 code package provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel rods in the present study. The target fuels (MOX, PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, PuN, PuUZrH, PuZrH, PuZrHTh, and PuZrO{sub 2}) are evaluated over a 1400 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) interval to ensure each assembly remained critical over the entire burnup period. The MOX (5 wt% PuO{sub 2}), Pu{sub 0.31}ZrH{sub 1.6}Th{sub 1.08}, and PuZrO{sub 2}MgO (8 wt% Pu) fuels result in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the lowest rate of curium-244 production. This study selected eleven different burnable absorbers (B{sub 4}C, CdO, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TaC) for evaluation as spectral shift absorber coatings on the outside of the fuel pellets to determine if an absorber coating can improve the transmutation properties of the target fuels. The PuZrO{sub 2}MgO (8 wt% Pu) target

  4. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with

  5. A novel non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from amphibian skin and its functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bai Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive.A naturally existing 72-kDa complex of non-lens betagamma-crystallin (alpha-subunit and trefoil factor (beta-subunit, named betagamma-CAT, was identified from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Its alpha-subunit and beta-subunit (containing three trefoil factor domains, with a non-covalently linked form of alphabeta(2, show significant sequence homology to ep37 proteins, a group of non-lens betagamma-crystallins identified in newt Cynops pyrrhogaster and mammalian trefoil factors, respectively. betagamma-CAT showed potent hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. The specific antiserum against each subunit was able to neutralize its hemolytic activity, indicating that the two subunits are functionally associated. betagamma-CAT formed membrane pores with a functional diameter about 2.0 nm, leading to K(+ efflux and colloid-osmotic hemolysis. High molecular weight SDS-stable oligomers (>240-kDa were detected by antibodies against the alpha-subunit with Western blotting. Furthermore, betagamma-CAT showed multiple cellular effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Low dosages of betagamma-CAT (25-50 pM were able to stimulate cell migration and wound healing. At high concentrations, it induced cell detachment (EC(50 10 nM and apoptosis. betagamma-CAT was rapidly endocytosed via intracellular vacuole formation. Under confocal microscope, some of the vacuoles were translocated to nucleus and partially fused with nuclear membrane. Bafilomycin A1 (a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar-type ATPase and nocodazole (an agent of microtuble depolymerizing, while inhibited betagamma-CAT induced vacuole formation, significantly inhibited betagamma-CAT induced cell detachment, suggesting

  6. Nuclear criticality safety 2005 and 2006. Monitoring, follow-up and communication; Nukleaer kriticitetssaekerhet 2005 och 2006. Bevakning, uppfoeljning och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis (E Mennerdahl Systems, Taeby (SE))

    2007-03-15

    A number of selected issues have dominated during 2005 and 2006. This include development of models for realism based on physics (not only statistics and praxis), criteria for criticality safety, regulations and standards, burnup credit, determination of source convergence in calculations, substantial improvements in calculation methods, validation of those methods, etc. In spite of some criticism against certain parts of the NRC FCSS/ISG-10, it is an important document. It should support both authorities and utilities to determine adequate safety margins. To a large extent, the principles that have been applied in Sweden since the 1970's are supported. The extra safety margin (MMS or DELTAk{sub m}) that protects against unknown uncertainties in k{sub eff} should be related to the known uncertainty. In Sweden this has been achieved by limitation of the total, statistically determined standard deviation to 0.01. In addition, FCSS/ISG-10 supports the principle of using different values of DELTAk{sub m} for normal situations than for design basis incidents (must have very low probabilities). In Sweden, DELTAk{sub m} have been included in the design limits that have been 0.95 for normal scenarios and 0.98 for incident scenarios. The corresponding values of DELTAk{sub m} are 0.05 and 0.02. They are exactly the same values as are mentioned in FCSS/ISG-10. The recently issued SCALE 5.1 is very important for burnup credit. Similar capabilities have been available in Sweden, in the form of CASMO, PHOENIX and their predecessor BUXY, for more than 30 years. SCALE 5.1 makes reactor calculations available in a procedure that is easily accessible to specialists on criticality safety. The physics simulation of the irradiation (Monte Carlo through KENO in 3-D or deterministic through NEWT in 2-D) becomes much more realistic with SCALE 5.1 than with earlier versions. A very important project is the OECD/NEA study on reference values for criticality safety. The final report has

  7. Spatial scales of carbon flow in a river food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, J.C.; Khandwala, S.; Power, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial extents of food webs that support stream and river consumers are largely unknown, but such information is essential for basic understanding and management of lotic ecosystems. We used predictable variation in algal ??13C with water velocity, and measurements of consumer ??13C and ??15N to examine carbon flow and trophic structure in food webs of the South Fork Eel River in Northern California. Analyses of ??13C showed that the most abundant macroinvertebrate groups (collector-gatherers and scrapers) relied on algae from local sources within their riffle or shallow pool habitats. In contrast, filter-feeding invertebrates in riffles relied in part on algal production derived from upstream shallow pools. Riffle invertebrate predators also relied in part on consumers of pool-derived algal carbon. One abundant taxon drifting from shallow pools and riffles (baetid mayflies) relied on algal production derived from the habitats from which they dispersed. The trophic linkage from pool algae to riffle invertebrate predators was thus mediated through either predation on pool herbivores dispersing into riffles, or on filter feeders. Algal production in shallow pool habitats dominated the resource base of vertebrate predators in all habitats at the end of the summer. We could not distinguish between the trophic roles of riffle algae and terrestrial detritus, but both carbon sources appeared to play minor roles for vertebrate consumers. In shallow pools, small vertebrates, including three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), roach (Hesperoleucas symmetricus), and rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa), relied on invertebrate prey derived from local pool habitats. During the most productive summer period, growth of all size classes of steelhead and resident rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in all habitats (shallow pools, riffles, and deep unproductive pools) was largely derived from algal production in shallow pools. Preliminary data suggest that the strong

  8. Do hormone-modulating chemicals impact on reproduction and development of wild amphibians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Globally, amphibians are undergoing a precipitous decline. At the last estimate in 2004, 32% of the approximately 6000 species were threatened with extinction and 43% were experiencing significant declines. These declines have been linked with a wide range of environmental pressures from habitat loss to climate change, disease and pollution. This review evaluates the evidence that endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) - pollutants that affect hormone systems - are impacting on wild amphibians and contributing to population declines. The review is limited to anurans (frogs and toads) as data for effects of EDCs on wild urodeles (salamanders, newts) or caecilians (limbless amphibians) are extremely limited. Evidence from laboratory studies has shown that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to alter hormone systems and affect reproductive development and function in anurans, but for the most part only at concentrations exceeding those normally found in natural environments. Exceptions can be found for exposures to the herbicide atrazine and polychlorinated biphenyls in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and perchlorate in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). These contaminants induce feminising effects on the male gonads (including 'intersex' - oocytes within testes) at concentrations measured in some aquatic environments. The most extensive data for effects of an EDC in wild amphibian populations are for feminising effects of atrazine on male gonad development in regions across the USA. Even where strong evidence has been provided for feminising effects of EDCs, however, the possible impact of these effects on fertility and breeding outcome has not been established, making inference for effects on populations difficult. Laboratory studies have shown that various chemicals, including perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls and bromodiphenylethers, also act as endocrine disrupters through interfering with thyroid-dependent processes that are fundamental for

  9. Diseases of frogs and toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    (Rana pipiens). Other interesting diseases could have been presented, such as a wart-like virus infection of Japanese newts and a group of protistan parasites, referred to as Dermocystidium and Dermomycoides, in European frogs and toads. The reader is referred to Green (2001) for a review of these diseases. Amphibians have a rich diversity of helminthic parasites (Poynton and Whitaker, 2001). In general, most cestodes, trematodes and nematodes of amphibians are innocuous and not linked to specific clinical signs ('symptoms') or mortalities. An important major exception to this generalization is the trematode, Ribeiroia, which has been linked to numerous and bizarre malformations of frogs, toads and salamanders (Johnson et al., 1999, Johnson et al., 2001, Schotthoefer et al., 2003). Two genera of trematodal parasites are discussed in this chapter: Ribeiroia because they cause malformations and Clinostomum because they are large and produce visible lumps in the skin. For a review of amphibian helminths, the reader is referred to the text by Flynn (1973).

  10. Integrative inference of population history in the Ibero-Maghrebian endemic Pleurodeles waltl (Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Barbosa, A Márcia; Martínez-Solano, Íñigo

    2017-07-01

    Inference of population histories from the molecular signatures of past demographic processes is challenging, but recent methodological advances in species distribution models and their integration in time-calibrated phylogeographic studies allow detailed reconstruction of complex biogeographic scenarios. We apply an integrative approach to infer the evolutionary history of the Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl), an Ibero-Maghrebian endemic with populations north and south of the Strait of Gibraltar. We analyzed an extensive multilocus dataset (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci) and found a deep east-west phylogeographic break in Iberian populations dating back to the Plio-Pleistocene. This break is inferred to result from vicariance associated with the formation of the Guadalquivir river basin. In contrast with previous studies, North African populations showed exclusive mtDNA haplotypes, and formed a monophyletic clade within the Eastern Iberian lineage in the mtDNA genealogy. On the other hand, microsatellites failed to recover Moroccan populations as a differentiated genetic cluster. This is interpreted to result from post-divergence gene flow based on the results of IMA2 and Migrate analyses. Thus, Moroccan populations would have originated after overseas dispersal from the Iberian Peninsula in the Pleistocene, with subsequent gene flow in more recent times, implying at least two trans-marine dispersal events. We modeled the distribution of the species and of each lineage, and projected these models back in time to infer climatically favourable areas during the mid-Holocene, the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the last interglacial (LIG), to reconstruct more recent population dynamics. We found minor differences in climatic favourability across lineages, suggesting intraspecific niche conservatism. Genetic diversity was significantly correlated with the intersection of environmental favourability in the LIG and

  11. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Joana; Sarmento, Pedro; Carretero, Miguel A; White, Piran C L

    2015-01-01

    Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of

  12. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cruz

    Full Text Available Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest at three different scales: local (pond, intermediate (400 metres radius buffer and broad (1000 metres radius buffer. Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc, we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on

  13. Moist convection and the 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Giles, R. S.; Payne, A. V.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Vedovato, M.

    2017-04-01

    The transformation of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) from its faded, whitened state in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al., 2011b) to its normal brown appearance is documented via comparisons of thermal-infrared (5-20 μm) and visible-light imaging between November 2010 and November 2011. The SEB revival consisted of convective eruptions triggered over ∼100 days, potentially powered by the latent heat released by the condensation of water. The plumes rise from the water cloud base and ultimately diverge and cool in the stably-stratified upper troposphere. Thermal-IR images from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) were acquired 2 days after the SEB disturbance was first detected as a small white spot by amateur observers on November 9th 2010. Subsequent images over several months revealed the cold, putatively anticyclonic and cloudy plume tops (area 2.5 × 106 km2) surrounded by warm, cloud-free conditions at their peripheries due to subsidence. The latent heating was not directly detectable in the 5-20 μm range. The majority of the plumes erupted from a single source near 140 -160∘ W, coincident with the remnant cyclonic circulation of a brown barge that had formed during the fade. The warm remnant of the cyclone could still be observed in IRTF imaging 5 days before the November 9th eruption. Additional plumes erupted from the leading edge of the central disturbance immediately east of the source, which propagated slowly eastwards to encounter the Great Red Spot. The tropospheric plumes were sufficiently vigorous to excite stratospheric thermal waves over the SEB with a 20 -30∘ longitudinal wavelength and 5-6 K temperature contrasts at 5 mbar, showing a direct connection between moist convection and stratospheric wave activity. The subsidence and compressional heating of dry, unsaturated air warmed the troposphere (particularly to the northwest of the central branch of the revival) and removed the aerosols that had been responsible for the fade. Dark, cloud

  14. Professional- Amateur Astronomer Partnerships in Scientific Research: The Re-emergence of Jupiter's 5-Micron Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The night sky, with all its delights and mysteries, enthrall professional and amateur astronomers alike. The discrete data sets acquired by professional astronomers via their approved observing programs at various national facilities are supplemented by the nearly daily observations of the same celestial object by amateur astronomers around the world. The emerging partnerships between professional and dedicated amateur astronomers rely on creating a niche for long timeline of multispectral remote sensing. "Citizen Astronomy" can be thought of as the paradigm shift transforming the nature of observational astronomy. In the past decade, it is the collective observations and their analyses by the ever-increasing global network of amateur astronomers that has discovered interesting phenomena and provided the reference backdrop for observations by ground-based professional astronomers and spacecraft missions. We shall present results from our collaborations to observe the recent global upheaval on Jupiter for the past five years and illustrate the strong synergy between the two groups. Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. One set of features we are currently tracking is the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-μm hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5°N (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images (1980-1981). Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-μm thermal radiance. During the recent NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were

  15. Neptune long-lived atmospheric features in 2013-2015 from small (28-cm) to large (10-m) telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; de Pater, I.; Simon, A.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Delcroix, M.; Wong, M. H.; Tollefson, J. W.; Baranec, C.; de Kleer, K.; Luszcz-Cook, S. H.; Orton, G. S.; Hammel, H. B.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Sromovsky, L.; Fry, P.; Colas, F.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Gorczynski, P.; Guarro, J.; Kivits, W.; Miles, P.; Millika, D.; Nicholas, P.; Sussenbach, J.; Wesley, A.; Sayanagi, K.; Ammons, S. M.; Gates, E. L.; Gavel, D.; Victor Garcia, E.; Law, N. M.; Mendikoa, I.; Riddle, R.

    2017-10-01

    Since 2013, observations of Neptune with small telescopes (28-50 cm) have resulted in several detections of long-lived bright atmospheric features that have also been observed by large telescopes such as Keck II or Hubble. The combination of both types of images allows the study of the long-term evolution of major cloud systems in the planet. In 2013 and 2014 two bright features were present on the planet at southern mid-latitudes. These may have merged in late 2014, possibly leading to the formation of a single bright feature observed during 2015 at the same latitude. This cloud system was first observed in January 2015 and nearly continuously from July to December 2015 in observations with telescopes in the 2-10-m class and in images from amateur astronomers. These images show the bright spot as a compact feature at -40.1 ± 1.6° planetographic latitude well resolved from a nearby bright zonal band that extended from -42° to -20°. The size of this system depends on wavelength and varies from a longitudinal extension of 8000 ± 900 km and latitudinal extension of 6500 ± 900 km in Keck II images in H and Ks bands to 5100 ± 1400 km in longitude and 4500 ± 1400 km in latitude in HST images in 657 nm. Over July to September 2015 the structure drifted westward in longitude at a rate of 24.48 ± 0.03°/day or -94 ± 3 m/s. This is about 30 m/s slower than the zonal winds measured at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby. Tracking its motion from July to November 2015 suggests a longitudinal oscillation of 16° in amplitude with a 90-day period, typical of dark spots on Neptune and similar to the Great Red Spot oscillation in Jupiter. The limited time covered by high-resolution observations only covers one full oscillation and other interpretations of the changing motions could be possible. HST images in September 2015 show the presence of a dark spot at short wavelengths located in the southern flank (planetographic latitude -47.0°) of the bright compact cloud observed

  16. Urinary congophilia in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preexisting proteinuria or hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Adetoba, Adedamola; Gill, Carolyn; Bramham, Kate; Bertolaccini, Maria; Burton, Graham J; Girardi, Guillermina; Seed, Paul T; Poston, Lucilla; Chappell, Lucy C

    2016-10-01

    Congophilia indicates the presence of amyloid protein, which is an aggregate of misfolded proteins, that is implicated in the pathophysiologic condition of preeclampsia. Recently, urinary congophilia has been proposed as a test for the diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urine congophilia is present in a cohort of women with preeclampsia and in pregnant and nonpregnant women with renal disease. With the use of a preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, renal disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus cohort, we analyzed urine samples from healthy pregnant control subjects (n = 31) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 23), gestational hypertension (n = 10), chronic hypertension (n = 14), chronic kidney disease; n = 28), chronic kidney disease with superimposed preeclampsia (n = 5), and chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia (n = 12). Samples from nonpregnant control subjects (n = 10) and nonpregnant women with either systemic lupus erythematosus with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) lupus nephritis were analyzed. For each sample, protein concentration was standardized before it was mixed with Congo Red, spotted to nitrocellulose membrane, and rinsed with methanol. The optical density of the residual Congo Red stain was determined; Congo red stain retention was calculated, and groups were compared with the use of the Mann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis analysis of Variance test, as appropriate. Congophilia was increased in urine from women with preeclampsia (median Congo red stain retention, 47%; interquartile range, 22-68%) compared with healthy pregnant control subjects (Congo red stain retention: 16%; interquartile range, 13-21%; P = .002), women with gestational hypertension (Congo red stain retention, 20%; interquartile range, 13-27%; P = .008), or women with chronic hypertension (Congo red stain retention, 17%; interquartile range, 12-28%; P = .01). There were no differences in Congo

  17. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    the species richness at the monument. Also important is the wide range of conditions at the site. The diversity of plants results from a wide variety of soil types and aspects (from the cool, moist Cliff Dweller Canyon to dry mesa slopes) and an abundance of water from the West Fork of the Gila River. In turn, the vertebrate communities respond to this diversity of vegetation, topography, and microsites. For example, for each taxonomic group we found species that were only associated with a single community type, most often the riparian areas along the West and Middle forks of the Gila River. We found cause for significant concern with regard to loss of species in the last few decades. One species of amphibian (Chiricahua leopard frog) is certainly extirpated from the area. Three other species of amphibians (Mexican spadefoot, Woodhouse's toad, and red-spotted toad), reported as being 'common' in the area in 1971, were not found during our surveys. In addition, we did not find three species of rodents that were found in 1965: silky pocket mouse, Ord's kangaroo rat, and southern grasshopper mouse. The monument's aquatic vertebrate component, in particular, may be at a critical juncture whereby other species, such as gartersnakes, may be poised for extirpation. Declining abundance of native fish species has been demonstrated from long-term monitoring of these communities along the Middle Fork of the Gila River. This report includes lists of species recorded by us or species likely to be recorded with additional survey effort. It also includes management implications from our work - how the monument staff might better maintain or enhance the unique biological resources of the monument. This study is the first step in a long-term process of compiling information on the biological resources of the monument and its surrounding areas. We recommend additional inventory and monitoring studies and identify components of our effort that could be improved upon

  18. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

  19. Near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy of (136108) Haumea's multiple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgeot, F.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.; Vachier, F.; Merlin, F.; Lacerda, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Berthier, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The transneptunian region of the solar system is populated by a wide variety of icy bodies showing great diversity in orbital behavior, size, surface color, and composition. Aims: The dwarf planet (136108) Haumea is among the largest transneptunian objects (TNOs) and is a very fast rotator (~3.9 h). This dwarf planet displays a highly elongated shape and hosts two small moons that are covered with crystalline water ice, similar to their central body. A particular region of interest is the Dark Red Spot (DRS) identified on the surface of Haumea from multiband light-curve analysis (Lacerda et al. 2008). Haumea is also known to be the largest member of the sole TNO family known to date, and an outcome of a catastrophic collision that is likely responsible for the unique characteristics of Haumea. Methods: We report here on the analysis of a new set of near-infrared Laser Guide Star assisted observations of Haumea obtained with the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) Observatory. Combined with previous data published by Dumas et al. (2011), and using light-curve measurements in the optical and far infrared to associate each spectrum with its corresponding rotational phase, we were able to carry out a rotationally resolved spectroscopic study of the surface of Haumea. Results: We describe the physical characteristics of the crystalline water ice present on the surface of Haumea for both regions, in and out of the DRS, and analyze the differences obtained for each individual spectrum. The presence of crystalline water ice is confirmed over more than half of the surface of Haumea. Our measurements of the average spectral slope (1.45 ± 0.82% by 100 nm) confirm the redder characteristic of the spot region. Detailed analysis of the crystalline water-ice absorption bands do not show significant differences between the DRS and the

  20. Corrigendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    , respiratory distress if highly allergic.Not Contagious: Can stay at school.Spider bitesLocalized redness, swelling, can spread if infection - cellulitis can occur.Pain, redness, swelling. Bites are commonly seen on thighs, buttocks and abdomen.Not Contagious: Can stay at school.Bed Bugs(Cimex Lectularius)Red itchy welts that appear in a row. Numerous bites appear as a red itchy wide spread rash. Often mistaken for mosquito bites.Red, itchy, swellingAppear on face neck and extremities, areas exposed during sleep.Not Contagious: Can stay at school.Incubation: Bites may not appear for several days after exposure.Flea BitesRed spots surrounded by reddened haloes.Red, itchy.Commonly seen on the feet and ankles.Not Contagious: Can stay at school. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Intoxicação natural por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae em ovinos no Sudeste do Brasil Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae poisoning in sheep in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Estado do Rio de Janeiro descreve-se um surto de intoxicação aguda por Amaranthus spinosus em 12 ovelhas, caracterizado clinicamente por hálito urêmico, ausência de movimentos ruminais, dispnéia e aborto. Os animais foram colocados em um pasto adubado e severamente invadido pela planta. A necropsia realizada em seis ovinos revelou rins pálidos, em geral, com estriações esbranquiçadas desde o córtex até a medula; em um animal verificaram-se diversos infartos sob forma de figuras geométricas no córtex. O fígado apresentava-se mais claro, por vezes com lobulação evidente. Em um animal verificaram-se áreas pálidas no miocárdio. Os pulmões congestos, algo mais pesados e consistentes, por vezes evidenciavam áreas de hepatização vermelha e cinzenta na porção cranial. Petéquias, equimoses e sufusões foram observadas em serosas, na mucosa do tubo digestório e em outros órgãos. Ao exame histológico verificaram-se acentuada nefrose tubular tóxica, focos aleatórios de necrose coagulativa no fígado, áreas de necrose coagulativa no miocárdio e pneumonia intersticial aguda incipiente acompanhada por áreas de broncopneumonia. Na literatura não foram encontradas referências à intoxicação natural por A. spinosus em ovinos. Tentativas de reprodução da intoxicação com a planta em ovinos, não foram bem sucedidas, provavelmente porque, nos experimentos, não se utilizou A. spinosus proveniente de áreas adubadas. A necrose do miocárdio encontrada, ao exame microscópico do coração de diversos animais foi atribuída a hipercalemia secundária à insuficiência renal, ao passo que a gênese dos infartos renais verificados em um ovino permanece obscura.An outbreak of acute poisoning caused by Amaranthus spinosus is described in ewes of southern Brazil. The clinical signs were characterized by uremic halitosis, loss of ruminal motility, dispnoea and abortion. Grossly in the kidneys there were pale red spots, white

  2. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg, Principal Investigator; Kevin A. Steuhm, Project Manager

    2012-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance, and to some extent, experiment management, are inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are difficult, if not impossible, to properly verify and validate (V&V) according to modern standards. Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In late 2009, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort, the ATR Core Modeling Update Project, to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). The ATR Core Modeling Update Project, targeted for full implementation in phase with the next anticipated ATR Core Internals Changeout (CIC) in the 2014-2015 time frame, began during the last quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, and has just completed its third full year. Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (HELIOS, KENO6/SCALE, NEWT/SCALE, ATTILA, and an extended implementation of MCNP5) has been installed at the INL under various licensing arrangements. Corresponding models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational with all five codes, demonstrating the basic feasibility of the new code packages for their intended purpose. Of particular importance, a set of as-run core

  3. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Devin A. Steuhm

    2011-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance and, to some extent, experiment management are obsolete, inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are becoming increasingly difficult to properly verify and validate (V&V). Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In 2009 the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate V&V, within the next 3-4 years via the ATR Core Modeling and Simulation and V&V Update (or 'Core Modeling Update') Project. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). The ATR Core Modeling Update Project, targeted for full implementation in phase with the anticipated ATR Core Internals Changeout (CIC) in the 2014 time frame, began during the last quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, and has just completed its first full year. Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (SCALE, KENO-6, HELIOS, NEWT, and ATTILA) have been installed at the INL under various permanent sitewide license agreements and corresponding baseline models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational, demonstrating the basic feasibility of these code packages for their intended purpose. Furthermore

  4. Transition to Sustainability: Science Support Through Characterizing and Quantifying Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    sensitivities, facilitate realistic risk perception, comprehensively monitor the system's states and trends, and ensure efficient early warnings for any emerging critical trajectories. In this case, Earth system analysis considering the physiology of the anthroposphere, syndrome analyses identifying the red spots, and advanced model webs allowing answers to "What if" questions are essential for the characterization and quantification of sustainability.

  5. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  6. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    contrast, extreme SWR was observed in the burned area (3750 s). This may be explained by a reduction of water repellency by burning (Zavala et al., 2009; Jordán et al., 2014), as environmental conditions led to an increase in control areas. Although prescribed burning usually do not produce high severity fires, evidences of high severity were found, due to prolonged smouldering caused by subsurface Banksia root clusters. In some cases, this led to release of iron oxides, observed as red spots in the surface. Fire in Mediterranean and semi-arid environments has a significant effect on microbial biomass and the composition of soil microbial communities during the post-fire period, when soil nutrients become available (Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). In our study, microbial activity increased sharply in the burned area and most likely contributed to a decrease of organic hydrophobic substances in the first centimetres of the soil profile. Bárcenas-Moreno et al. (2011) observed that bacterial activity increases immediately after fire, while fungi decreased and recovered slowly. These processes may contribute to explain differences in SWR following fire, since this soil property may be influenced by fungal activity (Lozano et al., 2013). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research has been partly funded by the University of Western Australia through the project "Soil water repellence in biodiverse semiarid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration" (UWA Research Collaboration Awards, Ref. ENV.2013.6.2-4) and the Spanish Ministry for Economy and Competitiveness through the research projects GEOFIRE (Ref. CGL2012-38655-C04-01) and POSTFIRE (Ref. CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R). REFERENCES Bárcenas-Moreno G, García-Orenes F, Mataix-Solera J, Mataix-Beneyto J, Bååth E. 2011. Soil microbial recolonisation after a fire in a Mediterranean forest. Biology and Fertility of Soils 47: 261-272. DOI: 10.1007/s00374-010-0532-2. Boer MM, Sadlet RJ

  7. Water activities in Laxemar-Simpevarp. Organic field inventory, nature values classification and description of production land; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Ekologisk faeltinventering, naturvaerdesklassificering samt beskrivning av produktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    investigation area is affected by forestry and is judged not to be sensitive to groundwater-t able drawdown. Deciduous habitats in the southeastern parts contain many formerly open pastures, and these are neither judged to be sensitive. Slopes and low-lying terrain contain small parts with moist deciduous habitats and valuable deciduous forest that may be groundwater dependent. The investigation area does not contain any red-listed species that are judged to be explicitly dependent on moist or wet conditions. Some species (such as natterer's bat and lesser spotted woodpecker) are favoured by a mosaic of different habitats, including access to moist nature types. The investigation area contains a number of species that are protected by Swedish regulation (Species Protection Ordinance) and that are dependent on moist habitats, including moor frog, common toad, smooth newt and grass snake.

  8. The 23rd Stirling Physics Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This was how the chairman, Dennis Chisholm, described the morning's major topic `Higher Still' - the proposed successor to the Scottish Higher Grade and Sixth Year Studies Certificates. It was chosen for this one-day conference on 21 May as the documentation for it had been promised for 1 May. Alas, as the main speaker, Mary Webster, admitted, the materials were still `sitting in a warehouse in Dundee' and the programme has now been postponed for a year! Nevertheless the team, which included Rothwell Glen and Tony Keeley, bravely fielded a series of awkward questions from a critical audience of over 200 physics teachers. Physics with gusto If `Higher Still' was a damp squib Rebecca Crawford's team from Glasgow Science and Technology Outreach set the place ablaze. In their first spectacular demonstration Rebecca lay on a bed of sharp nails while someone stood on top of her! This was followed by a deafening explosion produced by cornflour powder igniting in a tin can used to model a grain silo. Hydrogen was then produced by aluminium foil in a solution of caustic soda, and used to inflate a balloon before exploding it with a flaming torch. Using two 2 mW lasers the green spot produced by one was shown to appear much brighter than the red spot from the other, The Australian demonstrator explained that some of their fire engines were now being painted green instead of red as our eyes are more sensitive to green. A small low-inertia electric motor turned when attached to copper and zinc electrodes inserted first in a glass of Coke and then in a fresh grapefruit. Gas-filled sausage balloons were packed into a flask of liquid nitrogen where they collapsed as the gas inside liquefied. When the bunch of deflated balloons was removed and thrown on to the bench the results were dramatic. As you might expect, the `best wine' was kept to the last. Kenneth Skeldon and two colleagues in the University of Glasgow have built a high voltage generator based on a resonant transformer

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    across the planet's disk, revealing wind speeds as large as 325 meters per second (730 miles per hour). The largest of the giant, dark storm systems, called the 'Great Dark Spot', received special attention because it resembled Jupiter's Great Red Spot, a storm that has persisted for more than three centuries. The lifetime of Neptune's Great Dark Spot could not be determined from the Voyager data alone, however, because the encounter was too brief. Its evolution was impossible to monitor with ground-based telescopes, because it could not be resolved on Neptune's tiny disk, and its contribution to the disk-integrated brightness of Neptune confused by the presence of a rapidly-varying bright cloud feature, called the 'Bright Companion' that usually accompanied the Great Dark spot.The repaired Hubble Space Telescope provides new opportunities to monitor these and other phenomena in the atmosphere of the most distant planet. Images taken with WFPC-2's Planetary Camera (PC) can resolve Neptune's disk as well as most ground-based telescopes can resolve the disk of Jupiter. The spatial resolution of the HST WFPC-2 images is not as high as that obtained by the Voyager-2 Narrow-Angle Camera during that spacecraft's closest approach to Neptune, but they have a number of other assets that enhance their scientific value, including improved ultra-violet and infrared sensitivity, better signal-to-noise, and, and greater photometric accuracy.The images of Neptune acquired by the WFPC-2 Science team in late June clearly demonstrate these capabilities. The side of the planet facing the Earth at the start of the program (11:36 Universal Time on July 27) was imaged in color filters spanning the ultraviolet (255 and 300-nm), visible (467, 588, 620, and 673- nm), and near-infrared (890-nm) parts of the spectrum. The planet then rotated 180 degrees in longitude, and the opposite hemisphere was imaged in a subset of these colors (300, 467, 588, 620, and 673-nm). The HST/WFPC-2 program more