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Sample records for red yeast strain

  1. Analysis of mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams at different LET in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haining; Wang Jufang; Ma Shuang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate inactive and mutagenic effects of carbon beam at different LET, the inactivation cross section and mutation cross section induced by carbon beams of different LET values were investigated in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015. It was found that the maximum inactivation cross section of 4.37μm 2 , which was very close to the average nucleus cross section, was at LET of 120.0 keV/μm. The maximum mutation cross section was at LET of 96.0 keV/μm. Meanwhile, the highest mutagenicity of carbon ion was found around 58.2 keV/μm. It implied that the most efficient LET to induce mutation in survival yeasts was 58.2 keV/μm, which corresponded to energy of 35 MeV/u carbon beam. The most effective carbon beam to induce inactivation and mutation located at different energy region. (authors)

  2. Inactive and mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams of different LET values in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Sun Haining; Ma Shuang; Li Renmin; Li Wenjian

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biological action of microorganism exposed to charged particles during the long distance space exploration, induction of inactivation and mutation in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015 by carbon beams of different LET values (14.9-120.0 keV μm -1 ) was investigated. It was found that survival curves were exponential, and mutation curves were linear for all LET values. The dependence of inactivation cross section on LET approached saturation near 120.0 keV μm -1 . The mutation cross section saturated when LET was higher than 58.2 keV μm -1 . Meanwhile, the highest RBE i for inactivation located at 120.0 keV μm -1 and the highest RBE m for mutation was at 58.2 keV μm -1 . The experiments imply that the most efficient mutagenic part of the depth dose profile of carbon ion is at the plateau region with intermediate LET value in which energy deposited is high enough to induce mutagenic lesions but too low to induce over kill effect in the yeast cells.

  3. Inactive and mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams of different LET values in a red yeast strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lu, Dong; Wu, Xin; Sun, Haining; Ma, Shuang; Li, Renmin; Li, Wenjian

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate biological action of microorganism exposed to charged particles during the long distance space exploration, induction of inactivation and mutation in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015 by carbon beams of different LET values (14.9-120.0 keV μm -1) was investigated. It was found that survival curves were exponential, and mutation curves were linear for all LET values. The dependence of inactivation cross section on LET approached saturation near 120.0 keV μm -1. The mutation cross section saturated when LET was higher than 58.2 keV μm -1. Meanwhile, the highest RBE i for inactivation located at 120.0 keV μm -1 and the highest RBE m for mutation was at 58.2 keV μm -1. The experiments imply that the most efficient mutagenic part of the depth dose profile of carbon ion is at the plateau region with intermediate LET value in which energy deposited is high enough to induce mutagenic lesions but too low to induce over kill effect in the yeast cells.

  4. Inactive and mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams of different LET values in a red yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jufang, E-mail: jufangwang@impcas.ac.c [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road No. 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Sun Haining; Ma Shuang; Li Renmin; Li Wenjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road No. 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate biological action of microorganism exposed to charged particles during the long distance space exploration, induction of inactivation and mutation in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015 by carbon beams of different LET values (14.9-120.0 keV {mu}m{sup -1}) was investigated. It was found that survival curves were exponential, and mutation curves were linear for all LET values. The dependence of inactivation cross section on LET approached saturation near 120.0 keV {mu}m{sup -1}. The mutation cross section saturated when LET was higher than 58.2 keV {mu}m{sup -1}. Meanwhile, the highest RBE{sub i} for inactivation located at 120.0 keV {mu}m{sup -1} and the highest RBE{sub m} for mutation was at 58.2 keV {mu}m{sup -1}. The experiments imply that the most efficient mutagenic part of the depth dose profile of carbon ion is at the plateau region with intermediate LET value in which energy deposited is high enough to induce mutagenic lesions but too low to induce over kill effect in the yeast cells.

  5. Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. The HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L(-1)) than EC1118 (390 g L(-1)) during alcoholic fermentation, but the concentration equalized during the aging period (424 and 417 g L(-1) respectively). All aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than the EC1118 wines by the panel of tasters after alcoholic fermentation. In general, the HPS wines showed better physicochemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all aging techniques contributed to improve wine quality, but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed the best wine to be obtained, because it depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Yeast strains and methods of use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Matthew Robert; Gardner, Richard Clague; Anfang, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to yeast strains and, in particular, to yeast stains for use in fermentation processes. The invention also relates to methods of fermentation using the yeast strains of the invention either alone or in combination with other yeast strains. The invention thither relates to methods for the selection of yeast strains suitable for fermentation cultures by screening for various metabolic products and the use of specific nutrient sources.

  7. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence of Killer Yeast Strains in Fruit and Berry Wine Yeast Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintare Gulbiniene

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple, cranberry, chokeberry and Lithuanian red grape wine yeast populations were used for the determination of killer yeast occurrence. According to the tests of the killer characteristics and immunity the isolated strains were divided into seven groups. In this work the activity of killer toxins purified from some typical strains was evaluated. The analysed strains produced different amounts of active killer toxin and some of them possessed new industrially significant killer properties. Total dsRNA extractions in 11 killer strains of yeast isolated from spontaneous fermentations revealed that the molecular basis of the killer phenomenon was not only dsRNAs, but also unidentified genetic determinants.

  9. Combine Use of Selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe andLachancea thermotolerans Yeast Strains as an Alternative to theTraditional Malolactic Fermentation in Red Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Benito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most red wines commercialized in the market use the malolactic fermentationprocess in order to ensure stability from a microbiological point of view. In this secondfermentation, malic acid is converted into L-lactic acid under controlled setups. Howeverthis process is not free from possible collateral effects that on some occasions produceoff-flavors, wine quality loss and human health problems. In warm viticulture regions suchas the south of Spain, the risk of suffering a deviation during the malolactic fermentationprocess increases due to the high must pH. This contributes to produce wines with highvolatile acidity and biogenic amine values. This manuscript develops a new red winemakingmethodology that consists of combining the use of two non-Saccharomyces yeast strains asan alternative to the traditional malolactic fermentation. In this method, malic acid is totallyconsumed by Schizosaccharomyces pombe, thus achieving the microbiological stabilizationobjective, while Lachancea thermotolerans produces lactic acid in order not to reduce andeven increase the acidity of wines produced from low acidity musts. This technique reducesthe risks inherent to the malolactic fermentation process when performed in warm regions.The result is more fruity wines that contain less acetic acid and biogenic amines than thetraditional controls that have undergone the classical malolactic fermentation.

  10. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  11. Development of Industrial Yeast Platform Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Dato, Laura; Förster, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Most of the current metabolic engineering projects are carried out using laboratory strains as the starting host. Although such strains are easily manipulated genetically, their robustness does not always meet the requirements set by industrial fermentation conditions. In such conditions, the cells...... screening of the 36 industrial and laboratory yeast strains. In addition, progress in the development of molecular biology methods for generating the new strains will be presented....

  12. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  13. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and α-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  14. Genome sequence of the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula toruloides strain CGMCC 2.1609

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Sambles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotic oleaginous species are yeasts and among them the basidiomycete red yeast, Rhodotorula (Rhodosporidium toruloides (Pucciniomycotina is known to produce high quantities of lipids when grown in nitrogen-limiting media, and has potential for biodiesel production. The genome of the CGMCC 2.1609 strain of this oleaginous red yeast was sequenced using a hybrid of Roche 454 and Illumina technology generating 13× coverage. The de novo assembly was carried out using MIRA and scaffolded using MAQ and BAMBUS. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 365 scaffolds with total genome size of 33.4 Mb. The complete genome sequence of this strain was deposited in GenBank and the accession number is LKER00000000. The annotation is available on Figshare (doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.4754251.

  15. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... ... of these studies, the preferred candidate for industrial production of ethanol ... The yeast strains were isolated using the method of Ameh et al. (1989), on ... gas in the Durham tube during the incubation period. Fermentation ...

  16. Influence of different yeast/lactic acid bacteria combinations on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammacurta, Marine; Marchand, Stéphanie; Moine, Virginie; de Revel, Gilles

    2017-09-01

    The typical fruity aroma of red Bordeaux wines depends on the grape variety but also on microbiological processes, such as alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. These transformations involve respectively the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni. Both species play a central role in red winemaking but their quantitative and qualitative contribution to the revelation of the organoleptic qualities of wine has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of sequential inoculation of different yeast and bacteria strains on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine. All microorganisms completed fermentations and no significant difference was observed between tanks regarding the main oenological parameters until 3 months' aging. Regardless of the yeast strain, B28 bacteria required the shortest period to completely degrade the malic acid, compared to the other strain. Quantification of 73 major components highlighted a specific volatile profile corresponding to each microorganism combination. However, the yeast strain appeared to have a predominant effect on aromatic compound levels, as well as on fruity aroma perception. Yeasts had a greater impact on wine quality and have more influence on the aromatic style of red wine than bacteria. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Picca Nicolino, Martina; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-09-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as 'global transcription machinery engineering' (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  18. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  19. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-04-30

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the beta-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefore be very useful. Our previous experience on the genetic determinants of the release of these molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed us to propose a new methodology to isolate and characterize wine yeast that overproduce mannoproteins. The described methodology is based on the resistance of the killer 9 toxin produced by Williopsis saturnus, a feature linked to an altered biogenesis of the yeast cell wall. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Terroir of yeasts? – Application of FTIR spectroscopy and molecular methods for strain typing of yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The site specific influence on wine (Terroir is an often by wine producers, consumers and scientists discussed topic in the world of wine. A study on grapes and (spontaneous fermentations from six different vineyards was done to investigate the biodiversity of yeasts and to answer the question if there is a terroir of yeast and how it could be influenced. Randomly isolated yeasts were identified by FTIR-spectroscopy and molecular methods on species and strain level. Vineyard specific yeast floras would be observed but they are not such important as expected. Only a few overlapping strain patterns would be identified during both vintages. The yeast flora of the winery had a huge impact on the spontaneous fermentations, but is not really constant and influenced by different factors from outside.

  1. Engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system for multiplex genome engineering of polyploid industrial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiazhang; Bao, Zehua; Hu, Sumeng; Zhao, Huimin

    2018-06-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for multiplex genome engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, its application in manipulating industrial yeast strains is less successful, probably due to the genome complexity and low copy numbers of gRNA expression plasmids. Here we developed an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for industrial yeast strain engineering by using our previously engineered plasmids with increased copy numbers. Four genes in both a diploid strain (Ethanol Red, 8 alleles in total) and a triploid strain (ATCC 4124, 12 alleles in total) were knocked out in a single step with 100% efficiency. This system was used to construct xylose-fermenting, lactate-producing industrial yeast strains, in which ALD6, PHO13, LEU2, and URA3 were disrupted in a single step followed by the introduction of a xylose utilization pathway and a lactate biosynthetic pathway on auxotrophic marker plasmids. The optimized CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a powerful tool for the development of industrial yeast based microbial cell factories. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Xylitol production from colombian native yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isleny Andrea Vanegas Córdoba

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is an alternative sweetener with similar characteristics to sucrose that has become of great interest, due mainly to its safe use in diabetic patients and those deficient in glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Its chemical production is expensive and generates undesirable by-products, whereas biotechnological process, which uses different yeasts genera, is a viable production alternative because it is safer and specific. Colombia has a privilege geographic location and offers a great microbial variety, this can be taken advantage of with academic and commercial goals. Because of this, some native microorganisms with potential to produce xylitol were screened in this work. It were isolated 25 yeasts species, from which was possible to identify 84% by the kit API 20C-AUX. Three yeasts: Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis y C. parapsilosis presented greater capacity to degrade xylose compared to the others, therefore they were selected for the later evaluation of its productive capacity. Discontinuous cellular cultures were developed in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 35°C by 30 hours, using synthetic media with xylose as carbon source. Xylose consumption and xylitol production were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The maximal efficiency were obtained with Candida kefyr and C. tropicalis (Yp/s 0.5 y 0.43 g/g, respectively, using an initial xylose concentration of 20 g/L. Key words: Xylitol, xylose, yeasts, Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis.

  3. Genomics and Biochemistry of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldarov, M A; Kishkovskaia, S A; Tanaschuk, T N; Mardanov, A V

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeasts have been used for millennia for the production of beer, wine, bread, and other fermented products. Long-term "unconscious" selection and domestication led to the selection of hundreds of strains with desired production traits having significant phenotypic and genetic differences from their wild ancestors. This review summarizes the results of recent research in deciphering the genomes of wine Saccharomyces strains, the use of comparative genomics methods to study the mechanisms of yeast genome evolution under conditions of artificial selection, and the use of genomic and postgenomic approaches to identify the molecular nature of the important characteristics of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces. Succinctly, data concerning metagenomics of microbial communities of grapes and wine and the dynamics of yeast and bacterial flora in the course of winemaking is provided. A separate section is devoted to an overview of the physiological, genetic, and biochemical features of sherry yeast strains used to produce biologically aged wines. The goal of the review is to convince the reader of the efficacy of new genomic and postgenomic technologies as tools for developing strategies for targeted selection and creation of new strains using "classical" and modern techniques for improving winemaking technology.

  4. Yeast strains designed for 2. generation bioethanol production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennow, B.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a suitable fermentation organism for 2G bioethanol production that would efficiently ferment all of the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol at a commercially viable rate (comparable to yeast based 1G ethanol production). More specifically, a yeast strain would be developed with the ability to ferment also the pentoses in lignocellulosic biomass and thereby increase the ethanol yield of the process by 30-45% with a profound positive effect on the total process economy. The project has succeeded in developing a new industrial yeast strain V1. The yeast strain can transform the difficult C5 sugars to ethanol from waste products such as straw and the like from the agricultural sector. The classic issues relating to industrial uses such as inhibitor and ethanol tolerance and high ethanol production is resolved satisfactorily. The potential of the use of the new strain for 2nd generation bioethanol production is that the ethanol yields increase by 30-45%. With the increased ethanol yield follows a marked improvement in the overall process economics. (LN)

  5. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of different yeast strains isolated from ripe banana peels to produce ethanol was investigated. Of the 8 isolates screened for their fermentation ability, 5 showed enhanced performance and were subsequently identified and assessed for important ethanol fermentation attributes such as ethanol producing ability, ...

  6. Molecular and biochemical studies of some yeast strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Kluyveromyces lactis (Y.9) and Pichia jadinii (Y.10) contained almost double the amount of total amino ... Differences between ... biochemical analysis (total protein profile and total amino acids) were used as tools to select the best yeast strains in Saudi Arabia and Egypt as a rich source of animal protein.

  7. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abreu-Cavalheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  8. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  9. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid yeast strains capable of raising an extraordinarily broad range of dough types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, S.; Zander, I.; Windisch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Over 200 hybrid yeast strains were screened and 11 of these found to have versatile fermentation characteristics. This paper reports the results obtained with these 11 strains compared with a commercially available strain of baker's yeast used for bread making and marketed as 'instant active dry yeast'. In contrast to bakers yeast, the hybrid strains fermented very well in yeast, hard biscuit, shortcake and heavy cake dough without prior sponge formation. The fermentation kinetics were investigated and the technical potential of such hybrid strains discussed on the basis of the fermentation kinetics.

  11. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR. In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

  12. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  13. Monitoring of Growth and Production Characteristics of Red Yeasts Cultivated on Hydrothermally Pretreated Lignocellulosic Pine Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haronikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the production of carotenes and ergosterol by red yeasts grown on pine lignocellulose substrates. The yeast strains Rhodotorula aurantiaca and Sporobolomyces shibatanus were grown on the liquid fraction of steam pretreated pine (210 °C, catalyst SO2. Biomass production on a pine hydrolysate was lower than on glucose. The highest content of carotenoids and ergosterol in the cells of R. aurantiaca grown on pine hydrolysate was about 1.7 mg g–1 and 0.8 mg g–1 (dwt, respectively, and in S. shibatanus about 0.9 mg g–1 and 0.1 mg g–1, respectively. Hemicellulose hydrolysates may contain many compounds that have inhibitory effects on microorganisms. In this work, the influences of some inhibitors were assessed by cultivating yeasts on media with a representative addition of the selected compounds. From these tests, furfural appears to be the most critical inhibitor, whereas acetic acid and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF do not affect the growth so much.

  14. Control of Native Spoilage Yeast on Dealcoholized Red Wine by Preservatives Alone and in Binary Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rubio, Marta; Guerrouj, Kamal; Taboada-Rodríguez, Amaury; López-Gómez, Antonio; Marín-Iniesta, Fulgencio

    2017-09-01

    In order to preserve a commercial dealcoholized red wine (DRW), a study with 4 preservatives and binary mixtures of them were performed against 2 native spoilage yeasts: Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium metabisulfite and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) were evaluated in DRW stored at 25 °C. MICs of potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulfite were 250 and 60 mg/kg, respectively for both target strains. However for sodium benzoate, differences between yeasts were found; R. mucilaginosa was inhibited at 125 mg/kg, while S. cerevisiae at 250 mg/kg. Regarding MFC, differences between strains were only found for sodium metabisulfite obtaining a MFC of 500 mg/kg for R. mucilaginosa and a MFC of 250 mg/kg for S. cerevisiae. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate showed the MFC at 1000 mg/kg and DMDC at 200 mg/kg. Regarding the effect of binary mixtures the Fractional Fungicidal Concentration Index (FFC i ) methodology showed that binary mixtures of 100 mg/kg DMDC/200 mg/kg potassium sorbate (FFC i = 0.7) and 50 mg/kg DMDC / 400 mg/kg sodium benzoate (FFC i = 0.65) have both synergistic effect against the 2 target strains. These binary mixtures can control the growth of spoilage yeasts in DRW without metabisulfite addition. The results of this work may be important in preserving the health of DRW consumers by eliminating the use of metabisulfite and reducing the risk of growth of R. mucilagosa, recently recognized as an emerging pathogen. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED BIOMASS BY RED YEASTS OF SPOROBOLOMYCES SP. GROWN ON WASTE SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Breierova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and ergosterol are industrially significant metabolites probably involved in yeast stress response mechanisms. Thus, controlled physiological and nutrition stress including use of waste substrates can be used for their enhanced production. In this work two red yeast strains of the genus Sporobolomyces (Sporobolomyces roseus, Sporobolomyces shibatanus were studied. To increase the yield of metabolites at improved biomass production, several types of exogenous as well as nutrition stress were tested. Each strain was cultivated at optimal growth conditions and in medium with modified carbon and nitrogen sources. Synthetic media with addition of complex substrates (e.g. yeast extract and vitamin mixtures as well as some waste materials (whey, apple fibre, wheat, crushed pasta were used as nutrient sources. Peroxide and salt stress were applied too, cells were exposed to oxidative stress (2-10 mM H2O2 and osmotic stress (2-10 % NaCl. During the experiment, growth characteristics and the production of biomass, carotenoids and ergosterol were evaluated. In optimal conditions tested strains substantially differed in biomass as well as metabolite production. S.roseus produced about 50 % of biomass produced by S.shibatanus (8 g/L. Oppositely, production of pigments and ergosterol by S.roseus was 3-4 times higher than in S.shibatanus. S.roseus was able to use most of waste substrates, the best production of ergosterol (8.9 mg/g d.w. and beta-carotene (4.33 mg/g d.w. was obtained in medium with crushed pasta hydrolyzed by mixed enzyme from Phanerochaetae chrysosporium. Regardless very high production of carotenes and ergosterol, S.roseus is probably not suitable for industrial use because of relatively low biomass production.

  16. Induction of pure and sectored mutant clones in excision-proficient and deficient strains of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, F; Haynes, R H

    1977-06-01

    We have found that UV-induced mutation frequency in a forward non-selective assay system (scoring white adex ade2 double auxotroph mutants among the red pigmented ade2 clones) increases linearly with dose up to a maximum frequency of about 3 X 10(-3) mutants per survivor and then declines in both RAD wild-type and rad2 excision deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation frequencies of the RAD and the rad2 strains plotted against survival are nearly identical over the entire survival range. On this basis we conclude that unexcised pyrimidine dimers are the predominant type of pre-mutational lesions in both strains. In the RAD wild-type strain pure mutant clones outnumber sectors in a 10:1 ratio at all doses used; in rad2 this ratio varies from 1:1 at low doses up to 10:1 at high doses. As others have concluded for wild-type strains we find also in the rad2 strain that pure clone formation cannot be accounted for quantitatively by lethal sectoring events alone. We conclude that heteroduplex repair is a crucial step in pure mutant clone formation and we examine the plausibility of certain macromolecular mechanisms according to which heteroduplex repair may be coupled with replication, repair and sister strand exchange in yeast mutagenesis.

  17. Induction of pure and sectored mutant clones in excision-proficient and deficient strains of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, F.; Haynes, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    It was found that UV-induced mutation frequency in a forward non-selective assay system (scoring white adex ade2 double auxotroph mutants among the red pigmented ade2 clones) increases linearly with dose up to a maximum frequency of about 3 x 10 -3 mutants per survivor and then declines in both RAD wild-type and rad2 excision deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation frequencies of the RAD and the rad2 strains plotted against survival are nearly identical over the entire survival range. On this basis it is concluded that unexcised pyrimidine dimers are the predominant type of pre-mutational lesions in both strains. In the RAD wild-type strain pure mutant clones outnumber sectors in a 10:1 ratio at all doses used; in rad2 this ratio varies from 1:1 at low doses up to 10:1 at high doses. In agreement with conclusions of others, it was also found that for wild-type strains in the rad2 strain pure clone formation cannot be accounted for quantitatively by lethal sectoring events alone. It is concluded that heteroduplex repair is a crucial step in pure mutant clone formation and the plausibility of certain macromolecular mechanisms according to which heteroduplex repair may be coupled with replication, repair and sister strand exchange in yeast mutagenesis is examined

  18. New hybrids between Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species found among wine and cider production strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masneuf, I; Hansen, J.; Groth, C

    1998-01-01

    Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel(+) strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene...

  19. Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Farina, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Henschke, Paul A; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of yeast fermentation metabolites to the aromatic profile of wine is well documented; however, the biotechnological application of this knowledge, apart from strain selection, is still rather limited and often contradictory. Understanding and modeling the relationship between nutrient availability and the production of desirable aroma compounds by different strains must be one of the main objectives in the selection of industrial yeasts for the beverage and food industry. In order to overcome the variability in the composition of grape juices, we have used a chemically defined model medium for studying yeast physiological behavior and metabolite production in response to nitrogen supplementation so as to identify an appropriate yeast assimilable nitrogen level for strain differentiation. At low initial nitrogen concentrations, strain KU1 produced higher quantities of esters and fatty acids whereas M522 produced higher concentrations of isoacids, gamma-butyrolactone, higher alcohols and 3-methylthio-1-propanol. We propose that although strains KU1 and M522 have a similar nitrogen consumption profile, they represent useful models for the chemical characterization of wine strains in relation to wine quality. The differential production of aroma compounds by the two strains is discussed in relation to their capacity for nitrogen usage and their impact on winemaking. The results obtained here will help to develop targeted metabolic footprinting methods for the discrimination of industrial yeasts.

  20. Quality parameters and RAPD-PCR differentiation of commercial baker's yeast and hybrid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, Zaki A; Hassan, Gamal M; Emam, Ahmed M

    2012-06-01

    Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a key component in bread baking. Total of 12 commercial baker's yeast and 2 hybrid strains were compared using traditional quality parameters. Total of 5 strains with high leavening power and the 2 hybrid strains were selected and evaluated for their alpha-amylase, maltase, glucoamylase enzymes, and compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results revealed that all selected yeast strains have a low level of alpha-amylase and a high level of maltase and glucoamylase enzymes. Meanwhile, the Egyptian yeast strain (EY) had the highest content of alpha-amylase and maltase enzymes followed by the hybrid YH strain. The EY and YH strains have the highest content of glucoamylase enzyme almost with the same level. The RAPD banding patterns showed a wide variation among commercial yeast and hybrid strains. The closely related Egyptian yeast strains (EY and AL) demonstrated close similarity of their genotypes. The 2 hybrid strains were clustered to Turkish and European strains in 1 group. The authors conclude that the identification of strains and hybrids using RAPD technique was useful in determining their genetic relationship. These results can be useful not only for the basic research, but also for the quality control in baking factories. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Studies on microbiological treatment and utilization of cane molasses distillery wastes. Part 1. Screening of useful yeast strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaki, M.; Takahashi, T.; Ishiguro, K.

    1981-01-01

    Cane molasses distillation slops were used as substrate for the cultivation of 203 strains of yeast. Most yeast strains, especially Hansenula, Debaryomyces, and Rhodotorula, assimilated the molasses distillation wastes. Yeast cell dry weight reached 0.9 grams/100 mL, and yeasts removed greater than 30% of the COD of the waste material.

  2. Strain induced anomalous red shift in mesoscopic iron oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano magnetic oxides; red shift; magnetic storage. ... size and strain induced modifications of various physical properties viz. optical, magnetic and structural. ... ∼2, are synthesized by employing starch and ethylene glycol and starch and ...

  3. Strain induced anomalous red shift in mesoscopic iron oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    pared to spherical ones. The red shift is attributed to strain induced changes in internal pressure inside the ..... Shape control can also induce anisotropy and thus modify the coercivity of these ... ppines: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company).

  4. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation......, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. RESULTS: Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same....... These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). CONCLUSION: Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2...

  5. Study on the IAA (Indole acetic acid) Productivity of Soil Yeast Strain Isolats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Nwe Soe Hlaing; Swe Zin Yu; San San Yu

    2011-12-01

    Twelve isolated soil yeast were tested in IAA production in peptone yeast glucose broth (PYG). All strains were screened for the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing activity in PYG broth supplemented with or without L-Tryptophan (L-TRP) as precusor. IAA production was assayed calorimetrically using Salkowski's reagent. The concentration of IAA produced by yeast strains was measured by spectrophotometric method at 530nm. Y6 strain was the highest IAA producer (79ppm) at 9 days incubation period without tryptophan. Y3, Y10 and Y12 strains that were incubated without L-TRP also had the higher ability in the production of IAA than other yeast isolates. The selected yeasts having high IAA production activity were characterized by morphological study and biochemical tests including sugar assimilation and fermentation tests.

  6. Phenotypic evaluation and characterization of 21 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, In Iok; Turner, Timothy Lee; Kim, Heejin; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-02-01

    Microorganisms have been studied and used extensively to produce value-added fuels and chemicals. Yeasts, specifically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, receive industrial attention because of their well-known ability to ferment glucose and produce ethanol. Thousands of natural or genetically modified S. cerevisiae have been found in industrial environments for various purposes. These industrial strains are isolated from industrial fermentation sites, and they are considered as potential host strains for superior fermentation processes. In many cases, industrial yeast strains have higher thermotolerance, increased resistances towards fermentation inhibitors and increased glucose fermentation rates under anaerobic conditions when compared with laboratory yeast strains. Despite the advantages of industrial strains, they are often not well characterized. Through screening and phenotypic characterization of commercially available industrial yeast strains, industrial fermentation processes requiring specific environmental conditions may be able to select an ideal starting yeast strain to be further engineered. Here, we have characterized and compared 21 industrial S. cerevisiae strains under multiple conditions, including their tolerance to varying pH conditions, resistance to fermentation inhibitors, sporulation efficiency and ability to ferment lignocellulosic sugars. These data may be useful for the selection of a parental strain for specific biotechnological applications of engineered yeast. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  8. Biofortification of folates in white wheat bread by selection of yeast strain and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortmo, Sofia; Patring, Johan; Jastrebova, Jelena; Andlid, Thomas

    2008-09-30

    We here demonstrate that folate content in yeast fermented food can be dramatically increased by using a proper (i) yeast strain and (ii) cultivation procedure for the selected strain prior to food fermentation. Folate levels were 3 to 5-fold higher in white wheat bread leavened with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CBS7764, cultured in defined medium and harvested in the respiro-fermentative phase of growth prior to dough preparation (135-139 microg/100 dry matter), compared to white wheat bread leavened with commercial Baker's yeast (27-43 microg/100 g). The commercial Baker's yeast strain had been industrially produced, using a fed-batch process, thereafter compressed and stored in the refrigerator until bakings were initiated. This strategy is an attractive alternative to fortification of bread with synthetically produced folic acid. By using a high folate producing strain cultured a suitable way folate levels obtained were in accordance with folic acid content in fortified cereal products.

  9. Using Microsatellites to Identify Yeast Strains in Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Bruke, Alexandria; Van Brocklin, Jennifer; Rivest, Jason; Prenni, Jessica E.; Ibrahim, Hend

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an integral part of the brewing process and is responsible for much of the taste and characteristics of beer. During the brewing process, yeast is subject to ageing and stress factors that can result in growth inhibition, decreased genetic stability, and changes in cell membrane stability. Characterization of yeast species used in industrial fermentation (e.g. S. cerevisiae) is of great importance to the brewing industry. The objective of this study was to develop an assay to identif...

  10. Selection of yeast starter culture strains for the production of marula fruit wines and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundira, M; Blom, M; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2002-03-13

    Juice of the Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (marula) fruit was fermented by indigenous microflora and different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains at different temperatures, namely, 15 and 30 degrees C. Volatile acids, esters, and higher alcohols were quantified in the wine and distillates, and the results were interpreted using a multivariate analysis of variance and an average linkage cluster analysis. Significant differences between 15 and 30 degrees C and also among yeasts with respect to volatile compounds were observed. Yeast strains VIN7 and FC consistently produced wines and final distillates significantly different from the other strains. A panel of tasters and marula and brandy producers was asked to select wines and distillates that had an acceptable and typical marula "nose". They were also asked to detect the differences among wines and distillates fermented with the same yeast strain at different temperatures.

  11. Isolation and molecular identification of yeast strains from “Rabilé” a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and molecular identification of yeast strains from “Rabilé” a starter of local fermented drink. Ibrahim Keita, Marius K Somda, Aly Savadogo, Iliassou Mogmenga, Ousmane Koita, Alfred S Traore ...

  12. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today’s diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria. PMID:27776154

  13. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria.

  14. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aslankoohi

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  17. Study of the role of the covalently linked cell wall protein (Ccw14p) and yeast glycoprotein (Ygp1p) within biofilm formation in a flor yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, J; Coi, A L; Zara, G; García-Martínez, T; Mauricio, J C; Budroni, M

    2018-03-01

    Flor yeasts are Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains noted by their ability to create a type of biofilm in the air-liquid interface of some wines, known as 'flor' or 'velum', for which certain proteins play an essential role. Following a proteomic study of a flor yeast strain, we deleted the CCW14 (covalently linked cell wall protein) and YGP1 (yeast glycoprotein) genes-codifying for two cell surface glycoproteins-in a haploid flor yeast strain and we reported that both influence the weight of the biofilm as well as cell adherence (CCW14).

  18. Brewing characteristics of haploid strains isolated from sake yeast Kyokai No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2008-11-01

    Sake yeast exhibit various characteristics that make them more suitable for sake brewing compared to other yeast strains. Since sake yeast strains are Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterothallic diploid strains, it is likely that they have heterozygous alleles on homologous chromosomes (heterozygosity) due to spontaneous mutations. If this is the case, segregation of phenotypic traits in haploid strains after sporulation and concomitant meiosis of sake yeast strains would be expected to occur. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 100 haploid strains from Kyokai No. 7 (K7), a typical sake yeast strain in Japan, and compared their brewing characteristics in small-scale sake-brewing tests. Analyses of the resultant sake samples showed a smooth and continuous distribution of analytical values for brewing characteristics, suggesting that K7 has multiple heterozygosities that affect brewing characteristics and that these heterozygous alleles do segregate after sporulation. Correlation and principal component analyses suggested that the analytical parameters could be classified into two groups, indicating fermentation ability and sake flavour. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. New Lager Brewery Strains Obtained by Crossing Techniques Using Cachaça (Brazilian Spirit) Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bruna Inez Carvalho; Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; de Souza Pimenta, Paloma Patrick; de Souza Testasicca, Miriam Conceição; Sampaio, Geraldo Magela Santos; da Cunha, Aureliano Claret; Afonso, Luis Carlos Crocco; Vieira de Queiroz, Marisa; de Miranda Castro, Ieso

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of hybrids has been an effective approach to generate novel yeast strains with optimal technological profile for use in beer production. This study describes the generation of a new yeast strain for lager beer production by direct mating between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from cachaça distilleries: one that was strongly flocculent, and the other with higher production of acetate esters. The first step in this procedure was to analyze the sporulation ability and reproductive cycle of strains belonging to a specific collection of yeasts isolated from cachaça fermentation vats. Most strains showed high rates of sporulation, spore viability, and homothallic behavior. In order to obtain new yeast strains with desirable properties useful for lager beer production, we compare haploid-to-haploid and diploid-to-diploid mating procedures. Moreover, an assessment of parental phenotype traits showed that the segregant diploid C2-1d generated from a diploid-to-diploid mating experiment showed good fermentation performance at low temperature, high flocculation capacity, and desirable production of acetate esters that was significantly better than that of one type lager strain. Therefore, strain C2-1d might be an important candidate for the production of lager beer, with distinct fruit traces and originating using a non-genetically modified organism (GMO) approach. IMPORTANCE Recent work has suggested the utilization of hybridization techniques for the generation of novel non-genetically modified brewing yeast strains with combined properties not commonly found in a unique yeast strain. We have observed remarkable traits, especially low temperature tolerance, maltotriose utilization, flocculation ability, and production of volatile aroma compounds, among a collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from cachaça distilleries, which allow their utilization in the production of beer. The significance of our research is in

  20. Relationship of trehalose accumulation with ethanol fermentation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Mei; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Chi, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ou; Qian, Chao-Dong; Liu, Tian-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Du, Feng-Guang; Sun, Pei-Yong; Qu, Ai-Min; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect and the mechanisms of trehalose accumulation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated during ethanol fermentation. The engineered strains with more intercellular trehalose achieved significantly higher fermentation rates and ethanol yields than their wild strain ZS during very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, while their performances were not different during regular fermentation. The VHG fermentation performances of these strains were consistent with their growth capacity under osmotic stress and ethanol stress, the key stress factors during VHG fermentation. These results suggest that trehalose accumulation is more important for VHG fermentation of industrial yeast strains than regular one. The differences in membrane integrity and antioxidative capacity of these strains indicated the possible mechanisms of trehalose as a protectant under VHG condition. Therefore, trehalose metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving the VHG fermentation performance of industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection of yeast strains for the production of alcohol from lactoserum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laham-Guillaume, M; Moulin, G; Galzy, P

    1979-01-01

    Five of 11 yeast strains tested fermented 85 g lactose/L to approximately 5% EtOH. Four of these strains, Candida pseudotropicalis CBS 19384 and IP 513, and Kluyveromyces fragilis CBS 397, and CBS 5795, anaerobically fermented deproteinized whey to EtOH.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Yeast Strains Isolated from Different Sources by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. S.; Latif, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Various molecular techniques like analysis of the amplified rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS), intragenic spacers and total ITS region analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) has been introduced for yeast identification but there are limited databases to identify yeast species on the basis of 5.8S rDNA. In this study, twenty nine yeast strains from various sources including spoiled fruits, vegetables, foodstuffs, and concentrated juices were characterized by PCR-RFLP. PCR-RFLP has been used to characterize yeasts present in different spoiled food samples after isolation of the yeasts. By using this technique, the isolated yeast strains were characterized by direct 5.8S-ITS rDNA region amplification. RFLP analysis was applied to each of the amplification products (varied from 400bp to 800bp) detected, and the corresponding yeast identifications were made according to each specific restriction patterns obtained after treatment with two endonucleases TaqI and HaeIII which yielded a specific banding pattern for each species. For further confirmation amplified products of eleven selected isolates were sequenced and blast on NCBI. Both RFLP and sequence analyses of the strains with accession nos. KF472163, KF472164, KF472165, KF472166, KF472167, KF472168, KF472169, KF472170, KF472171, KF472172, KF472173 gave significantly similar results. The isolates were found to belong five different yeast species including; Candida spp., Pichia spp., Kluyveromyces spp., Clavispora spp. and Hanseniaspora spp. This method provides a fast, easy, reliable and authentic way for determining yeast population present in different type of samples, as compared to traditional characterization technique. (author)

  3. A molecular imprinted SPR biosensor for sensitive determination of citrinin in red yeast rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Necip; Eren, Tanju; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi

    2015-10-01

    A novel and sensitive molecular imprinted surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was developed for selective determination of citrinin (CIT) in red yeast rice. Firstly, the gold surface of SPR chip was modified with allyl mercaptane. Then, CIT-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methacryloylamidoglutamic acid) (p(HEMA-MAGA)) film was generated on the gold surface modified with allyl mercaptane. The unmodified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The linearity range and the detection limit were obtained as 0.005-1.0 ng/mL and 0.0017 ng/mL, respectively. The SPR biosensor was applied to determination of CIT in red yeast rice sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and molecular genetic characterization of a yeast strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yeast was identified by molecular genetics technique based on sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. Subsequent 26S rRNA gene sequencing showed 100% base sequence homology and it was identified as Candida viswanathii. The degradation of PAHs

  5. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  6. Influence of red wine fermentation oenological additives on inoculated strain implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Filomena L; Alves, Ana Claudia; Alemão, Maria Filomena; Baleiras-Couto, M Margarida

    2013-06-01

    Pure selected cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae starters are regularly used in the wine industry. A survey of S. cerevisiae populations during red wine fermentations was performed in order to evaluate the influence of oenological additives on the implantation of the inoculated strain. Pilot scale fermentations (500 L) were conducted with active dry yeast (ADY) and other commercial oenological additives, namely two commercial fermentation activators and two commercial tannins. Six microsatellite markers were used to type S. cerevisiae strains. The methodology proved to be very discriminating as a great diversity of wild strains (48 genotypes) was detected. Statistical analysis confirmed a high detection of the inoculated commercial strain, and for half the samples an effective implantation of ADY (over 80 %) was achieved. At late fermentation time, ADY strain implantation in fermentations conducted with commercial additives was lower than in the control. These results question the efficacy of ADY addition in the presence of other additives, indicating that further studies are needed to improve knowledge on oenological additives' use.

  7. Sorption Isotherm Modelling Of Fermented Cassava Flour by Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, M. N.; Alfiah, M. N.; Hartini, S.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the characteristic of moisture sorption isotherm from fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice using various modeling. This research used seven salt solutions and storage temperature of 298K, 303K, and 308K. The models used were Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Caurie model. The monolayer moisture content was around 4.51 – 5.99% db. Constant related to absorption heat in the multilayer area of [GAB model was around 0.86-0,91. Constant related to absorption heat in the monolayer area of GAB model was around 4.67-5.97. Constant related to absorption heat in the monolayer area of BET model was around 4.83-7.04. Caurie constant was around 1.25-1.59. The equilibrium and monolayer moisture content on fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice was decreasing as increasing temperature. GAB constant value indicated that the process of moisture absorption on the fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice categorized in type II.

  8. Selection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains for reducing alcohol levels in wine by sugar respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Manuel; Rojas, Virginia; Gonzalez, Ramon; Morales, Pilar

    2014-07-02

    Respiration of sugars by non-Saccharomyces yeasts has been recently proposed for lowering alcohol levels in wine. Development of industrial fermentation processes based on such an approach requires, amongst other steps, the identification of yeast strains which are able to grow and respire under the relatively harsh conditions found in grape must. This work describes the characterization of a collection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in order to identify candidate yeast strains for this specific application. It involved the estimation of respiratory quotient (RQ) values under aerated conditions, at low pH and high sugar concentrations, calculation of yields of ethanol and other relevant metabolites, and characterization of growth responses to the main stress factors found during the first stages of alcoholic fermentation. Physiological features of some strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima or two species of Kluyveromyces, suggest they are suitable for lowering ethanol yields by respiration. The unsuitability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for this purpose was not due to ethanol yields (under aerated conditions they are low enough for a significant reduction in final ethanol content), but to the high acetic acid yields under these growth conditions. According to results from controlled aeration fermentations with one strain of M. pulcherrima, design of an aeration regime allowing for lowering ethanol yields though preserving grape must components from excessive oxidation, would be conceivable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Different commercial yeast strains affecting the volatile and sensory profile of cava base wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Jordi; Urpí, Pilar; Riu-Aumatell, Montserrat; Vichi, Stefania; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

    2008-05-10

    36 semi-industrial fermentations were carried out with 6 different yeast strains in order to assess differences in the wines' chemical and volatile profile. Two of the tested strains (Y3 and Y6) showed the fastest fermentation rates throughout 3 harvests and on 2 grape varieties. The wines fermented by three of the tested strains (Y5, Y3 and Y4) stand out for their high amounts of esters and possessed the highest fruity character. Wines from strains producing low amounts of esters and high concentrations of medium chain fatty acids, higher alcohols and six-carbon alcohols were the least appreciated at the sensory analysis. The data obtained in the present study show how the yeast strain quantitatively affects the final chemical and volatile composition of cava base wines and have repercussions on their sensory profile, independently of must variety and harvest year.

  10. Enhancement of carotenoids and lipids production by oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Manowattana, Atchara

    2018-01-02

    Bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol into carotenoids and lipids was investigated by a microbial conversion of an oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507. The methanol content in crude glycerol (0.5%, w/v) did not show a significant effect on biomass production by strain KM281507. However, demethanolized crude glycerol significantly supported the production of biomass (8.64 ± 0.13 g/L), lipids (2.92 ± 0.03 g/L), β-carotene (15.76 ± 0.85 mg/L), and total carotenoids (33.67 ± 1.28 mg/L). The optimal conditions suggested by central composite design were crude glycerol concentration (55.04 g/L), initial pH of medium (pH 5.63) and cultivation temperature (24.01°C). Under these conditions, the production of biomass, lipids, β-carotene, and total carotenoids were elevated up to 8.83 ± 0.05, 4.00 ± 0.06 g/L, 27.41 ± 0.20, and 53.70 ± 0.48 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, an addition of olive oil (0.5 - 2.0%) dramatically increased the production of biomass (14.47 ± 0.15 g/L), lipids (6.40 ± 0.09 g/L), β-carotene (54.43 ± 0.95 mg/L), and total carotenoids (70.92 ± 0.51 mg/L). The oleic acid content in lipids was also increased to 75.1% (w/w) of total fatty acids, indicating a good potential to be an alternative biodiesel feedstock. Meanwhile, the β-carotene content in total carotenoids was increased to 76.7% (w/w). Hence, strain KM281507 could be a good potential source of renewable biodiesel feedstock and natural carotenoids.

  11. Use of non-saccharomyces Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains in winemaking and brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataridis Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected Saccharomyces yeast strains have been used for more than 150 years in brewing and for several decades in winemaking. They are necessary in brewing because of the boiling of the wort, which results in the death of all yeast cells, with the exception of some Belgian style beers (ex. Lambic, where the wort is left to be colonized by indigenous yeast and bacteria from the environment and ferment naturally. In winemaking their use is also pertinent because they provide regular and timely fermentations, inhibit the growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms and contribute to the desired sensory characters. Even though the use of selected Saccharomyces strains provides better quality assurance in winemaking in comparison to the unknown microbial consortia in the must, it has been debated for a long time now whether the use of selected industrial Saccharomyces strains results in wines with less sensory complexity and “terroir” character. In previous decades, non-Saccharomyces yeasts were mainly considered as spoilage/problematic yeast, since they exhibited low fermentation ability and other negative traits. In the last decades experiments have shown that there are some non-Saccharomyces strains (Candida, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Torulaspora, etc which, even though they are not able to complete the fermentation they can still be used in sequential inoculation-fermentation with Saccharomyces to increase sensory complexity of the wines. Through fermentation in a laboratory scale, we have observed that the overall effects of selected Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains, is highly positive, leading to products with pronounced sensory complexity and floral/fruity aroma in winemaking and brewing.

  12. Comparison of DNA-based techniques for differentiation of production strains of ale and lager brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecká, J; Němec, M; Matoulková, D

    2016-06-01

    Brewing yeasts are classified into two species-Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the brewing yeast strains are natural interspecies hybrids typically polyploids and their identification is thus often difficult giving heterogenous results according to the method used. We performed genetic characterization of a set of the brewing yeast strains coming from several yeast culture collections by combination of various DNA-based techniques. The aim of this study was to select a method for species-specific identification of yeast and discrimination of yeast strains according to their technological classification. A group of 40 yeast strains were characterized using PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS-5·8S, NTS, HIS4 and COX2 genes, multiplex PCR, RAPD-PCR of genomic DNA, mtDNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Reliable differentiation of yeast to the species level was achieved by PCR-RFLP of HIS4 gene. Numerical analysis of the obtained RAPD-fingerprints and karyotype revealed species-specific clustering corresponding with the technological classification of the strains. Taxonomic position and partial hybrid nature of strains were verified by multiplex PCR. Differentiation among species using the PCR-RFLP of ITS-5·8S and NTS region was shown to be unreliable. Karyotyping and RFLP of mitochondrial DNA evinced small inaccuracies in strain categorization. PCR-RFLP of HIS4 gene and RAPD-PCR of genomic DNA are reliable and suitable methods for fast identification of yeast strains. RAPD-PCR with primer 21 is a fast and reliable method applicable for differentiation of brewing yeasts with only 35% similarity of fingerprint profile between the two main technological groups (ale and lager) of brewing strains. It was proved that PCR-RFLP method of HIS4 gene enables precise discrimination among three technologically important Saccharomyces species. Differentiation of brewing yeast to the strain level can be achieved using the RAPD-PCR technique. © 2016 The

  13. Whole-Genome Analysis of Three Yeast Strains Used for Production of Sherry-Like Wines Revealed Genetic Traits Specific to Flor Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldarov, Mikhail A.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Tanashchuk, Tatiana N.; Kishkovskaya, Svetlana A.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Mardanov, Andrey V.

    2018-01-01

    Flor yeast strains represent a specialized group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts used for biological wine aging. We have sequenced the genomes of three flor strains originated from different geographic regions and used for production of sherry-like wines in Russia. According to the obtained phylogeny of 118 yeast strains, flor strains form very tight cluster adjacent to the main wine clade. SNP analysis versus available genomes of wine and flor strains revealed 2,270 genetic variants in 1,337 loci specific to flor strains. Gene ontology analysis in combination with gene content evaluation revealed a complex landscape of possibly adaptive genetic changes in flor yeast, related to genes associated with cell morphology, mitotic cell cycle, ion homeostasis, DNA repair, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Pangenomic analysis discovered the presence of several well-known “non-reference” loci of potential industrial importance. Events of gene loss included deletions of asparaginase genes, maltose utilization locus, and FRE-FIT locus involved in iron transport. The latter in combination with a flor-yeast-specific mutation in the Aft1 transcription factor gene is likely to be responsible for the discovered phenotype of increased iron sensitivity and improved iron uptake of analyzed strains. Expansion of the coding region of the FLO11 flocullin gene and alteration of the balance between members of the FLO gene family are likely to positively affect the well-known propensity of flor strains for velum formation. Our study provides new insights in the nature of genetic variation in flor yeast strains and demonstrates that different adaptive properties of flor yeast strains could have evolved through different mechanisms of genetic variation. PMID:29867869

  14. Relationship between ethanol and oxidative stress in laboratory and brewing yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleoanca, Iulia; Silva, Ana Rita Courelas; Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Menezes, Regina de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Ethanol is a chemical stress factor that inhibits cellular growth and determines metabolic changes leading to reduction of cell viability during fermentation and yeast storage. To determine the effect of time, temperature and ethanol during storage of brewing yeasts we have monitored viability of cells stored for 72 h, at 6 °C or 12 °C, in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Under the conditions tested, 6 °C is the most favourable temperature to store brewing yeast creams emphasizing the importance of a tight temperature control in the storage vessels. Because W210 is less resistant to storage in the presence of ethanol than W34/70, the optimal storage parameters obtained under our laboratory conditions vary significantly. The ale strain is sensitive to storage under ethanol concentrations higher than 5% (v/v) for more than 48 h at 6 °C whereas at the same temperature the lager strain tolerates ethanol up to 7.5% (v/v) for 72 h. Also, the viability assays indicate that the antioxidant protein Yap1 is an important factor to storage resistance of BY4741 laboratory strain. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance of brewing yeast strains to ethanol, we have performed phenotypic analysis, localization studies and have monitored the activation of antioxidant and protection genes as well as the intracellular contents of glycogen and trehalose. Overall, our data suggest that the ale strain W210 has a defective antioxidant defence system and that ethanol may induce the antioxidant defences as well as glycogen and trehalose protection mechanisms in laboratory and brewing yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of menadione and hydrogen peroxide on catalase activity in Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda EFREMOVA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been studied the possibility of utilization of two important oxidant factors as regulators of catalase activity in Saccharomyces yeasts. In this paper results of the screening of some Saccharomyces yeast strains for potential producers of catalase are presented. Results of the screening for potential catalase producer have revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 strain possesses the highest catalase activity (2900 U/mg protein compared with other samples. Maximum increase of catalase activity with 50-60% compared to the reference sample was established in the case of hydrogen peroxide and menadione utilization in optimal concentrations of 15 and 10 mM. This research has been demonstrated the potential benefits of application of hydrogen peroxide and menadione as stimulatory factors of catalase activity in Saccharomyces yeasts.

  16. Effect of yeast strain and some nutritional factors on tannin composition and potential astringency of model wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Aponte, Maria; Moio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, isolated from different sources, were tested for their ability to reduce tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, and potentially responsible for wine astringency. Strains were preliminary genetically characterized and evaluated for physiological features of technological interest. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed in three synthetic media: CT) containing enological grape tannin; CTP) CT supplemented with organic nitrogen sources; CTPV) CTP supplemented with vitamins. Adsorption of total tannins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, yellow pigments, phenolics having antioxidant activity, and total phenols, characterizing the enological tannin, was determined by spectrophotometric methods after fermentation. The presence of vitamins and peptones in musts greatly influenced the adsorption of tannins reactive towards salivary proteins (4.24 g/L gallic acid equivalent), thus promoting the reduction of the potential astringency of model wines. With reference to the different phenolic classes, yeast strains showed different adsorption abilities. From a technological point of view, the yeast choice proved to be crucial in determining changes in gustative and mouthfeel profile of red wines and may assist winemakers to modulate colour and astringency of wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  18. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.; Daran, J.G.; Pronk, J.T.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical

  19. Genomic Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAW-6, a Yeast Strain Optimal for Brewing Barley Shochu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Higuchi, Yujiro; Takegawa, Kaoru; Takashita, Hideharu

    2018-04-05

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BAW-6, which is used for the production of barley shochu, a traditional Japanese spirit. This genomic information can be used to elucidate the genetic basis underlying the high alcohol production capacity and citric acid tolerance of shochu yeast. Copyright © 2018 Kajiwara et al.

  20. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  1. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of Saccharomyces strains on the quality of red wines aged on lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loira, I; Vejarano, R; Morata, A; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M; Laureano, O; González, M C; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2013-08-15

    Ageing on lees involves ageing the wine in contact with yeast cells after fermentation. If combined with the addition of oak chips, it can soften the wood flavour and increase the aromatic complexity of wine. The aim of the present work is to optimise both ageing techniques through selection of an adequate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The study lasted 6 months and content of polysaccharides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, volatile compounds, colour parameters and sensory analysis, were periodically evaluated. Among the strains tested, G37 showed the highest release of polysaccharides (24.4±5.5 mg l(-1)). Vanillin, syringaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol increased with ageing time in 7VA2 treatment. The wine aged with CTPL14 strain presented fewer monomeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (12.4±0.6 and 83.4±8.3 mg l(-1), respectively), and showed the lowest astringency and bitterness sensations. Results show an improvement in the sensory profile of the red wine aged with a combination of these two techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptional Regulation and the Diversification of Metabolism in Wine Yeast Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Debra; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F.

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors and their binding sites have been proposed as primary targets of evolutionary adaptation because changes to single transcription factors can lead to far-reaching changes in gene expression patterns. Nevertheless, there is very little concrete evidence for such evolutionary changes. Industrial wine yeast strains, of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are a geno- and phenotypically diverse group of organisms that have adapted to the ecological niches of industrial winemaking environments and have been selected to produce specific styles of wine. Variation in transcriptional regulation among wine yeast strains may be responsible for many of the observed differences and specific adaptations to different fermentative conditions in the context of commercial winemaking. We analyzed gene expression profiles of wine yeast strains to assess the impact of transcription factor expression on metabolic networks. The data provide new insights into the molecular basis of variations in gene expression in industrial strains and their consequent effects on metabolic networks important to wine fermentation. We show that the metabolic phenotype of a strain can be shifted in a relatively predictable manner by changing expression levels of individual transcription factors, opening opportunities to modify transcription networks to achieve desirable outcomes. PMID:22042577

  4. Hyphal-like extension and pseudohyphal formation in industrial strains of yeasts induced by isoamyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccato-Antonini Sandra Regina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts can produce pseudohyphae and hyphal-like extensions under certain growth conditions like isoamyl alcohol (IAA induction, a chief constituent of fusel oil, which is a subproduct from the ethanolic fermentation. The morphology switch from yeast to a filamentous form can be troublesome to the process. In this work it was studied the influence of fusel alcohols, nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate and leucine and glifosate (a chemical maturator for sugar cane added to a complex medium on some industrial strains of yeasts isolated from the fermentative process. Two industrial strains showed transition to hyphal-like extensions or pseudohyphae (clusters of cells upon addition of IAA from 0.3 to 0.9% /v. The alterations were reversible when the yeasts were reinoculated in YEPD without IAA. Although pseudohyphae are a result of nitrogen-limited medium, we observed them as a result of IAA addition. No influence of the nitrogen source or isopropilic alcohol or glifosate was detected for any strain studied in the concentrations used.

  5. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

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    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  6. Improving yeast strains using recyclable integration cassettes, for the production of plant terpenoids

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    Johnson Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terpenoids constitute a large family of natural products, attracting commercial interest for a variety of uses as flavours, fragrances, drugs and alternative fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers a versatile cell factory, as the precursors of terpenoid biosynthesis are naturally synthesized by the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Results S. cerevisiae wild type yeast cells, selected for their capacity to produce high sterol levels were targeted for improvement aiming to increase production. Recyclable integration cassettes were developed which enable the unlimited sequential integration of desirable genetic elements (promoters, genes, termination sequence at any desired locus in the yeast genome. The approach was applied on the yeast sterol biosynthetic pathway genes HMG2, ERG20 and IDI1 resulting in several-fold increase in plant monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The improved strains were robust and could sustain high terpenoid production levels for an extended period. Simultaneous plasmid-driven co-expression of IDI1 and the HMG2 (K6R variant, in the improved strain background, maximized monoterpene production levels. Expression of two terpene synthase enzymes from the sage species Salvia fruticosa and S. pomifera (SfCinS1, SpP330 in the modified yeast cells identified a range of terpenoids which are also present in the plant essential oils. Co-expression of the putative interacting protein HSP90 with cineole synthase 1 (SfCinS1 also improved production levels, pointing to an additional means to improve production. Conclusions Using the developed molecular tools, new yeast strains were generated with increased capacity to produce plant terpenoids. The approach taken and the durability of the strains allow successive rounds of improvement to maximize yields.

  7. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Robert; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T

    2018-04-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci. Recent studies indicate that phenotypic trade-offs, which are often observed after evolution under constant conditions, can be mitigated by using dynamic cultivation regimes. Advances in research on synthetic regulatory circuits offer exciting possibilities to extend the applicability of evolutionary engineering to products of yeasts whose synthesis requires a net input of cellular energy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A set of haploid strains available for genetic studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, Anna Lisa; Legras, Jean-Luc; Zara, Giacomo; Dequin, Sylvie; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-09-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied for biofilm formation, however the lack of specific haploid model strains has limited the application of genetic approaches such as gene knockout, allelic replacement and Quantitative Trait Locus mapping for the deciphering of the molecular basis of velum formation under biological ageing. The aim of this work was to construct a set of flor isogenic haploid strains easy to manipulate genetically. The analysis of the allelic variations at 12 minisatellite loci of 174 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains allowed identifying three flor parental strains with different phylogenic positions. These strains were characterized for sporulation efficiency, growth on galactose, adherence to polystyrene, agar invasion, growth on wine and ability to develop a biofilm. Interestingly, the inability to grow on galactose was found associated with a frameshift in GAL4 gene that seems peculiar of flor strains. From these wild flor strains, isogenic haploid strains were constructed by deleting HO gene with a loxP-KanMX-loxP cassette followed by the removal of the kanamycin cassette. Haploid strains obtained were characterized for their phenotypic and genetic properties and compared with the parental strains. Preliminary results showed that the haploid strains represent new tools for genetic studies and breeding programs on biofilm formation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Influence of yeast strain, priming solution and temperature on beer bottle conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Ombretta; Rossi, Serena; Galgano, Fernanda; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of microbreweries. Usually, craft beers are bottle conditioned; however, few studies have investigated beer refermentation. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different experimental conditions, specifically yeast strain, priming solution and temperature, on the standard quality attributes, the volatile compounds and the sensory profile of the bottle-conditioned beer. The other aim was to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds and amino acids consumption throughout the refermentation process to check if it is possible to reduce the time necessary for bottle conditioning. The results indicate that the volatile profile was mainly influenced by the strain of yeast, and this may have obscured the possible impacts of the other parameters. Our results also confirm that the two yeast strains showed different metabolic activity, particularly with respect to esters production. Moreover, we found the Safbrew S-33® strain when primed with Siromix® and refermented at 30 °C yielded the fastest formation of higher alcohols while maintaining low production of off-flavours. These results suggest a formulation that may reduce the time needed for bottle conditioning without affecting the quality of the final beer which may simultaneously improve efficiency and economic profits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Yeast strains role on the sulphur dioxyde combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four industrial and indigenous yeast strains on the sulphur dioxide combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes is studied in different growth of the Sauternes area and one growth in the Jurançon area. The analysis of ketonic compounds (pyruvic acid and 2-oxo-glutaric acid, acetaldehyde and PC50 on the wines clearly showed significant statistical difference between the yeast strains for the sulphur dioxide combination. By adding the same dosage of sulphiting, the free SO2 levels are variable depending on the yeast strain used. One strain (Zymaflore ST, isolated from a spontaneous fermentation of a botrytised must, giving wines with low PC50 values, is well adapted for the noble rot must vinification. The choice of the yeast strain is a parameter of importance to limit the sulphur dioxide amount in the wines.

  11. Biomass production by Antarctic yeast strains: an investigation on the lipid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatanov, M.; Antova, G.; Angelova-Romova, M.; Pavlova, K.; Georgieva, K.; Rousenova-Videva, S.

    2010-01-01

    Psychrophilic yeast strains Rhodotorula glutinis AL_1_0_7, Sporobolomyces roseus AL_1_0_8, Cryptococcus albidus AL_5_5, Cryptococcus laurentii AL_5_6 and Cryptococcus laurentii AL_5_8 isolated from soil sample taken from the region of the Bulgarien base on Livingston Island, Antarctica, were studied. The biomass production was followed after cultivation of the yeasts in a medium with pH 5.3 at 15°C for 120 h. The biomass concentration by psychrophilic yeast strains was: R. glutinis AL_1_0_7-6.05 g/l, S. roseus AL108-5.78 g/l, Cr. albidus AL_5_5, Cr. laurentii AL_5_6 and Cr. laurentii AL_5_8-6.52 g/l, 6.84 g/l and 6.24 g/l, respectively. The extracted and separated lipids from the samples were supplied to analysis and the compositions of fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols as well as tocopherols were determined. Unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic (58.6-63.5%) and of saturated palmitic (18.2-24.5%), predominated in triacylglycerols. Sterols (0.1-0.3%) were valued in the dry yeast biomass. The content of phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositole and phosphatidylethanolamine was found to be in the range of 0.2-1.6%. The quantity of tocopherols was 0-26.3 mg/kg. All of tocopherol classes were established.

  12. Pyruvate Decarboxylase Activity Assay in situ of Different Industrial Yeast Strains

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    Dorota Kręgiel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1 is one of the key enzymes of yeast fermentative metabolism. PDC is the first enzyme which, under anaerobic conditions, leads to decarboxylation of pyruvate with acetaldehyde as the end product. The aim of this study is to develop a suitable method for PDC activity assay in situ for different industrial yeast strains. Saccharomyces sp. and Debaryomyces sp. yeast strains grew in fermentative medium with 12 % of glucose. Enzymatic assay was conducted in cell suspension treated with digitonin as permeabilisation agent, and with sodium pyruvate as a substrate, at temperature of 30 °C. Metabolites of PDC pathway were detected using gas chromatographic (GC technique. Various parameters like type and molar concentration of the substrate, minimal effective mass fraction of digitonin, cell concentration, reaction time and effect of pyrazole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor were monitored to optimize PDC enzymatic assay in situ. In the concentration range of yeast cells from 1⋅10^7 to 1⋅10^8 per mL, linear correlation between the produced acetaldehyde and cell density was noticed. Only pyruvate was the specific substrate for pyruvate decarboxylase. In the presence of 0.05 M sodium pyruvate and 0.05 % digitonin, the enzymatic reaction was linear up to 20 min of the assay. During incubation, there was no formation of ethanol and, therefore, pyrazole was not necessary for the assay.

  13. Differential Proteome Analysis of a Flor Yeast Strain under Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Jaime; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2017-03-28

    Several Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (flor yeasts) form a biofilm (flor velum) on the surface of Sherry wines after fermentation, when glucose is depleted. This flor velum is fundamental to biological aging of these particular wines. In this study, we identify abundant proteins in the formation of the biofilm of an industrial flor yeast strain. A database search to enrich flor yeast "biological process" and "cellular component" according to Gene Ontology Terminology (GO Terms) and, "pathways" was carried out. The most abundant proteins detected were largely involved in respiration, translation, stress damage prevention and repair, amino acid metabolism (glycine, isoleucine, leucine and arginine), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and biosynthesis of vitamin B9 (folate). These proteins were located in cellular components as in the peroxisome, mitochondria, vacuole, cell wall and extracellular region; being these two last directly related with the flor formation. Proteins like Bgl2p, Gcv3p, Hyp2p, Mdh1p, Suc2p and Ygp1p were quantified in very high levels. This study reveals some expected processes and provides new and important information for the design of conditions and genetic constructions of flor yeasts for improving the cellular survival and, thus, to optimize biological aging of Sherry wine production.

  14. Key role of lipid management in nitrogen and aroma metabolism in an evolved wine yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sanchez, Isabelle; Camarasa, Carole; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie

    2016-02-09

    Fermentative aromas play a key role in the organoleptic profile of young wines. Their production depends both on yeast strain and fermentation conditions. A present-day trend in the wine industry consists in developing new strains with aromatic properties using adaptive evolution approaches. An evolved strain, Affinity™ ECA5, overproducing esters, was recently obtained. In this study, dynamics of nitrogen consumption and of the fermentative aroma synthesis of the evolved and its ancestral strains were compared and coupled with a transcriptomic analysis approach to better understand the metabolic reshaping of Affinity™ ECA5. Nitrogen assimilation was different between the two strains, particularly amino acids transported by carriers regulated by nitrogen catabolite repression. We also observed differences in the kinetics of fermentative aroma production, especially in the bioconversion of higher alcohols into acetate esters. Finally, transcriptomic data showed that the enhanced bioconversion into acetate esters by the evolved strain was associated with the repression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis rather than an enhanced expression of ATF1 and ATF2 (genes coding for the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of acetate esters from higher alcohols). An integrated approach to yeast metabolism-combining transcriptomic analyses and online monitoring data-showed differences between the two strains at different levels. Differences in nitrogen source consumption were observed suggesting modifications of NCR in the evolved strain. Moreover, the evolved strain showed a different way of managing the lipid source, which notably affected the production of acetate esters, likely because of a greater availability of acetyl-CoA for the evolved strain.

  15. Integrative Expression of Glucoamylase Gene in a Brewer’s Yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Strain

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    Guangyi Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain was constructed byintroducing the ilv2:GLA fragment released from pMGI6, carrying glucoamylase gene (GLA and using the yeast α-acetolactate synthase gene (ILV2 as the recombination sequence. The strain was able to utilise starch as the sole carbon source, its glucoamylase activity was 6.3 U/mL and its α-acetolactate synthase activity was lowered by 33.3 %. The introduced GLA gene was integrated at the recipient genomic ILV2 gene, one copy of ILV2 gene was disrupted and the other copy remained intact. Primary wort fermentation test confirmed that the diacetyl and residual sugar concentration in the wort fermented by the recombinant strain were reduced by 65.6 and 34.2 % respectively, compared to that of the recipient strain. Under industrial operating conditions, the maturation time of beer fermented by the recombinant strain was reduced from 7 to 4 days, there were no significant differences in the appearance and mouthfeel, and the beer satisfied the high quality demands. That is why the strain could be used in beer production safely.

  16. Ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by a recombinant xylose- and cellooligosaccharide-assimilating yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Satoshi; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Div. of Molecular Science; Mizuike, Atsuko; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2006-10-15

    The sulfuric acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood chips, from the forest industry is an important material for fuel bioethanol production. In this study, we constructed a recombinant yeast strain that can ferment xylose and cellooligosaccharides by integrating genes for the intercellular expressions of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis, and xylulokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a gene for displaying ss-glucosidase from Aspergillus acleatus on the cell surface. In the fermentation of the sulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips, xylose and cellooligosaccharides were completely fermented after 36 h by the recombinant strain, and then about 30 g/l ethanol was produced from 73 g/l total sugar added at the beginning. In this case, the ethanol yield of this recombinant yeast was much higher than that of the control yeast. These results demonstrate that the fermentation of the lignocellulose hydrolysate is performed efficiently by the recombinant Saccharomyces strain with abilities for xylose assimilation and cellooligosaccharide degradation. (orig.)

  17. Enhancing adhesion of yeast brewery strains to chamotte carriers through aminosilane surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    The adhesion of cells to solid supports is described as surface-dependent, being largely determined by the properties of the surface. In this study, ceramic surfaces modified using different organosilanes were tested for proadhesive properties using industrial brewery yeast strains in different physiological states. Eight brewing strains were tested: bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus and top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To determine adhesion efficiency light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and the fluorymetric method were used. Modification of chamotte carriers by 3-(3-anino-2-hydroxy-1-propoxy) propyldimethoxysilane and 3-(N, N-dimethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium propyldimethoxysilane groups increased their biomass load significantly.

  18. Melanin production by a yeast strain XJ5-1 of Aureobasidium melanogenum isolated from the Taklimakan desert and its role in the yeast survival in stress environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhe; Wang, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Ly-Ly; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The yeast strain XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert soil was identified to be a strain of Aureobasdium melanogenum and could produce a large amount of melanin when it was grown in the PDA medium, but its melanin biosynthesis and expression of the PKS gene responsible for the melanin biosynthesis was significantly repressed in the presence of (NH4)2SO4. However, A. melanogenum P5 strain isolated from a mangrove ecosystem grown in both the presence and the absence of (NH4)2SO4 did not produce any melanin. The cell size of A. melanogenum XJ5-1 strain was much higher than that of A. melanogenum P5 strain. The melanized cells of the yeast strain XJ5-1 had higher tolerance to UV radiation, oxidation (200.0 mM H2O2), heat treatment (40 °C), salt shock (200.0 g/L NaCl), desiccation and strong acid hydrolysis (6.0 M HCl) at high temperature (80 °C) than the non-melanized cells of the same yeast strain XJ5-1. At the same time, the melanized cells of the yeast strain XJ5-1 also had higher tolerance to UV radiation, oxidation (200.0 mM H2O2), desiccation and strong acid hydrolysis (6.0 M HCl) at high temperature (80 °C) than A. melanogenum P5 strain, but had similar resistance to heat treatment (40 °C) and salt shock (200.0 g/L NaCl) compared to those of A. melanogenum P5 strain. All the results revealed that many characteristics of A. melanogenum XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert soil was different from those of A. melanogenum P5 strain isolated from the mangrove ecosystem.

  19. Filtration, haze and foam characteristics of fermented wort mediated by yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Meneses, F J; Jiranek, V

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the choice of yeast strain on the haze, shelf life, filterability and foam quality characteristics of fermented products. Twelve strains were used to ferment a chemically defined wort and hopped ale or stout wort. Fermented products were assessed for foam using the Rudin apparatus, and filterability and haze characteristics using the European Brewing Convention methods, to reveal differences in these parameters as a consequence of the choice of yeast strain and growth medium. Under the conditions used, the choice of strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae effecting the primary fermentation has an impact on all of the parameters investigated, most notably when the fermentation medium is devoid of macromolecular material. The filtration of fermented products has a large cost implication for many brewers and wine makers, and the haze of the resulting filtrate is a key quality criterion. Also of importance to the quality of beer and some wines is the foaming and head retention of these beverages. The foam characteristics, filterability and potential for haze formation in a fermented product have long been known to be dependant on the raw materials used, as well as other production parameters. The choice of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain used to ferment has itself been shown here to influence these parameters.

  20. Adaptive mutations in sugar metabolism restore growth on glucose in a pyruvate decarboxylase negative yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Guodong; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying deletions in all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes (also called Pdc negative yeast) represents a non-ethanol producing platform strain for the production of pyruvate derived biochemicals. However, it cannot grow on glucose as the sole...... DNA sequencing. Among these genetic changes, 4 genes were found to carry point mutations in at least two of the evolved strains: MTH1 encoding a negative regulator of the glucose-sensing signal transduction pathway, HXT2 encoding a hexose transporter, CIT1 encoding a mitochondrial citrate synthase...... further increased the maximum specific growth rate to 0.069 h-1. Conclusions: In this study, possible evolving mechanisms of Pdc negative strains on glucose were investigated by genome sequencing and reverse engineering. The non-synonymous mutations in MTH1 alleviated the glucose repression by repressing...

  1. Nitrogen requirements of commercial wine yeast strains during fermentation of a synthetic grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Chiva, Rosana; Sancho, Marta; Beltran, Gemma; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. Currently, the most common method for dealing with nitrogen-deficient fermentations is adding supplementary nitrogen (usually ammonium phosphate). However, it is important to know the specific nitrogen requirement of each strain, to avoid excessive addition that can lead to microbial instability and ethyl carbamate accumulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen concentrations of three different nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance in four industrial wine yeast strains. This task was carried out using statistical modeling techniques. The strains PDM and RVA showed higher growth-rate and maximum population size and consumed nitrogen much more quickly than strains ARM and TTA. Likewise, the strains PDM and RVA were also the greatest nitrogen demanders. Thus, we can conclude that these differences in nitrogen demand positively correlated with higher growth rate and higher nitrogen uptake rate. The most direct effect of employing an adequate nitrogen concentration is the increase in biomass, which involves a higher fermentation rate. However, the impact of nitrogen on fermentation rate is not exclusively due to the increase in biomass because the strain TTA, which showed the worst growth behavior, had the best fermentation activity. Some strains may adapt a strategy whereby fewer cells with higher metabolic activity are produced. Regarding the nitrogen source used, all the strains showed the better and worse fermentation performance with arginine and ammonium, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel strategy to construct yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Tao

    Full Text Available Very high gravity (VHG fermentation is aimed to considerably increase both the fermentation rate and the ethanol concentration, thereby reducing capital costs and the risk of bacterial contamination. This process results in critical issues, such as adverse stress factors (ie., osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition and high concentrations of metabolic byproducts which are difficult to overcome by a single breeding method. In the present paper, a novel strategy that combines metabolic engineering and genome shuffling to circumvent these limitations and improve the bioethanol production performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under VHG conditions was developed. First, in strain Z5, which performed better than other widely used industrial strains, the gene GPD2 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was deleted, resulting in a mutant (Z5ΔGPD2 with a lower glycerol yield and poor ethanol productivity. Second, strain Z5ΔGPD2 was subjected to three rounds of genome shuffling to improve its VHG fermentation performance, and the best performing strain SZ3-1 was obtained. Results showed that strain SZ3-1 not only produced less glycerol, but also increased the ethanol yield by up to 8% compared with the parent strain Z5. Further analysis suggested that the improved ethanol yield in strain SZ3-1 was mainly contributed by the enhanced ethanol tolerance of the strain. The differences in ethanol tolerance between strains Z5 and SZ3-1 were closely associated with the cell membrane fatty acid compositions and intracellular trehalose concentrations. Finally, genome rearrangements in the optimized strain were confirmed by karyotype analysis. Hence, a combination of genome shuffling and metabolic engineering is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of yeast strains for desirable industrial phenotypes.

  3. Functional food red yeast rice (RYR) for metabolic syndrome amelioration: a review on pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2016-05-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), the fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus has been an integral part of Oriental food and traditional Chinese medicine, long before the discovery of their medicinal roles. With the identification of bioactive components as polyketide pigments (statins), and unsaturated fatty acids, RYR has gained a nutraceutical status. Hypercholesterolemic effect of this fermented compound has been validated and monacolin K has been recognized as the pivotal component in cholesterol alleviation. Functional similarity with commercial drug lovastatin sans the side effects has catapulted its popularity in other parts of the world as well. Apart from the hypotensive role, ameliorative benefits of RYR as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and osteogenic agent have emerged, fueling intense research on it. Mechanistic studies have revealed their interaction with functional agents like coenzyme Q10, astaxanthin, vitamin D, folic acid, policosanol, and berberine. On the other hand, concurrence of mycotoxin citrinin and variable content of statin has marred its integration in mainstream medication. In this disputable scenario, evaluation of the scopes and lacunae to overcome seems to contribute to an eminent area of healthcare. Red yeast rice (RYR), the rice-based fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus is a functional food. Its bioactive component monacolin K acts like synthetic drug lovastatin, without the severe side effects of the latter. RYR has been validated to lower cholesterol, control high blood pressure; confer anti-flammation, hypoglycaemic, anticancer and osteogenic properties. However, dose inconsistency and co-occurrence of toxin citrinin hampers its dietary supplementation prospect. Further research might facilitate development of RYR as a nutraceutical.

  4. Extracellular Phytase Production by the Wine Yeast S. cerevisiae (Finarome Strain) during Submerged Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid; Jankowiak, Oliwia

    2018-04-08

    One of the key steps in the production of phytases of microbial origin is selection of culture parameters, followed by isolation of the enzyme and evaluation of its catalytic activity. It was found that conditions for S. cerevisiae yeast culture, strain Finarome, giving the reduction in phytic acid concentration of more than 98% within 24 h of incubation were as follows: pH 5.5, 32 °C, continuous stirring at 80 rpm, the use of mannose as a carbon source and aspartic acid as a source of nitrogen. The highest catalytic activity of the isolated phytase was observed at 37 °C, pH 4.0 and using phytate as substrate at concentration of 5.0 mM. The presence of ethanol in the medium at a concentration of 12% v / v reduces the catalytic activity to above 60%. Properties of phytase derived from S. cerevisiae yeast culture, strain Finarome, indicate the possibility of its application in the form of a cell's free crude protein isolate for the hydrolysis of phytic acid to improve the efficiency of alcoholic fermentation processes. Our results also suggest a possibility to use the strain under study to obtain a fusant derived with specialized distillery strains, capable of carrying out a highly efficient fermentation process combined with the utilization of phytates.

  5. Evaluation of the Components Released by Wine Yeast Strains on Protein Haze Formation in White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristine Giese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of 23 indigenous yeast strains (22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a non-Saccharomyces, Torulaspora delbrueckii, isolated from fermentation tanks at wineries in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain, and were performed under winemaking conditions using a synthetic must. Polysaccharide analysis and turbidity assays were conducted so as to observe the capacity of the released mannoproteins against protein haze formation in white wine, and 3 strains (2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii were chosen for further experiments. The action of a commercial b-glucanolytic enzyme preparation (Lallzyme BETA®, and a β-(1→3-glucanase preparation from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were evaluated to release polysaccharides from the different yeast strains’ cell walls. Protection against protein haze formation was strain dependent, and only two strains (Sc2 and Sc4 presented >50% stabilization in comparison to controls. Addition of β-glucanases did not increase the concentrations of polysaccharides in the fermentation musts; however, a significant increase of polymeric mannose (mannoproteins was detected using an enzymatic assay following total acid hydrolysis of the soluble polysaccharides. Enzymatic treatment presented positive effects and decreased protein haze formation in white wine. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i6.869

  6. Hsp12p and PAU genes are involved in ecological interactions between natural yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Damaríz; Berná, Luisa; Stefanini, Irene; Baruffini, Enrico; Bergerat, Agnes; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2015-08-01

    The coexistence of different yeasts in a single vineyard raises the question on how they communicate and why slow growers are not competed out. Genetically modified laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are extensively used to investigate ecological interactions, but little is known about the genes regulating cooperation and competition in ecologically relevant settings. Here, we present evidences of Hsp12p-dependent altruistic and contact-dependent competitive interactions between two natural yeast isolates. Hsp12p is released during cell death for public benefit by a fast-growing strain that also produces a killer toxin to inhibit growth of a slow grower that can enjoy the benefits of released Hsp12p. We also show that the protein Pau5p is essential in the defense against the killer effect. Our results demonstrate that the combined action of Hsp12p, Pau5p and a killer toxin is sufficient to steer a yeast community. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification of yeast strains isolated from marcha in Sikkim, a microbial starter for amylolytic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Naoko; Fudou, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Kozaki, Michio; Tamang, Namrata; Thapa, Saroj; Tamang, Jyoti P

    2005-03-15

    Marcha or murcha is a traditional amylolytic starter used to produce sweet-sour alcoholic drinks, commonly called jaanr in the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet (China). The aim of this study was to examine the microflora of marcha collected from Sikkim in India, focusing on yeast flora and their roles. Twenty yeast strains were isolated from six samples of marcha and identified by genetic and phenotypic methods. They were first classified into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV) based on physiological features using an API test. Phylogenetic, morphological, and physiological characterization identified the isolates as Saccharomyces bayanus (Group I); Candida glabrata (Group II); Pichia anomala (Group III); and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Saccharomycopsis capsularis, and Pichia burtonii (Group IV). Among them, the Group I, II, and III strains produced ethanol. The isolates of Group IV had high amylolytic activity. Because all marcha samples tested contained both starch degraders and ethanol producers, it was hypothesized that all four groups of yeast (Group I, II, III, and IV) contribute to starch-based alcohol fermentation.

  8. Substrate-Limited Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Allow Control of Fermentation during Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-04-26

    Identification and use of yeast strains that are unable to consume one or more otherwise fermentable substrate types could allow a more controlled fermentation process with more flexibility regarding fermentation times. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different capacities to consume substrates present in wheat were selected to investigate the impact of substrate limitation on dough fermentation and final bread volume. Results show that fermentation of dough with maltose-negative strains relies on the presence of fructan and sucrose as fermentable substrates and can be used for regular bread making. Levels of fructan and sucrose, endogenously present or added, hence determine the extent of fermentation and timing at the proofing stage. Whole meal is inherently more suitable for substrate-limited fermentation than white flour due to the presence of higher native levels of these substrates. Bread making protocols with long fermentation times are accommodated by addition of substrates such as sucrose.

  9. Investigation of Antibacterial Properties of Yeast Strains Isolated from Iranian Richal and Traditional Dairy Products in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:The use of bio preservative or strains as sources are interesting for food bioprocessing technologist,   and is one of the latest methods to increase the shelf life of food by the health authorities . The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of supernatants of yeasts isolated from Richal as a traditional dairy product and fermented dairy products in Armenia. Methods: In the present experimental study, the purified supernatant of 77 strains of Armenian yeast products and 12 strains from Iranian Richal were isolated. The purified supernatant were tested against three strains as food spoilages bacteria includes: B. subtilis 17-89, B. Thuringensis17-89, S.typhimuium G-38 , on 3media in 2 condition as aerobic and anaerobic. The inhibition zone of the supernatant were measured   and reported as antibacterial activity. Data were analyzed using statistical tests. Result: A total of 89 strains of yeasts, three species of Rachel and 9 strains of Armenian products (13.5% percent had demonstrated antibacterial activity. T86 strains of Armenian yeasts and FA1 (25 of Rachel had shown more ZOI and antibacterial activity on three media at both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Comparing the mean of ZOI upon three corruption factors, Rachel strains were significantly different (p <0.05. The highest and lowest effect was observed on Bacillus subtilis effect and Salmonella typhimurium respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the yeast strains isolated in anaerobic and aerobic conditions on spoilage bacteria had antibacterial activity effect. Thus, it could be concluded that adding the yeast or its supernatant to food as a bio preservative, may introduce a operative product to the food industry.

  10. Glycerol production by Oenococcus oeni during sequential and simultaneous cultures with wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Cesar E; Farías, Marta E; Strasser de Saad, Ana M; Pasteris, Sergio E

    2014-07-01

    Growth and fermentation patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kloeckera apiculata, and Oenococcus oeni strains cultured in grape juice medium were studied. In pure, sequential and simultaneous cultures, the strains reached the stationary growth phase between 2 and 3 days. Pure and mixed K. apiculata and S. cerevisiae cultures used mainly glucose, producing ethanol, organic acids, and 4.0 and 0.1 mM glycerol, respectively. In sequential cultures, O. oeni achieved about 1 log unit at 3 days using mainly fructose and L-malic acid. Highest sugars consumption was detected in K. apiculata supernatants, lactic acid being the major end-product. 8.0 mM glycerol was found in 6-day culture supernatants. In simultaneous cultures, total sugars and L-malic acid were used at 3 days and 98% of ethanol and glycerol were detected. This study represents the first report of the population dynamics and metabolic behavior of yeasts and O. oeni in sequential and simultaneous cultures and contributes to the selection of indigenous strains to design starter cultures for winemaking, also considering the inclusion of K. apiculata. The sequential inoculation of yeasts and O. oeni would enhance glycerol production, which confers desirable organoleptic characteristics to wines, while organic acids levels would not affect their sensory profile. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

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    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  12. Comparison of the proteomes of three yeast wild type strains: CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Mose Larsen, P.; Blomberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Yeast deletion strains created during gene function analysis projects very often show drastic phenotypic differences depending on the genetic background used. These results indicate the existence of important molecular differences between the CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 wild type strains...

  13. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-07-21

    A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥ 40 °C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40 °C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3 °C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34 °C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49 °C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass

  14. Selection of Yeast Strains for Tequila Fermentation Based on Growth Dynamics in Combined Fructose and Ethanol Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete-Tapia, J A; Miranda-Castilleja, D E; Arvizu-Medrano, S M; Hernández-Iturriaga, M

    2018-02-01

    The high concentration of fructose in agave juice has been associated with reduced ethanol tolerance of commercial yeasts used for tequila production and low fermentation yields. The selection of autochthonous strains, which are better adapted to agave juice, could improve the process. In this study, a 2-step selection process of yeasts isolated from spontaneous fermentations for tequila production was carried out based on analysis of the growth dynamics in combined conditions of high fructose and ethanol. First, yeast isolates (605) were screened to identify strains tolerant to high fructose (20%) and to ethanol (10%), yielding 89 isolates able to grow in both conditions. From the 89 isolates, the growth curves under 8 treatments of combined fructose (from 20% to 5%) and ethanol (from 0% to 10%) were obtained, and the kinetic parameters were analyzed with principal component analysis and k-means clustering. The resulting yeast strain groups corresponded to the fast, medium and slow growers. A second clustering of only the fast growers led to the selection of 3 Saccharomyces strains (199, 230, 231) that were able to grow rapidly in 4 out of the 8 conditions evaluated. This methodology differentiated strains phenotypically and could be further used for strain selection in other processes. A method to select yeast strains for fermentation taking into account the natural differences of yeast isolates. This methodology is based on the cell exposition to combinations of sugar and ethanol, which are the most important stress factors in fermentation. This strategy will help to identify the most tolerant strain that could improve ethanol yield and reduce fermentation time. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Influence of the Addition of Riboflavin in Culture Medium on Delivering Biomass Using Yeast Strains of Saccharomyces Carlsbengensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nicoară

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts requirements for growth factors should be considered both in terms of ability to summarize the simpleaverage and the dependence on external supplies. Vitamins are components of coenzymes or enzymes prostheticgroups and thus they are growth factors for yeast. The study concerns about the influence of the addition ofriboflavin in culture medium in different quantities, the accumulation of yeast biomass under the action of yeaststrains of beer. The process of cultivation has been made for 24 hours at a temperature of 220C. The addition ofriboflavin in culture medium of yeast biomass increased in each strain of yeast compared with the witness - thesample without added riboflavin. Biomass obtained by follow this procedure could be used to create new foodproducts with high ration nutritional value.

  16. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40°C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses...... in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures....... In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance...

  17. Metabolomics-based prediction models of yeast strains for screening of metabolites contributing to ethanol stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Z.; Fukusaki, E.

    2016-06-01

    The increased demand for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources has driven the development of various microbial systems to produce biofuels. One of such systems is the ethanol-producing yeast. Although yeast produces ethanol naturally using its native pathways, production yield is low and requires improvement for commercial biofuel production. Moreover, ethanol is toxic to yeast and thus ethanol tolerance should be improved to further enhance ethanol production. In this study, we employed metabolomics-based strategy using 30 single-gene deleted yeast strains to construct multivariate models for ethanol tolerance and screen metabolites that relate to ethanol sensitivity/tolerance. The information obtained from this study can be used as an input for strain improvement via metabolic engineering.

  18. Coordinated Evolution of Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation for Mitochondrial Functions in Yeast Strains.

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    Xuepeng Sun

    Full Text Available Evolution of gene regulation has been proposed to play an important role in environmental adaptation. Exploring mechanisms underlying coordinated evolutionary changes at various levels of gene regulation could shed new light on how organism adapt in nature. In this study, we focused on regulatory differences between a laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4742 and a pathogenic S. cerevisiae strain, YJM789. The two strains diverge in many features, including growth rate, morphology, high temperature tolerance, and pathogenicity. Our RNA-Seq and ribosomal footprint profiling data showed that gene expression differences are pervasive, and genes functioning in mitochondria are mostly divergent between the two strains at both transcriptional and translational levels. Combining functional genomics data from other yeast strains, we further demonstrated that significant divergence of expression for genes functioning in the electron transport chain (ETC was likely caused by differential expression of a transcriptional factor, HAP4, and that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by an RNA-binding protein, PUF3, likely led to expression divergence for genes involved in mitochondrial translation. We also explored mito-nuclear interactions via mitochondrial DNA replacement between strains. Although the two mitochondrial genomes harbor substantial sequence divergence, neither growth nor gene expression were affected by mitochondrial DNA replacement in both fermentative and respiratory growth media, indicating compatible mitochondrial and nuclear genomes between these two strains in the tested conditions. Collectively, we used mitochondrial functions as an example to demonstrate for the first time that evolution at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels could lead to coordinated regulatory changes underlying strain specific functional variations.

  19. Quantitative Genome-Wide Analysis of Yeast Deletion Strain Sensitivities to Oxidative and Chemical Stress

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    Stanley Fields

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the actions of drugs and toxins in a cell is of critical importance to medicine, yet many of the molecular events involved in chemical resistance are relatively uncharacterized. In order to identify the cellular processes and pathways targeted by chemicals, we took advantage of the haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains (Winzeler et al., 1999. Although ~4800 of the strains are viable, the loss of a gene in a pathway affected by a drug can lead to a synthetic lethal effect in which the combination of a deletion and a normally sublethal dose of a chemical results in loss of viability. WE carried out genome-wide screens to determine quantitative sensitivities of the deletion set to four chemicals: hydrogen peroxide, menadione, ibuprofen and mefloquine. Hydrogen peroxide and menadione induce oxidative stress in the cell, whereas ibuprofen and mefloquine are toxic to yeast by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the sensitivities of 659 deletion strains that are sensitive to one or more of these four compounds, including 163 multichemicalsensitive strains, 394 strains specific to hydrogen peroxide and/or menadione, 47 specific to ibuprofen and 55 specific to mefloquine.We correlate these results with data from other large-scale studies to yield novel insights into cellular function.

  20. Fermentation of biomass sugars to ethanol using native industrial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dawei; Rao, Kripa; Relue, Patricia; Varanasi, Sasidhar

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of a technology for fermenting sugar mixtures representative of cellulosic biomass hydrolyzates with native industrial yeast strains is demonstrated. This paper explores the isomerization of xylose to xylulose using a bi-layered enzyme pellet system capable of sustaining a micro-environmental pH gradient. This ability allows for considerable flexibility in conducting the isomerization and fermentation steps. With this method, the isomerization and fermentation could be conducted sequentially, in fed-batch, or simultaneously to maximize utilization of both C5 and C6 sugars and ethanol yield. This system takes advantage of a pH-dependent complexation of xylulose with a supplemented additive to achieve up to 86% isomerization of xylose at fermentation conditions. Commercially-proven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from the corn-ethanol industry were used and shown to be very effective in implementation of the technology for ethanol production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative behaviour of yeast strains for ethanolic fermentation of culled apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, D R; Garg, S K; Johri, B N

    1998-07-01

    The culled apple juice contained (% w/v): nitrogen, 0.036; total sugars, 11.6 and was of pH 3.9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3284, Pichia kluyeri and Candida krusei produced more ethanol from culled apple juice at its optimum initial pH 4.5, whereas S. cerevisiae NCIM 3316 did so at pH 5.0. An increase in sugar concentration of apple juice from natural 11.6% to 20% exhibited enhanced ethanol production and improved fermentation efficiency of both the S. cerevisiae strains, whereas P. kluyveri and C. krusei produced high ethanol at 11.6% and 16.0% sugar levels, respectively. Urea was stimulatory for ethanol production as well as fermentation efficiency of the yeast strains under study.

  2. The gene dosage effect of the rad52 mutation on X-ray survival curves of tetraploid yeast strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The mutation rad52 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers sensitivity to X-rays. The gene dosage effect of this mutation on X-ray survival curves of tetraploid yeast strains is shown. With increasing number of rad52 alleles, both a decrease in the survival for a given dose and a decrease in the survival curve shoulder width are observed. The generation of such a family of survival curves using three different mathematical models is discussed

  3. Ultraviolet-induced reversion of cyc1 alleles in radiation-sensitive strains of yeast. III. rev 3 mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.W.; Crhistensen, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The role of rev3 gene function in uv-induced mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been examined by determining the reversion of 12 well-defined cyc1 mutations in diploid strains homozygous for the rev3-1 or rev3-3 allale. The 12 cyc1 alleles include one ochre, one amber, four initiation, two proline missense, and four frameshift mutations. We find that the rev3 mutations reduce the frequency of UV-induced reversion of all of the cyc1 alleles, though different classes of alleles respond to a different extent. These results imply that the rev3 gene function is required for the production of a wide variety of mutational events, though probably not all, and show that each of the three rev loci have different mutational phenotypes. Such diverse phenotypes are not predicted by the unitary model for bacterial mutagenes, suggesting that this is at best an incomplete description of eukaryotic mutagenesis

  4. Influence of the use of selected and non-selected yeasts in red wine production

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    Daniela Dorneles

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae selected varieties in the elaboration of Terci red wine from Colombo. The winemaking method followed the classic red wine vinification system and the samples were analyzed according to the official table wine methods. The assays performed showed differences mainly over volatile acids, acetaldehyde, esters and methanol contents, confirming that the use of selected yeasts contributed on improving the wine quality.Dentre os diferentes tipos de vinho, o vinho proveniente de Vitis labrusca ainda é o mais consumido no Brasil. Seu preparo em pequenas vinícolas envolve antigas tradições que acarretam características indesejáveis e imprevisíveis à bebida. Em Colombo (Paraná, Brasil são cultivados anualmente 130 hectares de videiras, produzindo 1300 toneladas de uvas comuns do gênero Vitis labrusca e 800.000 L/ano de vinho artesanal de mesa, sem nenhum procedimento padronizado, como o uso de leveduras selvagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência do uso de variedades selecionadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae na elaboração de vinho tinto com uva Terci, proveniente do município de Colombo. A técnica de preparo dos vinhos seguiu o sistema clássico de vinificação para vinhos tintos e as amostras foram analisadas de acordo com os métodos oficiais. Os resultados demonstraram diferenças nas amostras, principalmente em relação aos teores de acidez volátil, acetaldeído, ésteres e metanol, comprovando que com a utilização de leveduras selecionadas contribui para melhorar os parâmetros de qualidade e padronização do vinho.

  5. Yeast Autolysis in Sparkling Wine Aging: Use of Killer and Sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains in Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Silvia Jane; De Leonardis, Antonella; Lustrato, Giuseppe; Testa, Bruno; Iorizzo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Sparkling wines produced by traditional method owe their characteristics to secondary fermentation and maturation that occur during a slow ageing in bottles. Yeast autolysis plays an important role during the sparkling wine aging. Using a combination of killer and sensitive yeasts is possible to accelerate yeast autolysis and reduce maturing time. killer and sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, separately and in co-cultures, were inoculated in base wine and bottled on pilot-plant scale. Commercial Saccaromyces bayanus strain was also investigated. Protein free amino acid and polysaccharides contents and sensory analysis were determined on the wine samples at 3, 6 and 9 months of aging. Yeast autolysis that occurs during the production of sparkling wines, obtained with co-cultures of killer and sensitive strains, has influenced free amino acids, total protein and polysaccharides content after 3 months aging time: sparkling wines, produced without the use of these yeasts, have reached the same results only after 9 months aging time. These results demonstrate that killer and sensitive yeasts in co-culture can accelerate the onset of autolysis in enological conditions, and has a positive effect on the quality of the aroma and flavor of sparkling wine. This paper offers an interesting biotechnological method to reduce production time of sparkling wine with economical benefits for the producers. We revised all patents relating to sparkling wine considering only those of interest for our study.

  6. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice promotes bone formation

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    Rabie Bakr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu, i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

  7. Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

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    Hendrik Pollmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise pathway engineering by integration of three microbial genes into the genome and finally the chemical reduction of the resulting 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4,4’-diketo-β-carotene and 4-keto-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4-monoketo-β-carotene. Both keto carotenoids and the resulting 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’,3’,4’-hexahydroxy-β-carotene and 4-hydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’3’-pentahydroxy-β-carotene were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Their molecular masses and fragmentation patterns allowed the unequivocal identification of all four carotenoids.

  8. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

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    Michael Lentz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  9. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces ' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus . These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p -coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  10. A sensitive molecularly imprinted polymer based quartz crystal microbalance nanosensor for selective determination of lovastatin in red yeast rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Tanju; Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2015-10-15

    Lovastatin (LOV) is a statin, used to lower cholesterol which has been found as a hypolipidemic agent in commercial red yeast rice. In present study, a sensitive molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was prepared by fabricating a self-assembling monolayer formation of allylmercaptane on QCM chip surface for selective determination of lovastatin (LOV) in red yeast rice. To prepare molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, LOV imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methacryloylamidoaspartic acid) [p(HEMA-MAAsp)] nanofilm was attached on the modified gold surface of QCM chip. The non-modified and improved surfaces were characterized by using contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The imprinted QCM sensor was validated according to the ICH guideline (International Conference on Harmonisation). The linearity range was obtained as 0.10-1.25 nM. The detection limit of the prepared material was calculated as 0.030 nM. The developed QCM nanosensor was successfully used to examine red yeast rice. Furthermore, the stability and repeatability of the prepared QCM nanosensor were studied. The spectacular long-term stability and repeatability of the prepared LOV-imprinted QCM nanosensor make them intriguing for use in QCM sensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy metabolism after U.V.-irradiation in a sensitive yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Stationary-phase cells of an excision-repair deficient diploid yeast (strain 2094) were UV-irradiated at exposures of up to 440 erg mm -2 and then resuspended in fresh medium. Measurements of energy metabolism per cell at periods of up to 6 hours after irradiation showed that cellular respiration was increased for all doses tested from about 3 hours after exposure, whereas fermentation did not start before about 2 hours after irradiation, never significantly exceeded control values and was markedly inhibited by the higher doses. The results suggest that respiration is under nuclear control, since a mutation in one gene is thought to be the only difference between this strain and the wild-type. The D 0 value of about 360 erg mm -2 found for the relative cellular fermentation at 2 hours after irradiation was used to give an estimate of the size of the structural gene involved, of about 3000 nucleotides, or a protein with 1000 amino-acid residues, compatible with the molecular weight of alcohol dehydrogenase. Fermentation can therefore be inhibited in this sensitive strain by lesions in the structural gene of a key enzyme. Since respiration was increased even more in repair-deficient than in repair-proficient strains, it must be assumed that higher energy metabolism is not linked to the repair process, but rather reflects a general disturbance in cellular regulation. (U.K.)

  12. Differing effects of 2 active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains on ruminal acidosis and methane production in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Walker, N D; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-05-01

    Fifteen ruminally cannulated, nonlactating Holstein cows were used to measure the effects of 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fed as active dried yeasts, on ruminal pH and fermentation and enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions. Nonlactating cows were blocked by total duration (h) that their ruminal pH was below 5.8 during a 6-d pre-experimental period. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to control (no yeast), yeast strain 1 (Levucell SC), or yeast strain 2 (a novel strain selected for enhanced in vitro fiber degradation), with both strains (Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montréal, QC, Canada) providing 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day. Cows were fed once daily a total mixed ration consisting of a 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (dry matter basis). The yeast strains were dosed via the rumen cannula daily at the time of feeding. During the 35-d experiment, ruminal pH was measured continuously for 7 d (d 22 to 28) by using an indwelling system, and CH(4) gas was measured for 4 d (d 32 to 35) using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique (with halters and yokes). Rumen contents were sampled on 2 d (d 22 and 26) at 0, 3, and 6h after feeding. Dry matter intake, body weight, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients were not affected by yeast feeding. Strain 2 decreased the average daily minimum (5.35 vs. 5.65 or 5.66), mean (5.98 vs. 6.24 or 6.34), and maximum ruminal pH (6.71 vs. 6.86 or 6.86), and prolonged the time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (7.5 vs. 3.3 or 1.0 h/d) compared with the control or strain 1, respectively. The molar percentage of acetate was lower and that of propionate was greater in the ruminal fluid of cows receiving strain 2 compared with cows receiving no yeast or strain 1. Enteric CH(4) production adjusted for intake of dry matter or gross energy, however, did not differ between either yeast strain compared with the control but it tended to be reduced by 10% when strain 2 was compared with strain 1. The study shows that

  13. Yeast transformation mediated by Agrobacterium strains harboring an Ri plasmid: comparative study between GALLS of an Ri plasmid and virE of a Ti plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Sato, Yukari; Momota, Naoto; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2012-07-01

    Agrobacterium strains containing a Ti plasmid can transfer T-DNA not only to plants but also to fungi, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, no Agrobacterium strain harboring an Ri plasmid has been evaluated in fungal transformation. Some Ri plasmids have GALLS , instead of virE1 and virE2. GALLS protein can functionally substitute in plant transformation for a structurally different protein VirE2. In this study, we compared the yeast transformation ability among Agrobacterium donors: a strain containing a Ti plasmid, strains harboring either an agropine-type or a mikimopine-type Ri plasmid, and a strain having a modified Ri plasmid supplemented with a Ti plasmid type virE operon. Agrobacterium strains possessing GALLS transformed yeast cells far less efficiently than the strain containing virE operon. Production of GALLS in recipient yeast cells improved the yeast transformation mediated by an Agrobacterium strain lacking neither GALLS nor virE operon. A reporter assay to detect mobilization of the proteins fused with Cre recombinase revealed that VirE2 protein is much more abundant in yeast cells than GALLS. Based on these results, we concluded that the low yeast transformability mediated by Agrobacterium strains having the Ri plasmid is because of low amount of mobilized GALLS in yeast cells. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Diversity of yeast strains of the genus Hanseniaspora in the winery environment: What is their involvement in grape must fermentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeteau, Cédric; Gerhards, Daniel; Rousseaux, Sandrine; von Wallbrunn, Christian; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle

    2015-09-01

    Isolated yeast populations of Chardonnay grape must during spontaneous fermentation were compared to those isolated on grape berries and in a winery environment before the arrival of the harvest (air, floor, winery equipment) and in the air through time. Two genera of yeast, Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces, were isolated in grape must and in the winery environment before the arrival of the harvest but not on grape berries. The genus Hanseniaspora represented 27% of isolates in the must and 35% of isolates in the winery environment. The isolates of these two species were discriminated at the strain level by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The diversity of these strains observed in the winery environment (26 strains) and in must (12 strains) was considerable. 58% of the yeasts of the genus Hanseniaspora isolated in the must corresponded to strains present in the winery before the arrival of the harvest. Although the proportion and number of strains of the genus Hanseniaspora decreased during fermentation, some strains, all from the winery environment, subsisted up to 5% ethanol content. This is the first time that the implantation in grape must of populations present in the winery environment has been demonstrated for a non-Saccharomyces genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome Sequences of Industrially Relevant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain M3707, Isolated from a Sample of Distillers Yeast and Four Haploid Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Courtney M.; Clum, Alicia; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Sharma, Aditi; Zane, Matthew; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Davison, Brian H.; Lynd, Lee R.; Gilna, Paul; Hau, Heidi; Hogsett, David A.; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2013-04-19

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain M3707 was isolated from a sample of commercial distillers yeast, and its genome sequence together with the genome sequences for the four derived haploid strains M3836, M3837, M3838, and M3839 has been determined. Yeasts have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) for biofuel production, and access to these genome sequences will facilitate their development.

  16. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Felipe Palomero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938 in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help. Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.

  18. Induction of mutation for increased sulfur content in the CFI strain of yeast by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustino, C.C.

    1977-08-01

    From all current source of protein concentration the food yeast offers the greatest potential for development. Yeast protein is a good source of lysine and has adeqouate acounts of other essential amino acids such as trytophan and threonine, however, it was found to be relatively poor in the sulfur-containing amino acids which limits its nutrient value. A lasting remedy is genetic modification of the microorganisms to produce protein with a better amino acid balance. Gamma radiation from Co-60 was tried in these experiments being reported to induce mutations in the new CFI strain. A way of screening for increased sulfur content was devised. These are; 1) Incorporation of (NH 4 ) 2 35 S0 4 into the yeast cells; 2) Autoradiography; and 3) Quantitative determination of S-incorporation in submerse cultures of yeasts by use of a liquid scintillation counter. About seven hundred individual colonies were carefully and meticulously autQradiographically screened for high-S0 4 incorporation. Based on the results of autoradiography, 7.8% (50 strains) of the whole population were considered high in 35 S0 4 incorporation. The 50 yeast strains selected by autoradiography to be high in S0 4 incorporation were analyzed with the use of a liquid scintillation counter. From the data gathered, 29 mutants were se--lected. The data from these 29 mutants are presented in tabulated form. Only yeast strains no. 1, 42, 44, 47, 4, 3, 49, 50, 2 and 39 appear to show any promise as putative high-S mutants

  19. Creating libraries for commercial yeast strains through miniaturization of cloning and transformations using the BioRAPTR FRD Microfluidic workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to miniaturize molecular reactions can lead to significant cost savings when creating libraries of thousands of clones. For this application Beckman Coulter partnered with the USDA to provide a low-volume automated solution for library cloning for use in the development of yeast strains...

  20. Data from: Rapid multiple-level coevolution in experimental populations of yeast killer and non-killer strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieczynska, M.D.; Wloch-Salamon, D.; Korona, R.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution between different biological entities is considered an important evolutionary mechanism at all levels of biological organization. Here we provide evidence for coevolution of a yeast killer strain (K) carrying cytoplasmic dsRNA viruses coding for anti-competitor toxins and an isogenic

  1. Effects of feedstock and co-culture of Lactobacillus fermentum and wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during fuel ethanol fermentation by the industrial yeast strain PE-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Vanda R; Bassi, Ana Paula G; Cerri, Bianca C; Almeida, Amanda R; Carvalho, Isis G B; Bastos, Reinaldo G; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra R

    2018-02-16

    Even though contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts are frequently observed during fuel ethanol fermentation, our knowledge regarding the effects of both contaminants together is very limited, especially considering that the must composition can vary from exclusively sugarcane juice to a mixture of molasses and juice, affecting the microbial development. Here we studied the effects of the feedstock (sugarcane juice and molasses) and the co-culture of Lactobacillus fermentum and a wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (rough colony and pseudohyphae) in single and multiple-batch fermentation trials with an industrial strain of S. cerevisiae (PE-2) as starter yeast. The results indicate that in multiple-cycle batch system, the feedstock had a minor impact on the fermentation than in single-cycle batch system, however the rough yeast contamination was more harmful than the bacterial contamination in multiple-cycle batch fermentation. The inoculation of both contaminants did not potentiate the detrimental effect in any substrate. The residual sugar concentration in the fermented broth had a higher concentration of fructose than glucose for all fermentations, but in the presence of the rough yeast, the discrepancy between fructose and glucose concentrations were markedly higher, especially in molasses. The biggest problem associated with incomplete fermentation seemed to be the lower consumption rate of sugar and the reduced fructose preference of the rough yeast rather than the lower invertase activity. Lower ethanol production, acetate production and higher residual sugar concentration are characteristics strongly associated with the rough yeast strain and they were not potentiated with the inoculation of L. fermentum.

  2. NMR evaluation of total statin content and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in red yeast rice (Monascus spp. food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red yeast rice (i.e., rice fermented with Monascus spp., as a food supplement, is claimed to be blood cholesterol-lowering. The red yeast rice constituent monacolin K, also known as lovastatin, is an inhibitor of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase. This article aims to develop a sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method to determine the total statin content of red yeast rice products. Methods The total statin content was determined by a 400 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic method, based on the integration of the multiplet at δ 5.37-5.32 ppm of a hydrogen at the hexahydronaphthalene moiety in comparison to an external calibration with lovastatin. The activity of HMG-CoA reductase was measured by a commercial spectrophotometric assay kit. Results The NMR detection limit for total statins was 6 mg/L (equivalent to 0.3 mg/capsule, if two capsules are dissolved in 50 mL ethanol. The relative standard deviations were consistently lower than 11%. The total statin concentrations of five red yeast rice supplements were between 1.5 and 25.2 mg per specified daily dose. A dose-dependent inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity by the red yeast rice products was demonstrated. Conclusion A simple and direct NMR assay was developed to determine the total statin content in red yeast rice. The assay can be applied for the determination of statin content for the regulatory control of red yeast rice products.

  3. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-fermentation using Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Hyper-secreting Different Cellulases for the Production of Cellulosic Bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho-Ryong; Sung, Bong Hyun; Lim, Kwang-Mook; Kim, Mi-Jin; Sohn, Min Jeong; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2017-06-30

    To realize the economical production of ethanol and other bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), various cellulases from different sources were tested to improve the level of cellulase secretion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening an optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) as both a secretion signal and fusion partner. Among them, four indispensable cellulases for cellulose hydrolysis, including Chaetomium thermophilum cellobiohydrolase (CtCBH1), Chrysosporium lucknowense cellobiohydrolase (ClCBH2), Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase (TrEGL2), and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera β-glucosidase (SfBGL1), were identified to be highly secreted in active form in yeast. Despite variability in the enzyme levels produced, each recombinant yeast could secrete approximately 0.6-2.0 g/L of cellulases into the fermentation broth. The synergistic effect of the mixed culture of the four strains expressing the essential cellulases with the insoluble substrate Avicel and several types of cellulosic biomass was demonstrated to be effective. Co-fermentation of these yeast strains produced approximately 14 g/L ethanol from the pre-treated rice straw containing 35 g/L glucan with 3-fold higher productivity than that of wild type yeast using a reduced amount of commercial cellulases. This process will contribute to the cost-effective production of bioenergy such as bioethanol and biochemicals from cellulosic biomass.

  5. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  6. Whole-genome sequencing of a laboratory-evolved yeast strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunham Maitreya J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evolution of microbial populations provides a unique opportunity to study evolutionary adaptation in response to controlled selective pressures. However, until recently it has been difficult to identify the precise genetic changes underlying adaptation at a genome-wide scale. New DNA sequencing technologies now allow the genome of parental and evolved strains of microorganisms to be rapidly determined. Results We sequenced >93.5% of the genome of a laboratory-evolved strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its ancestor at >28× depth. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number amplifications were found, with specific gains over array-based methodologies previously used to analyze these genomes. Applying a segmentation algorithm to quantify structural changes, we determined the approximate genomic boundaries of a 5× gene amplification. These boundaries guided the recovery of breakpoint sequences, which provide insights into the nature of a complex genomic rearrangement. Conclusions This study suggests that whole-genome sequencing can provide a rapid approach to uncover the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptations, with further applications in the study of laboratory selections and mutagenesis screens. In addition, we show how single-end, short read sequencing data can provide detailed information about structural rearrangements, and generate predictions about the genomic features and processes that underlie genome plasticity.

  7. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  8. The use of a thermotolerant fermentative Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, I.M. [Univ. of the United Arab Emirates, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Biolology; Singh, D. [Haryana Agriculture Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Microbiology; Marchant, R. [Ulster Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1996-12-31

    An investigation was carried out on the growth and ethanol production of a novel thermotolerant ethanol-producing Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain. It grew aerobically on glucose, lactose, cellobiose, xylose and whey permeate and fermented all the above carbon sources to ethanol at 45 C. This strain was capable of growing under anaerobic chemostat fermentation conditions at 45 C and a dilution rate of 0.15 h{sup -1} and produced {<=}0.9 g/l biomass and 1.8% (v/v) ethanol. An increase in biomass (up to 10.0 g/l) and ethanol (up to 4.3% v/v at 45 C and 7.7% v/v at 40 C) were achieved by applying a continuous two-stage fermentation in sequence (one aerobic and one anerobic stage) or a two-stage anaerobic fermentation with cell recycling. Potential applications, involving alcohol production systems, for use in dairy and wood related industries, were discussed. (orig.)

  9. Potential Role of Yeast Strains Isolated from Grapes in the Production of Aglianico of Taurasi DOCG

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    Maria eAponte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S. cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after one week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M. pulcherrima; Starmerella (Star. bacillaris; Pichia (P. kudriavzevii; Lachancea (L. thermotolerans; Hanseniaspora (H. uvarum; Pseudozyma (Pseud. aphidis; S. cerevisiae. By means of Interdelta analysis, 18 different biotypes of S. cerevisiae were retrieved. All strains were characterized for ethanol production, SO2 resistance, H2S development, β-glucosidasic, esterasic and antagonistic activities. Fermentation abilities of selected strains were evaluated in micro-fermentations on Aglianico must. Within non-Saccharomyces species, some cultures showed features of technological interest. Antagonistic activity was expressed by some strains of M. pulcherrima, L. thermotolerans, P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the highest β-glucosidase activity and proved to be able to produce high concentrations of succinic acid. L. thermotolerans produced both succinic and lactic acids. The lowest amount of acetic acid was produced by M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans; while the highest content was recorded for H. uvarum. The strain of Star. bacillaris produced the highest amount of glycerol and was able to metabolize all fructose and malic acid. Strains of M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum showed a low fermentation power (about 4%, while, L. thermotolerans, Star. bacillaris and P. kudriavzevii of about 10%. Significant

  10. Bio-Technological Characterization of the Saccharomyces bayanus Yeast Strains in Order to Preserve the Local Specificity

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    Enikő Gaspar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The wine yeasts have multiple and important applications in the industry, aiming to obtain pure cultures and the selection of those strains which, according to the lab investigations, present superior bio-technological properties. In this study we monitored three types of Saccharomyces bayanus yeast strains, isolated from indigenous grapes varieties, Apold Iordana, Italian Blaj Riesling and Royal Feteasca from Jidvei area, which are present in the collection of the Biotechnologies and Microbiology Research Center of SAIAPM University. The yeast strains were subject to alcoholic fermentation in malt must at different temperatures, in the presence of alcohol, sugar and SO2 in various concentrations. The obtained results led to selecting of those strains which had best results regarding the alcoholic tolerance, osmo-tolerance, fermentation speed under stress conditions and resistance to SO2. These results can have practical applications in using the indigenous strains, isolated from grapes which are from inside the country, so that we preserve the local specificity, and reduce imports regarding this area.

  11. Genome-wide polysomal analysis of a yeast strain with mutated ribosomal protein S9

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    Arava Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast ribosomal protein S9 (S9 is located at the entrance tunnel of the mRNA into the ribosome. It is known to play a role in accurate decoding and its bacterial homolog (S4 has recently been shown to be involved in opening RNA duplexes. Here we examined the effects of changing the C terminus of S9, which is rich in acidic amino acids and extends out of the ribosome surface. Results We performed a genome-wide analysis to reveal effects at the transcription and translation levels of all yeast genes. While negligible relative changes were observed in steady-state mRNA levels, a significant number of mRNAs appeared to have altered ribosomal density. Notably, 40% of the genes having reliable signals changed their ribosomal association by more than one ribosome. Yet, no general correlations with physical or functional features of the mRNA were observed. Ribosome Density Mapping (RDM along four of the mRNAs with increased association revealed an increase in ribosomal density towards the end of the coding region for at least two of them. Read-through analysis did not reveal any increase in read-through of a premature stop codon by the mutant strain. Conclusion The ribosomal protein rpS9 appears to be involved in the translation of many mRNAs, since altering its C terminus led to a significant change in ribosomal association of many mRNAs. We did not find strong correlations between these changes and several physical features of the mRNA, yet future studies with advanced tools may allow such correlations to be determined. Importantly, our results indicate an accumulation of ribosomes towards the end of the coding regions of some mRNAs. This suggests an involvement of S9 in ribosomal dissociation during translation termination.

  12. Novel endophytic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3 I: production of xylitol and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Renata; Vajzovic, Azra; Doty, Sharon L

    2012-07-01

    An endophytic yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3, that was isolated from stems of hybrid poplar was found to be capable of production of xylitol from xylose, of ethanol from glucose, galactose, and mannose, and of arabitol from arabinose. The utilization of 30 g/L of each of the five sugars during fermentation by PTD3 was studied in liquid batch cultures. Glucose-acclimated PTD3 produced enhanced yields of xylitol (67% of theoretical yield) from xylose and of ethanol (84, 86, and 94% of theoretical yield, respectively) from glucose, galactose, and mannose. Additionally, this yeast was capable of metabolizing high concentrations of mixed sugars (150 g/L), with high yields of xylitol (61% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (83% of theoretical yield). A 1:1 glucose:xylose ratio with 30 g/L of each during double sugar fermentation did not affect PTD3's ability to produce high yields of xylitol (65% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (92% of theoretical yield). Surprisingly, the highest yields of xylitol (76% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (100% of theoretical yield) were observed during fermentation of sugars present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate obtained after steam pretreatment of a mixture of hybrid poplar and Douglas fir. PTD3 demonstrated an exceptional ability to ferment the hydrolysate, overcome hexose repression of xylose utilization with a short lag period of 10 h, and tolerate sugar degradation products. In direct comparison, PTD3 had higher xylitol yields from the mixed sugar hydrolysate compared with the widely studied and used xylitol producer Candida guilliermondii.

  13. Modification of Salmonella Typhimurium motility by the probiotic yeast strain Saccharomyces boulardii.

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    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motility is an important component of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST pathogenesis allowing the bacteria to move into appropriate niches, across the mucus layer and invade the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, flagellum-associated motility is closely related to the invasive properties of ST. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B is widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria or antibiotics. In case of Salmonella infection, S.b-B has been shown to decrease ST invasion of T84 colon cell line. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of S.b-B on ST motility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on human colonic T84 cells infected by the Salmonella strain 1344 alone or in the presence of S.b-B. The motility of Salmonella was recorded by time-lapse video microscopy. Next, a manual tracking was performed to analyze bacteria dynamics (MTrackJ plugin, NIH image J software. This revealed that the speed of bacterial movement was modified in the presence of S.b-B. The median curvilinear velocity (CLV of Salmonella incubated alone with T84 decreased from 43.3 µm/sec to 31.2 µm/sec in the presence of S.b-B. Measurement of track linearity (TL showed similar trends: S.b-B decreased by 15% the number of bacteria with linear tract (LT and increased by 22% the number of bacteria with rotator tract (RT. Correlation between ST motility and invasion was further established by studying a non-motile flagella-deficient ST strain. Indeed this strain that moved with a CLV of 0.5 µm/sec, presented a majority of RT and a significant decrease in invasion properties. Importantly, we show that S.b-B modified the motility of the pathogenic strain SL1344 and significantly decreased invasion of T84 cells by this strain. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that S.b-B modifies Salmonella's motility and trajectory which may account for the modification

  14. Modification of Salmonella Typhimurium Motility by the Probiotic Yeast Strain Saccharomyces boulardii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Prodon, François; Munro, Patrick; Rampal, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Peyron, Jean François; Czerucka, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Background Motility is an important component of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) pathogenesis allowing the bacteria to move into appropriate niches, across the mucus layer and invade the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, flagellum-associated motility is closely related to the invasive properties of ST. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B) is widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria or antibiotics. In case of Salmonella infection, S.b-B has been shown to decrease ST invasion of T84 colon cell line. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of S.b-B on ST motility. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments were performed on human colonic T84 cells infected by the Salmonella strain 1344 alone or in the presence of S.b-B. The motility of Salmonella was recorded by time-lapse video microscopy. Next, a manual tracking was performed to analyze bacteria dynamics (MTrackJ plugin, NIH image J software). This revealed that the speed of bacterial movement was modified in the presence of S.b-B. The median curvilinear velocity (CLV) of Salmonella incubated alone with T84 decreased from 43.3 µm/sec to 31.2 µm/sec in the presence of S.b-B. Measurement of track linearity (TL) showed similar trends: S.b-B decreased by 15% the number of bacteria with linear tract (LT) and increased by 22% the number of bacteria with rotator tract (RT). Correlation between ST motility and invasion was further established by studying a non-motile flagella-deficient ST strain. Indeed this strain that moved with a CLV of 0.5 µm/sec, presented a majority of RT and a significant decrease in invasion properties. Importantly, we show that S.b-B modified the motility of the pathogenic strain SL1344 and significantly decreased invasion of T84 cells by this strain. Conclusions This study reveals that S.b-B modifies Salmonella's motility and trajectory which may account for the modification of Salmonella

  15. Determination of yeast killer activity in fermenting sugarcane juice using selected ethanol-making strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four yeasts out of 342 isolated from the fermentative process showed killer activity and three of them were selected for the fermentative efficiency evaluation in batch system with cell recycle, flask and fermentor experiments. The selected three killer strains did not present similar results to those of pressed (baking yeast concerning ethanol (0.07-0.18; 0.12-0.20; 0.10-0.13; 0.22-0.25 g/g, respectively and biomass (0.19-0.26; 0.33-0.39; 0.13-0.27; 0.47-0.61 g/g, respectively yields and fermentative efficiency (12.3-36.3; 21.0-40.0; 19.3-26.3; 47.6-54.0 %, respectively in sugarcane juice, in flasks. In fermentor, similar behaviour was observed. However, the selected strains showed high cellular viability and killer activity (using cell-free filtrate along the fermentative cycles, in spite of the unfavourable conditions of the medium, like high pH variation of the medium (from 5.5-6.0 to 3.0-4.0, low aeration and higher temperature (30º C, which were not the ideal ones for the production/activity of killer toxins. A Pichia strain (CCA 510 showed the best results among the killer yeasts tested, exhibiting a killer activity against 92% of isolated fermentative yeasts of the process and against the pressed (baking ferment. It also demonstrated killer activity (using crude toxin preparation at higher temperatures (38ºC and low pH (4.0 after 72 hours of incubation, under proliferative and non-proliferative conditions. The results indicated that the killer activity should be a characteristic to be looked for in the strain selection for ethanolic fermentation, beside other important productivity-based characteristics, since it assure the permanence of the selected strain during the process.A atividade 'killer' poderia garantir às leveduras fermentativas uma vantagem competitiva sobre outras linhagens durante a fermentação etanólica, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre o papel do sistema 'killer' nesse tipo de fermentação alcoólica. A sele

  16. Biodegradation of lindane using a novel yeast strain, Rhodotorula sp. VITJzN03 isolated from agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Lakshmi, V; Das, Devlina; Das, Nilanjana

    2013-03-01

    Lindane is a notorious organochlorine pesticide due to its high toxicity, persistence in the environment and its tendency to bioaccumulate. A yeast strain isolated from sorghum cultivation field was able to use lindane as carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. With molecular techniques, it was identified and named as Rhodotorula strain VITJzN03. The effects of nutritional and environmental factors on yeast growth and the biodegradation of lindane was investigated. The maximum production of yeast biomass along with 100 % lindane mineralization was noted at an initial lindane concentration of 600 mg l(-1) within a period of 10 days. Lindane concentration above 600 mg l(-1) inhibited the growth of yeast in liquid medium. A positive relationship was noted between the release of chloride ions and the increase of yeast biomass as well as degradation of lindane. The calculated degradation rate and half life of lindane were found to be 0.416 day(-1) and 1.66 days, respectively. The analysis of the metabolites using GC-MS identified the formation of seven intermediates including γ-pentachlorocyclohexane(γ-PCCH), 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene(1,4-TCCHdiene), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4 TCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4 DCB), chloro-cis-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexadiene (CDCHdiene), 3-chlorocatechol (3-CC) and maleylacetate (MA) derivatives indicating that lindane degradation follows successive dechlorination and oxido-reduction. Based on the results of the present study, the possible pathway for lindane degradation by Rhodotorula sp. VITJzN03 has been proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on lindane degradation by yeast which can serve as a potential agent for in situ bioremediation of medium to high level lindane-contaminated sites.

  17. A biotechnological valorization and treatment of olive mill waste waters by selected yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste waters were diluted to 1/10, supplied with 2% urea and inoculated with yeast strains. 20 yeast strains isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW water were screened for their biomass production, GOD reduction and polyphenols bioconversión activities. Pure cultures of yeasts were realized in 100 ml erlen-meyer flasks. 50 ml cultures were used and the flasks were incubated at room temperature (22°G on a shaker. Biomass production, COD (chemical oxygen demand reduction and Polyphenols bioconversión were followed up in the inoculated OMW waters. Results showed that the urea supply improve significantly the biomass production relatively to the control. This reached in some assays 2.06% expressed as g of biomass dry weight per 100 mL of OMW water. Polyphenols removal was estimated to around 50% and the COD was decreased from 54.14 g/Kg to 21.56 g/Kg. This aerobic treatment lead to the biomass production and also to a pretreated efluent by the COD and the removal of the methanization inhibiting polyphenolic compounds.

    Aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna se diluyeron en la proporción 1/10, se le añadió un 2% de urea y se inoculó con cepas de levaduras. 20 cepas de levaduras aisladas de aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna (OMW se seleccionaron por su producción de biomasa, reducción DQO y actividades de bioconversión de polifenoles. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos puros de levaduras en matraces erlenmeyer de 100 mi. Se tomaron 50 ml de cultivos y los matraces se incubaron a temperatura ambiente (22°C en un agitador. Se siguió la producción de biomasa, la reducción de DQO (demanda química de oxígeno y la bioconversión de polifenoles en las aguas residuales de la aceituna. Los resultados mostraron que el suministro de urea mejoró significativamente la producción de biomasa en relación al control. Esta alcanzó en algunos ensayos el 2.06% expresado como g de peso seco de biomasa por 100 ml de

  18. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Kai; An, Ming-Zhe; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koike, Yoji [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Wu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h{sup -1}. The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste. (author)

  19. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.-Q.; Koike, Yoji; Liu Kai; An, M.-Z.; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu Xiaolei; Kida, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l -1 h -1 ) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h -1 . The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l -1 d -1 with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste

  20. The Effect of Dietary Replacement of Ordinary Rice with Red Yeast Rice on Nutrient Utilization, Enteric Methane Emission and Rumen Archaeal Diversity in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Z Wang

    Full Text Available Twenty castrated Boer crossbred goats were used in the present study with two treatments to examine the effect of dietary replacement of ordinary rice with red yeast rice on nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and ruminal archaea structure and composition. Two treatment diets contained (DM basis 70.0% of forage, 21.8% of concentrates and 8.2% of either ordinary rice (control or red yeast rice (RYR. Nutrient utilization was measured and enteric methane emissions were determined in respiration chambers. Results showed that RYR had significantly lower digestibility of N and organic matter compared to control group. However, feeding red yeast rice did not affect N retention as g/d or a proportion of N intake, and reduced heat production as MJ/d or as a proportion of metabolizable energy intake, thus leading to a higher proportion of metabolizable energy intake to be retained in body tissue. RYR also had significantly lower methane emissions either as g/d, or as a proportion of feed intake. Although feeding red yeast rice had no negative effect on any rumen fermentation variables, it decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. In the present study, 75616 archaeal sequences were generated and clustered into 2364 Operational Taxonomic Units. At the genus level, the predominant archaea in the rumen of goats was Methanobrevibacter, which was significantly inhibited with the supplementation of red yeast rice. In conclusion, red yeast rice is a potential feed ingredient for mitigation of enteric methane emissions of goats. However, caution should be taken when it is used because it may inhibit the digestibility of some nutrients. Further studies are required to evaluate its potential with different diets and animal species, as well as its effects on animal health and food safety.

  1. Construction of a genetically modified wine yeast strain expressing the Aspergillus aculeatus rhaA gene, encoding an -L-Rhamnosidase of enological interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanares, P.; Orejas, M.; Vicente Gil, J.; Graaff, de L.H.; Visser, J.; Ramon, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Aspergillus aculeatus rhaA gene encoding an alpha-L-rhamnosidase has been expressed in both laboratory and industrial wine yeast strains. Wines produced in microvinifications, conducted using a combination of the genetically modified industrial strain expressing rhaA and another strain

  2. Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shingo; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant sake yeast strains by UV mutagenesis. Among the DNP-resistant mutants, we focused on strains exhibiting high malic acid and low acetic acid production. The improved organic acid composition is unlikely to be under the control of enzyme activities related to malic and acetic acid synthesis pathways. Instead, low mitochondrial activity was observed in DNP-resistant mutants, indicating that the excess pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is not metabolized in the mitochondria but converted to malic acid in the cytosol. In addition, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the DNP-resistant strains was higher than that of the parental strain K901. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio together with the low mitochondrial activity alter the organic acid composition because malic acid synthesis requires NADH, while acetic acid uses NAD(+). Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Colony size measurement of the yeast gene deletion strains for functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Rashed Nadereh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous functional genomics approaches have been developed to study the model organism yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the aim of systematically understanding the biology of the cell. Some of these techniques are based on yeast growth differences under different conditions, such as those generated by gene mutations, chemicals or both. Manual inspection of the yeast colonies that are grown under different conditions is often used as a method to detect such growth differences. Results Here, we developed a computerized image analysis system called Growth Detector (GD, to automatically acquire quantitative and comparative information for yeast colony growth. GD offers great convenience and accuracy over the currently used manual growth measurement method. It distinguishes true yeast colonies in a digital image and provides an accurate coordinate oriented map of the colony areas. Some post-processing calculations are also conducted. Using GD, we successfully detected a genetic linkage between the molecular activity of the plant-derived antifungal compound berberine and gene expression components, among other cellular processes. A novel association for the yeast mek1 gene with DNA damage repair was also identified by GD and confirmed by a plasmid repair assay. The results demonstrate the usefulness of GD for yeast functional genomics research. Conclusion GD offers significant improvement over the manual inspection method to detect relative yeast colony size differences. The speed and accuracy associated with GD makes it an ideal choice for large-scale functional genomics investigations.

  4. Novel endophytic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3 II: production of xylitol and ethanol in the presence of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajzovic, Azra; Bura, Renata; Kohlmeier, Kevin; Doty, Sharon L

    2012-10-01

    A systematic study was conducted characterizing the effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and acetic acid concentration on the production of xylitol and ethanol by a novel endophytic yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3. The influence of different inhibitor concentrations on the growth and fermentation abilities of PTD3 cultivated in synthetic nutrient media containing 30 g/l xylose or glucose were measured during liquid batch cultures. Concentrations of up to 5 g/l of furfural stimulated production of xylitol to 77 % of theoretical yield (10 % higher compared to the control) by PTD3. Xylitol yields produced by this yeast were not affected in the presence of 5-HMF at concentrations of up to 3 g/l. At higher concentrations of furfural and 5-HMF, xylitol and ethanol yields were negatively affected. The higher the concentration of acetic acid present in a media, the higher the ethanol yield approaching 99 % of theoretical yield (15 % higher compared to the control) was produced by the yeast. At all concentrations of acetic acid tested, xylitol yield was lowered. PTD3 was capable of metabolizing concentrations of 5, 15, and 5 g/l of furfural, 5-HMF, and acetic acid, respectively. This yeast would be a potent candidate for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to biochemicals given that in the presence of low concentrations of inhibitors, its xylitol and ethanol yields are stimulated, and it is capable of metabolizing pretreatment degradation products.

  5. Identification of furfural as a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and evolution of a tolerant yeast strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Dominik; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Summary The production of fuel ethanol from low‐cost lignocellulosic biomass currently suffers from several limitations. One of them is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates that are released during pre‐treatment. These compounds inhibit growth and hamper the production of ethanol, thereby affecting process economics. To delineate the effects of such complex mixtures, we conducted a chemical analysis of four different real‐world lignocellulosic hydrolysates and determined their toxicological effect on yeast. By correlating the potential inhibitor abundance to the growth‐inhibiting properties of the corresponding hydrolysates, we identified furfural as an important contributor to hydrolysate toxicity for yeast. Subsequently, we conducted a targeted evolution experiment to improve growth behaviour of the half industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3400 in the hydrolysates. After about 300 generations, representative clones from these evolved populations exhibited significantly reduced lag phases in medium containing the single inhibitor furfural, but also in hydrolysate‐supplemented medium. Furthermore, these strains were able to grow at concentrations of hydrolysates that effectively killed the parental strain and exhibited significantly improved bioconversion characteristics under industrially relevant conditions. The improved resistance of our evolved strains was based on their capacity to remain viable in a toxic environment during the prolonged, furfural induced lag phase. PMID:21261870

  6. Engineered Trx2p industrial yeast strain protects glycolysis and fermentation proteins from oxidative carbonylation during biomass propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pastor Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the yeast biomass production process, protein carbonylation has severe adverse effects since it diminishes biomass yield and profitability of industrial production plants. However, this significant detriment of yeast performance can be alleviated by increasing thioredoxins levels. Thioredoxins are important antioxidant defenses implicated in many functions in cells, and their primordial functions include scavenging of reactive oxygen species that produce dramatic and irreversible alterations such as protein carbonylation. Results In this work we have found several proteins specifically protected by yeast Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2p. Bidimensional electrophoresis and carbonylated protein identification from TRX-deficient and TRX-overexpressing cells revealed that glycolysis and fermentation-related proteins are specific targets of Trx2p protection. Indeed, the TRX2 overexpressing strain presented increased activity of the central carbon metabolism enzymes. Interestingly, Trx2p specifically preserved alcohol dehydrogenase I (Adh1p from carbonylation, decreased oligomer aggregates and increased its enzymatic activity. Conclusions The identified proteins suggest that the fermentative capacity detriment observed under industrial conditions in T73 wine commercial strain results from the oxidative carbonylation of specific glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Indeed, increased thioredoxin levels enhance the performance of key fermentation enzymes such as Adh1p, which consequently increases fermentative capacity.

  7. Investigating cross-contamination by yeast strains from dental solid waste to waste-handling workers by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cristina Dutra; Tagliaferri, Thaysa Leite; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; de Resende-Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida; Holanda, Rodrigo Assuncao; de Magalhães, Thais Furtado Ferreira; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; de Macêdo Farias, Luiz

    2018-04-01

    Trying to widen the discussion on the risks associated with dental waste, this study proposed to investigate and genetically compare yeast isolates recovered from dental solid waste and waste workers. Three samples were collected from workers' hands, nasal mucosa, and professional clothing (days 0, 30, and 180), and two from dental waste (days 0 and 180). Slide culture, microscopy, antifungal drug susceptibility, intersimple sequence repeat analysis, and amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions were performed. Yeast strains were recovered from all waste workers' sites, including professional clothes, and from waste. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated that some yeast recovered from employees and waste exhibited nonsusceptible profiles. The dendrogram demonstrated the presence of three major clusters based on similarity matrix and UPGMA grouping method. Two branches displayed 100% similarity: three strains of Candida guilliermondii isolated from different employees, working in opposite work shifts, and from diverse sites grouped in one part of branch 1 and cluster 3 that included two samples of Candida albicans recovered from waste and the hand of one waste worker. The results suggested the possibility of cross-contamination from dental waste to waste workers and reinforce the need of training programs focused on better waste management routines. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  9. Detection of weak estrogenic flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and a modified MCF7 cell proliferation assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke; Larsen, John Christian

    1998-01-01

    A newly developed recombinant yeast strain, in which the human estrogen receptor has been stably integrated into the genome of the yeast, was used to gain information on the estrogenic activity of a large series of dietary flavonoids. Among 23 flavonoids investigated, 8 were found to markedly...... values ranging from 84 to 102 mu M, whereas the remaining flavonoids were devoid of activity. The most potent flavonoid estrogens tested were naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol, phloretin, and the four isoflavonoids equol, genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A. With the exception of biochanin A, the main...... feature required to confer estrogenicity was the presence of a single hydroxyl group in the 4'-position of the B-ring of the flavan nucleus, corresponding to the 4-position on phloretin. The estrogenic potency of the flavonoids was found to be 4 000-4 000 000 times lower than that observed for 17 beta...

  10. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  11. Hyphal-like extension and pseudohyphal formation in industrial strains of yeasts induced by isoamyl alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Silva, Paula Cristina da

    2002-01-01

    Yeasts can produce pseudohyphae and hyphal-like extensions under certain growth conditions like isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induction, a chief constituent of fusel oil, which is a subproduct from the ethanolic fermentation. The morphology switch from yeast to a filamentous form can be troublesome to the process. In this work it was studied the influence of fusel alcohols, nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate and leucine) and glifosate (a chemical maturator for sugar cane) added to a complex medium o...

  12. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-scale Evaluation of the Biotechnological Potential of Red Sea Bacilli Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K.

    2018-02-01

    The increasing spectrum of multidrug-resistant bacteria has caused a major global public health concern, necessitating the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. Additionally, recent advancements in the use of microbial cells for the scalable production of industrial enzymes has encouraged the screening of new environments for efficient microbial cell factories. The unique ecological niche of the Red Sea points to the promising metabolic and biosynthetic potential of its microbial system. Here, ten sequenced Bacilli strains, that are isolated from microbial mat and mangrove mud samples from the Red Sea, were evaluated for their use as platforms for protein production and biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Two of the species (B.paralicheniformis Bac48 and B. litoralis Bac94) were found to secrete twice as much protein as Bacillus subtilis 168, and B. litoralis Bac94 had complete Tat and Sec protein secretion systems. Additionally, four Red Sea Species (B. paralicheniformis Bac48, Virgibacillus sp. Bac330, B. vallismortis Bac111, B. amyloliquefaciens Bac57) showed capabilities for genetic transformation and possessed competence genes. More specifically, the distinctive biosynthetic potential evident in the genomes of B. paralicheniformis Bac48 and B. paralicheniformis Bac84 was assessed and compared to nine available complete genomes of B. licheniformis and three genomes of B. paralicheniformis. A uniquely-structured trans-acyltransferase (trans-AT) polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) cluster in strains of this species was identified in the genome of B. paralicheniformis 48. In total, the two B. paralicheniformis Red Sea strains were found to be more enriched in modular clusters compared to B. licheniformis strains and B. paralicheniformis strains from other environments. These findings provided more insights into the potential of B. paralicheniformis 48 as a microbial cell factory and encouraged further focus on the strain

  14. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Viel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  15. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

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    Ignacio García-Estévez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS. Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L* values and higher chroma (C*ab values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  16. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Puente, Víctor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-11-23

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C* ab ) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  17. The use of lactic acid-producing, malic acid-producing, or malic acid-degrading yeast strains for acidity adjustment in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yun; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts induce large gaps between wine production and wine consumption. Market-orientated yeast strains are presently being selected or developed for enhancing the core competitiveness of wine enterprises. Reasonable biological acidity is critical to warrant a high-quality wine. Many wild-type acidity adjustment yeast strains have been selected all over the world. Moreover, mutation breeding, metabolic engineering, genetic engineering, and protoplast fusion methods are used to construct new acidity adjustment yeast strains to meet the demands of the market. In this paper, strategies and concepts for strain selection or improvement methods were discussed, and many examples based upon selected studies involving acidity adjustment yeast strains were reviewed. Furthermore, the development of acidity adjustment yeast strains with minimized resource inputs, improved fermentation, and enological capabilities for an environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality wine is presented.

  18. Utilization of Candida berkhout strains in the production of yeasts and ethyl alcohol from sulfite waste liquor and molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewska, H

    1962-01-01

    A single strain of Candida tropicalis was used to produce EtOH and fodder yeast from pasteurized, neutralized sulfite liquor containing 3.5% reducing substances and supplemented with NH/sub 3/ and P salts, or from molasses containing 150 g sucrose per l. After 48 hours sugar utilization by Candida was 87.7% and EtOH yield 56.1%; Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave 94.8 and 64.6 to 65.2%, respectively. After 72 hours sugar utilization and EtOH yield by Candida was 94.9 and 60.4% respectively.

  19. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A function of mutagenesis on rhodotorula RY strain irradiated by heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyu; Li Chenghua; Ding Xinchun; Wang Jufang; Zhou Guangming; Xie Hongmei; Li Qiang; Dang bingrong; Wen Xiaoqiong; Li Wenjian; Wei Zengquan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, red yeast (Rhodotorula RY Strain) that produces carotene is irradiated by 50 MeV/u 12 C 6+ heavy ion from Heavy Ion Accelerator in IMP. Fermentation tests show that 50 MeV/u 12 C 6+ heavy ion has a mutagenesis effect on the red yeast. Some strains of red yeast with changed production of carotene were found by screening. Meanwhile, by RFLP and RAPD analysis, authors have a further evidence that heavy ion can cause mutagenesis in Rhodotorula RY Strain. This presents a new prospect for the mutagenesis breeding by heavy ion in industry

  1. The yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Strain 47 as manipulator of rumen fermentation in postpartal period of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on rumen fermentation of cows. Animals received a diet consisting of good maize silage with a higher dry matter content (16  kg, 16  kg of clovergrass haylage, 3  kg of meadow hay and 7.5  kg feed mixture. The yeast culture was added to the mixture in the dose 6  g/day and cow. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on VFA production in comparison with control (1.16±0.013B vs. 0.84±0.063A  g/ 100 ml, and lower production of lactic acid. The utilisation of ammonia was higher by cows in treated group (8.68±0.084A mmol/L. The difference in number of protozoa of cows in the control and experimental groups was significant (302.0±12.349A vs. 359.2±1.304B ths /1 ml of rumen fluid.

  2. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Biopesticide activity of sugarcane associated rhizobacteria: Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain NH-300 against red rot under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem HASSAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum falcatum is the major fungal pathogen causing sugarcane red rot. Four antagonistic bacterial strains exhibiting biocontrol activity against this pathogen in greenhouse conditions were characterized for production of different antifungal metabolites and biocontrol determinants to elucidate the mechanism of action involved in their antagonistic activity. The strains were also evaluated under field conditions to assess their biocontrol potential. All the strains produced hydrogen cyanide (HCN, and volatile and diffusible antibiotics. In addition, the Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 produced siderophores and the broad spectrum antibiotic 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG; Pseudomonas sp. NH-203 produced siderophores, and Pseudomonas sp. NH-276 produced protease. Two strains, Ochrobactrum intermedium NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NH-300, exhibited good biocontrol activity, suppressing red rot by 44–52% on two sugarcane varieties, SPF-234 and Co-1148, in field experiments. The strains gave consistent results in three consecutive years and showed potential to be used as biopesticides.

  4. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against five agri-food-borne fungi and one yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 °C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Lager-Brewing Yeast Saccharomyces sp. Strain M14, Used in the High-Gravity Brewing Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Qi; Niu, Chengtuo; Zheng, Feiyun; Li, Yongxian; Zhao, Yun; Yin, Xiangsheng

    2017-10-26

    Lager-brewing yeasts are mainly used for the production of lager beers. Illumina and PacBio-based sequence analyses revealed an approximate genome size of 22.8 Mb, with a GC content of 38.98%, for the Chinese lager-brewing yeast Saccharomyces sp. strain M14. Based on ab initio prediction, 9,970 coding genes were annotated. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

  6. Integrated multilaboratory systems biology reveals differences in protein metabolism between two reference yeast strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canelas, Andre B.; Harrison, Nicola; Fazio, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The field of systems biology is often held back by difficulties in obtaining comprehensive, high-quality, quantitative data sets. In this paper, we undertook an interlaboratory effort to generate such a data set for a very large number of cellular components in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,...

  7. Functionality of selected strains of moulds and yeasts from Vietnamese rice wine starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The role of starch-degrading mycelial fungi, and the alcohol production and ethanol tolerance of the yeasts isolated from selected Vietnamese traditional rice wine starters were examined, and optimum conditions for these essential steps in rice wine fermentation were determined. Of pure isolates

  8. A multi-phase approach to select new wine yeast strains with enhanced fermentative fitness and glutathione production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, Tommaso; De Vero, Luciana; Mezzetti, Francesco; Fay, Justin C; Giudici, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The genetic improvement of winemaking yeasts is a virtually infinite process, as the design of new strains must always cope with varied and ever-evolving production contexts. Good wine yeasts must feature both good primary traits, which are related to the overall fermentative fitness of the strain, and secondary traits, which provide accessory features augmenting its technological value. In this context, the superiority of "blind," genetic improvement techniques, as those based on the direct selection of the desired phenotype without prior knowledge of the genotype, was widely proven. Blind techniques such as adaptive evolution strategies were implemented for the enhancement of many traits of interest in the winemaking field. However, these strategies usually focus on single traits: this possibly leads to genetic tradeoff phenomena, where the selection of enhanced secondary traits might lead to sub-optimal primary fermentation traits. To circumvent this phenomenon, we applied a multi-step and strongly directed genetic improvement strategy aimed at combining a strong fermentative aptitude (primary trait) with an enhanced production of glutathione (secondary trait). We exploited the random genetic recombination associated to a library of 69 monosporic clones of strain UMCC 855 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to search for new candidates possessing both traits. This was achieved by consecutively applying three directional selective criteria: molybdate resistance (1), fermentative aptitude (2), and glutathione production (3). The strategy brought to the selection of strain 21T2-D58, which produces a high concentration of glutathione, comparable to that of other glutathione high-producers, still with a much greater fermentative aptitude.

  9. Induction of ploidy level increments in an asporogenous industrial strain of the yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Cells of an asporogenous industrial strain of the yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae were irradiated with UV light by using a method that was developed previously. This treatment gave rise to large-cell clones among the surviving cells, from which colonies consisting of cells with a normal morphology and a prototropic property were obtained. The large-cell trait of these was stably inheritable, with the cell volumes being about twice that of the parent for 7 years on a slant agar medium at 4C with repeated transfers. The cellular DNA content of these clones, in comparison to those of two authentic haploid strains, was determined by chemical analysis. The ratio of the DNA contents showed that the parent and its large-cell derivatives were a diploid and tetraploids, respectively. No abnormality was found in the chromosomal DNA patterns of the large-cell clones, at least as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis with a CHEF-DR II pulsed-field electrophoresis system. These findings led to the conclusion that the UV light method is applicable for inducing ploidy level increments in the widely used yeast species S. cerevisiae

  10. Stress tolerance and growth physiology of yeast strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Bianca, B E; Gombert, A K

    2013-12-01

    Improved biofuels production requires a better understanding of industrial microorganisms. Some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from the fuel ethanol industry in Brazil, present exceptional fermentation performance, persistence and prevalence in the harsh industrial environment. Nevertheless, their physiology has not yet been systematically investigated. Here we present a first systematic evaluation of the widely used industrial strains PE-2, CAT-1, BG-1 and JP1, in terms of their tolerance towards process-related stressors. We also analyzed their growth physiology under heat stress. These strains were evaluated in parallel to laboratory and baker's strains. Whereas the industrial strains performed in general better than the laboratory strains under ethanol or acetic acid stresses and on industrial media, high sugar stress was tolerated equally by all strains. Heat and low pH stresses clearly distinguished fuel ethanol strains from the others, indicating that these conditions might be the ones that mostly exert selective pressure on cells in the industrial environment. During shake-flask cultivations using a synthetic medium at 37 °C, industrial strains presented higher ethanol yields on glucose than the laboratory strains, indicating that they could have been selected for this trait-a response to energy-demanding fermentation conditions. These results might be useful to guide future improvements of large-scale fuel ethanol production via engineering of stress tolerance traits in other strains, and eventually also for promoting the use of these fuel ethanol strains in different industrial bioprocesses.

  11. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  12. Development of resources for the analysis of gene function in Pucciniomycotina red yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiri, Giuseppe; Wright, Sandra A I; Castoria, Raffaello; Idnurm, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    The Pucciniomycotina is an important subphylum of basidiomycete fungi but with limited tools to analyze gene functions. Transformation protocols were established for a Sporobolomyces species (strain IAM 13481), the first Pucciniomycotina species with a completed draft genome sequence, to enable assessment of gene function through phenotypic characterization of mutant strains. Transformation markers were the URA3 and URA5 genes that enable selection and counter-selection based on uracil auxotrophy and resistance to 5-fluoroorotic acid. The wild type copies of these genes were cloned into plasmids that were used for transformation of Sporobolomyces sp. by both biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated approaches. These resources have been deposited to be available from the Fungal Genetics Stock Center. To show that these techniques could be used to elucidate gene functions, the LEU1 gene was targeted for specific homologous replacement, and also demonstrating that this gene is required for the biosynthesis of leucine in basidiomycete fungi. T-DNA insertional mutants were isolated and further characterized, revealing insertions in genes that encode the homologs of Chs7, Erg3, Kre6, Kex1, Pik1, Sad1, Ssu1 and Tlg1. Phenotypic analysis of these mutants reveals both conserved and divergent functions compared with other fungi. Some of these strains exhibit reduced resistance to detergents, the antifungal agent fluconazole or sodium sulfite, or lower recovery from heat stress. While there are current experimental limitations for Sporobolomyces sp. such as the lack of Mendelian genetics for conventional mating, these findings demonstrate the facile nature of at least one Pucciniomycotina species for genetic manipulation and the potential to develop these organisms into new models for understanding gene function and evolution in the fungi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioremediation of acidic oily sludge-contaminated soil by the novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nitu; Patle, Sonali; Lal, Banwari

    2010-03-01

    Primitive wax refining techniques had resulted in almost 50,000 tonnes of acidic oily sludge (pH 1-3) being accumulated inside the Digboi refinery premises in Assam state, northeast India. A novel yeast species Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6 was obtained that could degrade the acidic petroleum hydrocarbons at pH 3 under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation potential of this strain under laboratory and field conditions. The ability of TERI ASN6 to degrade the hydrocarbons found in the acidic oily sludge was established by gravimetry and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Following this, a feasibility study was done, on site, to study various treatments for the remediation of the acidic sludge. Among the treatments, the application of C. digboiensis TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed the highest degradation of the acidic oily sludge. This treatment was then selected for the full-scale bioremediation study conducted on site, inside the refinery premises. The novel yeast strain TERI ASN6 could degrade 40 mg of eicosane in 50 ml of minimal salts medium in 10 days and 72% of heneicosane in 192 h at pH 3. The degradation of alkanes yielded monocarboxylic acid intermediates while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene found in the acidic oily sludge yielded the oxygenated intermediate pyrenol. In the feasibility study, the application of TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed a reduction of solvent extractable total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 160 to 28.81 g kg(-1) soil as compared to a TPH reduction from 183.85 to 151.10 g kg(-1) soil in the untreated control in 135 days. The full-scale bioremediation study in a 3,280-m(2) area in the refinery showed a reduction of TPH from 184.06 to 7.96 g kg(-1) soil in 175 days. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes is a well-known phenomenon, but most microbes are unable to withstand the low pH conditions found in Digboi refinery. The strain C. digboiensis could efficiently degrade

  14. Biocontrol activity of four non- and low-fermenting yeast strains against Aspergillus carbonarius and their ability to remove ochratoxin A from grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Stefano; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Hammami, Walid; Razzu, Salvatorico; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2014-10-17

    Aspergillus spp. infection of grape may lead to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in processed beverages such as wine and grape juice. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the biocontrol potential of two non-fermenting (Cyberlindnera jadinii 273 and Candida friedrichii 778) and two low-fermenting (Candida intermedia 235 and Lachancea thermotolerans 751) yeast strains against the pathogenic fungus and OTA-producer Aspergillus carbonarius, and their ability to remove OTA from grape juice. Two strains, 235 and 751, showed a significant ability to inhibit A. carbonarius both on grape berries and in in vitro experiments. Neither their filtrate nor their autoclaved filtrate culture broth was able to prevent consistently pathogen growth. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by all four selected yeasts were likely able to consistently prevent pathogen sporulation in vitro. VOCs produced by the non-fermenting strain 778 also significantly reduced A. carbonarius vegetative growth. Three yeast strains (235, 751, and 778) efficiently adsorbed artificially spiked OTA from grape juice, while autoclaving treatment improved OTA adsorption capacity by all the four tested strains. Biological control of A. carbonarius and OTA-decontamination using yeast is proposed as an approach to meet the Islamic dietary laws concerning the absence of alcohol in halal beverages. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Sriwongchai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

  16. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

    2009-04-15

    The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed.

  18. Genetic analysis of D-xylose metabolism by endophytic yeast strains of Rhodotorula graminis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel endophytic yeast strains, WP1 and PTD3, isolated from within the stems of poplar (Populus trees, were genetically characterized with respect to their xylose metabolism genes. These two strains, belonging to the species Rhodotorula graminis and R. mucilaginosa, respectively, utilize both hexose and pentose sugars, including the common plant pentose sugar, D-xylose. The xylose reductase (XYL1 and xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2 genes were cloned and characterized. The derived amino acid sequences of xylose reductase (XR and xylose dehydrogenase (XDH were 32%~41% homologous to those of Pichia stipitis and Candida. spp., two species known to utilize xylose. The derived XR and XDH sequences of WP1 and PTD3 had higher homology (73% and 69% identity with each other. WP1 and PTD3 were grown in single sugar and mixed sugar media to analyze the XYL1 and XYL2 gene regulation mechanisms. Our results revealed that for both strains, the gene expression is induced by D-xylose, and that in PTD3 the expression was not repressed by glucose in the presence of xylose.

  19. Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading yeast Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 KCTC 11960BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M B H; Syed, M A; Shukor, M Y

    2012-10-01

    As well as for chemical and environmental reasons, acrylamide is widely used in many industrial applications. Due to its carcinogenicity and toxicity, its discharge into the environment causes adverse effects on humans and ecology alike. In this study, a novel acrylamide-degrading yeast has been isolated. The isolate was identified as Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 using ITS rRNA analysis. The results showed that the best carbon source for growth was glucose at 1.0% (w/v). The optimum acrylamide concentration, being a nitrogen source for cellular growth, was at 500 mg l(-1). The highest tolerable concentration of acrylamide was 1500 mg l(-1) whereas growth was completely inhibited at 2000 mg l(-1). At 500 mg l(-1), the strain MBH completely degraded acrylamide on day 5. Acrylic acid as a metabolite was detected in the media. Strain MBH23 grew well between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and between 27 and 30 °C. Amides such as 2-chloroacetamide, methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acrylamide, acetamide, and propionamide supported growth. Toxic heavy metals such as mercury, chromium, and cadmium inhibited growth on acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...... such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal...... specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial...

  1. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of global yeast quantitative proteome data generated from the wild-type and glucose repression Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: The comparison of two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Wohlschlegel, James; Venable, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The quantitative proteomic analysis of complex protein mixtures is emerging as a technically challenging but viable systems-level approach for studying cellular function. This study presents a large-scale comparative analysis of protein abundances from yeast protein lysates derived from both wild......-type yeast and yeast strains lacking key components of the Snf1 kinase complex. Four different strains were grown under well-controlled chemostat conditions. Multidimensional protein identification technology followed by quantitation using either spectral counting or stable isotope labeling approaches...... labeling strategy. The stable isotope labeling based quantitative approach was found to be highly reproducible among biological replicates when complex protein mixtures containing small expression changes were analyzed. Where poor correlation between stable isotope labeling and spectral counting was found...

  3. Generation of a Uracil Auxotroph Strain of the Probiotic Yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a Host for the Recombinant Protein Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Khorasanizadeh, Dorsa; Khalaj, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) is the best known probiotic yeast. The genetic engineering of this probiotic strain requires the availability of appropriate mutants to accept various gene constructs carrying different selection markers. As the auxotrophy selection markers are under focus, we have generated a ura3 auxotroph mutant of S. boulardii for use in further genetic manipulations. Methods Classical UV mutagenesis was used for the generation of auxotroph mutants. The mutants were selected in the presence of 5-FOA (5-Fluoroorotic acid), uracil and uridine. Uracil auxotrophy phenotype was confirmed by the ability of mutants to grow in the presence of uracil and the lack of growth in the absence of this compound. To test whether the uracil auxotrophy phenotype is due to the inactivation of URA3, the mutants were transformed with a plasmid carrying the gene. An in vitro assay was used for the analysis of acid and bile resistance capacity of these mutants. Results Three mutants were found to be ura3 auxotroph as they were able to grow only in the presence of uracil. When the URA3 gene was added, these mutants were able to grow normally in the absence of uracil. Further in vitro analysis showed that the acid and bile resistance capacity of one of these mutants is intact and similar to the wild type. Conclusion A uracil auxotroph mutant of the probiotic yeast, S. boulardii, was generated and characterized. This auxotroph strain may have potential applications in the production and delivery of the recombinant pharmacuetics into the intestinal lumen. PMID:23626874

  4. Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-12-01

    Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole cells and cell-free extracts, were carried out to determine the best time to harvest cells for use as an inoculum in cider. Cells harvested at the late exponential phase, the physiological stage of growth corresponding to the maximum values of specific malolactic activity, achieved a good rate of malic acid degradation in controlled cider fermentation. Under the laboratory conditions used, malic acid degradation rates in the fermentation media turned out to be near 2.0 and 2.5 times lower, compared with the rates obtained in whole-cell enzymatic assays, as useful data applicable to industrial cider production.

  5. Gentamicin-Containing Peptone-Yeast Extract Medium for Cocultivation of Hartmannella vermiformis ATCC 50256 and Virulent Strains of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Wang, L; Laus, S; Dowling, J N; Kuchta, J M; States, S J; Yee, R B

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the use of peptone-yeast extract (PY) medium, different strains of Hartmannella vermiformis, and gentamicin in a coculture system to improve the discrimination of virulent and avirulent strains of Legionella pneumophila. H. vermiformis ATCC 50256 was unique among four strains of H. vermiformis, in that it multiplied equally well in Medium 1034 and PY medium (Medium 1034 without fetal calf serum, folic acid, hemin, and yeast nucleic acid and with a 50% reduction of peptone). However, both a virulent strain of L. pneumophila and its avirulent derivative strain multiplied in cocultures when PY medium was used. The multiplication of this avirulent strain was greatly reduced by incorporating gentamicin (1 (mu)g/ml) into the cocultivation system. Five virulent-avirulent sets of L. pneumophila strains were then tested for multiplication in cocultures with H. vermiformis ATCC 50256 and the gentamicin-containing PY medium. Only the virulent strains multiplied. The modified cocultivation system can discriminate between virulent and avirulent strains of L. pneumophila.

  6. Overexpression of a homogeneous oligosaccharide with {sup 13}C labeling by genetically engineered yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Sayoko [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science (Japan); Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Research Center for Medical Glycoscience (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: kkatonmr@ims.ac.jp [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    This report describes a novel method for overexpression of {sup 13}C-labeled oligosaccharides using genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, in which a homogeneous high-mannose-type oligosaccharide accumulates because of deletions of genes encoding three enzymes involved in the processing pathway of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in the Golgi complex. Using uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled glucose as the sole carbon source in the culture medium of these engineered yeast cells, high yields of the isotopically labeled Man{sub 8}GlcNAc{sub 2} oligosaccharide could be successfully harvested from glycoprotein extracts of the cells. Furthermore, {sup 13}C labeling at selected positions of the sugar residues in the oligosaccharide could be achieved using a site-specific {sup 13}C-enriched glucose as the metabolic precursor, facilitating NMR spectral assignments. The {sup 13}C-labeling method presented provides the technical basis for NMR analyses of structures, dynamics, and interactions of larger, branched oligosaccharides.

  7. Identification by PCR and evaluation of probiotic potential in yeast strains found in kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CASSANEGO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kefir is a product elaborated from the symbiotic fermentation of different microorganisms. The Kluyveromyces and Saccharomyces genera are the major representatives of the yeasts found in kefir microbiota. The only pobiotic yeast commercialized as an oral medication, is the Saccharomyces boulardii. The present work involved the microbiological quality examination of six kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria/RS, the yeasts isolation present in the samples and the identification of them by PCR (Polymerase chain reaction. Then, their probiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro technique. After that, microbiological analysis confirmed that kefir samples were suitable for consumption once the microbiological quality was established. Nineteen yeast strains were isolated from six different kefir samples; it was identified, by PCR analysis, but only three species were identified from these microorganisms in the present article: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniospora uvarum and Kazachstania unispora. Nevertheless, by simulating the passage of isolated strains through the gastrointestinal environment, it was observed that they could not be considered probiotics. The results indicate that, in an isolated way, the yeast presents in kefir samples, in the city of Santa Maria, RS, can´t be considered probiotics according to the tests performed.

  8. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  9. Ethanol-Independent Biofilm Formation by a Flor Wine Yeast Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Severino; Gross, Michael K.; Zara, Giacomo; Budroni, Marilena; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2010-01-01

    Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids. PMID:20435772

  10. Ethanol-independent biofilm formation by a flor wine yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Severino; Gross, Michael K; Zara, Giacomo; Budroni, Marilena; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2010-06-01

    Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids.

  11. Methyl Red Decolorization Efficiency of a Korea Strain of Aspergillus sp. Immobilized into Different Polymeric Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang-Min

    2017-07-01

      Intensive research studies have revealed that fungal decolorization of dye wastewater is a promising replacement for the current process of dye wastewater decolorization. The authors isolated an Aspergillus sp. from the effluent of a textile industry area in Korea and assessed the effects of a variety of operational parameters on the decolorization of methyl red (MR) by this strain of Aspergillus sp. This Aspergillus sp. was then immobilized by entrapment in several polymeric matrices and the effects of operational conditions on MR decolorization were investigated again. The optimal decolorization activity of this Aspergillus sp. was observed in 1% glucose at a temperature of 37 °C and pH of 6.0. Furthermore, stable decolorization efficiency was observed when fungal biomass was immobilized into alginate gel during repeated batch experiment. These results suggest that the Aspergillus sp. isolated in Korea could be used to treat industrial wastewaters containing MR dye.

  12. A Novel Reporter Rat Strain That Conditionally Expresses the Bright Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Igarashi

    Full Text Available Despite the strength of the Cre/loxP recombination system in animal models, its application in rats trails that in mice because of the lack of relevant reporter strains. Here, we generated a floxed STOP tdTomato rat that conditionally expresses a red fluorescent protein variant (tdTomato in the presence of exogenous Cre recombinase. The tdTomato signal vividly visualizes neurons including their projection fibers and spines without any histological enhancement. In addition, a transgenic rat line (FLAME that ubiquitously expresses tdTomato was successfully established by injecting intracytoplasmic Cre mRNA into fertilized ova. Our rat reporter system will facilitate connectome studies as well as the visualization of the fine structures of genetically identified cells for long periods both in vivo and ex vivo. Furthermore, FLAME is an ideal model for organ transplantation research owing to improved traceability of cells/tissues.

  13. Effects of the strain background and autolysis process on the composition and biophysical properties of the cell wall from two different industrial yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Marion; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Castex, Mathieu; Dague, Etienne; Marie François, Jean

    2015-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface is endowed with some relevant technological properties, notably antimicrobial and biosorption activities. For these purposes, yeasts are usually processed and packaged in an 'autolysed/dried' formula, which may have some impacts on cell surface properties. In this report, we showed using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and molecular methods that the composition of the cell wall of two wine yeast strains was not altered by the autolysis process. In contrast, this process altered the nanomechanical properties as shown by a 2- to 4-fold increased surface roughness and to a higher adhesion to the atomic force microscope tips of the autolysed cells as compared to live yeast cells. Besides, we found that the two strains harboured differences in biomechanical properties that could be due in part to higher levels of mannan in one of them, and to the fact that the surface of this mannan-enriched strain is decorated with highly adhesive patches forming nanodomains. The presence of these nanodomains could be correlated with the upregulation of flocculin encoding FLO11 as well as to higher expression of few other genes encoding cell wall mannoproteins in this mannan-enriched strain as compared to the other strain. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  14. Thailandins A and B, New Polyene Macrolactone Compounds Isolated from Actinokineospora bangkokensis Strain 44EHW(T), Possessing Antifungal Activity against Anthracnose Fungi and Pathogenic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Greule, Anja; Bechthold, Andreas; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Paululat, Thomas; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-06-29

    Two new polyene macrolactone antibiotics, thailandins A, 1, and B, 2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of rhizosphere soil-associated Actinokineospora bangkokensis strain 44EHW(T). The new compounds from this strain were purified using semipreparative HPLC and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration while following an antifungal activity guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. These compounds demonstrated broad spectrum antifungal activity against fungi causing anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides DoA d0762, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes DoA c1060, and Colletotrichum capsici DoA c1511) as well as pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans MT 2013/1, Candida parasilopsis DKMU 434, and Cryptococcus neoformans MT 2013/2) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 16 and 32 μg/mL. This is the first report of polyene antibiotics produced by Actinokineospora species as bioactive compounds against anthracnose fungi and pathogenic yeast strains.

  15. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality.

  16. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by yeasts and cell wall extracts: strain dependence and unexpected anti-inflammatory role of glucan fractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Jawhara

    Full Text Available Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4, as well as mannoprotein (MP and β-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified β-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNFα and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas β-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified β-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that β-glucan fractions or pure β-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the

  17. Genetic analysis of gamma-ray mutagenesis in yeast. I. Reversion in radiation-sensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.; Lawrence, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of revertants induced by 60 Co γ rays of the ochre allele, cyc1-9, has been measured in radiation-sensitive strains carrying one of 19 nonallelic mutations and in wild-type strains. The results indicate that ionizing radiation mutagenesis depends on the activity of the RAD6 group of genes and that the gene functions employed are very similar, but probably not identical, to those that mediate uv mutagenesis. Repair activities dependent on the functions of the RAD50 through RAD57 loci, the major pathway for the repair of damage caused by ionizing radiation, do not appear to play any part in mutagenesis. A comparison between the γ-ray data and those obtained previously with uv and chemical mutagens suggests that the RAD6 mutagenic pathway is in fact composed of a set of processes, some of which are concerned with error-prone, and some with error-free, recovery activities

  18. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus for primary hyperlipidemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimsgaard Sameline

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extracts of Chinese red yeast rice (RYR, a traditional dietary seasoning of Monascus purpureus contains several active ingredients including lovastatin, and several trials of its possible lipid-lowering effects have been conducted. This meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness and safety of RYR preparations on lipid modification in primary hyperlipidemia. We included randomized controlled trials testing RYR preparation, compared with placebo, no treatment, statins, or other active lipid-lowering agents in people with hyperlipidemia through searching PubMed, CBMdisk, TCMLARS, the Cochrane Library, and AMED up to December 2004. Ninety-three randomized trials (9625 participants were included and three RYR preparations (Cholestin, Xuezhikang and Zhibituo were tested. The methodological quality of trial reports was generally low in terms of generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and intention-to-treat. The combined results showed significant reduction of serum total cholesterol levels (weighted mean difference -0.91 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -1.12 to -0.71, triglycerides levels (-0.41 mmol/L, -0.6 to -0.22, and LDL-cholesterol levels (-0.73 mmol/L, -1.02 to -0.043, and increase of HDL-cholesterol levels (0.15 mmol/L, 0.09 to 0.22 by RYR treatment compared with placebo. The lipid modification effects appeared to be similar to pravastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, or fluvastatin. Compared with non-statin lipid lowering agents, RYR preparations appeared superior to nicotinate and fish oils, but equal to or less effective than fenofibrate and gemfibrozil. No significant difference in lipid profile was found between Xuezhikang and Zhibituo. RYR preparations were associated with non-serious adverse effects such as dizziness and gastrointestinal discomfort. Current evidence shows short-term beneficial effects of RYR preparations on lipid modification. More rigorous trials are needed, and long

  19. Cloning and characterization of iron-superoxide dismutase in Antarctic yeast strain Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guangfeng; Wen, Hua; Wang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Ting; Shi, Cuijuan

    2017-08-01

    A novel superoxide dismutase gene from Antarctic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5 was cloned, sequenced, and then expressed in Escherichia coli. The R. mucilaginosa AN5 SOD (RmFeSOD) gene was 639 bp open reading frame in length, which encoded a protein of 212 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 23.5 kDa and a pI of 7.89. RmFeSOD was identified as iron SOD type with a natural status of homodimer. The recombinant RmFeSOD showed good pH stability in the pH 1.0-9.0 after 1 h incubation. Meanwhile, it was found to behave relatively high thermostability, and maintained more than 80% activity at 50 °C for 1 h. By addition of 1 mM metal ions, the enzyme activity increased by Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Fe 3+ , and inhibited only by Mg 2+ . RmFeSOD showed relatively low tolerance to some compounds, such as PMSF, SDS, Tween-80, Triton X-100, DMSO, β-ME, and urea. However, DTT showed no inhibition to enzyme activity. Using copper stress experiment, the RmFeSOD recombinant E. coli exhibited better growth than non-recombinant bacteria, which revealed that RmFeSOD might play an important role in the adaptability of heavy metals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Mutated Yeast Strain with Enhanced Ethanol Production Efficiency and Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Hemmati1*, David A. Lightfoot1,2, and Ahmed Fakhoury3

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategies to improve and optimize bio-ethanolproduction from new feed stocks is to develop new strainsof Saccharomyces cerevisiae with tolerance to stresses. Themain objectives here were to; generate S. cerevisiae mutantstolerant to high ethanol concentrations; test for their abilityto ferment maize starch; and partially characterize the mutationsresponsible for the new phenotypes. A combinationof mutagenesis, selection and cross-stress protection methodswere used. EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate was used tomutagenize one S. cerevisiae strain. The mutagenized yeaststrain was exposed to high concentrations of ethanol andtolerant mutants were isolated. Mutants showed improvedethanol yield (0.02-0.03 g/g of maize and fermentation efficiency(3-5%. Finally, AFLP (Amplified Fragment LengthPolymorphism was performed to identify polymorphisms inthe mutants that might underlie the strains ethanol tolerance.The best performing mutant isolate had four altered genetranscripts encoding; an arginine uptake and canavanine resistanceprotein (CAN1; mitochondrial membrane proteins(SLS1; a putative membrane glycoprotein (VTH1; and cytochromeC oxidase (COX6; EC 1.9.3.1 among about 1,000tested. It was concluded these mutations might underlie theimproved ethanol production efficiency and stress tolerance.

  1. Murine FATP alleviates growth and biochemical deficiencies of yeast fat1Delta strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirusso, C C; Connell, E J; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2000-01-01

    following incubation of the cells with exogenous oleate. Expression of either Fat1p or murine FATP from a plasmid in a fat1Delta strain restored these phenotypic and biochemical deficiencies. Fat1p and FATP restored growth of fat1Delta cells in the presence of cerulenin and under hypoxic conditions....... Furthermore, fatty-acid transport was restored and was found to be chain length specific: octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid was transported in a Fat1p- and FATP-independent manner while the long-chain fatty acids myristate, palmitate, and oleate required either Fat1p or FATP for maximal levels of transport....... Lignoceryl CoA synthetase activities were restored to wild-type levels in fat1Delta strains expressing either Fat1p or FATP. Fat1p or FATP also restored wild-type levels of beta-oxidation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. These data show that Fat1p and FATP are functionally equivalent when expressed...

  2. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  3. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn; Mori, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying α-amylase (α-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and β-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley β-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes.

  4. A combinatorial approach to synthetic transcription factor-promoter combinations for yeast strain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossani, Zain Y.; Apel, Amanda Reider; Szmidt-Middleton, Heather

    2018-01-01

    regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein....... Correspondingly, the synthetic transcription factor (TF) consists of the DNA binding domain of the LexA protein, fused with the human estrogen binding domain and the viral activator domain, VP16. The resulting system with a bacterial DNA binding domain avoids the transcription of native S. cerevisiae genes...... levels, using the same synthetic TF and a given estradiol. This set of promoters, in combination with our synthetic TF, has the potential to regulate numerous genes or pathways simultaneously, to multiple desired levels, in a single strain....

  5. Calcium alginate as an eco-friendly supporting material for Baker’s yeast strain in chromium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mahmoud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Baker’s yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass was immobilized in alginate extract 3% forming Biomass/Polymer Matrices Beads (BPMB. These beads were investigated for chromium biosorption from aqueous solution. Factors such as solution pH, contact times, temperature values, stirring rates, BPMB dosages and initial chromium ions concentrations were experimentally tested using repeated-batch process to determine the sorption capacity for chromium (VI ions. Batch experiments were conducted at pH range from 1.5 to 7.5. The optimum pH value was 3.5 for direct chromium removal. The effect of chromium concentration was studied using different concentrations from 200 to 1000 ppm. Freundlich’s isothermal model showed better representation of data than Langmuir’s isothermal model with correlation coefficient 0.922. The maximum biosorption capacity of chromium was found to be 154 mg g−1 at initial concentration 200 ppm under optimum conditions. At the end of the experiments, BPMB were investigated for chromium biosorption from tannery effluent sample. Results showed decrease in chromium concentration up to 85%. The availability of recycling of the BPMB was also studied for three subsequent cycles. The surface sequestration of metal ions by BPMB was characterized before and after metal binding using a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA and FTIR spectroscopy in order to determine the mechanisms of chromium biosorption.

  6. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkaline-pretreated corn stover to ethanol using a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Bio-ethanol converted from cheap and abundant lignocellulosic materials is a potential renewable resource to replace depleting fossil fuels. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of alkaline-pretreated corn stover for the production of ethanol was investigated using a recombinant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Low cellobiase activity in Trichoderma reesei cellulase resulted in cellobiose accumulation. Supplementing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation system with cellobiase greatly reduced feedback inhibition caused by cellobiose to the cellulase reaction, thereby increased the ethanol yield. 12 h of enzymatic prehydrolysis at 50 C prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was found to have a negative effect on the overall ethanol yield. Glucose and xylose produced from alkaline-pretreated corn stover could be co-fermented to ethanol effectively by S. cerevisiae ZU-10. An ethanol concentration of 27.8 g/L and the corresponding ethanol yield on carbohydrate in substrate of 0.350 g/g were achieved within 72 h at 33 C with 80 g/L of substrate and enzyme loadings of 20 filter paper activity units (FPU)/g substrate and 10 cellobiase units (CBU)/g substrate. The results are meaningful in co-conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulosic materials to fuel ethanol. (author)

  7. Study of puromycin and acridic orange strain effect on photoprotection of yeasts Candida guillermondii from the lethal action of short-wave ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Ya.; Strakhovskaya, M.G.; Rubvin, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis inhibitor of puromycin albumen has been used to establish that photoprotection formation in yeasts of a hypothetic compound which protects DNA from lethal damages, is not connected with macromolecular synthesis. The combined effect of photoprotective light and acridic orange strain on cells has been studied. It is shown that the mechanism in the base of the protector action is analogous to the mechanism of DNA protection with acridic orange

  8. Impact of process parameters on the sourdough microbiota, selection of suitable starter strains, and description of the novel yeast Cryptococcus thermophilus sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelmann, Stephanie Anke

    2013-01-01

    The microbiota of a ripe sourdough consists of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially of the genus Lactobacillus, and yeasts. Their composition is influenced by the interplay of species or strains, the kind of substrate as well as the process parameters temperature, dough yield, redox potential, refreshment time, and number of propagation steps (Hammes and Gänzle, 1997). As taste and quality of sourdough breads are mainly influenced by the fermentation microbiota, intense research has been fo...

  9. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a contact lens-induced acute red eye (CLARE) is protease-deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrellas, P S; Alionte, L G; Hobden, J A

    2000-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases are thought to be important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of corneal disease. This study examined protease production from two strains of P. aeruginosa responsible for two very distinct clinical diseases: strain Paer1, isolated from a Contact Lens-induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE), and strain KEI 1025, isolated from a corneal ulcer. Strains were compared to a laboratory strain (ATCC 19660) known to produce severe keratitis in experimentally infected mice for protease production and for ocular virulence. Protease production was examined with colorimetric assays, gelatin zymography and western blots. Elastase A activity was quantitated with a staphylolytic assay. Ocular virulence was examined using a mouse scratch model of keratitis. In contrast to strains KEI 1025 or ATCC 19660, Paer1 was unable to produce enzymatically active elastase A, elastase, and protease IV. All three strains produced active alkaline protease. Strains KEI 1025 and ATCC 19660 produced a fulminant keratitis in mice whereas Paer1 produced a mild transient infection. Restoration of elastase activity in Paer1 via genetic complementation did not result in a virulent phenotype. Co-infection of mouse eyes with strains Paer1 and ATCC 19660 resulted in the eventual loss of Paer1 from corneal tissue. These studies suggest that P. aeruginosa elastase A and/or protease IV, but not alkaline protease or elastase, contribute to the ocular virulence of this organism.

  10. Microarray data analyses of yeast RNA Pol I subunit RPA12 deletion strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Kumar Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ribosomal RNA (rRNA biosynthesis is the most energy consuming process in all living cells and the majority of total transcription activity is dedicated for synthesizing rRNA. The cells may adjust the synthesis of rRNA with the availability of resources. rRNA is mainly synthesized by RNA polymerase I that is composed of 14 subunits. Deletion of RPA12, 14, 39 and 49 are viable. RPA12 is a very small protein (13.6 kDa, and the amount of protein in the cells is very high (12,000 molecules per cell, but the role of this protein is unknown in other cellular metabolic processes (Kulak et al., 2014 [1]. RPA12 consists of two zinc-binding domains and it is required for the termination of rRNA synthesis (Mullem et al., 2002 [2]. Deletions of RPA12 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cause a conditional growth defect (Nogi et al., 1993 [3]. In S. pombe, C-terminal deletion behaves like wild-type (Imazawa et al., 2001 [4]. This prompted us to investigate in detail the physiological role of RPA12 in S. cerevisiae, we performed the microarray of rpa12∆ strain and deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under GSE68731. The analysis of microarray data revealed that the expression of major cellular metabolism genes is high. The amino acid biosynthesis, nonpolar lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolic genes are highly expressed. The analyses also revealed that the rpa12∆ cells have an uncontrolled synthesis of cell metabolites, so RPA12 could be a master regulator for whole cellular metabolism.

  11. Characterization of a novel yeast species Metschnikowia persimmonesis KCTC 12991BP (KIOM G15050 type strain) isolated from a medicinal plant, Korean persimmon calyx (Diospyros kaki Thumb)

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Young Min; Choi, Ji Eun; Komakech, Richard; Park, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Dae Wook; Cho, Kye Man; Kang, Seung Mi; Choi, Sang Haeng; Song, Kun Chul; Ryu, Chung Min; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The yeast strain Metschnikowia persimmonesis Kang and Choi et al., sp. nov. [type strain KIOM_G15050 = Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 12991BP] was isolated from the stalk of native persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki Thumb) obtained from different regions of South Korea and was characterized phenotypically, genetically, and physiologically. The isolate grew between 4 and 40 °C (optimum temperature: 24–28 °C), pH 3–8 (pH optimum = 6.0), and in 0–4% NaCl solution (with optimal growt...

  12. Oxygen availability and strain combination modulate yeast growth dynamics in mixed culture fermentations of grape must with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezos, Vasileios; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Lambri, Milena; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast that has been proposed as a co-inoculant of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in mixed culture fermentations to enhance the analytical composition of the wines. In order to acquire further knowledge on the metabolic interactions between these two species, in this study we investigated the impact of oxygen addition and combination of Starm. bacillaris with S. cerevisiae strains on the microbial growth and metabolite production. Fermentations were carried out under two different conditions of oxygen availability. Oxygen availability and strain combination clearly influenced the population dynamics throughout the fermentation. Oxygen concentration increased the survival time of Starm. bacillaris and decreased the growth rate of S. cerevisiae strains in mixed culture fermentations, whereas it did not affect the growth of the latter in pure culture fermentations. This study reveals new knowledge about the influence of oxygen availability on the successional evolution of yeast species during wine fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax avenae Strain T10_61 Associated with Sugarcane Red Stripe in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia A.; Bassi, Daniela; Puglisi, Edoardo; Salazar, Sergio M.; Vignolo, Graciela M.; Coccocelli, Pier S.

    2016-01-01

    Red stripe of sugarcane in Argentina is a bacterial disease caused by Acidovorax avenae. The genome sequence from the first isolate of this bacterium in Argentina is presented here. The draft genome of the A. avenae T10_61 strain contains 5,646,552 bp and has a G+C content of 68.6 mol%. PMID:26847889

  14. Yeast Monitoring of Wine Mixed or Sequential Fermentations Made by Native Strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Margarita; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Crespo, Julia; Cabellos, Juan M.; Arroyo, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing trend toward understanding the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the winemaking process. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant species at the end of fermentation, it has been recognized that the presence of non-Saccharomyces species during alcoholic fermentation can produce an improvement in the quality and complexity of the final wines. A previous work was developed for selecting the best combinations between S. cerevisiae and five non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida stellata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Lachancea thermotolorans) native yeast strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” at the laboratory scale. The best inoculation strategies between S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains were chosen to analyze, by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) combined with the use of specific primers, the dynamics of inoculated populations throughout the fermentation process at the pilot scale using the Malvar white grape variety. The efficiency of the qPCR system was verified independently of the samples matrix, founding the inoculated yeast species throughout alcoholic fermentation. Finally, we can validate the positive effect of selected co-cultures in the Malvar wine quality, highlighting the sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii CLI 918/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and C. stellata CLI 920/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and, mixed and sequential cultures of L. thermotolerans 9-6C combined with S. cerevisiae CLI 889. PMID:29326669

  15. Yeast Monitoring of Wine Mixed or Sequential Fermentations Made by Native Strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing trend toward understanding the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the winemaking process. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant species at the end of fermentation, it has been recognized that the presence of non-Saccharomyces species during alcoholic fermentation can produce an improvement in the quality and complexity of the final wines. A previous work was developed for selecting the best combinations between S. cerevisiae and five non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida stellata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Lachancea thermotolorans native yeast strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” at the laboratory scale. The best inoculation strategies between S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains were chosen to analyze, by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR combined with the use of specific primers, the dynamics of inoculated populations throughout the fermentation process at the pilot scale using the Malvar white grape variety. The efficiency of the qPCR system was verified independently of the samples matrix, founding the inoculated yeast species throughout alcoholic fermentation. Finally, we can validate the positive effect of selected co-cultures in the Malvar wine quality, highlighting the sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii CLI 918/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and C. stellata CLI 920/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and, mixed and sequential cultures of L. thermotolerans 9-6C combined with S. cerevisiae CLI 889.

  16. Comparisons of radiosensitivity and damage repair potential between mutants from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of yeast and laboratory-bred wild yeasts with particular attention being given to giant cell formation after X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast cells were exposed to X-rays at dose levels up to 10 kGy to induce damage to the DNA and investigate its effects on cellular growth patterns. For this purpose, comparisons were carried out between one diploid strain and six haploid strains of the Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species, which permitted the individual recovery and damage repair pathways to be described in more detail. The laboratory-bred wild strains ATCC 9080, 211 and 706 were judged to have unimpaired repair mechanisms as compared to the auxotrophs, which fact was evident from the higher radiosensitivity of the latter. A further parameter in this evaluation of growth behaviours was giant cell formation. The results here provided evidence in confirmation of deviations between wild strains and mutants. Even though the ceiling values for the formation of giant cells were similarly high in all strains, impairments of cell division and initial development were observed for the mutants already at considerably lower dose levels. (orig./MG) [de

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food, monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect......, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations has already been assessed with a favourable outcome at daily intakes of 10 mg monacolin K from any red...... on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  18. Effect of 905 MHz microwave radiation on colony growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains FF18733, FF1481 and D7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, Ivana; Hrascan, Reno; Franekic, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weak radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by mobile phones on colony growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae strains FF18733 (wild-type), FF1481 (rad1 mutant) and D7 (commonly used to detect reciprocal and nonreciprocal mitotic recombinations) were exposed to a 905 MHz electromagnetic field that closely matched the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) pulse modulation signals for mobile phones at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.12 W/kg. Following 15-, 30- and 60-minutes exposure to RF/MW radiation, strain FF18733 did not show statistically significant changes in colony growth compared to the control sample. The irradiated strains FF1481 and D7 demonstrated statistically significant reduction of colony growth compared to non-irradiated strains after all exposure times. Furthermore, strain FF1481 was more sensitive to RF/MW radiation than strain D7. The findings indicate that pulsed RF/MW radiation at a low SAR level can affect the rate of colony growth of different S. cerevisiae strains

  19. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  20. Arabian Plate Deformation: The role of inherited structures in the localization of strain in the Red Sea extensional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaajani, T.; Furlong, K.; Malservisi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea rift structural architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading (with creation of new oceanic crust) in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21 ° latitude. The region of diffuse extension falls within a triangle that is bounded to the east by the Sarhan graben, (a Cenozoic failed rift), to the west by the northern Red Sea Rift, and to the south by the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. Geological observations appear to show that tectonic stresses acting on inherited structures within the NW Arabian margin are associated with the region of diffuse extension. In contrast, in the southern Red Sea, a single strong block within the SW Arabian margin led to localize the extension there. Using current velocities from more than 30 GNSS stations distributed within the Arabian plate, we are able to map its rigidity and the distribution of strain along the plate margin. The data show that the transition between the two styles of extension within the Red Sea (crustal accretion vs crustal extension) corresponds with a transition between rigid behavior and diffuse extension within the Arabian Plate. This suggests that the preexisting structures within the Arabian plate play a significant role in the style of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  1. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2013-02-12

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  2. Bactericidal activity of culture fluid components of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3, and their capacity to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, I V; Kravtsov, E G; Protsenko, A V; Yashina, N V; Yermolaev, A V; Chesnokova, V L; Dalin, M V

    2007-03-01

    Antagonistic activities of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21), L. casei ATCC 27216, and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and bactericidal activity of lactobacillus culture fluid towards E. coli strain K12, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis test cultures were studied. The bactericidal effect of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation (pH 6.0) on the test cultures was dose-dependent. Adhesion of C. albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epitheliocytes was more pronounced for strains isolated from women with asymptomatic infection than for strains isolated from women with manifest forms. L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation modulated adhesion of yeast-like fungi only if the fungal strain was initially highly adherent.

  3. Characterization of a novel yeast species Metschnikowia persimmonesis KCTC 12991BP (KIOM G15050 type strain) isolated from a medicinal plant, Korean persimmon calyx (Diospyros kaki Thumb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Min; Choi, Ji Eun; Komakech, Richard; Park, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Dae Wook; Cho, Kye Man; Kang, Seung Mi; Choi, Sang Haeng; Song, Kun Chul; Ryu, Chung Min; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2017-11-10

    The yeast strain Metschnikowia persimmonesis Kang and Choi et al., sp. nov. [type strain KIOM_G15050 = Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 12991BP] was isolated from the stalk of native persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki Thumb) obtained from different regions of South Korea and was characterized phenotypically, genetically, and physiologically. The isolate grew between 4 and 40 °C (optimum temperature: 24-28 °C), pH 3-8 (pH optimum = 6.0), and in 0-4% NaCl solution (with optimal growth in absence of NaCl). It also exhibited strong antibiotic and antimicrobial activities. Morphologically, cells were characterized by the presence of long, needle-shaped ascospores. Based on 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequence analysis, the new species was found to belong to the genus Metschnikowia as a sister clade of Metschnikowia fructicola. We therefore conclude that this yeast isolate from D. kaki is a new member of the genus Metschnikowia and propose the name M. persimmonesis sp. nov. This strain has been deposited in the KCTC for future reference. This discovery provides a basis for future research on M. persimmonesis sp. nov., including its possible contribution to the medicinal properties of the host persimmon plant.

  4. The effect of Maillard reaction products and yeast strain on the synthesis of key higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Rachael E; Black, Gary W; Koutsidis, Georgios; Usher, St John

    2017-10-01

    The effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), formed during the production of dark malts, on the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. Higher alcohol levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in dark malt fermentations, while the synthesis of esters was inhibited, due to possible suppression of enzyme activity and/or gene expression linked to ester synthesis. Yeast strain also affected flavour synthesis with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A01 producing considerably lower levels of higher alcohols and esters than S288c and L04. S288c produced approximately double the higher alcohol levels and around twenty times more esters compared to L04. Further investigations into malt type-yeast strain interactions in relation to flavour development are required to gain better understanding of flavour synthesis that could assist in the development of new products and reduce R&D costs for the industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of yeast macromolecules on sweetness in dry wines: role of the saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Hsp12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Axel; Marullo, Philippe; Moine, Virginie; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2011-03-09

    Yeast autolysis during lees contact influences the organoleptic properties of wines especially by increasing their sweet taste. Although observed by winemakers, this phenomenon is poorly explained in enology. Moreover, the compounds responsible for sweetness in wine remain unidentified. This work provides new insights in this way by combining sensorial, biochemical and genetic approaches. First, we verified by sensory analysis that yeast autolysis in red wine has a significant effect on sweetness. Moderate additions of ethanol or glycerol did not have the same effect. Second, a sapid fraction was isolated from lees extracts by successive ultrafiltrations and HPLC purifications. Using nano-LC-MS/MS, peptides released by the yeast heat shock protein Hsp12p were distinctly identified in this sample. Third, we confirmed the sweet contribution of this protein by sensorial comparison of red wines incubated with two kinds of yeast strains: a wild-type strain containing the native Hsp12p and a deletion mutant strain that lacks the Hsp12p protein (Δ°HSP12 strain). Red wines incubated with wild-type strain showed a significantly higher sweetness than control wines incubated with Δ°HSP12 strains. These results demonstrated the contribution of protein Hsp12p in the sweet perception consecutive to yeast autolysis in wine.

  6. The effect of inactivated yeast-based products on the process of wine aging, phenolic compounds and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malićanin Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keeping of red wine in bottles is very important for its maturation and quality. However, there are numerous changes that happen during that period, usually caused by oxidative processes and changes in structure and content of polyphenolic compounds. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Inactivated dry yeast (IDY products on aging, phenolics content, colour stability and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac (Serbian autochthonous variety. The treatment of wine was done by 3 different IDYP (Lallemand, Canada: Optimum White, Opti Less and Noblesse, applied as 0.2 g/L and 0.4 g /L during 15 days. Subsequently, wine clarification was done, followed by filtration and bottling. Untreated wines were used for comparison. Wine was subjected to accelerated aging (10 days at 55 ° C and also to normal aging conditions during one year. To determine the influence of IDYP following parameters were monitored: dissolved O2, free and total SO2, sugar free extract, content of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, percent of polymeric color, color tint, color intensity and sensory characteristics (Panel method. The obtained results clearly show that IDY products are good scavengers of oxygen and have a positive impact on wine quality preservation and its organoleptic characteristics. However, a slight decrease of polyphenols content was detected.

  7. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sulfites help limit growth of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, SO2 has been reported to decrease cell size, thereby potentially decreasing the porosities of filtration membranes required for removal. B. bruxellensis strains B1b and F3 were inoculated into red wines and after 12 days, half th...

  8. Genome-scale Evaluation of the Biotechnological Potential of Red Sea Bacilli Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K.

    2018-01-01

    production of industrial enzymes has encouraged the screening of new environments for efficient microbial cell factories. The unique ecological niche of the Red Sea points to the promising metabolic and biosynthetic potential of its microbial system. Here

  9. A loss-of-function mutation in the PAS kinase Rim15p is related to defective quiescence entry and high fermentation rates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Araki, Yuya; Zhou, Yan; Maeya, Naoki; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Sake yeast cells have defective entry into the quiescent state, allowing them to sustain high fermentation rates. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we investigated the PAS kinase Rim15p, which orchestrates initiation of the quiescence program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that Rim15p is truncated at the carboxyl terminus in modern sake yeast strains as a result of a frameshift mutation. Introduction of this mutation or deletion of the full-length RIM15 gene in a laboratory strain led to a defective stress response, decreased synthesis of the storage carbohydrates trehalose and glycogen, and impaired G(1) arrest, which together closely resemble the characteristic phenotypes of sake yeast. Notably, expression of a functional RIM15 gene in a modern sake strain suppressed all of these phenotypes, demonstrating that dysfunction of Rim15p prevents sake yeast cells from entering quiescence. Moreover, loss of Rim15p or its downstream targets Igo1p and Igo2p remarkably improved the fermentation rate in a laboratory strain. This finding verified that Rim15p-mediated entry into quiescence plays pivotal roles in the inhibition of ethanol fermentation. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene may be the key genetic determinant of the increased ethanol production rates in modern sake yeast strains.

  10. The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Abigail K P; Williamson, Neil R; Slater, Holly

    2004-01-01

    The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from two strains of Serratia (S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. Sequence analysis of the respective pig clusters revealed 14 ORFs in S. marcescens ATCC 274...... and 15 ORFs in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. In each Serratia species, predicted gene products showed similarity to polyketide synthases (PKSs), non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the Red proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Comparisons between the two Serratia pig clusters and the red cluster...... from Str. coelicolor A3(2) revealed some important differences. A modified scheme for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, based on the pathway recently suggested for the synthesis of undecylprodigiosin, is proposed. The distribution of the pig cluster within several Serratia sp. isolates is demonstrated...

  11. Fission yeast strains with circular chromosomes require the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex for the viability in response to the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorodeoxyuridine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad Shamim

    Full Text Available Thymidine kinase converts 5-fluorodeoxyuridine to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, which causes disruption of deoxynucleotide triphosphate ratios. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not express endogenous thymidine kinase but 5-fluorodeoxyuridine inhibits growth when exogenous thymidine kinase is expressed. Unexpectedly, we found that 5-fluorodeoxyuridine causes S phase arrest even without thymidine kinase expression. DNA damage checkpoint proteins such as the 9-1-1 complex were required for viability in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. We also found that strains with circular chromosomes, due to loss of pot1+, which have higher levels of replication stress, were more sensitive to loss of the 9-1-1 complex in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. Thus, our results suggest that strains carrying circular chromosomes exhibit a greater dependence on DNA damage checkpoints to ensure viability in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine compared to stains that have linear chromosomes.

  12. Fission yeast strains with circular chromosomes require the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex for the viability in response to the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorodeoxyuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Hossain Mohammad; Minami, Yukako; Tanaka, Daiki; Ukimori, Shinobu; Murray, Johanne M; Ueno, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Thymidine kinase converts 5-fluorodeoxyuridine to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, which causes disruption of deoxynucleotide triphosphate ratios. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not express endogenous thymidine kinase but 5-fluorodeoxyuridine inhibits growth when exogenous thymidine kinase is expressed. Unexpectedly, we found that 5-fluorodeoxyuridine causes S phase arrest even without thymidine kinase expression. DNA damage checkpoint proteins such as the 9-1-1 complex were required for viability in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. We also found that strains with circular chromosomes, due to loss of pot1+, which have higher levels of replication stress, were more sensitive to loss of the 9-1-1 complex in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. Thus, our results suggest that strains carrying circular chromosomes exhibit a greater dependence on DNA damage checkpoints to ensure viability in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine compared to stains that have linear chromosomes.

  13. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain XI10 Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan; Haroon, Mohamed; Zhang, Ruifu; Hikmawan, Tyas I.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain XI10 was isolated from the brine-seawater interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain XI10, a gammaproteobacterium that synthesizes polysaccharides for biofilm formation when grown in liquid culture.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain XI10 Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan

    2016-03-10

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain XI10 was isolated from the brine-seawater interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain XI10, a gammaproteobacterium that synthesizes polysaccharides for biofilm formation when grown in liquid culture.

  16. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %.

  17. Yeast Population Dynamics in Spontaneous and Inoculated Alcoholic Fermentations of Zametovka Must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculated fermentations, which are more rapid and more reliable than spontaneous fermentations, and assure predictable wine quality, are nowadays prevalent in Slovenia’s large-scale wine production. However, spontaneous fermentation strengthens local characteristics of wine and offers opportunities for technological innovation. In the 1999 vintage, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Zametovka (Vitis vinifera grape must were studied. Zametovka is the main red variety in production of traditional Slovene red blend wine, Cvicek. The diversity of yeast species and strains in both of the investigated fermentations was determined by molecular and traditional identification methods. The outset of alcoholic fermentation, yeast growth kinetics, and yeast population dynamics presents the main differences between the examined fermentations. Yeast population diversity was higher in the spontaneous process. Dominant yeast isolates from spontaneous fermentation were identified as Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whereas Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranifaciens and Torulaspora delbrueckiim were found less frequently. Dominant species in the inoculated fermentation was Saccharomyces cerevisiae; other species found in smaller numbers were Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii. Using PFGE, we were able to distinguish among 15 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and three different Saccharomyces bayanus strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation, whereas, in the case of inoculated fermentation, only two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were found. Their chromosomal patterns coincide with the chromosomal patterns of the starter culture strains.

  18. Yeast Infection Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese-like discharge Painful urination Redness in the vagina Yeast infection of the penis may cause: Redness Scaling Rash ... on the location of your symptoms: If a vaginal yeast infection is suspected , your health care provider will perform ...

  19. The Slime Production by Yeasts Isolated from Subclinical Mastitic Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla Türkyılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate yeasts from subclinical mastitic cows and to investigate the slime production by the isolated yeasts. The material used in this study included 339 milk samples from 152 dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis. Milk was plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Forty-one samples (12.1% of total milk samples were found positive for the yeast by API 20 C AUX identification system. The isolated yeasts were classified into four genera of Candida, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus and Saccharomyces. The Candida species were following: C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. rugosa and C. utulis. Other yeasts were identified as Trichosporon mucoides, T. asahii, Cryptococcus laurentii, C.  neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Slime production was tested on Congo red brain heart infusion agar and evaluated according to Congo red phenomenon. Fifteen (36.6% strains were slime factor positive: seven were C. krusei, four C. kefyr, one C. guilliermondii, one C. famata, one T. asahii, and one C. laurentii. The results of the present study indicate that yeast mastitis is significant for causing economic losses and slime production is mostly found in non-albicans Candida species. Therefore, non-albicans Candida species should be examined for slime production.

  20. Brewing characteristics of piezosensitive sake yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuki; Hoshino, Hirofumi; Igoshi, Kazuaki; Onozuka, Haruka; Tanaka, Erika; Hayashi, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Harutake; Takaku, Hiroaki; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2018-04-01

    Application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment to food processing is expected as a non-thermal fermentation regulation technology that supresses over fermentation. However, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for Japanese rice wine (sake) brewing shows high tolerance to HHP. Therefore, we aimed to generate pressure-sensitive (piezosensitive) sake yeast strains by mating sake with piezosensitive yeast strains to establish an HHP fermentation regulation technology and extend the shelf life of fermented foods. The results of phenotypic analyses showed that the generated yeast strains were piezosensitive and exhibited similar fermentation ability compared with the original sake yeast strain. In addition, primary properties of sake brewed using these strains, such as ethanol concentration, sake meter value and sake flavor compounds, were almost equivalent to those obtained using the sake yeast strain. These results suggest that the piezosensitive strains exhibit brewing characteristics essentially equivalent to those of the sake yeast strain.

  1. Evidence for three types of x-ray damage repair in yeast and sensitivity of totally repair deficient strains to sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, J.C.; Schild, D.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of yeast that confer sensitivity to x-rays are known to fall into two epistasis groups, called here the RAD51 and RAD18 groups, which are each thought to control a different type of x-ray repair. They examine here the role of genes in a third repair pathways in x-ray repair. RAD1 and RAD3 are known to be important in the repair of pyrimidine dimers after uv-irradiation. They find that these genes can also play an important role in x-ray repair, but that this role is only exposed when both the other pathways of x-ray repair are blocked. Double mutants blocked in the RAD51 and RAD18 pathways are significantly less x-ray sensitive than triple mutants blocked in these pathways but also mutant in either the RAD1 or RAD3 genes. In a related experiment, they tested the importance of DNA repair in nature by determining the sensitivity to natural unfiltered sunlight of a strain lacking all known DNA repair pathways. They constructed a quadruple mutant strain containing RAD1-1, RAD18-2, RAD51-1 and PHR1-1. The latter mutation blocks the cell's ability to photoreactivate uv damage. They found that this strain was so sensitive to sunlight that less than three seconds' exposure would cause an average of one lethal hit per cell, and survival was less than 2% after ten seconds' exposure. Wild type yeast at sea level showed no killing after thirty minutes. the quadruple mutant is approximately one thousand times more sensitive to sunlight than the related wild type

  2. Single-cell Protein and Xylitol Production by a Novel Yeast Strain Candida intermedia FL023 from Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates and Xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqiang; Hu, Jinlong; Zhao, Shumiao; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ge, Xiangyang; Peng, Nan

    2018-05-01

    Yeasts are good candidates to utilize the hydrolysates of lignocellulose, the most abundant bioresource, for bioproducts. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiencies of single-cell protein (SCP) and xylitol production by a novel yeast strain, Candida intermedia FL023, from lignocellulosic hydrolysates and xylose. This strain efficiently assimilated hexose, pentose, and cellubiose for cell mass production with the crude protein content of 484.2 g kg -1 dry cell mass. SCP was produced by strain FL023 using corncob hydrolysate and urea as the carbon and nitrogen sources with the dry cell mass productivity 0.86 g L -1  h -1 and the yield of 0.40 g g -1 sugar. SCP was also produced using NaOH-pretreated Miscanthus sinensis straw and corn steep liquor as the carbon and nitrogen sources through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with the dry cell productivity of 0.23 g L -1  h -1 and yield of 0.17 g g -1 straw. C. intermedia FL023 was tolerant to 0.5 g L -1 furfural, acetic acid, and syringaldehyde in xylitol fermentation and produced 45.7 g L -1 xylitol from xylose with the productivity of 0.38 g L -1  h -1 and the yield of 0.57 g g -1 xylose. This study provides feasible methods for feed and food additive production from the abundant lignocellulosic bioresources.

  3. Red Yeast Rice Protects Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Proangiogenic Cells against High-Glucose-Induced Senescence and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Tung Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs, also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We found that treatment with RYR extract induced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in PACs. RYR extract inhibited high-glucose-induced (30 mM PAC senescence and the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX also decreased high-glucose-induced cell senescence and oxidative stress, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HO-1 small interfering RNA significantly reversed RYR extract-caused inhibition of senescence and reduction of oxidative stress in high-glucose-treated PACs. These results suggest that RYR extract serves as alternative and complementary medicine in the treatment of these diseases, by inducing HO-1, thereby decreasing the vascular complications of diabetes.

  4. Interaction between Red Yeast Rice and CYP450 Enzymes/P-Glycoprotein and Its Implication for the Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Lovastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR can reduce cholesterol through its active component, lovastatin. This study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of lovastatin in RYR products and potential RYR-drug interactions. Extracts of three registered RYR products (LipoCol Forte, Cholestin, and Xuezhikang were more effective than pure lovastatin in inhibiting the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein. Among CYP450 enzymes, RYR showed the highest inhibition on CYP1A2 and CYP2C19, with comparable inhibitory potencies to the corresponding typical inhibitors. In healthy volunteers taking the RYR product LipoCol Forte, the pharmacokinetic properties of lovastatin and lovastatin acid were linear in the dose range of 1 to 4 capsules taken as a single dose and no significant accumulation was observed after multiple dosing. Concomitant use of one LipoCol Forte capsule with nifedipine did not change the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Yet, concomitant use of gemfibrozil with LipoCol Forte resulted in a significant increase in the plasma concentration of lovastatin acid. These findings suggest that the use of RYR products may not have effects on the pharmacokinetics of concomitant comedications despite their effects to inhibit the activities of CYP450 enzymes and P-gp, whereas gemfibrozil affects the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin acid when used concomitantly with RYR products.

  5. Combined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nae-Cherng; Chou, Chien-Wen; Chen, Chung-Yin; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Yi-Chueh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study was to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of orally administrated nattokinase and nattokinase combined with red yeast rice (RYR) extract on blood lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of 47 patients with hyperlipidemia were assigned to one of three groups: 1. nattokinase-mono formula (50 mg/capsule), 2. combined formula of nattokinase with RYR (300 mg of extract/capsule) and 3. placebo. Subjects received a twice daily dose of two capsules for six months. The mono formula showed no effects on blood lipids until month six, while the combined formula ameliorated all of measured lipids starting from month one. In the combined group significant decreases were found with regard to: triglycerides (TG) by 15%, total cholesterol (TC) by 25%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 41%, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio by 29.5%, and increases in HDL-C by 7.5%. These changes were sustained until the end of study. After controlling for baseline levels, only the combined group, but not mono group, showed a significant difference (pnattokinase supplementation and shows that the combined formula has relatively more potent effects than the mono formula on lowering of blood lipids, suggesting that combined nattokinase with RYR will be a better neutraceutical for patients with hyperlipidemia than nattokinase alone.

  6. Application of a modified culture medium for the simultaneous counting of molds and yeasts and detection of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimez, J; Fente, C A; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Vázquez, B I

    2003-02-01

    Molds and yeasts from 91 samples of feed and raw materials used in feed formulation were enumerated on a new culture medium to which a beta cyclodextrin (beta-W7M 1.8-cyclodextrin) had been added. This medium was compared with other media normally used in laboratories for the routine analysis of fungi, such as Sabouraud agar, malt agar supplemented with 2% dextrose, and potato dextrose agar. When a t test for paired data (0.05 significance level, 95% confidence interval) was applied, no statistically significant differences between the results obtained with the new culture medium and those obtained with the other media used to enumerate molds and yeasts were found. For the evaluation of contamination due to aflatoxin for all of the samples, Sabouraud agar and yeast extract agar, both supplemented with 0.3% beta-W7M 1.8-cyclodextrin, and APA (aflatoxin-producing ability) medium were used. Aflatoxin was detected in 21% of the feed samples and in 23% of the raw-material samples analyzed, with maximal amounts of 2.8 and 6.0 microg of aflatoxin B1 per kg, respectively, being detected. In any case, the aflatoxin contents found exceeded the legally stipulated limits. The t test for paired data (0.05 significance level, 95% confidence interval) did not show statistically significant differences between the results obtained with the different culture media used for the detection of aflatoxins. The advantage of the new medium developed (Sabouraud agar with 0.3% beta-W7M 1.8-cyclodextrin) is that it allows simultaneous fungal enumeration and determination (under UV light) of the presence of aflatoxin-producing strains without prior isolation and culture procedures involving expensive and/or complex specific media and thus saves work, time, and money.

  7. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

  8. Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biodegradation of methyl red by Bacillus sp. strain UN2: decolorization capacity, metabolites characterization, and enzyme analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Peng-Fei; Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Guan; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Azo dyes are recalcitrant and refractory pollutants that constitute a significant menace to the environment. The present study is focused on exploring the capability of Bacillus sp. strain UN2 for application in methyl red (MR) degradation. Effects of physicochemical parameters (pH of medium, temperature, initial concentration of dye, and composition of the medium) were studied in detail. The suitable pH and temperature range for MR degradation by strain UN2 were respectively 7.0-9.0 and 30-40 °C, and the optimal pH value and temperature were respectively 8.0 and 35 °C. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were found to significantly accelerate the MR removal rate, while the enhancement by either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) was slight. Under the optimal degradation conditions, strain UN2 exhibited greater than 98 % degradation of the toxic azo dye MR (100 ppm) within 30 min. Analysis of samples from decolorized culture flasks confirmed biodegradation of MR into two prime metabolites: N,N'dimethyl-p-phenyle-nediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of MR, in the control and cells obtained during (10 min) and after (30 min) degradation, showed a significant increase in the activities of azoreductase, laccase, and NADH-DCIP reductase. Furthermore, a phytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the germination inhibition was almost eliminated for both the plants Triticum aestivum and Sorghum bicolor by MR metabolites at 100 mg/L concentration, yet the germination inhibition of parent dye was significant. Consequently, the high efficiency of MR degradation enables this strain to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewater containing MR.

  11. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  12. Comparison of the yeast microbiota of different varieties of cool-climate grapes by PCR-RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Drożdż

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast microbiota occurring on different varieties of grapes grown in cool-climate is not completely researched. Therefore, its identification is important to research. On the other hand, yeasts occurring in these fruits can be potentially used as starter cultures to obtain particularly demanded features in the production of wine. In addition, rapid methods for yeast identification allow to eliminate the contamination with pathogenic yeasts, which could cause the loss of wine production. The aim of the study was to isolate and identify the yeasts occurring on the surface of the different varieties of white and red grapes, grown in cool-climate of Poland. Also, the aim was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of yeasts on the tested grapes. The 84 cultures of yeasts were isolated, that were initially macroscopic and microscopic analyzed and the purity of cultures was rated on the WL medium. Identification of yeasts by PCR-RAPD was carried using the M13 primer. In the PCR-RFLP method ITS1 and ITS4 primers, as well as restriction enzymes HhaI, HinfI, HaeIII, were used. Preliminary identification of yeasts by standard methods produced results very different from the results obtained by molecular methods. Among the isolated microorganisms yeasts were dominating, but bacteria and molds were also present. Using the PCR-RAPD method most strains of yeasts were identified. Yeast microflora of different varieties of white and red grapes was very similar as the same species of yeasts were identified. Yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces were present in all varieties of grapes. The Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula minuta, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were identified by PCR-RAPD. 4 of the 33 tested strains of yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP. By PCR-RAPD only Hanseniaspora uvarum was identified. The quantity and quality of microorganisms living

  13. Xylitol production from colombian native yeast strains Producción de xilitol a partir de levaduras nativas colombianas*

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    Vanegas Córdoba Isleny Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is an alternative sweetener with similar characteristics to sucrose that has become of great interest, due mainly to its safe use in diabetic patients and those deficient in glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Its chemical production is expensive and generates undesirable by-products, whereas biotechnological process, which uses different yeasts genera, is a viable production alternative because it is safer and specific. Colombia has a privilege geographic location and offers a great microbial variety, this can be taken advantage of with academic and commercial goals. Because of this, some native microorganisms with potential to produce xylitol were screened in this work. It were isolated 25 yeasts species, from which was possible to identify 84% by the kit API 20C-AUX. Three yeasts: Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis y C. parapsilosis presented greater capacity to degrade xylose compared to the others, therefore they were selected for the later evaluation of its productive capacity. Discontinuous cellular cultures were developed in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 35°C by 30 hours, using synthetic media with xylose as carbon source. Xylose consumption and xylitol production were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The maximal efficiency were obtained with Candida kefyr and C. tropicalis (Yp/s 0.5 y 0.43 g/g, respectively, using an initial xylose concentration of 20 g/L. Key words: Xylitol, xylose, yeasts, Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis.* Este artículo corresponde a la presentación oral que obtuvo el tercer lugar en la sala de bioprocesos, bioprospección y ambiental del segundo Congreso Colombiano de Biotecnología. El xilitol es un edulcorante alternativo con características similares a la sacarosa que ha despertado gran interés debido principalmente a su uso seguro en pacientes diabéticos y aquellos deficientes en glucosa-6-fosfato-deshidrogenasa. Su síntesis química es

  14. Influence of yeast strain, canopy management, and site on the volatile composition and sensory attributes of cabernet sauvignon wines from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Anthony L; Boss, Paul K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Solomon, Peter S; Trengove, Robert D

    2011-04-13

    Understanding what factors are the major influences on wine composition will assist in the successful management of grape composition in the vineyard and/or variables in the winery to produce wines with specific sensory attributes. A recently developed analytical method [headspace solid-phase microextraction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry] was employed to analyze over 350 volatile compounds in research scale wines and was combined with descriptive sensory analysis. Both compositional and sensory results showed significant differences among the wines, and in many cases, multiple factors influenced the abundance of wine volatile compounds. Site had the most significant influence on sensory scores and wine composition, followed by canopy management. Unexpectedly, yeast strain had no significant sensory effect despite the fact that a number of volatile compounds were significantly different in the wines made from different strains. PLS analysis, combining the sensory and chemical analyses, also supports the concept of volatile compound interactions contributing to the aroma characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

  15. Analysis of transcriptome differences between resistant and susceptible strains of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae.

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    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The citrus red mite is a worldwide citrus pest and a common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis. It has developed strong resistance to many registered acaricides, However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. we therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptomes between resistant strains and susceptible strains. RESULTS: We obtained 34,159, 30,466 and 32,217 unigenes by assembling the SS reads, RS reads and SS&RS reads respectively. There are total 17,581 annotated unigenes from SS&RS reads by BLAST searching databases of nr, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG with an E-value ≤ 1e-5, in which 7,075 unigenes were annotated in the COG database, 12, 712 unigenes were found in the KEGG database and 3,812 unigenes were assigned to Gene ontology (GO. Moreover, 2,701 unigenes were judged to be the differentially expressed genes (DEGs based on the uniquely mapped reads. There are 219 pathways in all annotated unigenes and 198 pathways in DEGs that mapped to the KEGG database. We identified 211 metabolism genes and target genes related to general insecticide resistance such as P450 and Cytochrome b, and further compared their differences between RS and SS. Meanwhile, we identified 105 and 194 genes related to growth and reproduction, respectively, based on the mode of action of Hexythiazox. After further analyses, we found variation in sequences but not in gene expression related to mite growth and reproduction between different strains. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome study to discover candidate genes involved in phytophagous mite resistance. This study identified differential unigenes related to general pesticide resistance and organism growth and reproduction in P. citri. The assembled, annotated transcriptomes provide a valuable genomic resource for further understanding

  16. The radiation resistance and cobalt biosorption activity of yeast strains isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chin; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Ching-Tu; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Fong-In

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes has made them the pioneers in radionuclides adsorption and transport. In this study, the radiation resistance and nuclide biosorption capacity of microbes isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) repository in Taiwan was assessed, the evaluation of the possibility of using the isolated strain as biosorbents for (60)Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution and the potential impact on radionuclides release. The microbial content of solidified waste and broken fragments of containers at the Lanyu LLRW repository reached 10(5) CFU/g. Two yeast strains, Candida guilliermondii (CT1) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae (RT1) were isolated. The radiation dose necessary to reduce the microbial count by one log cycle of CT1 and RT1 was 2.1 and 0.8 kGy, respectively. Both CT1 and RT1 can grow under a radiation field with dose rate of 6.8 Gy/h, about 100 times higher than that on the surface of the LLRW container in Lanyu repository. CT1 and RT1 had the maximum (60)Co biosorption efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% and 98.3 ± 0.2%, respectively in (60)Co aqueous solution (700 Bq/mL), and the (60)Co could stably retained for more than 30 days in CT 1. Nearly all of the Co was absorbed and reached equilibrium within 1 h by CT1 and RT1 in the 10 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Biosorption efficiency test showed almost all of the Co (II) was adsorbed by CT1 in 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution, the efficiency of biosorption by RT1 in 10 μg/g of Co (II) was lower. The maximum Co (II) sorption capacity of CT1 and RT1 was 5324.0 ± 349.0 μg/g (dry wt) and 3737.6 ± 86.5 μg/g (dry wt), respectively, in the 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Experimental results show that microbial activity was high in the Lanyu LLRW repository in Taiwan. Two isolated yeast strains, CT1 and RT1 have high potential for use as biosorbents for (60)Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution, on the other hand, but may have the

  17. The radiation resistance and cobalt biosorption activity of yeast strains isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chia-Chin; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Ching-Tu; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Fong-In

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes has made them the pioneers in radionuclides adsorption and transport. In this study, the radiation resistance and nuclide biosorption capacity of microbes isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) repository in Taiwan was assessed, the evaluation of the possibility of using the isolated strain as biosorbents for 60 Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution and the potential impact on radionuclides release. The microbial content of solidified waste and broken fragments of containers at the Lanyu LLRW repository reached 10 5  CFU/g. Two yeast strains, Candida guilliermondii (CT1) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae (RT1) were isolated. The radiation dose necessary to reduce the microbial count by one log cycle of CT1 and RT1 was 2.1 and 0.8 kGy, respectively. Both CT1 and RT1 can grow under a radiation field with dose rate of 6.8 Gy/h, about 100 times higher than that on the surface of the LLRW container in Lanyu repository. CT1 and RT1 had the maximum 60 Co biosorption efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% and 98.3 ± 0.2%, respectively in 60 Co aqueous solution (700 Bq/mL), and the 60 Co could stably retained for more than 30 days in CT 1. Nearly all of the Co was absorbed and reached equilibrium within 1 h by CT1 and RT1 in the 10 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Biosorption efficiency test showed almost all of the Co (II) was adsorbed by CT1 in 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution, the efficiency of biosorption by RT1 in 10 μg/g of Co (II) was lower. The maximum Co (II) sorption capacity of CT1 and RT1 was 5324.0 ± 349.0 μg/g (dry wt) and 3737.6 ± 86.5 μg/g (dry wt), respectively, in the 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Experimental results show that microbial activity was high in the Lanyu LLRW repository in Taiwan. Two isolated yeast strains, CT1 and RT1 have high potential for use as biosorbents for 60 Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution, on the other hand, but may have the impact on

  18. The ability of the antagonist yeast Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1 to suppress green mould infection in citrus fruit

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    Rachid Lahlali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies it was shown that Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1, isolated from healthy Moroccan citrus Valencia-Late oranges, was effective against Penicillium italicum. Here the effectiveness of strain Z1 was assessed against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould, under different temperature (5-25°C and relative humidity (RH (45-100% regimes for its reliable and largescale application in packinghouse. All main effects and interactions were significant (P80%. Its applications as a formulated product significantly reduced the incidence of infected fruit (55% and the percentage of infected wounds (47% compared to the only pathogen control treatment. However, disease control with formulated product was significantly less than that obtained with thiabendazole (30% or strain Z1 culturable cells (35%. These results highlight that strain Z1 is an effective biological control agent for control of green mould under varying environmental conditions, and control may be optimized by combining its use with other environmentally-safe post-harvest treatments or improved formulation.

  19. Effects of surface cracks and strain rate on the tensile behavior of Balmoral Red granite

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    Mardoukhi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental procedure for studying the effects of surface cracks on the mechanical behavior of Balmoral Red granite under dynamic and quasi-static loading. Three different thermal shocks were applied on the surface of the Brazilian Disc test samples by keeping a flame torch at a fixed distance from the sample surface for 10, 30, and 60 seconds. Microscopy clearly shows that the number of the surface cracks increases with the duration of the thermal shock. After the thermal shock, the Brazilian Disc tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing machine and a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB device. The results show that the tensile strength of the rock decreases and the rate sensitivity of the rock increases as more cracks are introduced to the structure. The DIC analysis of the Brazilian disc tests shows that the fracture of the sample initiates at the center of the samples or slightly closer to the incident bar contact point. This is followed by crushing of the samples at both contact points with the stress bars.

  20. Use of Torulaspora delbrueckii Co-fermentation With Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains With Different Aromatic Characteristic to Improve the Diversity of Red Wine Aroma Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Qin; Luan, Yu; Duan, Chang-Qing; Yan, Guo-Liang

    2018-01-01

    The use of selected Saccharomyces and non- Saccharomyces strains as mixed starters has advantages over pure fermentation due to achieving wine products with distinctive and diversified aroma expected by consumers. To obtain a way to improve the aroma diversity and increase the differentiation of wine product, in this study, the aromatic effect of multi-culture of indigenous Torulaspora delbrueckii ( TD 12), simultaneous and sequential inoculation with two Saccharomyces strains (indigenous icewine yeast SC 45 and commercial yeast BDX) with different enological characteristics were investigated in laboratory-scale 20 L fermenter, respectively. The results showed that T. delbrueckii co-fermented with different S. cerevisiae strain could generate diversified physicochemical and aromatic quality of wine as evidenced by PCA. Mixed fermentation of SC 45/ TD 12 produced higher contents of higher alcohol (3-methyl-1-pentanol and phenylethyl alcohol), ethyl esters (ethyl decanoate and ethyl butanoate), terpenes and phenylacetaldehyde with less fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid) and acetic acid, while BDX/ TD 12 generated more C 6 alcohol (1-hexanol) and acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate). Compared to simultaneous inoculation, sequential inoculation could achieve higher aroma diversity, and generate higher intensity of fruity, flowery and sweet attributes of wine as assessed by calculating the odor activity values. The different S. cerevisiae strain and inoculation method in alcoholic fermentation could further influence the formations of aromatic compounds in malolactic fermentation. Our results highlighted the importance of S. cerevisiae strain in shaping the aromatic quality of wine in mixed fermentation, and also suggested that using different S. cerevisiae strains with distinct aromatic characteristics co-fermentation with specific non- Saccharomyces strain is a potential way to increase the aromatic diversity and quality of wine product, which

  1. Use of Torulaspora delbrueckii Co-fermentation With Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains With Different Aromatic Characteristic to Improve the Diversity of Red Wine Aroma Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Qin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces strains as mixed starters has advantages over pure fermentation due to achieving wine products with distinctive and diversified aroma expected by consumers. To obtain a way to improve the aroma diversity and increase the differentiation of wine product, in this study, the aromatic effect of multi-culture of indigenous Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD12, simultaneous and sequential inoculation with two Saccharomyces strains (indigenous icewine yeast SC45 and commercial yeast BDX with different enological characteristics were investigated in laboratory-scale 20 L fermenter, respectively. The results showed that T. delbrueckii co-fermented with different S. cerevisiae strain could generate diversified physicochemical and aromatic quality of wine as evidenced by PCA. Mixed fermentation of SC45/TD12 produced higher contents of higher alcohol (3-methyl-1-pentanol and phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl esters (ethyl decanoate and ethyl butanoate, terpenes and phenylacetaldehyde with less fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid and acetic acid, while BDX/TD12 generated more C6 alcohol (1-hexanol and acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. Compared to simultaneous inoculation, sequential inoculation could achieve higher aroma diversity, and generate higher intensity of fruity, flowery and sweet attributes of wine as assessed by calculating the odor activity values. The different S. cerevisiae strain and inoculation method in alcoholic fermentation could further influence the formations of aromatic compounds in malolactic fermentation. Our results highlighted the importance of S. cerevisiae strain in shaping the aromatic quality of wine in mixed fermentation, and also suggested that using different S. cerevisiae strains with distinct aromatic characteristics co-fermentation with specific non-Saccharomyces strain is a potential way to increase the aromatic diversity and quality of wine product, which

  2. Use of Torulaspora delbrueckii Co-fermentation With Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains With Different Aromatic Characteristic to Improve the Diversity of Red Wine Aroma Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Qin; Luan, Yu; Duan, Chang-Qing; Yan, Guo-Liang

    2018-01-01

    The use of selected Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces strains as mixed starters has advantages over pure fermentation due to achieving wine products with distinctive and diversified aroma expected by consumers. To obtain a way to improve the aroma diversity and increase the differentiation of wine product, in this study, the aromatic effect of multi-culture of indigenous Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD12), simultaneous and sequential inoculation with two Saccharomyces strains (indigenous icewine yeast SC45 and commercial yeast BDX) with different enological characteristics were investigated in laboratory-scale 20 L fermenter, respectively. The results showed that T. delbrueckii co-fermented with different S. cerevisiae strain could generate diversified physicochemical and aromatic quality of wine as evidenced by PCA. Mixed fermentation of SC45/TD12 produced higher contents of higher alcohol (3-methyl-1-pentanol and phenylethyl alcohol), ethyl esters (ethyl decanoate and ethyl butanoate), terpenes and phenylacetaldehyde with less fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid) and acetic acid, while BDX/TD12 generated more C6 alcohol (1-hexanol) and acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate). Compared to simultaneous inoculation, sequential inoculation could achieve higher aroma diversity, and generate higher intensity of fruity, flowery and sweet attributes of wine as assessed by calculating the odor activity values. The different S. cerevisiae strain and inoculation method in alcoholic fermentation could further influence the formations of aromatic compounds in malolactic fermentation. Our results highlighted the importance of S. cerevisiae strain in shaping the aromatic quality of wine in mixed fermentation, and also suggested that using different S. cerevisiae strains with distinct aromatic characteristics co-fermentation with specific non-Saccharomyces strain is a potential way to increase the aromatic diversity and quality of wine product, which could provide

  3. INHIBITION OF THE GROWTH OF TOLERANT YEAST Saccharomyces cerevisiae STRAIN I136 BY A MIXTURE OF SYNTHETIC INHIBITORS

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    Eny Ida Riyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass from lignocellulosic wastes is a potential source for biobased products.  However, one of the constraints in utilization of biomass hydrolysate is the presence of inhibitors. Therefore, the use of inhibitor-tolerant microorganisms in the fermentation is required. The study aimed to investigate the effect of a mixture of inhibitors on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain I136 grown in medium containing synthetic inhibitors (acetic acid, formic acid, furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural/5-HMF, and levulinic acid in four different concentrations with a mixture of carbon sources, glucose  (50 g.l-1 and xylose (50 g.l-1 at 30oC. The parameters related to growth and fermentation products were observed. Results showed that the strain was able to grow in media containing natural inhibitors (BSL medium with µmax of 0.020/h. Higher level of synthetic inhibitors prolonged the lag phase, decreased the cell biomass and ethanol production, and specific growth rate. The strain could detoxify furfural and 5-HMF and produced the highest ethanol (Y(p/s of 0.32 g.g-1 when grown in BSL. Glucose was utilized as its level decreased in a result of increase in cell biomass, in contrast to xylose which was not consumed. The highest cell biomass was produced in YNB with Y (x/s value of 0.25 g.g-1. The strain produced acetic acid as a dominant side product and could convert furfural into a less toxic compound, hydroxyl furfural. This robust tolerant strain provides basic information on resistance mechanism and would be useful for bio-based cell factory using lignocellulosic materials. 

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of TwoThiomicrospiraStrains Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Kebrit Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan

    2016-03-11

    Two Thiomicrospira strains, WB1 and XS5, were isolated from the Kebrit Deep brine-seawater interface in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of these gammaproteobacteria, which both produce sulfuric acid from thiosulfate in culture.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of TwoThiomicrospiraStrains Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Kebrit Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan; Haroon, Mohamed; Zhang, Ruifu; Hikmawan, Tyas I.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Two Thiomicrospira strains, WB1 and XS5, were isolated from the Kebrit Deep brine-seawater interface in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of these gammaproteobacteria, which both produce sulfuric acid from thiosulfate in culture.

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of lindane using oil-in-water bio-microemulsion stabilized by biosurfactant produced by a new yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Das, Nilanjana

    2013-11-28

    Organochlorine pesticide residues continue to remain as a major environmental threat worldwide. Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide widely used as an acaricide in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, a new lindane-degrading yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01, was identified as a copious producer of glycolipid biosurfactant. The glycolipid structure and type were elucidated by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS analysis. The surface activity and stability of the glycolipid was analyzed. The glycolipids, characterized as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), exhibited excellent surface active properties and the surface tension of water was reduced to 29 mN/m. The glycolipid was stable over a wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity, showing a very low CMC of 25 mg/l. Bio-microemulsion of olive oil-in-water (O/W) was prepared using the purified biosurfactant without addition of any synthetic cosurfactants, for lindane solubilization and enhanced degradation assay in liquid and soil slurry. The O/W bio-microemulsions enhanced the solubility of lindane up to 40-folds. Degradation of lindane (700 mg/l) by VITJzN01 in liquid medium amended with bio-microemulsions was found to be enhanced by 36% in 2 days, compared with degradation in 12 days in the absence of bio-microemulsions. Lindane-spiked soil slurry incubated with bio-microemulsions also showed 20-40% enhanced degradation compared with the treatment with glycolipids or yeast alone. This is the first report on lindane degradation by Pseudozyma sp., and application of bio-microemulsions for enhanced lindane degradation. MEL-stabilized bio-microemulsions can serve as a potential tool for enhanced remediation of diverse lindanecontaminated environments.

  7. Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the Analysis of Polyploid Strains

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    Renata Zadrag-Tecza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid. Such experiments enabled us to test the hypertrophy hypothesis, which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell—the hypertrophy state—is the reason preventing the cell from further proliferation. This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed that cell size has an important impact on not only the reproductive potential but also the total lifespan of this cell. Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. The achievement of excessive size by the cell (hypertrophic state may lead to two distinct phenomena: the cessation of reproduction without “mother” cell death and the cessation of reproduction with cell death by bursting, which has not been shown before.

  8. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL.

  9. Evaluation of estrogenic potential of flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and MCF7/BUS cell proliferation assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A Resende

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen, since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid.

  10. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  11. Recombinant canine distemper virus strain Snyder Hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, M; Nguyen, D T; Silin, D; Lyubomska, O; de Vries, R D; von Messling, V; McQuaid, S; De Swart, R L; Duprex, W P

    2012-07-01

    The propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDV(SH)) and show that this virus rapidly circumvents the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barriers to spread into the subarachnoid space to induce dramatic viral meningoencephalitis. The use of recombinant CDV(SH) (rCDV(SH)) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or red fluorescent protein (dTomato) facilitated the sensitive pathological assessment of routes of virus spread in vivo. Infection of ferrets with these viruses led to the full spectrum of clinical signs typically associated with distemper in dogs during a rapid, fatal disease course of approximately 2 weeks. Comparison with the ferret-adapted CDV(5804P) and the prototypic wild-type CDV(R252) showed that hematogenous infection of the choroid plexus is not a significant route of virus spread into the CSF. Instead, viral spread into the subarachnoid space in rCDV(SH)-infected animals was triggered by infection of vascular endothelial cells and the hematogenous spread of virus-infected leukocytes from meningeal blood vessels into the subarachnoid space. This resulted in widespread infection of cells of the pia and arachnoid mater of the leptomeninges over large areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The ability to sensitively assess the in vivo spread of a neurovirulent strain of CDV provides a novel model system to study the mechanisms of virus spread into the CSF and the pathogenesis of acute viral meningitis.

  12. Bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol into lipids and carotenoids by an oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in an airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowattana, Atchara; Techapun, Charin; Watanabe, Masanori; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak

    2018-01-01

    Here we tested the bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by the oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in two bioreactors types (stirred-tank and airlift). High production yields (biomass, 10.62 ± 0.21 g/L; lipids, 3.26 ± 0.13 g/L; β-carotene, 30.64 ± 0.05 mg/L; total carotenoids, 46.59 ± 0.07 mg/L) were achieved in a 3.0 L airlift bioreactor under uncontrolled pH regimes (initial pH 5.63). Under optimized conditions (6.0 vvm aeration rate; 60 ± 5% constant dissolved oxygen [DO] maintained by flushing pure oxygen [O 2 ] into the vessel; 10,000 Lux light irradiation) volumetric production in the airlift bioreactor was further increased (biomass, 19.30 ± 1.07 g/L; lipids, 6.61 ± 0.04 g/L, β-carotene, 109.75 ± 0.21 mg/L; total carotenoids 151.00 ± 2.71 mg/L). Production was also recorded at a S. pararoseus KM281507 growth rate of 0.16 ± 0.00 h -1 (lipids, 0.94 ± 0.04 g/L/d; β-carotene, 15.68 ± 0.40 mg/L/d; total carotenoids, 21.56 ± 0.20 mg/L/d). Lipids from S. pararoseus KM281507 had a high unsaturated fatty acid content, with oleic acid (C18:1) accounting for 80% of all fatty acids. This high oleic acid content makes S. pararoseus KM281507 well-suited as a third generation biodiesel feedstock. Our findings show that airlift bioreactors are suitable for bioconversion of crude glycerol into lipids and carotenoids using S. pararoseus KM281507. This approach is advantageous because of its ease of operation, cost efficiency, and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wine yeast phenomics: A standardized fermentation method for assessing quantitative traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in enological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Margaux; Trujillo, Marine; Prodhomme, Duyên; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Gibon, Yves; Marullo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats. The vessel used also offers the possibility to assay 32 volatiles compounds using a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The vessel shaking applied strongly impacted most of the phenotypes investigated due to oxygen transfer occuring in the first hours of the alcoholic fermentation. The impact of grape must and micro-oxygenation was investigated illustrating some relevant genetic x environmental interactions. By phenotyping a wide panel of commercial wine starters in five grape juices, broad phenotypic correlations between kinetics and metabolic end products were evidentiated. Moreover, a multivariate analysis illustrates that some grape musts are more able than others to discriminate commercial strains since some are less robust to environmental changes. PMID:29351285

  14. Wine yeast phenomics: A standardized fermentation method for assessing quantitative traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Emilien; Bernard, Margaux; Trujillo, Marine; Prodhomme, Duyên; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Gibon, Yves; Marullo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats. The vessel used also offers the possibility to assay 32 volatiles compounds using a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The vessel shaking applied strongly impacted most of the phenotypes investigated due to oxygen transfer occuring in the first hours of the alcoholic fermentation. The impact of grape must and micro-oxygenation was investigated illustrating some relevant genetic x environmental interactions. By phenotyping a wide panel of commercial wine starters in five grape juices, broad phenotypic correlations between kinetics and metabolic end products were evidentiated. Moreover, a multivariate analysis illustrates that some grape musts are more able than others to discriminate commercial strains since some are less robust to environmental changes.

  15. Biological Activities and Chemical Composition of Methanolic Extracts of Selected Autochthonous Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four lipid-rich microalgal species from the Red Sea belonging to three different genera (Nannochloris, Picochlorum and Desmochloris, previously isolated as novel biodiesel feedstocks, were bioprospected for high-value, bioactive molecules. Methanol extracts were thus prepared from freeze-dried biomass and screened for different biological activities. Nannochloris sp. SBL1 and Desmochloris sp. SBL3 had the highest radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the best copper and iron chelating activities. All species had potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (>50% and mildly inhibited tyrosinase. Picochlorum sp. SBL2 and Nannochloris sp. SBL4 extracts significantly reduced the viability of tumoral (HepG2 and HeLa cells with lower toxicity against the non-tumoral murine stromal (S17 cells. Nannochloris sp. SBL1 significantly reduced the viability of Leishmania infantum down to 62% (250 µg/mL. Picochlorum sp. SBL2 had the highest total phenolic content, the major phenolic compounds identified being salicylic, coumaric and gallic acids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-carotene were identified in the extracts of all strains, while canthaxanthin was only identified in Picochlorum sp. SBL2. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the microalgae included in this work could be used as sources of added-value products that could be used to upgrade the final biomass value.

  16. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Łukasz; Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Arneborg, Nils; Cocolin, Luca; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-07-16

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase. Significant differences in gene expression were detected among the strains as well as between the media. A correlation was found between the PHYPk expression and phytase extracellular activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell recycle batch fermentation of high-solid lignocellulose using a recombinant cellulase-displaying yeast strain for high yield ethanol production in consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Yuki; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scheme of cell recycle batch fermentation (CRBF) of high-solid lignocellulosic materials. Two-phase separation consisting of rough removal of lignocellulosic residues by low-speed centrifugation and solid-liquid separation enabled effective collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with decreased lignin and ash. Five consecutive batch fermentation of 200 g/L rice straw hydrothermally pretreated led to an average ethanol titer of 34.5 g/L. Moreover, the display of cellulases on the recombinant yeast cell surface increased ethanol titer to 42.2 g/L. After, five-cycle fermentation, only 3.3 g/L sugar was retained in the fermentation medium, because cellulase displayed on the cell surface hydrolyzed cellulose that was not hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases or free secreted cellulases. Fermentation ability of the recombinant strain was successfully kept during a five-cycle repeated batch fermentation with 86.3% of theoretical yield based on starting biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of red laser irradiation and photosensitizers Photoditazine and Dimegin on the growth of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, G. E.; Egorova, A. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Tuchina, E. S.; Morozov, O. A.; Ponomaryov, G. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of red laser irradiation on the growth of colonies of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and photodynamic effects of the photosensitizers Photoditazine and Dimegin were performed. It was established that the red semiconductor laser (λ - 660 nm, 100 mW/cm2) at 10-, 15- and 30-mins exposure, has a direct bacteriostatic action on the growth of S. aureus. Pre-treatment of bacterial cells by Photoditazine significantly enhances the inhibitory effect. The photosensitizing action of Dimegin does not appear at influence on methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  19. Improved Screening Method for the Selection of Wine Yeasts Based on Their Pigment Adsorption Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve an existing low-cost and simple but consistent culturing technique for measuring the adsorption of grape skin pigments on yeasts, comprising: (i growing yeasts in Petri dishes on chromogenic grape-skin-based medium, (ii photographing the yeast biomass, (iii measuring its red, green, and blue colour components, and (iv performing the statistical analysis of the data. Twenty strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown on different lots of the chromogenic medium, prepared using grape skins from dark cultivars Greco Nero, Magliocco and Nero d’Avola. Microscale wine fermentation trials were also performed. Wide and significant differences among wine yeasts were observed. The chromogenic grape-skin-based medium can be prepared using any grape cultivar, thus allowing the specific selection of the most suitable strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for each grape must, mainly for red winemaking. The research provides a useful tool to characterize wine yeasts in relation to pigment adsorption, allowing the improvement of wine colour.

  20. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  1. Structural study of phosphomannan of yeast-form cells of Candida albicans J-1012 strain with special reference to application of mild acetolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Shibata, N; Mitobe, H; Ohkubo, Y; Suzuki, S

    1989-08-01

    Structural analysis of the phosphomannan isolated from yeast-form cells of a pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans J-1012 strain, was conducted. Treatment of this phosphomannan (Fr. J) with 10 mM HCl at 100 degrees C for 60 min gave a mixture of beta-1,2-linked manno-oligosaccharides, from tetraose to biose plus mannose, and an acid-stable mannan moiety (Fr. J-a), which was then acetolyzed by means of an acetolysis medium, 100:100:1 (v/v) mixture of (CH3CO)2O, CH3COOH, and H2SO4, at 40 degrees C for 36 h in order to avoid cleavage of the beta-1,2 linkage. The resultant manno-oligosaccharide mixture was fractionated on a column of Bio-Gel P-2 to yield insufficiently resolved manno-oligosaccharide fractions higher than pentaose and lower manno-oligosaccharides ranging from tetraose to biose plus mannose. The higher manno-oligosaccharide fraction was then digested with the Arthrobacter GJM-1 alpha-mannosidase in order to cleave the enzyme-susceptible alpha-1,2 and alpha-1,3 linkages, leaving manno-oligosaccharides containing the beta-1,2 linkage at their nonreducing terminal sites, Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Man, Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1---- 2Manp alpha 1----2Man, and Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1---- 2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Man. However, the result of acetolysis of Fr. J-a by means of a 10:10:1 (v/v) mixture of (CH3CO)2O, CH3COOH, and H2SO4 at 40 degrees C for 13 h was significantly different from that obtained by the mild acetolysis method; i.e., the amount of mannose was apparently larger than that formed by the mild acetolysis method. In summary, a chemical structure for Fr. J as a highly branched mannan containing 14 different branching moieties was proposed.

  2. Yeast flocculation: New story in fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been used in the brewing industry to facilitate biomass recovery for a long time, and thus its mechanism of yeast flocculation has been intensively studied. However, the application of flocculating yeast in ethanol production garnered attention mainly in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, updated research progress in the molecular mechanism of yeast flocculation and the impact of environmental conditions on yeast flocculation are reviewed. Construction of flocculating yeast strains by genetic approach and utilization of yeast flocculation for ethanol production from various feedstocks were presented. The concept of self-immobilized yeast cells through their flocculation is revisited through a case study of continuous ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast SPSC01, and their technical and economic advantages are highlighted by comparing with yeast cells immobilized with supporting materials and regular free yeast cells as well. Taking the flocculating yeast SPSC01 as an example, the ethanol tolerance of the flocculating yeast was also discussed.

  3. Identification of a 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid Reductase, FlRed, in an Alginolytic Bacterium Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11. The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-l-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH, then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG by a specific reductase, and metabolized through the Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Recently, the NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R that belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR superfamily was identified as the DEH-reductase in Sphingomonas sp. A1. We have subsequently noticed that an SDR-like enzyme gene, flred, occurred in the genome of an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. In the present study, we report on the deduced amino-acid sequence of flred and DEH-reducing activity of recombinant FlRed. The deduced amino-acid sequence of flred comprised 254 residues and showed 34% amino-acid identities to that of A1-R from Sphingomonas sp. A1 and 80%–88% to those of SDR-like enzymes from several alginolytic bacteria. Common sequence motifs of SDR-superfamily enzymes, e.g., the catalytic tetrad Asn-Lys-Tyr-Ser and the cofactor-binding sequence Thr-Gly-x-x-x-Gly-x-Gly in Rossmann fold, were completely conserved in FlRed. On the other hand, an Arg residue that determined the NADPH-specificity of Sphingomonas A1-R was replaced by Glu in FlRed. Thus, we investigated cofactor-preference of FlRed using a recombinant enzyme. As a result, the recombinant FlRed (recFlRed was found to show high specificity to NADH. recFlRed exhibited practically no activity toward variety of aldehyde, ketone, keto ester, keto acid and aldose substrates except for DEH. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlRed is the NADH-dependent DEH-specific SDR of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  5. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  6. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2006-01-01

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 min of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  7. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2005-07-13

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17 {beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  8. Moniliella sojae sp. nov., a species of black yeasts isolated from Vietnamese soy paste (tuong), and reassignment of Moniliella suaveolens strains to Moniliella pyrgileucina sp. nov., Moniliella casei sp. nov. and Moniliella macrospora emend. comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Duc Hien, Dinh; Yaguchi, Takashi; Sampaio, Jose Paulo; Lachance, Marc-André

    2018-05-01

    The presence of yeasts at different steps of Vietnamese soy paste production was studied. Yeast growth occurred during primary soybean fermentation, with the cell density reaching 4.10 6 c.f.u. ml -1 , and terminated during brine fermentation. The dominant species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Millerozyma farinosa. Over the span of 14 years, nine strains of Moniliella were isolated. The strains had identical PCR fingerprints generated with primer (GAC)5 and identical D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. A D1/D2-based phylogeny indicated that the strains were closest to a group of four previously assigned as Moniliella suaveolens strains. Together they form a new lineage that is well separated from all known species, including M. suaveolens (over 12.7 % divergence). ITS sequences indicated the presence of four species differing from each other by 9-57 nt. The name Moniliella sojae sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the strains isolated from Vietnamese soy paste, Moniliella pyrgileucina sp. nov. is proposed for PYCC 6800 and Moniliella casei sp. nov. is proposed for CBS 157.58. An emended combination Moniliella macrospora is proposed for CBS 221.32 and CBS 223.32. The type strains and MycoBank numbers are: M. sojae sp. nov., SS 4.2 T =CBS 126448 T =NRRL Y-48680 T and MB 822871; M. pyrgileucina sp. nov., PYCC 6800 T =CBS 15203 T and MB 823030; M. casei sp. nov., CBS 157.58 T =IFM 60348 T and MB 822872; M. macrospora emend. comb. nov., CBS 221.32 T (=MUCL 11527 T ) and MB 822874.

  9. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  10. Rate of red blood cell destruction varies in different strains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei-ANKA after chronic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Mihoko

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malaria anaemia in the semi-immune individuals in the holo-endemic area has been observed to occur at low parasite density with individual variation in the responses. Thus the following has been thought to be involved: auto-immune-mediated mechanisms of uninfected red blood cell destruction, and host genetic factors to explain the differences in individual responses under the same malaria transmission. In this study, the extent of red blood cell (RBC destruction in different strains of semi-immune mice model at relatively low parasitaemia was studied. Methodology To generate semi-immunity, four strains of mice were taken through several cycles of infection and treatment. By means of immunofluorescent assay and ELISA, sera were screened for anti-erythrocyte auto-antibodies, and their relationship with haematological parameters and parasitaemia in the strains of semi-immune mice was investigated. Results Upon challenge with Plasmodium berghei ANKA after generating semi-immune status, different mean percentage haemoglobin (Hb drop was observed in the mice strains (Balb/c = 47.1%; NZW = 30.05%; C57BL/6 = 28.44%; CBA = 25.1%, which occurred on different days for each strain (for Balb/c, mean period = 13.6 days; for C57BL/6, NZW, and CBA mean period = 10.6, 10.8, 10.9 days respectively. Binding of antibody to white ghost RBCs was observed in sera of the four strains of semi-immune mice by immunofluorescence. Mean percentage Hb drop per parasitaemia was highest in Balb/c (73.6, followed by C57BL/6 (8.6, CBA (6.9 and NZW (4.0, p = 0.0005. Consequently, auto-antibodies level to ghost RBC were correlated with degree of anaemia and were highest in Balb/c, when compared with the other strains, p Conclusion The results presented in this study seem to indicate that anti-RBC auto-antibodies may be involved in the destruction of uninfected RBC in semi-immune mice at relatively low parasite burden. Host genetic factors may also

  11. Spatial and Temporal Strain Distribution Along the Central Red Sea Rift - A Study of the Hamd-Jizil Basin in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D.; Johnson, P.; Kattan, F. H.; Al Shamari, A.

    2006-12-01

    Numerous models exploring the rupturing modes and mechanisms of continental lithosphere are based on geological evidence from the Red Sea/Gulf of Suez rift system. Individually, the Red Sea basin is the prototype for many models of orthogonal continental rifting. Despite being a classic example of continental extension, many temporal and spatial strain distribution aspects, as well as the dynamic evolution of the rift architecture of the Red Sea, remain poorly constrained. Critical data come mostly from the Gulf of Suez and the Egyptian and Yemeni margins of the Red Sea; the rift flanks in Sudan and Saudi Arabia have remained largely unstudied, leaving a large information gap along the central portions of the rift system. Improving continental lithosphere rupture models requires an absolute understanding of the timing and magnitude of strain partitioning along the full rift flank. This study focuses on the development of extensional structures, syn- extensional sedimentary deposits, and rift-related Tertiary basaltic volcanism along the central flank of the rift system in Saudi Arabia. Geo- and thermochronometric techniques are used to elucidate the evolution of inboard and outboard strain markers manifested by structurally-controlled extensional basins that parallel the trend of the main Red Sea rift. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of thermochronometric transects that traverse both the entire Arabian shield and individual normal faults that bound inland basins. Preliminary results show inland basins as asymmetric half-grabens filled by tilted Cenozoic sedimentary strata and separated by exhumed basement fault blocks. The most prominent extensional basin is the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, located north of Madinah, measuring ~200 km along strike and up to 20 km in width. The Hamd-Jizil basin is structurally characterized by two half-grabens exposing a series of syn-rift siliciclastic sedimentary sections

  12. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  13. Effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation was studied at approximately 5 oC intervals over a range of 18 – 37 oC, using one strain each of ale, lager and wine yeast. The ale and wine yeasts grew at all the temperatures tested, but lager yeast failed to grow at 37 oC. All these strains gave lower ...

  14. Production and Its Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of γ-Aminobutyric Acid from the Wild Yeast Strain Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Min; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wild yeast as well as investigate its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Among ten GABA-producing yeast strains, Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 produced high GABA concentration of 134.4 µg/mL and 179.2 µg/mL, respectively. P. silvicola UL6-1 showed a maximum GABA yield of 136.5 µg/mL and 200.8 µg/mL from S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 when they were cultured for 30 hr at 30℃ in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. The cell-free extract from P. silvicola UL6-1 and S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 showed very high anti-hyperglycemic α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 72.3% and 69.9%, respectively. Additionally, their cell-free extract-containing GABA showed the anti-hyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

  15. Reproductive performance of seven strains of the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) at five temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotoh, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Pallini, A.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker et Pritchard occurs on solanaceous plants, and causes serious damage to a variety of crops in Africa and Europe. In 2001 this species was also found in Japan, on nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), and its invasion to solanaceous of agricultural imp...

  16. Efficiency of population-dependent sulfite against Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Degueurce, Claudine; Julliat, Frédérique; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-11-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered as a spoilage yeast encountered mainly in red wine. It is able to reduce vinylphenols from phenolic acids to ethylphenols. These volatiles are responsible for the phenolic "Brett character" described as animal, farm, horse sweat and animal leather odors. Other molecules are responsible for organoleptic deviations described as "mousiness taint". SO 2 is the product most often used by winemakers to prevent B. bruxellensis growth. Usually, the recommended molecular dose of SO 2 (active SO 2 , mSO 2 ) is highly variable, from 0.3 to 0.8mg/L. But these doses do not take into account differences of strain resistance to sulfites or population levels. Moreover, SO 2 is known as a chemical stressor inducing a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of B. bruxellensis. These cells, which are non-detectable by plate counting, can lead to new contamination when the amount of sulfite decreases over time. Consequently, we first assessed the effect of SO 2 levels in red wine on two strains with phenotypically different sulfite resistances. Then, we studied the relationship between amounts of SO 2 (0, 0.5, 0.9 and 1.1mg/L active SO 2 ) and population levels (10 3 , 10 4 and 10 5 cells/mL) in red wine. Yeasts were enumerated by both plate counting and flow cytometry over time using viability dye. Our results showed different SO 2 resistances according to the strain used. A relationship between yeast population level and SO 2 resistance was demonstrated: the higher the yeast concentration, the lower the efficiency of SO 2 . Under certain conditions, the VBNC state of B. bruxellensis was highlighted in red wine. Yeasts in this VBNC state did not produce 4-EP. Moreover, cells became culturable again over time. All these results provide new information enabling better management of sulfite addition during wine aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genomic characterization of two novel SAR11 isolates from the Red Sea, including the first strain of the SAR11 Ib clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The SAR11 clade (Pelagibacterales) is a diverse group that forms a monophyletic clade within the Alphaproteobacteria, and constitutes up to one third of all prokaryotic cells in the photic zone of most oceans. Pelagibacterales are very abundant in the warm and highly saline surface waters of the Red Sea, raising the question of adaptive traits of SAR11 populations in this water body and warmer oceans through the world. In this study, two pure cultures were successfully obtained from surface waters on the Red Sea: one isolate of subgroup Ia and one of the previously uncultured SAR11 Ib lineage. The novel genomes were very similar to each other and to genomes of isolates of SAR11 subgroup Ia (Ia pan-genome), both in terms of gene content and synteny. Among the genes that were not present in the Ia pan-genome, 108 (RS39, Ia) and 151 genes (RS40, Ib) were strain specific. Detailed analyses showed that only 51 (RS39, Ia) and 55 (RS40, Ib) of these strain-specific genes had not reported before on genome fragments of Pelagibacterales. Further analyses revealed the potential production of phosphonates by some SAR11 members and possible adaptations for oligotrophic life, including pentose sugar utilization and adhesion to marine particulate matter. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genomic Characterization of Two Novel SAR11 Isolates From the Red Sea, Including the First Strain of the SAR11 Ib clade

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2017-06-22

    The SAR11 clade (Pelagibacterales) is a diverse group that forms a monophyletic clade within the Alphaproteobacteria, and constitutes up to one third of all prokaryotic cells in the photic zone of most oceans. Pelagibacterales are very abundant in the warm and highly saline surface waters of the Red Sea, raising the question of adaptive traits of SAR11 populations in this water body and warmer oceans through the world. In this study, two pure cultures were successfully obtained from surface waters on the Red Sea, one isolate of subgroup Ia and one of the previously uncultured SAR11 Ib lineage. The novel genomes were very similar to each other and to genomes of isolates of SAR11 subgroup Ia (Ia pan-genome), both in terms of gene content and synteny. Among the genes that were not present in the Ia pan-genome, 108 (RS39, Ia) and 151 genes (RS40, Ib) were strain-specific. Detailed analyses showed that only 51 (RS39, Ia) and 55 (RS40, Ib) of these strain-specific genes had not reported before on genome fragments of Pelagibacterales. Further analyses revealed the potential production of phosphonates by some SAR11 members and possible adaptations for oligotrophic life, including pentose sugar utilization and adhesion to marine particulate matter.

  19. Genomic Characterization of Two Novel SAR11 Isolates From the Red Sea, Including the First Strain of the SAR11 Ib clade

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.; Ngugi, David; Vinu, Manikandan; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The SAR11 clade (Pelagibacterales) is a diverse group that forms a monophyletic clade within the Alphaproteobacteria, and constitutes up to one third of all prokaryotic cells in the photic zone of most oceans. Pelagibacterales are very abundant in the warm and highly saline surface waters of the Red Sea, raising the question of adaptive traits of SAR11 populations in this water body and warmer oceans through the world. In this study, two pure cultures were successfully obtained from surface waters on the Red Sea, one isolate of subgroup Ia and one of the previously uncultured SAR11 Ib lineage. The novel genomes were very similar to each other and to genomes of isolates of SAR11 subgroup Ia (Ia pan-genome), both in terms of gene content and synteny. Among the genes that were not present in the Ia pan-genome, 108 (RS39, Ia) and 151 genes (RS40, Ib) were strain-specific. Detailed analyses showed that only 51 (RS39, Ia) and 55 (RS40, Ib) of these strain-specific genes had not reported before on genome fragments of Pelagibacterales. Further analyses revealed the potential production of phosphonates by some SAR11 members and possible adaptations for oligotrophic life, including pentose sugar utilization and adhesion to marine particulate matter.

  20. Comparative evaluation of 13 yeast species in the Yarrowia clade on lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate and genetic engineering of inhibitor tolerant strains for lipid and biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast that has garnered interest for commercial production of single cell oil and other fatty acid-derived chemicals because of its GRAS status and genetic tractability. Three recent peer-reviewed studies have highlighted the possibility of lipid production by th...

  1. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar, S. S.; Keshani,

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, sugg...

  2. Use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and oenological tannin in red winemaking: Influence on colour, aroma and sensorial properties of young wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio; Han, Shunyu; Benito, Santiago

    2018-02-01

    Today, many non-Saccharomyces strains have been verified can be positive for the development of wine anthocyanin and aroma in different fermentation scenarios. Moreover, oenological tannins are widely used in wine industry to improve the colour profile and aroma complexity. The aim of this work is to analyze the fermentation characters of non-Saccharomyces strains and investigate the effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on the wine components as well as sensory properties. For this purpose, five selected non-Saccharomyces strains and grape seed tannin were used to carry out the different fermentation trials. As a result, the grape seed tannin were less likely to influence growth kinetics of non-Saccharomyces strains. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been proved can be effective to reduce the malic acid content while increase the level of vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanin, which is positive for wine colour stability. Pre-fermentative use of oenological tannin was verified could be beneficial for the wines fermented with non-Saccharomyces regarding the improvement of wine colour, anthocyanin composition and the complexity of volatile compounds. Nevertheless, sensory analysis showed that oenological tannin could be less effective to modify the aroma impression of non-Saccharomyces wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-fermentative cold maceration in presence of non-Saccharomyces strains: Evolution of chromatic characteristics of Sangiovese red wine elaborated by sequential inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Cerreti, Martina; Liburdi, Katia; Nardi, Tiziana; Vagnoli, Paola; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Esti, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Two different Metschnikowia strains (M. pulcherrima MP 346 or M. fructicola MF 98-3) were applied for the first time, during pre-fermentative cold maceration (PCM) in order to enhance the properties and stability of Sangiovese wine color. During the 2014 and 2015 vintages a total of eight wines were produced with 24 h of cold maceration (PCM 24 h) or 72 h (PCM 72 h), respectively. PCM was carried out in presence of MP 346 or MF 98-3 or pectic enzyme (Cuvée Rouge). The sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae strain was carried out at the end of PCM. After 12 months in the bottle, the MP 346 and MF 98-3 wines contained much higher levels of total flavonoids than the Control sample for both vintages and regardless PCM duration. Moreover, in both vintages only MF 98-3 showed a higher color intensity than the Control sample after 12 months in the bottle. However, neither PCM duration nor the microbial/enzymatic treatment increased the level of anthocyanins at draining off. Both wines produced by the pre-fermentative inoculum with Metschnikowia strains (MP 346 and MF 98-3) retained their red hue, regardless the duration of pre-fermentative and fermentative macerations, while the Control wines were characterized by faster rates of color loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  5. Recombinant canine distemper virus strain snyder hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ludlow (Martin); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); D. Silin; O. Lyubomska; R.D. de Vries (Rory); V. von Messling; S. McQuaid (Stephen); R.L. de Swart (Rik); W.P. Duprex (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDVSH) and show that this virus rapidly

  6. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Costantini, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces...... marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best...

  7. SELECTION AND USE OF YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM AUTOCHTHONOUS SOUTHERN ITALY GRAPEWINE CULTIVARS AND IMPACT ON AROMA PROFILE OF PRODUCED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Boscaino, Floriana

    2015-01-01

    Today, the use of selected commercial yeasts (LSA) from Saccharomyces species "sensu stricto" is widespread, because it allows to minimize risks in the production process, to standardize the winemaking procedure and ensure the quality of the final product. On the other hand, the widespread use of starter cultures in the wine industry has resulted in a loss of wine sensory characteristics and in a flattening of those differences crucial to distinguish wines of different cultivars. For this ...

  8. Rice Na+/H+- antiporter Nhx1 partially complements the alkali-metal-cation sensitivity of yeast strains lacking three sodium transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kinclová-Zimmermannová, Olga; Flegelová, Hana; Sychrová, Hana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 519-525 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1240; GA AV ČR IAA5011407 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : alkali metal cations * Na/H antiporter * yeast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  9. Baker’s yeasts for use in frozen-dough technology : sugar utilization in freeze tolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii strains and elucidation of cryo-resistance mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Andreia

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências (ramo de conhecimento em Biologia) Bread is a central dietary item in most countries of the world. Currently, frozen dough technology is extensively used in the baking industry to supply oven-fresh bakery products to consumers and to improve labor conditions for bakers. Since freeze–thaw stress affects the viability and activity of yeast cells, one serious disadvantage of this technology is a significant reduction in leavening activity during fr...

  10. evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of quercetin derived of natural extract from red onion ocañera (allilium strain l and red apple (pyrus malus l var. red delicius in palm oil refined industrial type continuous warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golda Meyer Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the assessment of the quercetin antioxidant capacity existing in red apple (Pyrus malus L var. red delicious and ocañera red onion (Allilium cepa L. Then, antioxidant concentration was calculated by a standard curve of commercial quercetin (HPLC concentration ≥98% using spectrophotometry at 415 nm and dropped concentrations of 0.0955 mg/g in onion extract and 0.0144mg/g in apple extract. The antioxidant capacity of each extract was evaluated over industrial samples of industrial RDB (Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil without antioxidant in order to observe the effect they had over peroxide creation. Actually, samples were treated in continuous heating for two, four and six hours and recording variables performance like acidity, iodine and peroxide index. Also, a sample of oil without antioxidant was evaluated adding pure commercial quercetin at 0.18 mg/g and a control sample of RBD palm oil added with commercial antioxidant (TBHQ, BHT. Finally, the outcome got by ANOVA analysis (Pvalue= 0.028, significance level of 5% on peroxide index formation calculated in mequivO2/kg highlighted the time of exposition than quercetin concentration in 0.0144 mg/g, hence a result alike the sample of oil added with commercial antioxidant.

  11. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-03

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodiesel generation from oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... This study explored a strategy to convert agricultural and forestry residues into microbial lipid, which could be further transformed into biodiesel. Among the 250 yeast strains screened for xylose assimilating capacity, eight oleaginous yeasts were selected by Sudan Black B test. The lipid content of these 8 ...

  13. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  14. Changes in ultrastructure and histochemistry of two red macroalgae strains of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), as a consequence of ultraviolet B radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Scariot, Lidiane Angela; Rover, Ticiane; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects macroalgae in many important ways, including reduced growth rate, reduction of primary productivity and changes in cell biology and ultrastructure. Among red macroalgae, Kappaphycus alvarezii is of economic interest by its production of kappa carrageenan. Only a few reports have examined the changes in macroalgae ultrastructure and cell biology resulting from UVB radiation exposure. Therefore, we examined two strains of K. alvarezii (green and red) exposed to UVB for 3 h per day during 28 days and then processed them for histochemical and electron microscopy analysis. Reaction with Toluidine Blue showed an increase in the thickness of the cell wall and Periodic Acid-Schiff stain showed a decrease in the number of starch grains. UVBR also caused changes in the ultrastructure of cortical and subcortical cells, which included increased thickness of the cell wall and number of free ribosomes and plastoglobuli, reduced intracellular spaces, changes in the cell contour, and destruction of chloroplast internal organization. Based on these lines of evidence, it was evident by the ultrastructural changes observed that UVBR negatively affects intertidal macroalgae and, by extension, their economic viability.

  15. Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Pontes, Ana; Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Serra, Marta; Libkind, Diego; Hutzler, Mathias; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-10-24

    Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker's yeast was produced from three selected baker's yeast strains using date syrup as a substrate at low and high flow rate compared to those produced using molasses substrates. Performance of the produced baker's yeasts on Arabic bread quality was investigated. Baking tests showed a positive relationship between ...

  17. Study of the Effects of Monacolin K and Other Constituents of Red Yeast Rice on Obesity, Insulin-Resistance, Hyperlipidemia, and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Using a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Fujimoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a progressive and intractable disease associated with metabolic syndrome. Red yeast rice (RYR contains monacolin K, a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, and its consumption decreases cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We examined the efficacy of RYR constituents using a novel metabolic syndrome-NAFLD mouse model (MSG mice. Methods. Two types of RYR grown under different culture conditions were used. 1P-DU contained only 0.002 g/100 g of monacolin K, whereas 3P-D1 contained 0.131 g/100 g. MSG mice were divided into three groups: control (C group fed standard food, RYR-C group fed standard food with 1% 1P-DU, and RYR-M group fed standard food with 1% 3P-D1. Mice were examined from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Results. Serum insulin, leptin, and liver damage as well as macrophage aggregation in visceral fat in RYR-C and RYR-M groups were lower than those in C group. The serum adiponectin levels in RYR-C group were significantly higher than those in RYR-M and C groups. Conclusions. RYR was effective against obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in MSG mice irrespective of monacolin K levels. GABA and various peptides produced during fermentation were determined as the active constituents of RYR.

  18. Lowering histamine formation in a red Ribera del Duero wine (Spain) by using an indigenous O. oeni strain as a malolactic starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, Carmen; Benavent-Gil, Yaiza; Navascués, Eva; Calvo, Almudena; Albors, Clara; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrates for the first time that a non-commercial selected autochthonous O. oeni strain has been used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) while lowering histamine formation in the same winery. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 vats before and after spontaneous MLF at the Pago de Carraovejas winery from the Ribera del Duero region (Spain). Only O. oeni were present, typed and characterized, and both histamine producer and non-producers existed. From the non-producers, one strain was selected to become a starter according to its genetic profile, prevalence in the different wines in the winery, resistance to alcoholic degree, resistance to high polyphenolic content, inability to synthesise histamine, growth kinetics and malolactic activity. This starter was produced at semi-industrial levels to inoculate 20,000L of Tempranillo red wine. The inoculated vat showed 5-fold less histamine than the non-inoculated control vat. After 1year, the barrel-ageing histamine concentrations were 3-fold lower in the inoculated vat than in the non-inoculated vat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The flexible feedstock concept in Industrial Biotechnology: Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast strains for access to alternative carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Gil Lopez, Marina; Hennig, Guido; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Sgobba, Elvira; Veldmann, Kareen H

    2016-09-20

    Most biotechnological processes are based on glucose that is either present in molasses or generated from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. At the very high, million-ton scale production volumes, for instance for fermentative production of the biofuel ethanol or of commodity chemicals such as organic acids and amino acids, competing uses of carbon sources e.g. in human and animal nutrition have to be taken into account. Thus, the biotechnological production hosts E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, bacilli and Baker's yeast used in these large scale processes have been engineered for efficient utilization of alternative carbon sources. This flexible feedstock concept is central to the use of non-glucose second and third generation feedstocks in the emerging bioeconomy. The metabolic engineering efforts to broaden the substrate scope of E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, B. subtilis and yeasts to include non-native carbon sources will be reviewed. Strategies to enable simultaneous consumption of mixtures of native and non-native carbon sources present in biomass hydrolysates will be summarized and a perspective on how to further increase feedstock flexibility for the realization of biorefinery processes will be given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro complement activation, adherence to red blood cells and induction of mononuclear cell cytokine production by four strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with different fimbriation and expression of leukotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, C.; Reinholdt, J.; Palarasah, Y.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been proposed as pro-atherogenic, and complement-mediated adherence to red blood cells (RBCs) may facilitate its systemic spread. We investigated the ability of four strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans wi...

  2. Influence of choice of yeasts on volatile fermentation-derived compounds, colour and phenolics composition in Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez Rojas, Inmaculada; Smith, Paul A; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2012-12-01

    Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

  3. Fermentative capabilities and volatile compounds produced by Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces yeast strains in pure and mixed cultures during Agave tequilana juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Ivonne Wendolyne; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2015-09-01

    The fermentative and aromatic capabilities of Kloeckera africana/Hanseniaspora vineae K1, K. apiculata/H. uvarum K2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1 and S2 were studied in pure and mixed culture fermentations using Agave tequila juice as the culture medium. In pure and mixed cultures, Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains showed limited growth and sugar consumption, as well as low ethanol yield and productivity, compared to S. cerevisiae, which yielded more biomass, ethanol and viable cell concentrations. In pure and mixed cultures, S. cerevisiae presented a similar behaviour reaching high biomass production, completely consuming the sugar, leading to high ethanol production. Furthermore, the presence of S. cerevisiae strains in the mixed cultures promoted the production of higher alcohols, acetaldehyde and ethyl esters, whereas Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains stimulated the production of ethyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate compounds.

  4. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  5. BioREFINE-2G project – Engineering of industrial yeast strains for production of dicarboxylic acids from side and waste streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    For our future we need to assure that fuels as well as chemicals will be produced environmentallyfriendly from renewable resources. There must be a major move away from the use of food biomasstowards the use of renewable non-food feed-stocks, such as wood, stover, straw etc. The existing 2nd...... compounds can be polymerised to biodegradable polymersthat can find application as plastics, coatings or adhesives. To reach the goals, the identification of relevant metabolic routes, strain engineering and the development of a toolbox for manipulation of industrial S. cerevisiae strains are required. Here...

  6. The Oleaginous Yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii BI281A as a New Potential Biodiesel Feedstock: Selection and Lipid Production Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Castrillón, Mauricio; Jaramillo-Garcia, Victoria P; Rosa, Priscila D; Landell, Melissa F; Vu, Duong; Fabricio, Mariana F; Ayub, Marco A Z; Robert, Vincent; Henriques, João A P; Valente, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    A high throughput screening (HTS) methodology for evaluation of cellular lipid content based on Nile red fluorescence reads using black background 96-wells test plates and a plate reader equipment allowed the rapid intracellular lipid estimation of strains from a Brazilian phylloplane yeast collection. A new oleaginous yeast, Meyerozyma guilliermondii BI281A, was selected, for which the gravimetric determination of total lipids relative to dry weight was 52.38% for glucose or 34.97% for pure glycerol. The lipid production was optimized obtaining 108 mg/L of neutral lipids using pure glycerol as carbon source, and the strain proved capable of accumulating oil using raw glycerol from a biodiesel refinery. The lipid profile showed monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) varying between 56 or 74% in pure or raw glycerol, respectively. M. guilliermondii BI281A bears potential as a new biodiesel feedstock.

  7. The Oleaginous Yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii BI281A as a New Potential Biodiesel Feedstock: Selection and Lipid Production Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ramírez-Castrillón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high throughput screening (HTS methodology for evaluation of cellular lipid content based on Nile red fluorescence reads using black background 96-wells test plates and a plate reader equipment allowed the rapid intracellular lipid estimation of strains from a Brazilian phylloplane yeast collection. A new oleaginous yeast, Meyerozyma guilliermondii BI281A, was selected, for which the gravimetric determination of total lipids relative to dry weight was 52.38% for glucose or 34.97% for pure glycerol. The lipid production was optimized obtaining 108 mg/L of neutral lipids using pure glycerol as carbon source, and the strain proved capable of accumulating oil using raw glycerol from a biodiesel refinery. The lipid profile showed monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA varying between 56 or 74% in pure or raw glycerol, respectively. M. guilliermondii BI281A bears potential as a new biodiesel feedstock.

  8. New vectors in fission yeast: application for cloning the his2 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weilguny, D; Praetorius, M; Carr, Alan

    1991-01-01

    of transforming Sc. pombe ura4 strains, as well as ura 3 strains of the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used pON163 for the construction of two fission yeast genomic libraries. From these gene banks clones were isolated that were able to complement fission yeast his2 mutants...

  9. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  10. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  11. Superoxide dismutase 1-mediated production of ethanol- and DNA-derived radicals in yeasts challenged with hydrogen peroxide: molecular insights into the genome instability of peroxiredoxin-null strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusucu, Renata; Rettori, Daniel; Netto, Luis E S; Augusto, Ohara

    2009-02-27

    Peroxiredoxins are receiving increasing attention as defenders against oxidative damage and sensors of hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling events. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of one or more isoforms of the peroxiredoxins is not lethal but compromises genome stability by mechanisms that remain under scrutiny. Here, we show that cytosolic peroxiredoxin-null cells (tsa1Deltatsa2Delta) are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide than wild-type (WT) cells and consume it faster under fermentative conditions. Also, tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells produced higher yields of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical from oxidation of the glucose metabolite ethanol, as proved by spin-trapping experiments. A major role for Fenton chemistry in radical formation was excluded by comparing WT and tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells with respect to their levels of total and chelatable metal ions and of radical produced in the presence of chelators. The main route for 1-hydroxyethyl radical formation was ascribed to the peroxidase activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1), whose expression and activity increased approximately 5- and 2-fold, respectively, in tsa1Deltatsa2Delta compared with WT cells. Accordingly, overexpression of human Sod1 in WT yeasts led to increased 1-hydroxyethyl radical production. Relevantly, tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide contained higher levels of DNA-derived radicals and adducts as monitored by immuno-spin trapping and incorporation of (14)C from glucose into DNA, respectively. The results indicate that part of hydrogen peroxide consumption by tsa1Deltatsa2Delta cells is mediated by induced Sod1, which oxidizes ethanol to the 1-hydroxyethyl radical, which, in turn, leads to increased DNA damage. Overall, our studies provide a pathway to account for the hypermutability of peroxiredoxin-null strains.

  12. Osmotolerance and leavening ability in sweet and frozen sweet dough. Comparative analysis between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, M J; Prieto, J A; Randez-Gil, F

    2003-01-01

    The response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and freeze-tolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii strains to osmotic stress and their CO2 production capacity in sweet and frozen-sweet dough has been examined. T. delbrueckii strains, IGC5321 and IGC5323 showed higher leavening ability than Saccharomyces, specially after exposure to hyperosmotic stress of bread dough containing 20% sucrose and 2% salt added. In addition, Torulaspora and especially T. delbrueckii IGC5321 exhibited no loss of CO2 production capacity during freeze-thaw stress. Overall, these results appeared to indicate that Torulaspora cells are more tolerant than Saccharomyces to osmotic stress of bread dough. This trait correlated with a low invertase activity, a slow rate of trehalose mobilisation and the ability to respond rapidly to osmotic stress. Growth behaviour on high osmotic synthetic media was also examined. Cells of the IGC5321 strain showed intrinsic osmotolerance and ion toxicity resistance. However, T. delbrueckii IGC5323 exhibited a clear phenotype of osmosensitivity. Hence, this characteristic may not be essential or the only determinant for leavening ability in salted high-sugar dough.

  13. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  14. [Yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Tamási, Béla; Mihalik, Noémi; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-01-04

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common mycosis, however, the available information about antifungal susceptibilities of these yeasts is limited. To compare the gold standard fungal culture with a new molecular identification method and report the incidence of yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa. The authors studied 370 yeasts isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis and identified them by phenotypic and molecular methods. The most common species was Candida albicans (85%), followed by Candida glabrata, and other Candida species. At present there are no recommendations for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of pathogenic fungal species occurring in vulvovaginal candidiasis and the natural antifungal resistance of the different species is known only. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight identification can be used to differentiate the fluconazole resistant Candida dubliniensis and the sensitive Candida albicans strains.

  15. Natural and modified promoters for tailored metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The ease of highly sophisticated genetic manipulations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has initiated numerous initiatives towards development of metabolically engineered strains for novel applications beyond its traditional use in brewing, baking, and wine making. In fact, baker's yeast has

  16. A Novel Yeast Genomics Method for Identifying New Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, J. M; Brown, James A

    2007-01-01

    ...) a hallmark of most breast cancers when deleted. Using a collection of yeast strains carrying the deletion of a unique open reading frame, we have transfected a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC...

  17. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker’s Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tika B. Karki; Parash Mani Timilsina; Archana Yadav; Gyanu Raj Pandey; Yogesh Joshi; Sahansila Bhujel; Rojina Adhikari; Katyayanee Neupane

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker’s yeast and compare them with the commercial baker’s yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree “Dar” were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wa...

  19. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  20. The Activity Test of Ethanol Extract Tea Parasite Herb (Scurrulla Artopurpurea) as an Immunostimulator on Wistar Strain Rat Sensititized with Sheep Red Blood Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Retno; Dimas A, M.; Hafiz, Aldi; Amalia, Muttia

    2018-03-01

    Tea parasite (Scurrulla artropurpurea) is one of the hemiparasite plants suspected as an imustimulator agent. The aims of this study was to prove the activity of tea parasite herb extract as immunostimulator in Wistar strain rats that are sensitized by sheep red blood cell suspension (SRBC). Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group was given CMC 1%, the treatment group was given the tea parasite herb extract at doses of 750 mg, 1.5g and 3 g/kgBW/day, each group was sensitized by SRBC 10% as much 0.5 ml intraperitoneally on the 0th and 9th days and 0.1 ml intraplantar on 12th days. The total number of leukocyte and lymphocyte cells was performed using blood smear and analyzed by GLMRM. test. The macrophage cell activity and the capacity of the peritoneal fluid preparation on day 14 and analyzed by ANOVA test. The histopathological features are demonstrated after 48 hours of intraplantar injection, quantitatively perceived perivascular and periadnexal infiltrates. The results showed that there were average differences on leukocyte cell counts (F = 46.249) and total lymphocyte cells (F = 58.144) on each calculation (day), but there were no average differences between each treatment group. The highest activity of phagocytosis is 78% and continues to increase along with the additional dose of extract, without the increased capacity of macrophage phagocytosis. Histopathological features of slow-type IV reaction shows mild severity. It can be concluded that the active compound of the extract tea parasite herbare able to improve immune system.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1648, 1700) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    effect refers to maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two randomised controlled trials provided from......-cholesterol concentrations is well established and that the mechanism by which monacolin K can contribute to the claimed effect is well known. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of monacolin K from red yeast rice...

  2. 'Killer' character of yeasts isolated from ethanolic fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccato-Antonini Sandra Regina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of killer, neutral and sensitive yeasts was determined from strains isolated from substrates related to alcoholic fermentations. From 113 isolates, 24 showed killer activity against NCYC 1006 (standard sensitive strain, while 30 were sensitive to NCYC 738 (standard killer strain, and 59 had no reaction in assays at 25-27°C. Two wild yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of Candida colliculosa were tested against 10 standard killer strains and one standard sensitive strain in a cell x cell and well-test assays at four different pHs. None of the isolates displayed strong killer activity or were sensitive to the standard strains. All belonged to the neutral type. It was concluded that although the number of killer strains was high, this character cannot be used to protect ethanol fermentation processes against yeast contaminants like those which form cell clusters.

  3. Potential application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aimed at evaluating the fermentation behavior of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in banana pulp and they were compared with commercial yeast (baker's yeast) for subsequent production of distilled spirits. Five types of microorganisms were used: Four yeast strains obtained from accredited ...

  4. The role of the heat shock protein Hsp12p in the dynamic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the addition of Congo red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamrock, Vanessa J; Duval, Jérôme F L; Lindsey, George G; Gaboriaud, Fabien

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the electrohydrodynamic and nanomechanical characteristics of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, a wild-type (WT) strain and a strain overexpressing (OE) Hsp12p, in the presence and absence of hydrophobic Congo red compound. By combining these two advanced biophysical methods, we demonstrate that Hsp12p proteins are mostly located within a thin layer (c. 10 nm thick) positioned at the external side of the cell wall. However, this Hsp12p-enriched layer does not prevent Congo red from entering the cell wall and from interacting with the chitin therein. The entrance of Congo red within the cell wall is reflected in an increase of the turgor pressure for the OE strain and a decrease of that for the WT strain. It is shown that these opposite trends are consistent with significant modulations of the water content within the cell wall from/to the cytoplasm. These are the result of changes in the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance, as governed by the intertwined local concentration variations of Congo red and Hsp12p across the cell wall. In particular, the decrease of the turgor pressure in the case of WT strain upon addition of Congo red is shown to be consistent with an upregulation of Hsp12p in the close vicinity of the plasma membrane.

  5. Differences between flocculating yeast and regular industrial yeast in transcription and metabolite profiling during ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve ethanolic fermentation performance of self-flocculating yeast, difference between a flocculating yeast strain and a regular industrial yeast strain was analyzed by transcriptional and metabolic approaches. Results: The number of down-regulated (industrial yeast YIC10 vs. flocculating yeast GIM2.71 and up-regulated genes were 4503 and 228, respectively. It is the economic regulation for YIC10 that non-essential genes were down-regulated, and cells put more “energy” into growth and ethanol production. Hexose transport and phosphorylation were not the limiting-steps in ethanol fermentation for GIM2.71 compared to YIC10, whereas the reaction of 1,3-disphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate, the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and its subsequent reduction to ethanol were the most limiting steps. GIM2.71 had stronger stress response than non-flocculating yeast and much more carbohydrate was distributed to other bypass, such as glycerol, acetate and trehalose synthesis. Conclusions: Differences between flocculating yeast and regular industrial yeast in transcription and metabolite profiling will provide clues for improving the fermentation performance of GIM2.71.

  6. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum beer strainings were analysed for starch, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, minerals and ... The importance of minerals in animal nutrition has been recognized for many ..... strainings is probably due to yeast activity during fermentation ...

  7. Prions in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Bezdíčka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes yeast prions and their biological effects on yeast in general. It defines the basic characteristics of yeast prions, that distinguish prions from other proteins. The thesis introduces various possibilities of prion formation, and propagation as well as specific types of yeast prions, including various functions of most studied types of prions. The thesis also focuses on chaperones that affect the state of yeast prions in cells. Lastly, the thesis indicates similarities be...

  8. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  9. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on brewer's yeast fermentation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharandiuk, Tetiana; Kosiv, Ruslana; Palianytsia, Liubov; Berezovska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of temperature treatment of brewer's yeast strain Saflager W-34/70 at temperatures of -17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C on their fermentative activity was studied. It was established that the freezing of yeast leads to a decrease of fermentation activity in directly proportional to the duration way. Fermentative activity of yeast samples can be increased by 20-24% by heat treatment at 35 °C during 15-30 minutes.

  11. Yeast species associated with the spontaneous fermentation of cider.

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Belén; Pando, Rosa; Fernández, Norman; Querol, Amparo; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of cider-making technology (pneumatic and traditional pressing) on the dynamics of wild yeast populations. Yeast colonies isolated from apple juice before and throughout fermentation at a cider cellar of Asturias (Spain), during two consecutive years were studied. The yeast strains were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences (ITS). The musts obtained by ...

  12. Nonselective enrichment for yeast adenine mutants by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, C. V.; Chuba, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of certain adenine biosynthetic mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a red colony color. This phenomenon has historically provided an ideal genetic marker for the study of mutation, recombination, and aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes by classical genetic analysis. In this paper, it is reported that cells carrying ade1 and/or ade2 mutations exhibit primary fluorescence. Based on this observation, the nonselective enrichment of yeast cultures for viable adenine mutants by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter has been achieved. The advantages of this approach over conventional genetic analysis of mutation, recombination, and mitotic chromosomal stability include speed and accuracy in acquiring data for large numbers of clones. By using appropriate strains, the cell sorter has been used for the isolation of both forward mutations and chromosomal loss events in S. cerevisiae. The resolving power of this system and its noninvasiveness can easily be extended to more complex organisms, including mammalian cells, in which analogous metabolic mutants are available.

  13. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

  14. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline Viviane Marques das Neves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2 was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 µg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 µg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 µg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 µg/mL for bacteria and 32 µg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 µg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis.

  15. Electron transport chain in a thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Martínez-Mora, José A; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Yeasts capable of growing and surviving at high temperatures are regarded as thermotolerant. For appropriate functioning of cellular processes and cell survival, the maintenance of an optimal redox state is critical of reducing and oxidizing species. We studied mitochondrial functions of the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and the mesophilic OFF1 yeasts, through the evaluation of its mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), ATPase activity, electron transport chain (ETC) activities, alternative oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ ions (Ca 2+ cyt) increased in the SLP1 yeast when exposed to high temperature, compared with the mesophilic yeast OFF1. ATPase activity in the mesophilic yeast diminished 80% when exposed to 40° while the thermotolerant SLP1 showed no change, despite an increase in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The SLP1 thermotolerant yeast exposed to high temperature showed a diminution of 33% of the oxygen consumption in state 4. The uncoupled state 3 of oxygen consumption did not change in the mesophilic yeast when it had an increase of temperature, whereas in the thermotolerant SLP1 yeast resulted in an increase of 2.5 times when yeast were grown at 30 o , while a decrease of 51% was observed when it was exposed to high temperature. The activities of the ETC complexes were diminished in the SLP1 when exposed to high temperature, but also it was distinguished an alternative oxidase activity. Our results suggest that the mitochondria state, particularly ETC state, is an important characteristic of the thermotolerance of the SLP1 yeast strain.

  16. Functional genomics of beer-related physiological processes in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelwood, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the release of the entire genome sequence of the S. cerevisiae laboratory strain S288C in 1996, many functional genomics tools have been introduced in fundamental and application-oriented yeast research. In this thesis, the applicability of functional genomics for the improvement of yeast in

  17. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  18. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  19. Polyglutamine toxicity in yeast induces metabolic alterations and mitochondrial defects

    KAUST Repository

    Papsdorf, Katharina; Kaiser, Christoph J. O.; Drazic, Adrian; Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Haeß ner, Carmen; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    formation. Indeed, we find that in vivo iron concentrations are misbalanced and observe a reduction in the activity of the prominent Fe-S cluster containing protein aconitase. Like in other yeast strains with impaired mitochondria, non-fermentative growth

  20. [Overexpression of FKS1 to improve yeast autolysis-stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2015-09-01

    With the development of high gravity brewing, yeast cells are exposed to multiple brewing-associated stresses, such as increased osmotic pressure, enhanced alcohol concentration and nutritional imbalance. These will speed up yeast autolysis, which seriously influence beer flavor and quality. To increase yeast anti-autolytic ability, FKS1 overexpression strain was constructed by 18S rDNA. The concentration of β-1,3-glucan of overexpression strain was 62% higher than that of wild type strain. Meantime, FKS1 overexpression strain increased anti-stress ability at 8% ethanol, 0.4 mol/L NaCl and starvation stress. Under simulated autolysis, FKS1 showed good anti-autolytic ability by slower autolysis. These results confirms the potential of FKS1 overexpression to tackle yeast autolysis in high-gravity brewing.

  1. Genetic Screens in Yeast to Identify BRCA1 Modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plon, Sharon E

    2005-01-01

    .... The yeast RAD9 protein has similar functions and sequence motifs as BRCA1 and we proposed to identify haploinsufficient mutations at a second locus that alters the chromosome loss rate of our rad9-/- diploid strains...

  2. Multistarter from organic viticulture for red wine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the use of a multistarter fermentation process has been proposed to improve the organoleptic characteristics of wines. In the present study the fermentation performances and the interactions of mixed and sequential cultures of H. uvarum, C. zemplinina and a strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from organic musts were investigated. To evaluate the oenological performances of the tested strains microvinifications in pasteurized red grape juice from Montepulciano d’Abruzzo cultivar were compared. The course of fermentation has been controlled through classical determinations (CO2 evolution, ethanol, glycerol, pH, total titratable acidity, sugar content, free sulfur dioxide (SO2, dry extract, sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds. Moreover, the yeast population was determined by both culture-dependent and independent approaches. In particular, the pure culture of H. uvarum and C. zemplinina didn’t end the fermentation. On the contrary, when S. cerevisiae was added, fermentations were faster confirming that yeast interactions influence the fermentation kinetics. Moreover, C. zemplinina showed a good interaction with S. cerevisiae by increasing the fermentation kinetic in high gravity Montepulciano must, with low ethyl acetate and acetic acid production. This study confirmed that non-Saccharomyces (NS yeasts play a crucial role also in organic wines and their activity could be modulated through the selection of appropriate strains that correctly interact with S. cerevisiae.

  3. QTL mapping of sake brewing characteristics of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Namise, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    A haploid sake yeast strain derived from the commercial diploid sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 showed better characteristics for sake brewing compared to the haploid laboratory yeast strain X2180-1B, including higher production of ethanol and aromatic components. A hybrid of these two strains showed intermediate characteristics in most cases. After sporulation of the hybrid strain, we obtained 100 haploid segregants of the hybrid. Small-scale sake brewing tests of these segregants showed a smooth continuous distribution of the sake brewing characteristics, suggesting that these traits are determined by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To examine these sake brewing characteristics at the genomic level, we performed QTL analysis of sake brewing characteristics using 142 DNA markers that showed heterogeneity between the two parental strains. As a result, we identified 25 significant QTLs involved in the specification of sake brewing characteristics such as ethanol fermentation and the production of aromatic components.

  4. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...

  5. Analysis of the secondary compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wild yeast strains during the production of "cachaça" Análise dos componentes secundários produzidos por Saccharomyces cerevisiae e leveduras selvagens durante a produção de cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Fachine Dato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the composition of "cachaças" produced in 10 fermentation cycles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc and wild yeast strains [Pichia silvicola (Ps, Pichia anomala 1 (Pa1, Pichia anomala 2 (Pa2 and Dekkera bruxelensis (Db], isolated from distilleries in Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The secondary components of the heart fraction were determined by gas chromatography. The levels of secondary components were influenced by the wine pH, which varied among yeast strains. S. cerevisiae showed slightly more secondary components, whereas wild strains produced more higher alcohols. Wild yeast strains were shown to be adequate for the production of a high quality "cachaça".O presente trabalho visou estabelecer uma comparação entre composição de cachaças produzidas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc e estirpes de leveduras selvagens [Pichia silvicola (Ps, Pichia anomala 1 (Pa1, Pichia anomala 2 (Pa2 e Dekkera bruxelensis (Db], isoladas em destilarias da região de Jaboticabal-SP. Os componentes secundários da fração denominada coração foram determinados por cromatografia gasosa. Os níveis dos componentes secundários foram influenciados pelo pH dos respectivos vinhos, os quais dependem da estirpe de levedura empregada no processo fermentativo. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae apresentou valores ligeiramente superiores de componentes secundários, enquanto as estirpes selvagens produziram maiores teores de álcoois superiores. As estirpes selvagens de leveduras mostraram-se adequadas para obtenção de uma cachaça de boa qualidade.

  6. Chemical genomic guided engineering of gamma-valerolactone tolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Scott; Dickinson, Quinn; McGee, Mick; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Hebert, Alex; Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Myers, Chad L; Landick, Robert; Piotrowski, Jeff S

    2018-01-12

    Gamma valerolactone (GVL) treatment of lignocellulosic bomass is a promising technology for degradation of biomass for biofuel production; however, GVL is toxic to fermentative microbes. Using a combination of chemical genomics with the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) deletion collection to identify sensitive and resistant mutants, and chemical proteomics to monitor protein abundance in the presence of GVL, we sought to understand the mechanism toxicity and resistance to GVL with the goal of engineering a GVL-tolerant, xylose-fermenting yeast. Chemical genomic profiling of GVL predicted that this chemical affects membranes and membrane-bound processes. We show that GVL causes rapid, dose-dependent cell permeability, and is synergistic with ethanol. Chemical genomic profiling of GVL revealed that deletion of the functionally related enzymes Pad1p and Fdc1p, which act together to decarboxylate cinnamic acid and its derivatives to vinyl forms, increases yeast tolerance to GVL. Further, overexpression of Pad1p sensitizes cells to GVL toxicity. To improve GVL tolerance, we deleted PAD1 and FDC1 in a xylose-fermenting yeast strain. The modified strain exhibited increased anaerobic growth, sugar utilization, and ethanol production in synthetic hydrolysate with 1.5% GVL, and under other conditions. Chemical proteomic profiling of the engineered strain revealed that enzymes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis were more abundant in the presence of GVL compared to the background strain. The engineered GVL strain contained greater amounts of ergosterol than the background strain. We found that GVL exerts toxicity to yeast by compromising cellular membranes, and that this toxicity is synergistic with ethanol. Deletion of PAD1 and FDC1 conferred GVL resistance to a xylose-fermenting yeast strain by increasing ergosterol accumulation in aerobically grown cells. The GVL-tolerant strain fermented sugars in the presence of GVL levels that were inhibitory to the unmodified strain

  7. Effect of the use of commercial Saccharomyces strains in a newly established winery in Ronda (Málaga, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Almudena; Calderón, Isabel L; Paneque, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    An ecological study of the yeasts present in a spontaneous and an inoculated fermentation in red wine was carried out in 2005 vintage in a winery located in the Denomination of Origin "Sierras de Málaga" (Málaga, southern of Spain). The winery operated by the first time with the 2003 vintage and since then, has used commercial yeast inocula to start alcoholic fermentation. Yeast isolates were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS region from the ribosomal DNA and by mitochondrial DNA RFLP analysis. Except for non-Saccharomyces yeasts found in the fresh must before fermentation, all the isolates were found to be commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains employed by the winery during the successive vintages; thus, no indigenous Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated during fermentation. The same four restriction patterns were found in non inoculated and inoculated vats, although with different frequencies. The use of commercial yeast starter in a new established winery seems to have prevented the development of a resident indigenous Saccharomyces flora.

  8. On the mechanism of rapid postirradiation recovery of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid postirradiation recovery of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is equally effective both in water and in a liquid nutrition medium. In the haploid strains, rapid recovery occurs more readily in the log phase than in the stationary phase of growth. In the diploid strains, rapid recovery is more effective in the log phase than in the stationary phase. Rapid recovery of yeast does not require an additional protein synthesis. Damages induced by UV-light are not sub ected to rapid recovery

  9. Occurrence and diversity of marine yeasts in Antarctica environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Hua, Mingxia; Song, Chunli; Chi, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica. According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization, the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula slooffiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans, respectively. The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology, for some of them can produce β-galactosidase and killer toxins.

  10. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  11. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  12. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-08-20

    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  14. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  15. Genetic engineering of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains using a selection/counter-selection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyna, Dariusz R; Cordente, Antonio G; Varela, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Gene modification of laboratory yeast strains is currently a very straightforward task thanks to the availability of the entire yeast genome sequence and the high frequency with which yeast can incorporate exogenous DNA into its genome. Unfortunately, laboratory strains do not perform well in industrial settings, indicating the need for strategies to modify industrial strains to enable strain development for industrial applications. Here we describe approaches we have used to genetically modify industrial strains used in winemaking.

  16. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    OpenAIRE

    Marol Serhat; Yücesoy Mine

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 ...

  17. Characterization of the Respiration-Induced Yeast Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Patrick C.; Pfeiffer, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    When isolated mitochondria from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidize respiratory substrates in the absence of phosphate and ADP, the yeast mitochondrial unselective channel, also called the yeast permeability transition pore (yPTP), opens in the inner membrane dissipating the electrochemical gradient. ATP also induces yPTP opening. yPTP opening allows mannitol transport into isolated mitochondria of laboratory yeast strains, but mannitol is not readily permeable throug...

  18. Hybridization of halotolerant yeast for alcohol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtong, S.

    1991-01-01

    Attempt have been made to construct a new yeast strain from alcohol fermenting strains and salt tolerant strains. It is anticipated that the new yeast strain will be able to ferment alcohol in molasses mash with high salinity, up to 3% of NaCl. Another characteristics is its ability to tolerate up to 40 C temperature which is desirable for alcohol fermentation in tropical countries. Commercial and wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened for their fermenting ability and strain SC90, 191 TJ3, and AM12 were selected as parental strains for fusion among themselves and with other halo tolerant species. Halo tolerant strains selected at 5% NaCl in molasses mash were tentatively identified as Torulopsis grabrata, T. candida, T. Bovina and S. Rouxii whereas all of those strains selected at 17% NaCl were Citeromyces sp. It was found that fusant TA73 derived from wild strain and sake fermenting strain performed best among 4,087 fusants investigated. This fusant fermented much better than their parental strains when salt concentrations were increased to 5 and 7% NaCl. Experiment was carried out in fermentor, 1.5 liter working volume using molasses mash with 3% NaCl and temperature was controlled at 35 degree C. Fermentation rate of TA73, TJ3 and AM12 were 2.17, 1.50 and 1.87 g/L/hr respectively, Maximum ethanol concentration obtained were 7.6, 6.7 and 7.4% by weight after 60 and 78 hours respectively. Other fusants derived from fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with other halo tolerant species were mostly inferior to their parental strains and only 7 fusants were slightly better than parental strains. (author)

  19. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  20. Yeast hulls: effect on spontaneous fermentation in different vinification conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa López

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of yeast hulls in vinification was investigated during three consecutive years. The study was carried out in the experimental winery of C.I.D.A in La Rioja (Spain with free running white grape juice of the Viura variety. Four different vinifications were studied. In two of these vinifications, stuck fermentations were detected. In all the studies, the addition of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts improved the fermentation kinetics, increasing the number of viable yeasts at the end of the exponential stage and decreasing the final content of reducing sugars. This work revealed a new effect of yeast hull addition which had not been identified previously; their selection effect on the wild yeast strain in spontaneous fermentation.

  1. Chromosomal Aneuploidy Improves the Brewing Characteristics of Sake Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Masafumi; Fujimaru, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Sawada, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuta; Terasawa, Yohei; Agrimi, Gennaro; Anai, Toyoaki; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Akao, Takeshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-15

    The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics of brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles. A greater number of chromosomes correlated with a decrease in pyruvate production. Especially, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes in addition to chromosome XI produced less pyruvate than euploids. Mitochondrion-related metabolites and intracellular oxygen species in chromosome XI aneuploids were higher than those in euploids, and this effect was canceled in their "petite" strains, suggesting that an increase in chromosomes upregulated mitochondrial activity and decreased pyruvate levels. These findings suggested that an increase in chromosome number, including chromosome XI, in sake yeast haploids leads to pyruvate underproduction through the augmentation of mitochondrial activity. This is the first report proposing that aneuploidy in brewery yeasts improves their brewing profile. IMPORTANCE Chromosomal aneuploidy has not been evaluated in development of sake brewing yeast strains. This study shows the relationship between chromosomal aneuploidy and brewing characteristics of brewery yeast strains. High concentrations of pyruvate during sake storage give rise to α-acetolactate and, in turn, to high concentrations of diacetyl, which is considered an off-flavor. It was demonstrated that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast is trisomic for chromosome XI and XIV. Furthermore, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes produced reduced levels of pyruvate and showed metabolic processes characteristic of

  2. Chemostat Culture for Yeast Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily O; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-07-05

    The use of chemostat culture facilitates the careful comparison of different yeast strains growing in well-defined conditions. Variations in physiology can be measured by examining gene expression, metabolite levels, protein content, and cell morphology. In this protocol, we show how a combination of sample types can be collected during harvest from a single 20-mL chemostat in a ministat array, with special attention to coordinating the handling of the most time-sensitive sample types. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Protein patterns of yeast during sporulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litske Petersen, J.G.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.; Nilsson-Tillgren, T.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study protein synthesis during synchronous meiosis and ascospore formation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stained protein patterns of samples harvested at any stage between meiotic prophase and the four-spore stage in two sporulating strains showed the same approximately 250 polypeptides. Of these only a few seemed to increase or decrease in concentration during sporulation. The characteristic pattern of sporulating yeast was identical to the pattern of glucose-grown staitonary yeast cells adapted to respiration. The latter type of cells readily initiates meiosis when transferred to sporulation medium. This pattern differed from the protein patterns of exponentially growing cells in glucose or acetate presporulation medium. Five major proteins in stationary and sporulating yeast cells were not detected in either type of exponential culture. Two-dimensional autoradiograms of [ 35 S]methionine-labelled yeast proteins revealed that some proteins were preferentially labelled during sporulation, while other proteins were labelled at later stages. These patterns differed from the auroradiograms of exponentially growing yeast cells in glucose presporulation medium in a number of spots. No differences were observed when stained gels or autoradiograms of sporulating cultures and non-sporulating strains in sporulation medium were compared. (author)

  4. Selection of Ethanol-Tolerant Yeast Hybrids in pH-Regulated Continuous Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Juan; Benítez, Tahía

    1988-01-01

    Hybrids between naturally occurring wine yeast strains and laboratory strains were formed as a method of increasing genetic variability to improve the ethanol tolerance of yeast strains. The hybrids were subjected to competition experiments under continuous culture controlled by pH with increasing ethanol concentrations over a wide range to select the fastest-growing strain at any concentration of ethanol. The continuous culture system was obtained by controlling the dilution rate of a chemos...

  5. Electrochemical and Chemical Complications Resulting from Yeast Extract Addition to Stimulate Microbial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-22

    including strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on molasses-based media, debittered brewers yeasts (strains of Saccharo- myces cerevisiae or...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Technical Note: Electrochemical and Chemical Complications Resulting from Yeast Extract...Addition to Stimulate Microbial Growth Jason S. Lee‡,* and Brenda J. Little* ABSTRACT Addition of 1 g/L yeast extract (YE) to sterile, aerobic

  6. Selection of oleaginous yeasts for fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Dennis; van Biezen, Nick; Martens, Dirk; Peters, Linda; van de Zilver, Eric; Jacobs-van Dreumel, Nicole; Wijffels, René H; Lokman, Christien

    2016-05-27

    Oleaginous yeast species are an alternative for the production of lipids or triacylglycerides (TAGs). These yeasts are usually non-pathogenic and able to store TAGs ranging from 20 % to 70 % of their cell mass depending on culture conditions. TAGs originating from oleaginous yeasts can be used as the so-called second generation biofuels, which are based on non-food competing "waste carbon sources". In this study the selection of potentially new interesting oleaginous yeast strains is described. Important selection criteria were: a broad maximum temperature and pH range for growth (robustness of the strain), a broad spectrum of carbon sources that can be metabolized (preferably including C-5 sugars), a high total fatty acid content in combination with a low glycogen content and genetic accessibility. Based on these selection criteria, among 24 screened species, Schwanniomyces occidentalis (Debaromyces occidentalis) CBS2864 was selected as a promising strain for the production of high amounts of lipids.

  7. Biodiversity of Yeasts During Plum Wegierka Zwykla Spontaneous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Tuszynski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises an analysis of the yeast microbiota that participated in the spontaneous fermentation of crushed Wegierka Zwykla plum fruit, which is the raw material for slivovitz production in the mountain region in the south of Poland. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were differentiated by means of the killer sensitivity analysis related to a killer reference panel of 9 well-known killer yeast strains. The first phase of the fermentation was dominated by the representatives of Kloeckera apiculata and Candida pulcherrima species, which reached their maximum concentration (1.4·106 CFU/mL after 48 h of the process. Almost all yeasts isolated during the following days were classified as S. cerevisiae and the killer sensitivity analysis revealed a high population diversity of this species and the presence of 14 different strains that changed quantitatively and qualitatively throughout the fermentation period.

  8. Use of non-conventional yeast improves the wine aroma profile of Ribolla Gialla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Tinta, Tinkara; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lemut, Melita Sternad; Trost, Kajetan; Gamero, Amparo; Boekhout, Teun; Butinar, Lorena; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piskur, Jure

    Consumer wine preferences are changing rapidly towards exotic flavours and tastes. In this work, we tested five non-conventional yeast strains for their potential to improve Ribolla Gialla wine quality. These strains were previously selected from numerous yeasts interesting as food production

  9. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Phosphatase activity and culture conditions of the yeast Candida mycoderma sp. and analysis of organic phosphorus hydrolysis ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mang; Yu, Liufang; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yuexia; Dai, Kewei; Chen, Yuru

    2014-11-01

    Orthophosphate is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. About 67% cropland in China lacks sufficient phosphorus, especially that with red soil. Extensive soil phosphorus reserves exist in the form of organic phosphorus, which is unavailable for root uptake unless hydrolyzed by secretory acid phosphatases. Thus, many microorganisms with the ability to produce phosphatase have been exploited. In this work, the activity of an extracellular acid phosphatase and yeast biomass from Candida mycoderma was measured under different culture conditions, such as pH, temperature, and carbon source. A maximal phosphatase activity of 8.47×10(5)±0.11×10(5)U/g was achieved by C. Mycoderma in 36 hr under the optimal conditions. The extracellular acid phosphatase has high activity over a wide pH tolerance range from 2.5 to 5.0 (optimum pH3.5). The effects of different phosphorus compounds on the acid phosphatase production were also studied. The presence of phytin, lecithin or calcium phosphate reduced the phosphatase activity and biomass yield significantly. In addition, the pH of the culture medium was reduced significantly by lecithin. The efficiency of the strain in releasing orthophosphate from organic phosphorus was studied in red soil (used in planting trees) and rice soil (originating as red soil). The available phosphorus content was increased by 230% after inoculating 20 days in rice soil and decreased by 50% after inoculating 10 days in red soil. This work indicates that the yeast strain C. mycoderma has potential application for enhancing phosphorus utilization in plants that grow in rice soil. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Flocculent killer yeast for ethanol fermentation of beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Kazuhito; Shimoii, Hitoshi; Sato, Shun' ichi; Saito, Kazuo; Tadenuma, Makoto

    1987-09-25

    When ethanol is produced using beet molasses, the concentration of ethanol is lower than that obtained using suger cane molasses. Yeast strain improvement was conducted to enhance ethanol production from beet molasses. The procedures and the results are as follows: (1) After giving ethanol tolerance to the flocculent yeast, strain 180 and the killer yeast, strain 909-1, strain 180-A-7, and strain 909-1-A-4 were isolated. These ethanol tolerant strains had better alcoholic fermentation capability and had more surviving cells in mash in the later process of fermentation than the parental strains. (2) Strain H-1 was bred by spore to cell mating between these two ethanol tolerant strains. Strain H-1 is both flocculent and killer and has better alcoholic fermentation capability than the parental strains. (3) In the fermentation test of beet molasses, strain H-1 showed 12.8% of alcoholic fermentation capability. It is equal to that of sugar cane molasses. Fermentation with reused cells were also successful. (5 figs, 21 refs)

  12. MALDI-TOF MS as a tool to identify foodborne yeasts and yeast-like fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintilla, Raquel; Kolecka, Anna; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide M; Houbraken, Jos; Kostrzewa, Markus; Boekhout, Teun; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2018-02-02

    Since food spoilage by yeasts causes high economic losses, fast and accurate identifications of yeasts associated with food and food-related products are important for the food industry. In this study the efficiency of the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify food related yeasts was evaluated. A CBS in-house MALDI-TOF MS database was created and later challenged with a blinded test set of 146 yeast strains obtained from food and food related products. Ninety eight percent of the strains were correctly identified with log score values>1.7. One strain, Mrakia frigida, gained a correct identification with a score value1.7. Ambiguous identifications were observed due to two incorrect reference mass spectra's found in the commercial database BDAL v.4.0, namely Candida sake DSM 70763 which was re-identified as Candida oleophila, and Candida inconspicua DSM 70631 which was re-identified as Pichia membranifaciens. MALDI-TOF MS can distinguish between most of the species, but for some species complexes, such as the Kazachstania telluris and Mrakia frigida complexes, MALDI-TOF MS showed limited resolution and identification of sibling species was sometimes problematic. Despite this, we showed that the MALDI-TOF MS is applicable for routine identification and validation of foodborne yeasts, but a further update of the commercial reference databases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" strain purdue, a red blood cell pathogen of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Kritchevsky, Janice E; Messick, Joanne B

    2012-11-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae," an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

  14. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Messick, Joanne B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

  15. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Kritchevsky, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation. PMID:23105057

  16. Enhancing the performance of brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabín, Marcel; Jelínek, Lukáš; Kotrba, Pavel; Cejnar, Rudolf; Dostálek, Pavel

    2017-12-22

    Beer production is one of the oldest known traditional biotechnological processes, but is nowadays facing increasing demands not only for enhanced product quality, but also for improved production economics. Targeted genetic modification of a yeast strain is one way to increase beer quality and to improve the economics of beer production. In this review we will present current knowledge on traditional approaches for improving brewing strains and for rational metabolic engineering. These research efforts will, in the near future, lead to the development of a wider range of industrial strains that should increase the diversity of commercial beers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidation of Wine Polyphenols by Secretomes of Wild Botrytis cinerea Strains from White and Red Grape Varieties and Determination of Their Specific Laccase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimdars, Sabrina; Hitschler, Julia; Schieber, Andreas; Weber, Fabian

    2017-12-06

    Processing of Botrytis cinerea-infected grapes leads to enhanced enzymatic browning reactions mainly caused by the enzyme laccase which is able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic compounds. The extent of color deterioration depends on the activity of the enzymes secreted by the fungus. The present study revealed significant differences in the oxidative properties of secretomes of several B. cinerea strains isolated from five grape varieties. The presumed laccase-containing secretomes varied in their catalytic activity toward six phenolic compounds present in grapes. All strains led to identical product profiles for five of six substrates, but two strains showed deviating product profiles during gallic acid oxidation. Fast oxidation of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside was observed. Product formation rates and relative product concentrations were determined. The results reflect the wide range of enzyme activity and the corresponding different impact on color deterioration by B. cinerea.

  18. Evaluation of the productive performance characteristics of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the productive performance characteristics of red tilapia ( Oreochromis sp.) injected with shark DNA into skeletal muscles and maintained diets containing different levels of probiotic and amino yeast.

  19. Red to green emitters from InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure by strain-induced quantum-well intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    We increased the Al content in the single quantum well InGaP/InAlGaP laser by strain-induced quantum well intermixing, and obtained a considerable enhancement (close to ten-fold increase) in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Among the annealing

  20. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Rv0577, a Protein Associated with Neutral Red Staining of Virulent Tuberculosis Strains and Homologue of the Streptomyces coelicolor Protein KbpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Flynn, E. M.; Ng, Ho-Leung; Stephenson, Sam; Kim, Heungbok; Myler, Peter J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Alber, Tom; Kim, Chang Y.

    2017-07-25

    The 261-residue Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv0577 is a prominent antigen in tuberculosis patients, the responsible component for neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis, a putative component in a methylglyoxal detoxification pathway, and an agonist of toll-like receptor 2. It also has 36% sequence identity to AfsK-binding protein A (KbpA), a component in the complex secondary metabolite pathways in the Streptomycetes genus from which many commercial antibiotics are derived. To gain insight into the biological function of Rv0577 and the family of KpbA kinase regulators, the crystal structure for Rv0577 was determined to a resolution of 1.75 Å (3OXH), binding properties with neutral red and deoxyadenosine (Ado) surveyed, backbone dynamics measured, and thermal stability assayed by CD spectroscopy. The protein is composed of four approximate repeats with an topology arranged radially in consecutive pairs to form two continuous eight-strand -sheets capped on both ends with an -helix. The two -sheets intersect in the center at roughly a right angle and form an asymmetric deep “saddle” on both sides of the protein, saddle one (P11 to A129) and saddle two (L143 to A258), that may serve to bind ligands. NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments show that neutral red binds to Rv0577, further cementing the role of Rv0577 in the neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis. Similar experiments show that adenosine also bind to Rv0577, although less tightly, with estimated dissociation constants of 4.1 ± 0.3 mM for saddle one and > 1 M for saddle two. Heteronuclear steady-state {1H}-15N NOE, T1, and T2 values were generally uniform through-out the sequence with only a few modest pockets of differences suggestive of slightly different motion in loops between -strands in saddle 1. Circular dichroism spectroscopy characterization of the thermal stability of Rv0577 indicated irreversible unfolding upon heating with an estimated

  1. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  2. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Bellon

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade, has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  3. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  4. Yeast production from cellulase hydrolyzed furfural industrial waste. II. Conditions for the cultivation of yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Three yeast strains, Candida AS 2-121, C. utilis AS 2-1180, and C. tropicalis AS 2-637 were selected as being capable of growing on cellulase-hydrolyzed furfural industrial waste. Cell mass yields with respect to C source were approximately 50%. Fermentation conditions are given.

  5. Mechanisms of yeast stress tolerance and its manipulation for efficient fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-10-12

    Yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied in recent years for fuel ethanol production, in which yeast cells are exposed to various stresses such as high temperature, ethanol inhibition, and osmotic pressure from product and substrate sugars as well as the inhibitory substances released from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An in-depth understanding of the mechanism of yeast stress tolerance contributes to breeding more robust strains for ethanol production, especially under very high gravity conditions. Taking advantage of the "omics" technology, the stress response and defense mechanism of yeast cells during ethanol fermentation were further explored, and the newly emerged tools such as genome shuffling and global transcription machinery engineering have been applied to breed stress resistant yeast strains for ethanol production. In this review, the latest development of stress tolerance mechanisms was focused, and improvement of yeast stress tolerance by both random and rational tools was presented.

  6. Yeast genetics. A manual of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.F.T.; Spencer, D.M.; Bruce, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    This is a bench-top manual of methods needed both for classical genetics as related to yeasts, such as mating, sporulation, isolation of hybrids, microdissection of asci for the isolation of single-spore clones, as well as for mapping of genes and the construction of new strains by protoplast fusion. Special emphasis is on mutations in general, and on methods of isolating a number of important classes of mutants in particular. Basic techniques for the separation of chromosomes by electrophoresis, such as OFAGE, FIGE, and CHEF, are discussed, with detailed protocols for the first two. Furthermore, new methods, e.g. for the isolation of high molecular weight DNA from yeast, isolation of RNA, and techniques for transformation of yeasts, are also described in detail. (orig.) With 10 figs.

  7. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam

    2014-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol......Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype....

  8. Yeast cell wall chitin reduces wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thulile; Divol, Benoit; Bauer, Florian F

    2018-04-27

    Protein haze formation in bottled wines is a significant concern for the global wine industry and wine clarification before bottling is therefore a common but expensive practice. Previous studies have shown that wine yeast strains can reduce haze formation through the secretion of certain mannoproteins, but it has been suggested that other yeast-dependent haze protective mechanisms exist. On the other hand, addition of chitin has been shown to reduce haze formation, likely because grape chitinases have been shown to be the major contributors to haze. In this study, Chardonnay grape must fermented by various yeast strains resulted in wines with different protein haze levels indicating differences in haze protective capacities of the strains. The cell wall chitin levels of these strains were determined, and a strong correlation between cell wall chitin levels and haze protection capability was observed. To further evaluate the mechanism of haze protection, Escherichia coli -produced GFP-tagged grape chitinase was shown to bind efficiently to yeast cell walls in a cell wall chitin concentration-dependent manner, while commercial chitinase was removed from synthetic wine in quantities also correlated with the cell wall chitin levels of the strains. Our findings suggest a new mechanism of reducing wine haze, and propose a strategy for optimizing wine yeast strains to improve wine clarification. Importance In this study, we establish a new mechanism by which wine yeast strains can impact on the protein haze formation of wines, and demonstrate that yeast cell wall chitin binds grape chitinase in a chitin-concentration dependent manner. We also show that yeast can remove this haze-forming protein from wine. Chitin has in the past been shown to efficiently reduce wine haze formation when added to the wine in high concentration as a clarifying agent. Our data suggest that the selection of yeast strains with high levels of cell wall chitin can reduce protein haze. We also

  9. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Umiker, Nicole L.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO2, ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a......, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO2 in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (103-104 cfu/ml) along with lower...... populations of Saccharomyces (red grape juice and red wine incubated at two temperatures, 15 C and 21 C. Although Saccharomyces quickly dominated fermentations in grape juice, B1b and Q2 grew and eventually reached populations >105 cfu/ml. In wine, Q3 never entered logarithmic growth...

  10. Yeast modulation of human dendritic cell cytokine secretion: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M Smith

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The concept of individual microorganisms influencing the makeup of T cell subsets via interactions with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs appears to constitute the foundation for immunoregulatory effects of probiotics, and several studies have reported probiotic strains resulting in reduction of intestinal inflammation through modulation of DC function. Consequent to a focus on Saccharomyces boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little is known about hundreds of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in terms of their interaction with the human gastrointestinal immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 170 yeast strains representing 75 diverse species for modulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion by human DCs in vitro, as compared to cytokine responses induced by a S. boulardii reference strain with probiotic properties documented in clinical trials. Furthermore, we investigated whether cytokine inducing interactions between yeasts and human DCs are dependent upon yeast viability or rather a product of membrane interactions regardless of yeast metabolic function. We demonstrate high diversity in yeast induced cytokine profiles and employ multivariate data analysis to reveal distinct clustering of yeasts inducing similar cytokine profiles in DCs, highlighting clear species distinction within specific yeast genera. The observed differences in induced DC cytokine profiles add to the currently very limited knowledge of the cross-talk between yeasts and human immune cells and provide a foundation for selecting yeast strains for further characterization and development toward potentially novel yeast probiotics. Additionally, we present data to support a hypothesis that the interaction between yeasts and human DCs does not solely depend on yeast viability, a concept which may suggest a need for further classifications

  11. Yeast Modulation of Human Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ida M.; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The concept of individual microorganisms influencing the makeup of T cell subsets via interactions with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) appears to constitute the foundation for immunoregulatory effects of probiotics, and several studies have reported probiotic strains resulting in reduction of intestinal inflammation through modulation of DC function. Consequent to a focus on Saccharomyces boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little is known about hundreds of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in terms of their interaction with the human gastrointestinal immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 170 yeast strains representing 75 diverse species for modulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion by human DCs in vitro, as compared to cytokine responses induced by a S. boulardii reference strain with probiotic properties documented in clinical trials. Furthermore, we investigated whether cytokine inducing interactions between yeasts and human DCs are dependent upon yeast viability or rather a product of membrane interactions regardless of yeast metabolic function. We demonstrate high diversity in yeast induced cytokine profiles and employ multivariate data analysis to reveal distinct clustering of yeasts inducing similar cytokine profiles in DCs, highlighting clear species distinction within specific yeast genera. The observed differences in induced DC cytokine profiles add to the currently very limited knowledge of the cross-talk between yeasts and human immune cells and provide a foundation for selecting yeast strains for further characterization and development toward potentially novel yeast probiotics. Additionally, we present data to support a hypothesis that the interaction between yeasts and human DCs does not solely depend on yeast viability, a concept which may suggest a need for further classifications beyond the current

  12. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced......AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  13. Adaptation of Microstix®-Candida Slide-test for Diagnosis of Bovine Mastitis Due to Anascogenic Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dudko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large diversity of mastitis-causing bacteria (150 species, subspecies or biovars have been documented, an adequate and simple mycological screening for yeast-related mastitis has not been developed. Since yeast incubation normally lasts longer than the majority of bacteriological ones, usually a treatment is administered before the results of microbial cultures are obtained. Therefore, a simple test has been needed for detection of yeast-related mastitis, the results of which can be read in parallel to bacteriological screening. Application of Microstix®-Candida assay was first checked for its specificity in standard Candida albicans (Oxford strain cultures (phase I and then in the other 36 strains of yeasts isolated from clinical mastitis cases during field investigations (second phase. Next, a test was implemented for identification of pathogens in 9 cohorts (1,200 cows from red-white Polish- Friesian breed in which the dynamics of mastitis were traced by bacteriological and mycological assays along year-long observations. The data obtained showed that apart from frequent infections (~50-70% proved by using pure microbial cultures, also mixed (bacterial-fungal infections (0-25% appeared as well as negative sieves (in the range of 0-45%. Mycological assays revealed a significant fraction of mixed infections during both lactation and the dry period. Strepto-staphylococcal infection was thus identified, however, its proportion strongly decreased after the introduction of antibiotics (after sensitivity to microbial agents was determined. Microbial monitoring was improved in these herds by parallel application of bacteriological and mycological (particularly Microstix®- Candida tests. Microstix®-assay appears to be useful for mycological diagnosis in field conditions of infected (mastitis herds. Its advantages include easy performance and short incubation time that is only 24 h at 37 °C (72-96 h at room temperature. This allowed

  14. [Susceptibility of yeasts to antifungal agents in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodeniene, Erika; Dambrauskiene, Asta; Vitkauskiene, Astra

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the species of yeast and their susceptibility to antifungal agents isolated from clinical specimens of patients treated in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. A total of 142 yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens of patients hospitalized in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital were included in this study. All yeasts were cultivated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and identified using either CHROM agar or API 20C AUX system. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined by the ATB FUNGUS 2 agar microdilution test. In all clinical specimens except blood, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast (65.5%, pyeast strains showed resistance to fluconazole. Nearly one-fourth of Candida albicans strains (24.7%) and 23.2% of all isolated yeast strains showed resistance to itraconazole. Almost all of fluconazole-resistant (93.3%) and 12.6% of fluconazole-susceptible yeast were found to be resistant to itraconazole (pyeast strains were susceptible to amphotericin B. Candida albicans strains were significantly frequently resistant to fluconazole than non-albicans Candida species (15.1% and 4.1%, respectively, pyeast isolated in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. There was determined that yeasts resistant to fluconazole were commonly resistant to itraconazole too. All isolated yeast strains were susceptible to amphotericin B.

  15. The yeast stands alone: the future of protein biologic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kerry R; Dalvie, Neil C; Love, J Christopher

    2017-12-22

    Yeasts are promising alternative hosts for the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics because they simply and efficiently meet needs for both platform and small-market drugs. Fast accumulation of biomass and low-cost media reduce the cost-of-goods when using yeast, which in turn can enable agile, small-volume manufacturing facilities. Small, tractable yeast genomes are amenable to rapid process development, facilitating strain and product quality by design. Specifically, Pichia pastoris is becoming a widely accepted yeast for biopharmaceutical manufacturing in much of the world owing to a clean secreted product and the rapidly expanding understanding of its cell biology as a host organism. We advocate for a near term partnership spanning industry and academia to promote open source, timely development of yeast hosts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Correlating yeast cell stress physiology to changes in the cell surface morphology: atomic force microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2006-07-06

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful biophysical tool in biotechnology and medicine to investigate the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of yeasts and other biological systems. However, properties such as, yeasts' response to environmental stresses, metabolic activities of pathogenic yeasts, cell-cell/cell-substrate adhesion, and cell-flocculation have rarely been investigated so far by using biophysical tools. Our recent results obtained by AFM on one strain each of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe show a clear correlation between the physiology of environmentally stressed yeasts and the changes in their surface morphology. The future directions of the AFM related techniques in relation to yeasts are also discussed.

  17. Industrial Relevance of Chromosomal Copy Number Variation in Saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter de Vries, Arthur R.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosomal copy number variation (CCNV) plays a key role in evolution and health of eukaryotes. The unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model for studying the generation, physiological impact, and evolutionary significance of CCNV. Fundamental studies of this yeast have contributed to an extensive set of methods for analyzing and introducing CCNV. Moreover, these studies provided insight into the balance between negative and positive impacts of CCNV in evolutionary contexts. A growing body of evidence indicates that CCNV not only frequently occurs in industrial strains of Saccharomyces yeasts but also is a key contributor to the diversity of industrially relevant traits. This notion is further supported by the frequent involvement of CCNV in industrially relevant traits acquired during evolutionary engineering. This review describes recent developments in genome sequencing and genome editing techniques and discusses how these offer opportunities to unravel contributions of CCNV in industrial Saccharomyces strains as well as to rationally engineer yeast chromosomal copy numbers and karyotypes. PMID:28341679

  18. Adding Flavor to Beverages with Non-Conventional Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ravasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during their primary and secondary metabolism. In the beverage industry, these volatiles contribute to the the flavor and aroma profile of the final products. We evaluated the fermentation ability and aroma profiles of non-conventional yeasts that have been associated with various food sources. A total of 60 strains were analyzed with regard to their fermentation and flavor profile. Species belonging to the genera Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces separated best from lager yeast strains according to a principal component analysis taking alcohol and ester production into account. The speed of fermentation and sugar utilization were analysed for these strains. Volatile aroma-compound formation was assayed via gas chromatography. Several strains produced substantially higher amounts of aroma alcohols and esters compared to the lager yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. Consequently, co-fermentation of this lager yeast strain with a Wickerhamomyces anomalus strain generated an increased fruity-flavour profile. This demonstrates that mixed fermentations utilizing non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity can enhance the flavour profiles of fermented beverages.

  19. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  20. Game dynamic model for yeast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Game theoretic models, along with replicator equations, have been applied successfully to the study of evolution of populations of competing species, including the growth of a population, the reaching of the population to an equilibrium state, and the evolutionary stability of the state. In this paper, we analyze a game model proposed by Gore et al. (Nature 456:253-256, 2009) in their recent study on the co-development of two mixed yeast strains. We examine the mathematical properties of this model with varying experimental parameters. We simulate the growths of the yeast strains and compare them with the experimental results. We also compute and analyze the equilibrium state of the system and prove that it is asymptotically and evolutionarily stable.

  1. [The homogeneity of a population of yeasts from Camembert cheeses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J L; Daudin, J J

    1983-01-01

    Yeasts are found to a large extent in cheeses, more particularly in soft cheeses such as Camembert. The proximity between two species previously identified by standard methods was studied using a factorial discriminant analysis on 326 strains. Twenty-three fermentation and assimilation tests (discriminant variables) gave a fairly good discrimination between species. This treatment has allowed us to confirm the present tendencies noticed in yeast classification and has also enabled us to group some of the species.

  2. Checkpoint independence of most DNA replication origins in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Mickle, Katie L; Ramanathan, Sunita; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Chaudari, Amna; Yompakdee, Chulee; Scott, Donna; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In budding yeast, the replication checkpoint slows progress through S phase by inhibiting replication origin firing. In mammals, the replication checkpoint inhibits both origin firing and replication fork movement. To find out which strategy is employed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we used microarrays to investigate the use of origins by wild-type and checkpoint-mutant strains in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which limits the pool of deoxyribonucleo...

  3. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase.

  4. Differentiation of enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms isolated from various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogusławska-Wąs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determinate enzymatic activity of yeast-like organisms - Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula rubra, Trichosporon beigelii, Zygosaccharomyces sp. - isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon and herring salads. We have shown that lipolytic activity was higher than protcolytic for every strain tested. The lowest activity level was found out for amylolytic hydrolases. The results also demonstrated that yeast-like organisms isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon revealed much higher average enzymatic activity compared to tbe same species isolated from herring salads, excepting C. lipolytica.

  5. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  6. Interactions between Drosophila and its natural yeast symbionts-Is Saccharomyces cerevisiae a good model for studying the fly-yeast relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Don; Kopp, Artyom; Chandler, James Angus

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the biology of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In addition to being a valuable source of nutrition, yeasts affect D. melanogaster behavior and interact with the host immune system. Most experiments investigating the role of yeasts in D. melanogaster biology use the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae is rarely found with natural populations of D. melanogaster or other Drosophila species. Moreover, the strain of S. cerevisiae used most often in D. melanogaster experiments is a commercially and industrially important strain that, to the best of our knowledge, was not isolated from flies. Since disrupting natural host-microbe interactions can have profound effects on host biology, the results from D. melanogaster-S. cerevisiae laboratory experiments may not be fully representative of host-microbe interactions in nature. In this study, we explore the D. melanogaster-yeast relationship using five different strains of yeast that were isolated from wild Drosophila populations. Ingested live yeasts have variable persistence in the D. melanogaster gastrointestinal tract. For example, Hanseniaspora occidentalis persists relative to S. cerevisiae, while Brettanomyces naardenensis is removed. Despite these differences in persistence relative to S. cerevisiae, we find that all yeasts decrease in total abundance over time. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important component of the D. melanogaster anti-microbial response and can inhibit S. cerevisiae growth in the intestine. To determine if sensitivity to ROS explains the differences in yeast persistence, we measured yeast growth in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. We find that B. naardenesis is completely inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, while H. occidentalis is not, which is consistent with yeast sensitivity to ROS affecting persistence within the D. melanogaster gastrointestinal tract. We also compared the feeding preference of D

  7. A hybrid strain and thermal energy harvester based on an infra-red sensitive Er3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) ferroelectret structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Xie, Mengying; Bowen, Christopher Rhys; Davies, Philip R; Morgan, David J; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel infra-red (IR) sensitive Er 3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (Er-PVDF) film is developed for converting both mechanical and thermal energies into useful electrical power. The addition of Er 3+ to PVDF is shown to improve piezoelectric properties due to the formation of a self-polarized ferroelectric β-phase and the creation of an electret-like porous structure. In addition, we demonstrate that Er 3+ acts to enhance heat transfer into the Er-PVDF film due to its excellent infrared absorbance, which, leads to rapid and large temperature fluctuations and improved pyroelectric energy transformation. We demonstrate the potential of this novel material for mechanical energy harvesting by creating a durable ferroelectret energy harvester/nanogenerator (FTNG). The high thermal stability of the β-phase enables the FTNG to harvest large temperature fluctuations (ΔT ~ 24 K). Moreover, the superior mechanosensitivity, S M  ~ 3.4 VPa -1 of the FTNG enables the design of a wearable self-powered health-care monitoring system by human-machine integration. The combination of rare-earth ion, Er 3+ with the ferroelectricity of PVDF provides a new and robust approach for delivering smart materials and structures for self-powered wireless technologies, sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  8. Effect of ion implantation on apple wine yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Andong; Chen Hongge; Zhang Shimin; Jia Cuiying

    2004-01-01

    The wild type apple wine yeast Y 02 was treated by ion implantation with the dose of 8 x 10 15 ion/cm 2 . As results, a special mutant strain, ION II -11 dry, was obtained. The morphology characters, partial biochemistry characters, mycelium protein of the mutant strain were distinctively changed compared with original strain Y 02 . After the fermentation test ,the apple wine producing rate of the mutant strain increased 22.4% compared with original strain. These results showed that ion implantation was an effective method for mutagenesis

  9. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  10. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  11. Yeast selection for fuel ethanol production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luiz C; de Amorim, Henrique V; de Oliveira, Antonio J; Lopes, Mario L

    2008-11-01

    Brazil is one of the largest ethanol biofuel producers and exporters in the world and its production has increased steadily during the last three decades. The increasing efficiency of Brazilian ethanol plants has been evident due to the many technological contributions. As far as yeast is concerned, few publications are available regarding the industrial fermentation processes in Brazil. The present paper reports on a yeast selection program performed during the last 12 years aimed at selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugar cane substrates (cane juice and molasses) with cell recycle, as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants. As a result, some evidence is presented showing the positive impact of selected yeast strains in increasing ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance (high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters). Results also suggest that the great yeast biodiversity found in distillery environments could be an important source of strains. This is because during yeast cell recycling, selective pressure (an adaptive evolution) is imposed on cells, leading to strains with higher tolerance to the stressful conditions of the industrial fermentation.

  12. Breeding of lager yeast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves stress resistance and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Sanchez, Rosa; Solodovnikova, Natalia; Wendland, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Lager beer brewing relies on strains collectively known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, which are hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus-like strains. Lager yeasts are particularly adapted to low-temperature fermentations. Selection of new yeast strains for improved traits or fermentation performance is laborious, due to the allotetraploid nature of lager yeasts. Initially, we have generated new F1 hybrids by classical genetics, using spore clones of lager yeast and S. cerevisiae and complementation of auxotrophies of the single strains upon mating. These hybrids were improved on several parameters, including growth at elevated temperature and resistance against high osmolarity or high ethanol concentrations. Due to the uncertainty of chromosomal make-up of lager yeast spore clones, we introduced molecular markers to analyse mating-type composition by PCR. Based on these results, new hybrids between a lager and an ale yeast strain were isolated by micromanipulation. These hybrids were not subject to genetic modification. We generated and verified 13 hybrid strains. All of these hybrid strains showed improved stress resistance as seen in the ale parent, including improved survival at the end of fermentation. Importantly, some of the strains showed improved fermentation rates using 18° Plato at 18-25°C. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance was observed mostly from the S. cerevisiae parent. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Red to green emitters from InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure by strain-induced quantum-well intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad

    2016-04-28

    We increased the Al content in the single quantum well InGaP/InAlGaP laser by strain-induced quantum well intermixing, and obtained a considerable enhancement (close to ten-fold increase) in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Among the annealing process investigated, we achieved lasing at 638 nm in conjunction with reduction in the lasing threshold current by close to 500 mA in a moderately intermixed laser. Lasing in orange color, as well as spontaneous emission in the yellow and green color regime, were also achieved by extending the annealing conditions. The significance of the current work became apparent when one considers that achieving these tunable wavelengths by increasing the Al content in quantum wells during epitaxy growth leads to severe lattice-mismatch and poor material quality. Hence, our Al "drive-in" intermixing process is a viable approach for forming Al-rich InAlGaP quantum well, which is essential for realizing efficient optoelectronic devices in the "green-yellow-orange gap". © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  15. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  16. Assessment of environmental impact of commercial wine yeast in vineyard ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Eva; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth; Cambon, Brigitte; Casal, Margarida; Dequin, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Poster e resumo apresentados no congresso "Intrafood 2005 - Innovations in traditional foods", em Valencia, Espanha, em 2005. Modern winemaking practices and diversification of wine products involve an increasing quest for specialised wine yeasts. During the last two decades considerable efforts have been made to improve wine yeast strains through the use of new biotechnologies. In the present study we used commercial wine yeast currently used in wineries as a model to assess the potential...

  17. Replenishment and mobilization of intracellular nitrogen pools decouples wine yeast nitrogen uptake from growth

    OpenAIRE

    SANCHO FORNER, MARTA; Alicia Gutiérrez; BELTRAN CASELLAS, GEMMA; José Manuel Guillamon; Jonas Warringer

    2016-01-01

    Wine yeast capacity to take up nitrogen from the environment and catabolize it to support population growth, fermentation, and aroma production is critical to wine production. Under nitrogen restriction, yeast nitrogen uptake is believed to be intimately coupled to reproduction with nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) suggested mediating this link. We provide a time- and strain-resolved view of nitrogen uptake, population growth, and NCR activity in wine yeasts. Nitrogen uptake was found to ...

  18. PTR-MS Characterization of VOCs Associated with Commercial Aromatic Bakery Yeasts of Wine and Beer Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing attention towards “green” solutions to improve food quality, the use of aromatic-enhancing microorganisms offers the advantage to be a natural and sustainable solution that did not negatively influence the list of ingredients. In this study, we characterize, for the first time, volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with aromatic bakery yeasts. Three commercial bakery starter cultures, respectively formulated with three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from white wine, red wine, and beer, were monitored by a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, a direct injection analytical technique for detecting volatile organic compounds with high sensitivity (VOCs. Two ethanol-related peaks (m/z 65.059 and 75.080 described qualitative differences in fermentative performances. The release of compounds associated to the peaks at m/z 89.059, m/z 103.075, and m/z 117.093, tentatively identified as acetoin and esters, are coherent with claimed flavor properties of the investigated strains. We propose these mass peaks and their related fragments as biomarkers to optimize the aromatic performances of commercial preparations and for the rapid massive screening of yeast collections.

  19. Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from grapes and wine fermentation in Lanzarote, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara S; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Laich, Federico

    2013-01-01

    During the characterization of the microbiota biodiversity associated with grapes and wineries in different bioclimatic conditions of the Canary Islands (Spain), a novel yeast species was isolated from Lanzarote, the driest wine-producing region of the archipelago. Seven strains isolated from grapes, microvinifications and wineries are described. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically a member of the genus Lachancea and are closely related to Lachancea meyersii NRRL Y-27269(T) and Lachancea nothofagi NRRL Y-48670(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L2C-15(T) ( = CBS 12615(T) = CECT 13066(T)) which was isolated from grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Listán Negro red grape variety in Tinajo, Lanzarote. The MycoBank no. is MB 801390.

  20. Glycobiology in yeast: production of bio-ative biopolymers and small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheller, Henrik [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The accomplished goals of the CRADA were the establishment of a yeast strain capable of producing levels of vanillin suitable for commercial production and the identification of novel glycosyltransferases to construct the biosynthetic pathway of a gum Arabic-variant in yeast.

  1. Effects of metal salt catalysts on yeast cell growth in ethanol conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Yin Lin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the addition of metal salts and metal salt-catalyzed hydrolyzates on yeast cell growth in ethanol fermentation were investigated. Four yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae WT1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MT81, Candida sp. 1779, and Klumaromyces fragilis), four metal salts (CuCl2, FeCl3, AgNO3, and I2), two metal salt-catalyzed hydrolyzates (...

  2. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne H.; El-Bordeny, Nasr E.; Ebeid, Hossam M.

    2017-01-01

    Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026), on primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffalo...

  3. Identification and assessment of kefir yeast potential for sugar/ethanol-resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, M.G.C.P.; Cardoso, P.G.; Magalhães-Guedes, K.T.; Schwan, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular analysis was used for identification of different kefir yeasts species from Brazil, Canada and the United States of America. The sugar/ethanol-resistant activity of the yeasts was evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus had the highest growth rates, suggesting biotechnological applications possible for these strains. PMID:24159292

  4. Selection of lactose-fermenting yeast for ethanol production from whey. [Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, M E; Castillo, F J

    1982-01-01

    Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected from among 9 strains of lactose-fermenting yeasts on the basis of its ability to ferment concentrated whey. In 28% deproteinized whey solutions it produced an average of 12.4% EtOH. This yeast could be used in a process for whey treatment.

  5. The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-01-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MATa and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  6. Yeasts from Different Habitats and Their Potential as Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pretscher

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ever since plant diseases began causing losses in viticulture, the control of phytopathogenic fungi has become of vital interest for winemakers. The occurrence of novel pests, fungicide resistance, and changed consumer expectations have led to an enormous demand for novel plant protection strategies. As part of integrated protection measures, antagonistic microorganisms have been investigated to a large extent. Such microorganisms can be applied not only in conventional, but also in organic farming as biological control agents (BCA. Particularly, yeasts were found to be interesting candidates for the development of BCA. Many of these eukaryotic microorganisms are found as part of the phylloplane microflora. In this study, we assessed a set of 38 yeast isolates from different habitats, including the guts of termites, for inhibitory effects against some phytopathogenic fungi that have received less attention in earlier studies. The majority of yeasts were found to interfere with fungi infecting grapevine (Eutypa lata, Botrytis cinerea, and Roesleria subterranea, stone fruits (Monilinia fructicola, or rice (Magnaporte oryzae, as well in vitro and in model experiment on fruits. Although most yeast strains secreted glycoside hydrolases and proteases, attempts to demonstrate direct antagonistic activities of lytic enzymes failed. However, in culture filtrates of the termite yeast Papiliotrema odontotermitis OO5, a low molecular thermostable antagonistic factor was detected. Iron depletion as a BCA mechanism was confirmed for strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima but not for other yeasts.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES Y PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOMASA EN CEPAS DE LEVADURA COLOMBIANAS Y COMERCIALES EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT CONTENT AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIAN AND COMMERCIAL YEAST STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohora Patricia Manovacía Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la producción de biomasa, el contenido de algunos nutrientes (selenio, carbohidratos totales y proteína microbiana y el consumo de sustrato de cepas de levaduras comerciales y nativas pertenecientes al Banco de Germoplasma de la Nación Colombiana, manejado por la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, CORPOICA. Inicialmente se determinó el crecimiento de tres levaduras nativas seleccionadas al azar bajo diferentes condiciones de pH, temperatura y tiempo de fermentación usando un medio líquido de extracto de malta. Dentro de estas condiciones, las mejores respuestas se observaron a pH de 4,5, 25 °C y 24 horas de fermentación. Usando estas condiciones se evaluaron 100 accesiones de levaduras nativas y 4 comerciales por su producción de biomasa, contenido de selenio, carbohidratos totales y proteína microbiana y consumo de sustratos. De acuerdo con estas variables y un análisis de conglomerados fue posible agrupar las levaduras en grupos homogéneos. Hubo elevada variabilidad en la producción de biomasa entre las 104 cepas evaluadas, probablemente debido a la variabilidad biológica existente en la población estudiada. Los rendimientos de biomasa variaron entre 0,101 y 0,480 g de biomasa g-1 de azúcar consumido y las velocidades de producción de biomasa oscilaron entre 0,040 y 0,185 g L-1 h-1. El consumo promedio de nutrientes (g de nutrientes consumidos/ g de nutrientes disponibles fue de 91,6% en el caso de los carbohidratos y de 17,8% en el caso de la proteína. Se identificaron diez cepas de superior crecimiento y contenido de nutrientes, cuyo potencial prebiótico y probiótico será evaluado en futuros ensayos In vivo.In the present study biomass production and nutrient (selenium, total carbohydrate and microbial protein were evaluated in both commercial and native yeast isolates from the Colombian Germplasm Bank managed by the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research

  8. Inhibition spectrum studies of microthecin and other anhydrofructose derivatives using selected strains of Gram-positive and –negative bacteria, yeast and moulds, and investigation of the cytotoxicity of microthecin to malignant blood cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiskesund, R.; Thomas, L.V.; Schobert, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To prepare 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (AF) derivatives, test their microbial inhibition spectrum, and to further examine the most effective AF derivative against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and malignant blood cell lines. Methods and Results: Microthecin and nine other AF derivatives were synthesized...... both GP and GN bacteria, including Ps. aeruginosa. Further tests with three malignant blood cell lines (Mutu, Ramos, Raji) and one normal cell line indicated that microthecin was a cell toxin, with a cell mortality >85% at 50 ppm. The other nine AF derivatives demonstrated low or no antimicrobial...... activity. Conclusions: Microthecin was active 100–2000 ppm against GP and GN bacteria including Ps. aeruginosa, but was inactive against yeasts and moulds. Microthecin was also a cytotoxin to some mammalian cell lines. Significance and Impact of the Study: Microthecin might have potential for development...

  9. The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Jayaram, Vinay B; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-08-01

    Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time-dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough-batter gluten starch separation system. Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. VNTR fingerprinting of Kluyveromyces marxianus strains WT, 7-1, and 8-1 by using different primer types to give best results in PCR and on electrophorese gel in order to find differentiation of the DNA of the yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using mutagenized Kluyveromyces marxianus strains (WT, 7-1, 8-1) we wish to find out the variable numbered tandem repeats (VNTR) of each of the DNA strains from the different mutagenized K. marxianus strains. To do this we used Phusion HF Buffer Pack to try and give a clear picture of the VNTR by u...

  11. Population analysis of biofilm yeasts during fino sherry wine aging in the Montilla-Moriles D.O. region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Menguiano, Miriam; Romero-Sanchez, Sandra; Barrales, Ramón R; Ibeas, Jose I

    2017-03-06

    Fino is the most popular sherry wine produced in southern Spain. Fino is matured by biological aging under a yeast biofilm constituted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Although different S. cerevisiae strains can be identified in such biofilms, their diversity and contribution to wine character have been poorly studied. In this work, we analyse the flor yeast population in five different wineries from the Montilla-Moriles D.O. (Denominación de Origen) in southern Spain. Yeasts present in wines of different ages were identified using two different culture-dependent molecular techniques. From 2000 individual yeast isolates, five different strains were identified with one of them dominating in four out of the five wineries analysed, and representing 76% of all the yeast isolates collected. Surprisingly, this strain is similar to the predominant strain isolated twenty years ago in Jerez D.O. wines, suggesting that this yeast is particularly able to adapt to such a stressful environment. Fino wine produced with pure cultures of three of the isolated strains resulted in different levels of acetaldehyde. Because acetaldehyde levels are a distinctive characteristic of fino wines and an indicator of fino aging, the use of molecular techniques for yeast identification and management of yeast populations may be of interest for fino wine producers looking to control one of the main features of this wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and buildup of a biomass by various yeasts on whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalashka, L S; Samtsevich, S A; Bakunowicz, L

    1967-01-01

    Of the 113 strains of yeast grown on whey, 29 assimilated lactose by fermentation and 23 by direct souring. The most productive were Candida humicola and C. curvata. The buildup of biomass averaged 18 to 30 g./1. medium.

  13. An original method for producing acetaldehyde and diacetyl by yeast fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Rosca

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study a natural culture medium that mimics the synthetic yeast peptone glucose medium used for yeast fermentations was designed to screen and select yeasts capable of producing high levels of diacetyl and acetaldehyde. The presence of whey powder and sodium citrate in the medium along with manganese and magnesium sulfate enhanced both biomass and aroma development. A total of 52 yeasts strains were cultivated in two different culture media, namely, yeast peptone glucose medium and yeast acetaldehyde-diacetyl medium. The initial screening of the strains was based on the qualitative reaction of the acetaldehyde with Schiff's reagent (violet color and diacetyl with Brady's reagent (yellow precipitate. The fermented culture media of 10 yeast strains were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify the concentration of acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesized. Total titratable acidity values indicated that a total titratable acidity of 5.5 °SH, implying culture medium at basic pH, was more favorable for the acetaldehyde biosynthesis using strain D15 (Candida lipolytica; 96.05 mg L-1 acetaldehyde while a total titratable acidity value of 7 °SH facilitated diacetyl flavor synthesis by strain D38 (Candida globosa; 3.58 mg L-1 diacetyl. Importantly, the results presented here suggest that this can be potentially used in the baking industry.

  14. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Scheffersomyces cryptocercus: a new xylose-fermenting yeast associated with the gut of wood roaches and new combinations in the Sugiyamaella yeast clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Hector; Frank, Robert; Blackwell, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    The gut of wood-feeding insects is a microhabitat for a specialized community of microbes, including bacteria and several groups of eukaryotes such as nematodes, parabasalids and fungi. The characterization of gut yeast communities from a variety of insects has shown that certain yeasts often are associated with the insects. The gut of wood-feeding insects is rich in ascomycete yeasts and in particular xylose-fermenting (X-F) and assimilating yeasts have been consistently present in the gut of lignicolous insects. The objective of this study was the characterization of the yeast flora from the gut of the wood roach Cryptocercus sp. (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae). Five wood roaches were collected along the Appalachian Trail near the border between Tennessee and North Carolina, USA. We isolated 18 yeast strains from the wood roaches identified as Sugiyamaella paludigena and Sugiyamaella lignohabitans, xylose-assimilating yeasts, and Scheffersomyces cryptocercus (NRRL Y-48824(T) = CBS 12658) a new species of X-F yeast. The presence of X-F and certain non X-F yeasts in the gut of the subsocial wood roach Cryptocercus sp. extends the previous findings of associations between certain ascomycete yeasts and lignicolous insects. New combinations were made for 13 asexual members of the Sugiyamaella clade.

  16. Genetics of Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  17. Modelling of Ethanol Production from Red Beet Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Thermal and Acid Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaji Jiménez-Islas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of pH and temperature on ethanol production from red beet juice by the strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITD00196 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763 are studied. Logistic, Pirt, and Luedeking-Piret equations were used to describe quantitatively the microbial growth, substrate consumption, and ethanol production, respectively. The two S. cerevisiae strains used in this study were able to produce ethanol with high yield and volumetric productivity under acid and thermal stress conditions. The equations used to model the fermentation kinetics fit very well with the experimental data, thus establishing that ethanol production was growth associated under the evaluated conditions. The yeast S. cerevisiae ITD00196 had the best fermentative capacity and could be considered as an interesting option to develop bioprocesses for ethanol production.

  18. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries.

  19. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-11-29

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands.

  20. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker’s yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Cecília Alves; Pacheco, A.; Almeida, M. J.; Martins, I. Spencer; Leão, Cecília; Sousa, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T delbrueckii PYCC 532 1, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields...

  1. An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loknath Gidijala

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN. As yet, the industrial production of this beta-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L. PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel beta-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents, whose production involves NRPS's.

  2. Ethanol and sugar tolerance of wine yeasts isolated from fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice were screened for ethanol and sugar tolerance. Two species of Saccharomyces comprising of three strains of S. cerevisiae and one S. uvarum showed measurable growth in medium containing 9% (v/v) ethanol. They were equally sugar-tolerant having ...

  3. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  4. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on

  5. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  6. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-02

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components.

  7. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disrupt the pH balance of the vagina. Common yeast infection symptoms include vaginal itching and a white, thick discharge that looks ... and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Accessed Aug. 27, ... Vagina, Cervix, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Endometritis, and Salpingitis. In: ...

  8. Polysome Profile Analysis - Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšek, M.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 530, č. 2013 (2013), s. 173-181 ISSN 0076-6879 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : grow yeast cultures * polysome profile analysis * sucrose density gradient centrifugation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.194, year: 2013

  9. Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging. II. Analysis of desorbed polyphenol compounds from yeast lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2006-05-31

    In the first part of this work, the analysis of the polyphenolic compounds remaining in the wine after different contact times with yeast lees during simulation of red wine aging was undertaken. To achieve a more precise view of the wine polyphenols adsorbed on lees during red wine aging and to establish a clear balance between adsorbed and remnant polyphenol compounds, the specific analysis of the chemical composition of the adsorbed polyphenolic compounds (condensed tannins and anthocyanins) after their partial desorbtion from yeast lees by denaturation treatments was realized in the second part of the study. The total recovery of polyphenol compounds from yeast lees was not complete, since a rather important part of the initial wine colored polyphenols, especially those with a dominant blue color component, remained strongly adsorbed on yeast lees, as monitored by color tristimulus and reflectance spectra measurements. All anthocyanins were recovered at a rather high percentage (about 62%), and it was demonstrated that they were not adsorbed in relation with their sole polarity. Very few monomeric phenolic compounds were extracted from yeast lees. With the use of drastic denaturing treatments, the total recovery of condensed tannins reached 83%. Such tannins extracted from yeast lees exhibited very high polymeric size and a rather high percentage of galloylated residues by comparison with initial wine tannins, indicating that nonpolar tannins were preferentially desorbed from yeast lees by the extraction treatments.

  10. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Culturable yeasts in meltwaters draining from two glaciers in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Pietro; Turchetti, Benedetta; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; D'Agata, Carlo; Martini, Alessandro; Smiraglia, Claudio

    The meltwaters draining from two glaciers in the Italian Alps contain metabolically active yeasts isolable by culture-based laboratory procedures. The average number of culturable yeast cells in the meltwaters was 10 20 colony-forming units (CFU) L-1, whereas supraglacial stream waters originating from overlying glacier ice contained 80% of isolated strains (Cryptococcus spp. and Rhodotorula spp. were 33.3% and 17.8% of total strains, respectively). Culturable yeasts were psychrotolerant, predominantly obligate aerobes and able to degrade organic macromolecules (e.g. starch, esters, lipids, proteins). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of culturable yeasts in meltwaters originating from glaciers. On the basis of these results, it is reasonable to suppose that the viable yeasts observed in meltwaters derived predominantly from the subglacial zone and that they originated from the subglacial microbial community. Their metabolic abilities could contribute to the microbial activity occurring in subglacial environments.

  12. Breeding research on sake yeasts in Japan: history, recent technological advances, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Sake is an alcoholic beverage of Japan, with a tradition lasting more than 1,300 years; it is produced from rice and water by fermenting with the koji mold Aspergillus oryzae and sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Breeding research on sake yeasts was originally developed in Japan by incorporating microbiological and genetic research methodologies adopted in other scientific areas. Since the advent of a genetic paradigm, isolation of yeast mutants has been a dominant approach for the breeding of favorable sake yeasts. These sake yeasts include (a) those that do not form foams (produced by isolating a mutant that does not stick to foams, thus decreasing the cost of sake production); (b) those that do not produce urea, which leads to the formation of ethyl carbamate, a possible carcinogen (isolated by positive selection in a canavanine-, arginine-, and ornithine-containing medium); (c) those that produce an increased amount of ethyl caproate, an apple-like flavor (produced by isolating a mutant resistant to cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty-acid synthesis); and (d) those that produce a decreased amount of pyruvate (produced by isolating a mutant resistant to an inhibitor of mitochondrial transport, thus decreasing the amount of diacetyl). Given that sake yeasts perform sexual reproduction, sporulation and mating are potent approaches for their breeding. Recently, the genome sequences of sake yeasts have been determined and made publicly accessible. By utilizing this information, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the brewing characteristics of sake yeasts have been identified, which paves a way to DNA marker-assisted selection of the mated strains. Genetic engineering technologies for experimental yeast strains have recently been established by academic groups, and these technologies have also been applied to the breeding of sake yeasts. Sake yeasts whose genomes have been modified with these technologies correspond to genetically modified organisms (GMOs

  13. Enhancement of ethanol fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast by disrupting mitophagy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Shodai; Jayakody, Lahiru Niroshan; Horie, Kenta; Okamoto, Koji; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 has one of the highest fermentation rates among brewery yeasts used worldwide; therefore, it is assumed that it is not possible to enhance its fermentation rate. However, in this study, we found that fermentation by sake yeast can be enhanced by inhibiting mitophagy. We observed mitophagy in wild-type sake yeast during the brewing of Ginjo sake, but not when the mitophagy gene (ATG32) was disrupted. During sake brewing, the maximum rate of CO2 production and final ethanol concentration generated by the atg32Δ laboratory yeast mutant were 7.50% and 2.12% higher than those of the parent strain, respectively. This mutant exhibited an improved fermentation profile when cultured under limiting nutrient concentrations such as those used during Ginjo sake brewing as well as in minimal synthetic medium. The mutant produced ethanol at a concentration that was 2.76% higher than the parent strain, which has significant implications for industrial bioethanol production. The ethanol yield of the atg32Δ mutant was increased, and its biomass yield was decreased relative to the parent sake yeast strain, indicating that the atg32Δ mutant has acquired a high fermentation capability at the cost of decreasing biomass. Because natural biomass resources often lack sufficient nutrient levels for optimal fermentation, mitophagy may serve as an important target for improving the fermentative capacity of brewery yeasts.

  14. Synthetic biology stretching the realms of possibility in wine yeast research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Bapat, Vishwas A; Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-07-03

    It took several millennia to fully understand the scientific intricacies of the process through which grape juice is turned into wine. This yeast-driven fermentation process is still being perfected and advanced today. Motivated by ever-changing consumer preferences and the belief that the 'best' wine is yet to be made, numerous approaches are being pursued to improve the process of yeast fermentation and the quality of wine. Central to recent enhancements in winemaking processes and wine quality is the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with improved robustness, fermentation efficiencies and sensory properties. The emerging science of Synthetic Biology - including genome engineering and DNA editing technologies - is taking yeast strain development into a totally new realm of possibility. The first example of how future wine strain development might be impacted by these new 'history-making' Synthetic Biology technologies, is the de novo production of the raspberry ketone aroma compound, 4-[4-hydroxyphenyl]butan-2-one, in a wine yeast containing a synthetic DNA cassette. This article explores how this breakthrough and the imminent outcome of the international Yeast 2.0 (or Sc2.0) project, aimed at the synthesis of the entire genome of a laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae, might accelerate the design of improved wine yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  16. Yeasts in foods and beverages: impact on product quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Graham H

    2007-04-01

    The role of yeasts in food and beverage production extends beyond the well-known bread, beer and wine fermentations. Molecular analytical technologies have led to a major revision of yeast taxonomy, and have facilitated the ecological study of yeasts in many other products. The mechanisms by which yeasts grow in these ecosystems and impact on product quality can now be studied at the level of gene expression. Their growth and metabolic activities are moderated by a network of strain and species interactions, including interactions with bacteria and other fungi. Some yeasts have been developed as agents for the biocontrol of food spoilage fungi, and others are being considered as novel probiotic organisms. The association of yeasts with opportunistic infections and other adverse responses in humans raises new issues in the field of food safety.

  17. Possibility for simultaneous electricity generation and bioremediation by using Candida melibiosica yeast in biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Georgiev, Danail; Mitov, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have proved that Candida melibiosica 2491 yeast strain possesses electrogenic properties and could be used as a biocatalyst in yeast-based biofuel cells. In this paper we demonstrate that when the yeast is cultivated under polarization conditions in a biofuel cell its phytase activity exceeds that obtained during cultivation in a conventional bioreactor. Furthermore, there is a correlation between the yeast phytase activity and the electrical characteristic of the biofuel cell during the different yeast growth phases. The obtained results reveal a possibility for application of C.melibiosica for simultaneous electricity generation and bioremediation of hardly degradable polyphosphates, especially in the regions with intensive stock-farming. Keywords: Biofuel cells, yeast, Candida melibiosica, electricity generation, bioremediation

  18. Yeast Identification During Fe