WorldWideScience

Sample records for red wine tannins

  1. Thermodynamics of grape and wine tannin interaction with polyproline: implications for red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Falconer, Robert J; Kennedy, James A

    2010-12-08

    The astringency of red wine is largely due to the interaction between wine tannins and salivary proline-rich proteins and is known to change as wine ages. To further understand the mechanisms behind wine astringency change over time, thermodynamics of the interactions between poly(l-proline) (PLP) and grape seed and skin tannins (preveraison (PV) and commercially ripe) or Shiraz wine tannins (2 years old and 9-10 years old) was analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The nature of these interactions varied with changes to the tannin structure that are associated with maturation. The change in enthalpy associated with hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding decreased with tannin age and the stoichiometry of binding indicated that grape tannins associated with more proline residues than wine tannins, irrespective of molecular size. These results could provide an explanation for the observed change in wine astringency quality with age.

  2. Relationship between red wine grade and phenolics. 2. Tannin composition and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A

    2011-08-10

    Commercial red wines ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) produced during the 2009 vintage underwent winemaker assessment for allocation grade soon after production. The wines were then subjected to phenolic analysis to measure wine color (total anthocyanin, SO(2) nonbleachable pigment, and wine color density) and tannins (concentration, composition, and average degree of polymerization). A positive relationship was found between wine phenolic concentration and projected bottle price. Tannin compositional analysis suggested that there was specifically a relationship between wine grade and skin-derived tannins. These results suggest that maximization of skin tannin concentration and/or proportion is related to an increase in projected wine bottle price.

  3. Effect of the prefermentative addition of five enological tannins on anthocyanins and color in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Liang, Na-Na; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in "Cabernet Sauvignon wines" at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives. The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Sredović Ivana D.

    2009-01-01

    Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only) with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substance...

  5. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-03

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction.

  6. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  7. Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine: comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Smith, Paul A

    2008-07-23

    Quantification of red grape tannin and red wine tannin using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and the Adams-Harbertson (A-H) tannin assay were investigated. The study allowed for direct comparison between the repeatability of the assays and for the assessment of other practical considerations such as time efficiency, ease of practice, and throughput, and assessed the relationships between tannin quantification by both analytical techniques. A strong correlation between the two analytical techniques was observed when quantifying grape tannin (r(2) = 0.96), and a good correlation was observed for wine tannins (r(2) = 0.80). However, significant differences in the reported tannin values for the analytical techniques were observed (approximately 3-fold). To explore potential reasons for the difference, investigations were undertaken to determine how several variables influenced the final tannin quantification for both assays. These variables included differences in the amount of tannin precipitated (monitored by HPLC), assay matrix variables, and the monomers used to report the final values. The relationship between tannin quantification and wine astringency was assessed for the MCP and A-H tannin assays, and both showed strong correlations with perceived wine astringency (r(2) = 0.83 and r(2) = 0.90, respectively). The work described here gives guidance to those wanting to understand how the values between the two assays relate; however, a conclusive explanation for the differences in values between the MCP and A-H tannin assays remains unclear, and further work in this area is required.

  8. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Benito, Santiago; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2016-10-31

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed ( Vitis vinifera ) and French oak ( Quercus robur and Querrus petraea ), were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  9. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed (Vitis vinifera and French oak (Quercus robur and Querrus petraea, were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of red wine tannin stickiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelette, Matthew R; Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-07-16

    Red wine astringency is generally considered to be the sensory result of salivary protein precipitation following tannin-salivary protein interaction and/or tannin adhering to the oral mucosa. Astringency in red wine is often described using qualitative terms, such as hard and soft. Differences in qualitative description are thought to be due in part to the tannin structure. Tannin chemistry contributions to qualitative description have been shown to correlate with the enthalpy of interaction between tannin and a hydrophobic surface. On the basis of these findings, a method was developed that enabled the routine determination of the thermodynamics of the tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface (polystyrene divinylbenzene) for tannins in red wine following direct injection. The optimized analytical method monitored elution at four different column temperatures (25-40 °C, in 5 °C increments), had a 20 min run time, and was monitored at 280 nm. The results of this study confirm that the calculated thermodynamics of the interaction are intensive and, therefore, provide specific thermodynamic information. Variation in the enthalpy of interaction between tannin and a hydrophobic surface (tannin stickiness) is a unique, concentration-independent analytical parameter. The method, in addition to providing information on tannin stickiness, provides the tannin concentration.

  11. Effect of the addition of different types of oenological commercial tannins on phenolic and sensorial red wine characteristics evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to understand the effect of the addition of different commercial types of oenological tannins on red wine phenolic compounds and sensorial characteristics evolution. So, six different commercial oenological tannins obtained from different sources at an average dosage recommended by the manufactures were added to a red wine. During 120 wine aging days several phenolic parameters were analyzed (including several individual phenolic compounds by HPLC and also the sensorial characteristics of the wines. Wines treated with oenological tannins showed higher total phenols and flavonoid phenols and lesser color degradation during the aging time considered. After 120 aging days, wines aged with oenological tannins showed more total and individual anthocyanins and significantly more red color that induced significantly color differences in relation to the untreated wine (especially for the wines treated with condensed tannins. From a sensorial point of view it was also possible to detect a clear differentiation between the wines.

  12. Effect of condensed tannins addition on the astringency of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Sousa, André; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2012-02-01

    Astringency has been defined as a group of sensations involving dryness, tightening, and shrinking of the oral surface. It has been accepted that astringency is due to the tannin-induced interaction and/or precipitation of the salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in the oral cavity, as a result of the ingestion of food products rich in tannins, for example, red wine. The sensory evaluation of astringency is difficult, and the existence of fast and reliable methods to its study in vitro is scarce. So, in this work, the astringency of red wine supplemented with oligomeric procyanidins (condensed tannins), and the salivary proteins (SP) involved in its development were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of human saliva after its interaction with red wine and by sensorial evaluation. The results show that for low concentration of tannins, the decrease of acidic PRPs and statherin is correlated with astringency intensity, with these families having a high relative complexation and precipitation toward condensed tannins comparatively to the other SP. However, for higher concentrations of tannins, the relative astringency between wines seems to correlate's to the glycosylated PRPs changes. This work shows for the first time that the several families of SP could be involved in different stages of the astringency development.

  13. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  14. Membrane lipids protected from oxidation by red wine tannins: a proton NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Buchoux, Sébastien; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols widespread in vegetables and beverages like red wine and tea have been reported to possess antioxidant properties that could have positive effects on human health. In this study, we propose a new in situ and non-invasive method based on proton liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine the antioxidant efficiency of red wine tannins on a twice-unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC), embedded in a membrane model. Four tannins were studied: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The lipid degradation kinetics was determined by measuring the loss of the bis-allylic protons during oxidation induced by a radical initiator, 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency, i.e. the ability of tannins to slow down the lipid oxidation rate, was shown to be higher for galloylated tannins, ECG and EGCG. Furthermore, the mixture of four tannins was more efficient than the most effective tannin, EGCG, demonstrating a synergistic effect. To better understand the antioxidant action mechanism of polyphenols on lipid membranes, the tannin location was investigated by NMR and molecular dynamics. A correlation between antioxidant action of tannins and their location at the membrane interface (inserted at the glycerol backbone level) could thus be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the Relationship between Red Wine Matrix, Tannin Activity, and Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrelot, Aude A; Byrnes, Nadia K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Kennedy, James A

    2016-11-30

    One major red wine mouthfeel characteristic, astringency, is derived from grape-extracted tannins and is considered to be a result of interaction with salivary proteins and the oral mucosa. To improve our understanding of the role that the enthalpy of interaction of tannin with a hydrophobic surface (tannin activity) has in astringency perception, a chromatographic method was used to determine the tannin concentration and activity of 34 Cabernet Sauvignon wines, as well as sensory analysis done on 13 of those wines. In addition, astringency-relevant matrix parameters (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol, glucose, and fructose) were measured across all wines. Tannin activity was not significantly correlated with any matrix variables, and the perception of drying and grippy was not correlated with tannin concentration and activity. However, ethanol content was well related to mouthfeel attributes and appeared to drive perceived drying. Although fructose and glucose content were well correlated, they did not drive the perception of sweetness, which is explained by the well-known mixture suppression effect.

  16. Effect of the addition of different types of oenological commercial tannins on phenolic and sensorial red wine characteristics evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jordão, António; Muxagata, Sara; Fontes, Luísa; Correia, Ana Cristina; Nunes, Fernando; Cosme, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to understand the effect of the addition of different commercial types of oenological tannins on red wine phenolic compounds and sensorial characteristics evolution. So, six different commercial oenological tannins obtained from different sources at an average dosage recommended by the manufactures were added to a red wine. During 120 wine aging days several phenolic parameters were analyzed (including several individual phenolic compounds by HPLC) and also...

  17. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative analysis of red wine tannins using Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Katherina; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-09-05

    Tannin content and composition are critical quality components of red wines. No spectroscopic method assessing these phenols in wine has been described so far. We report here a new method using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the quantitative analysis of red wine tannins. Calibration models were developed using protein precipitation and phloroglucinolysis as analytical reference methods. After spectra preprocessing, six different predictive partial least-squares (PLS) models were evaluated, including the use of interval selection procedures such as iPLS and CSMWPLS. PLS regression with full-range (650-4000 cm(-1)), second derivative of the spectra and phloroglucinolysis as the reference method gave the most accurate determination for tannin concentration (RMSEC = 2.6%, RMSEP = 9.4%, r = 0.995). The prediction of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the tannins also gave a reasonable prediction (RMSEC = 6.7%, RMSEP = 10.3%, r = 0.958). These results represent the first step in the development of a spectroscopic methodology for the quantification of several phenolic compounds that are critical for wine quality.

  19. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Chen; Carlos Escott; Iris Loira; Juan Manuel del Fresno; Antonio Morata; Wendu Tesfaye; Fernando Calderon; Santiago Benito; Jose Antonio Suárez-Lepe

    2016-01-01

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In th...

  20. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  1. Red wine tannins fluidify and precipitate lipid liposomes and bicelles. A role for lipids in wine tasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Castets, Aurore; Nallet, Frédéric; Pianet, Isabelle; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-05-20

    Sensory properties of red wine tannins are bound to complex interactions between saliva proteins, membranes taste receptors of the oral cavity, and lipids or proteins from the human diet. Whereas astringency has been widely studied in terms of tannin-saliva protein colloidal complexes, little is known about interactions between tannins and lipids and their implications in the taste of wine. This study deals with tannin-lipid interactions, by mimicking both oral cavity membranes by micrometric size liposomes and lipid droplets in food by nanometric isotropic bicelles. Deuterium and phosphorus solid-state NMR demonstrated the membrane hydrophobic core disordering promoted by catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the latter appearing more efficient. C and EGCG destabilize isotropic bicelles and convert them into an inverted hexagonal phase. Tannins are shown to be located at the membrane interface and stabilize the lamellar phases. These newly found properties point out the importance of lipids in the complex interactions that happen in the mouth during organoleptic feeling when ingesting tannins.

  2. Identification of Spectral Regions for Quantification of Red Wine Tannins with Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    Accomplishment of fast tannin measurements is receiving increased interest as tannins are important for the mouthfeel and color properties of red wines. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy allows fast measurement of different wine components, but quantification of tannins is difficult due...... to interferences from spectral responses of other wine components. Four different variable selection tools were investigated for the identification of the most important spectral regions which would allow quantification of tannins from the spectra using partial least-squares regression. The study included...... to be particularly important for tannin quantification. The spectral regions identified from the variable selection methods were used to develop calibration models. All four variable selection methods identified regions that allowed an improved quantitative prediction of tannins (RMSEP = 69−79 mg of CE/L; r = 0...

  3. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García-Estévez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS. Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L* values and higher chroma (C*ab values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  4. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Puente, Víctor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-11-23

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C* ab ) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  5. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-01-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is cons...

  6. Robust Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Partial Least-Squares (PLS) Models for Tannin Quantification in Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, José Luis; Nieuwoudt, Helené; Aleixandre, José Luis; Du Toit, Wessel J

    2015-02-04

    The validation of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression to quantify red wine tannins is reported. The methylcellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and the bovine serum albumin (BSA) tannin assay were used as reference methods. To take the high variability of wine tannins into account when the calibration models were built, a diverse data set was collected from samples of South African red wines that consisted of 18 different cultivars, from regions spanning the wine grape-growing areas of South Africa with their various sites, climates, and soils, ranging in vintage from 2000 to 2012. A total of 240 wine samples were analyzed, and these were divided into a calibration set (n = 120) and a validation set (n = 120) to evaluate the predictive ability of the models. To test the robustness of the PLS calibration models, the predictive ability of the classifying variables cultivar, vintage year, and experimental versus commercial wines was also tested. In general, the statistics obtained when BSA was used as a reference method were slightly better than those obtained with MCP. Despite this, the MCP tannin assay should also be considered as a valid reference method for developing PLS calibrations. The best calibration statistics for the prediction of new samples were coefficient of correlation (R 2 val) = 0.89, root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.16, and residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 3.49 for MCP and R 2 val = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.08, and RPD = 4.07 for BSA, when only the UV region (260-310 nm) was selected, which also led to a faster analysis time. In addition, a difference in the results obtained when the predictive ability of the classifying variables vintage, cultivar, or commercial versus experimental wines was studied suggests that tannin composition is highly affected by many factors. This study also discusses the correlations in tannin values between the methylcellulose and protein

  7. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of spectral regions for the quantification of red wine tannins with fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob S; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S

    2008-05-28

    Accomplishment of fast tannin measurements is receiving increased interest as tannins are important for the mouthfeel and color properties of red wines. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy allows fast measurement of different wine components, but quantification of tannins is difficult due to interferences from spectral responses of other wine components. Four different variable selection tools were investigated for the identification of the most important spectral regions which would allow quantification of tannins from the spectra using partial least-squares regression. The study included the development of a new variable selection tool, iterative backward elimination of changeable size intervals PLS. The spectral regions identified by the different variable selection methods were not identical, but all included two regions (1485-1425 and 1060-995 cm(-1)), which therefore were concluded to be particularly important for tannin quantification. The spectral regions identified from the variable selection methods were used to develop calibration models. All four variable selection methods identified regions that allowed an improved quantitative prediction of tannins (RMSEP = 69-79 mg of CE/L; r = 0.93-0.94) as compared to a calibration model developed using all variables (RMSEP = 115 mg of CE/L; r = 0.87). Only minor differences in the performance of the variable selection methods were observed.

  9. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C; Konarev, P; Svergun, D I; Tribet, C

    2008-01-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  10. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, 4 Place Jussieu, BP 126, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Konarev, P; Svergun, D I [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Tribet, C [Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et Milieux Disperses, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: drazen@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2008-12-10

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of {beta}-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  11. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  12. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio García-Estévez; Cristina Alcalde-Eon; Víctor Puente; M. Teresa Escribano-Bailón

    2017-01-01

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the...

  13. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine on DNA oxidative damage of rat colon mucosa in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, L; Testa, G; De Filippo, C; Cheynier, V; Clifford, M N; Dolara, P

    2000-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been reported to have a variety of biological actions, including anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of an oral treatment with complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine and tea on DNA oxidative damage in the rat colon mucosa. Isolated colonocytes were prepared from the colon mucosa of rats treated for ten days with either wine complex polyphenols (57.2 mg/kg/d) or thearubigin (40 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage. Colonocyte oxidative DNA damage was analysed at the single cell level using a modification of the comet assay technique. The results show that wine complex polyphenols and tannins induce a significant decrease (-62% for pyrimidine and -57% for purine oxidation) in basal DNA oxidative damage in colon mucosal cells without affecting the basal level of single-strand breaks. On the other hand, tea polyphenols, namely a crude extract of thearubigin, did not affect either strand breaks or pyrimidine oxidation in colon mucosal cells. Our experiments are the first demonstration that dietary polyphenols can modulate in vivo oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents. These data support the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols might have both a protective and a therapeutic potential in oxidative damage-related pathologies.

  14. Effect of wine dilution on the reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Werge, Hans Henrik Malmborg; Egebo, Max

    2008-01-01

    A reported analytical method for tannin quantification relies on selective precipitation of tannins with bovine serum albumin. The reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation on wines having variable tannin levels was evaluated by measuring the tannin concentration of various dilutions...... of five commercial red wines. Tannin concentrations of both very diluted and concentrated samples were systematically underestimated, which could be explained by a precipitation threshold and insufficient protein for precipitation, respectively. Based on these findings, we have defined a valid range...... of the tannin response in the protein precipitation-tannin assay, which suffers minimally from these problems....

  15. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine (WCPT) on chemically induced oxidative DNA damage in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, C; Lodovici, M; Briani, C; Paganelli, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Dolara, P

    1999-08-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants occurring in vegetables and fruits as well as beverages such as tea and wine which have been thought to influence oxidative damage. We wanted to verify whether a complex mixture of wine tannins (wine complex polyphenols and tannins, WCPT) prevent chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by measuring the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (80HdG)/ 2-deoxyguanosine (2dG) x 10(-6) in hydrolyzed DNA using HPLC coupled with electrochemical and UV detectors. We treated rats with WCPT (57 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 d, a dose 10-fold higher than what a moderate wine drinker would be exposed to. WCPT administration significantly reduced the ratio of 80HdG/2dG x 10(-6) in liver DNA obtained from rats treated with 2-nitropropane (2NP) relative to controls administered 2NP only (33. 3 +/- 2.5 vs. 44.9 +/- 3.2 x 10(-6) 2dG; micro +/- SE; p<0.05). On the contrary, pretreatment with WCPT for 10 d did not protect the colon mucosa from oxidative DNA damage induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 2NP and DMH are hepatic and colon carcinogens, respectively, capable of inducing oxidative DNA damage. WCPT have protective action against some types of chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo.

  16. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  17. Wine and grape tannin interactions with salivary proteins and their impact on astringency: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kennedy, James A

    2011-03-11

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  18. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Kennedy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  19. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  20. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Kennedy; Jacqui M. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of ...

  1. Use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and oenological tannin in red winemaking: Influence on colour, aroma and sensorial properties of young wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio; Han, Shunyu; Benito, Santiago

    2018-02-01

    Today, many non-Saccharomyces strains have been verified can be positive for the development of wine anthocyanin and aroma in different fermentation scenarios. Moreover, oenological tannins are widely used in wine industry to improve the colour profile and aroma complexity. The aim of this work is to analyze the fermentation characters of non-Saccharomyces strains and investigate the effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on the wine components as well as sensory properties. For this purpose, five selected non-Saccharomyces strains and grape seed tannin were used to carry out the different fermentation trials. As a result, the grape seed tannin were less likely to influence growth kinetics of non-Saccharomyces strains. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been proved can be effective to reduce the malic acid content while increase the level of vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanin, which is positive for wine colour stability. Pre-fermentative use of oenological tannin was verified could be beneficial for the wines fermented with non-Saccharomyces regarding the improvement of wine colour, anthocyanin composition and the complexity of volatile compounds. Nevertheless, sensory analysis showed that oenological tannin could be less effective to modify the aroma impression of non-Saccharomyces wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-01-23

    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  3. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  4. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan

    OpenAIRE

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Poncet-Legrand, Celine; Sieczkowski, N.; Vernhet, Aude

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored b...

  5. Comparative study of wine tannin classification using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Labarca, Ximena; Bordeu, Edmundo; Guesalaga, Andrés; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    Wine tannins are fundamental to the determination of wine quality. However, the chemical and sensorial analysis of these compounds is not straightforward and a simple and rapid technique is necessary. We analyzed the mid-infrared spectra of white, red, and model wines spiked with known amounts of skin or seed tannins, collected using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) transmission spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The spectral data were classified according to their tannin source, skin or seed, and tannin concentration by means of discriminant analysis (DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to obtain a probabilistic classification. Wines were also classified sensorially by a trained panel and compared with FT-MIR. SIMCA models gave the most accurate classification (over 97%) and prediction (over 60%) among the wine samples. The prediction was increased (over 73%) using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Sensory classification of the wines was less accurate than that obtained with FT-MIR and SIMCA. Overall, these results show the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy, in combination with adequate statistical tools, to discriminate wines with different tannin levels.

  6. Evolution of Sangiovese Wines with Varied Tannin and Anthocyanin Ratios during Oxidative Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuti, Angelita; Picariello, Luigi; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Moio, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    Changes in phenolic compounds, chromatic characteristics, acetaldehyde, and protein-reactive tannins associated with oxidative aging were studied in Sangiovese wines with varied tannin T/anthocyanin A ratios. For this purpose, three Sangiovese vineyards located in Tuscany were considered in the 2016 vintage. To obtain wines with different T/A ratios, two red wines were produced from each vinification batch: a free run juice with a lower T/A ratio and a marc pressed wine with a higher T/A ratio. An overall of 6 wines with T/A ratios ranging between 5 and 23 were produced. An oxidation treatment (four saturation cycles) was applied to each wine. Average and initial oxygen consumption rates (OCR) were positively correlated to VRF/mA (vanilline reactive flavans/monomeric anthocyanins) and T/A ratios while OCRs were negatively related to the wine content in monomeric and total anthocyanins. The higher the A content was, the greater the loss of total and free anthocyanins. A significant lower production of polymeric pigments was detected in all pressed wines with respect to the correspondant free run one. A gradual decrease of tannin reactivity towards saliva proteins after the application of oxygen saturation cycles was detected. The results obtained in this experiment indicate that VRF/mA and T/A ratios are among the fundamental parameters to evaluate before choosing the antioxidant protection to be used and the right oxidation level to apply for a longer shelf-life of red wine.

  7. Evolution of Sangiovese Wines With Varied Tannin and Anthocyanin Ratios During Oxidative Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuti, Angelita; Picariello, Luigi; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Moio, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Changes in phenolic compounds, chromatic characteristics, acetaldehyde, and protein-reactive tannins associated with oxidative aging were studied in Sangiovese wines with varied tannin T/anthocyanin A ratios. For this purpose, three Sangiovese vineyards located in Tuscany were considered in the 2016 vintage. To obtain wines with different T/A ratios, two red wines were produced from each vinification batch: a free run juice with a lower T/A ratio and a marc pressed wine with a higher T/A ratio. An overall of six wines with T/A ratios ranging between 5 and 23 were produced. An oxidation treatment (four saturation cycles) was applied to each wine. Average and initial oxygen consumption rates (OCR) were positively correlated to VRF/mA (vanilline reactive flavans/monomeric anthocyanins) and T/A ratios while OCRs were negatively related to the wine content in monomeric and total anthocyanins. The higher the A content was, the greater the loss of total and free anthocyanins. A significant lower production of polymeric pigments was detected in all pressed wines with respect to the correspondant free run one. A gradual decrease of tannin reactivity toward saliva proteins after the application of oxygen saturation cycles was detected. The results obtained in this experiment indicate that VRF/mA and T/A ratios are among the fundamental parameters to evaluate before choosing the antioxidant protection to be used and the right oxidation level to apply for a longer shelf-life of red wine.

  8. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  9. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly ...

  10. Influence of Tannin Extract and Yeast Extract on Color Preservation and Anthocyanin Content of Mulberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yilin; Li, Na; Han, Xue; Guo, Jielong; Liu, Guojie; Huang, Weidong; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-04-01

    The color of mulberry wine is extremely unstable in processing and aging. This paper investigates the effects of tannin extract and yeast extract on the color and color-preserving characteristics of mulberry wine made from the Dashi cultivar. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength in both tannin extract and yeast extract groups changed generating the red shift effect. The color of the tannin extract maintained a good gloss in the first 4 months, while the yeast extract group showed remarkable color preservation for the first 3 months. The total anthocyanin and cyanidin-3-rutinoside contents in both experiment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, thus proving that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during its aging. Moreover, sensory analysis indicated that the quality of mulberry wine treated with tannin extract was significantly higher than that of the control. The distinct color of mulberry wine is one of the foremost qualities that imprints on consumers' senses, but it is extremely unstable in processing and aging. However, the color protection of mulberry wine was not studied previously. In this study, we found that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during aging. The study is of great significance as a guide to improving the color stability of mulberry wine, thereby also improving and promoting the development of the mulberry deep processing industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. A role for anthocyanin in determining wine tannin concentration in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmister, Rachel L; Mazza, Marica; Baker, Nardia K; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O

    2014-01-01

    Four wines were made to investigate the effect of different anthocyanin and tannin fruit concentrations on wine phenolics and colour. Wines that were made from fruit with high anthocyanin concentration had high tannin concentrations regardless of the concentration of tannin in fruit, while wines made from fruit with low anthocyanin also had low tannin concentration. It was found that fruit anthocyanin concentration correlated with wine tannin concentration, wine colour and polymeric pigment formation. Anthocyanin concentration might be a key component for increasing tannin solubility and extraction into wine and the formation of polymeric pigments. Industry implications include managing tannin and anthocyanin fruit concentration for targeting tannin extraction and polymeric pigment formation in wine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of Sangiovese Wines With Varied Tannin and Anthocyanin Ratios During Oxidative Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Gambuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in phenolic compounds, chromatic characteristics, acetaldehyde, and protein-reactive tannins associated with oxidative aging were studied in Sangiovese wines with varied tannin T/anthocyanin A ratios. For this purpose, three Sangiovese vineyards located in Tuscany were considered in the 2016 vintage. To obtain wines with different T/A ratios, two red wines were produced from each vinification batch: a free run juice with a lower T/A ratio and a marc pressed wine with a higher T/A ratio. An overall of six wines with T/A ratios ranging between 5 and 23 were produced. An oxidation treatment (four saturation cycles was applied to each wine. Average and initial oxygen consumption rates (OCR were positively correlated to VRF/mA (vanilline reactive flavans/monomeric anthocyanins and T/A ratios while OCRs were negatively related to the wine content in monomeric and total anthocyanins. The higher the A content was, the greater the loss of total and free anthocyanins. A significant lower production of polymeric pigments was detected in all pressed wines with respect to the correspondant free run one. A gradual decrease of tannin reactivity toward saliva proteins after the application of oxygen saturation cycles was detected. The results obtained in this experiment indicate that VRF/mA and T/A ratios are among the fundamental parameters to evaluate before choosing the antioxidant protection to be used and the right oxidation level to apply for a longer shelf-life of red wine.

  13. Evolution of Sangiovese Wines With Varied Tannin and Anthocyanin Ratios During Oxidative Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuti, Angelita; Picariello, Luigi; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Moio, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Changes in phenolic compounds, chromatic characteristics, acetaldehyde, and protein-reactive tannins associated with oxidative aging were studied in Sangiovese wines with varied tannin T/anthocyanin A ratios. For this purpose, three Sangiovese vineyards located in Tuscany were considered in the 2016 vintage. To obtain wines with different T/A ratios, two red wines were produced from each vinification batch: a free run juice with a lower T/A ratio and a marc pressed wine with a higher T/A ratio. An overall of six wines with T/A ratios ranging between 5 and 23 were produced. An oxidation treatment (four saturation cycles) was applied to each wine. Average and initial oxygen consumption rates (OCR) were positively correlated to VRF/mA (vanilline reactive flavans/monomeric anthocyanins) and T/A ratios while OCRs were negatively related to the wine content in monomeric and total anthocyanins. The higher the A content was, the greater the loss of total and free anthocyanins. A significant lower production of polymeric pigments was detected in all pressed wines with respect to the correspondant free run one. A gradual decrease of tannin reactivity toward saliva proteins after the application of oxygen saturation cycles was detected. The results obtained in this experiment indicate that VRF/mA and T/A ratios are among the fundamental parameters to evaluate before choosing the antioxidant protection to be used and the right oxidation level to apply for a longer shelf-life of red wine. PMID:29600246

  14. Tannin profile of different Monastrell wines and its relation to projected market prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Olmos, Oscar; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the differences or similarities in tannin composition and concentration in Monastrell wines from different wineries from the same geographic area and, within each winery, from wines elaborated based on different projected market prices, to determine whether there is any relationship between the wine tannin composition and the projected price. The tannin composition of the different wines, all of them analyzed at the same point during winemaking, indicated that those elaborated as premium wines presented higher phenol and tannin contents. The mean degree of polymerization of these wines was also positively related with the projected price, which agreed with the results obtained by size exclusion chromatography, that showed that wines with high projected prices had a higher proportion of polymeric tannins, suggesting that techniques favoring the extraction of skin tannins were mostly used in those wines projected as premium wines, probably looking for greater mouthfeel complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  16. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  17. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  19. Platelet rebound effect of alcohol withdrawal and wine drinking in rats. Relation to tannins and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, J C; Berger, J L; Renaud, S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated in rats fed a purified diet for 2 and 4 months whether wine drinking was associated with the rebound effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation observed after alcohol withdrawal. With 6% ethanol drinking or its equivalent in red or white wine, platelet aggregation was reduced similarly by 70% when the animals drank the alcoholic beverages up to the venipuncture. Depriving the rats of alcoholic beverages for 18 hours was associated with an increase in the platelet response of 124% in those receiving 6% ethanol, of 46% with white wine but a decrease of 59% in those with red wine. The protective effect of red wine on platelets could be reproduced by tannins (procyanidins) extracted from grape seeds or red wine and added to 6% ethanol, but not by glycerol or wine without alcohol. That was related to inhibition of the alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation as shown by the lowering of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, and the increase in vitamin E in plasma. Owing to tannins, the platelets of rats drinking red wine did not exhibit the rebound effect observed hours after alcohol drinking, eventually associated with sudden death and stroke in humans.

  20. Inhibition of trypsin by condensed tannins and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2007-09-05

    Phenolic compounds are abundant vegetable secondary metabolites in the human diet. The ability of procyanidin oligomers and wine polyphenols to inhibit trypsin activity was studied using a versatile and reliable in vitro method. The hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate N-benzoyl-d,l-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) by trypsin was followed by spectrophotometry in the presence and absence of condensed tannins and wine. A clear relationship between the degree of polymerization of procyanidins and enzymatic inhibition was observed. Trypsin activity inhibition was also detected in several types of wine. In general, the inhibition increased with the concentration of phenolic compounds in wines. These results may be relevant when considering these compounds as antinutritional factors, thereby contributing to a reduced absorption of nutrients.

  1. Effect of yeast strain and some nutritional factors on tannin composition and potential astringency of model wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Aponte, Maria; Moio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, isolated from different sources, were tested for their ability to reduce tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, and potentially responsible for wine astringency. Strains were preliminary genetically characterized and evaluated for physiological features of technological interest. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed in three synthetic media: CT) containing enological grape tannin; CTP) CT supplemented with organic nitrogen sources; CTPV) CTP supplemented with vitamins. Adsorption of total tannins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, yellow pigments, phenolics having antioxidant activity, and total phenols, characterizing the enological tannin, was determined by spectrophotometric methods after fermentation. The presence of vitamins and peptones in musts greatly influenced the adsorption of tannins reactive towards salivary proteins (4.24 g/L gallic acid equivalent), thus promoting the reduction of the potential astringency of model wines. With reference to the different phenolic classes, yeast strains showed different adsorption abilities. From a technological point of view, the yeast choice proved to be crucial in determining changes in gustative and mouthfeel profile of red wines and may assist winemakers to modulate colour and astringency of wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of major Australian red wines throughout the winemaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J

    2010-09-22

    Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.

  3. High throughput analysis of red wine and grape phenolics-adaptation and validation of methyl cellulose precipitable tannin assay and modified Somers color assay to a rapid 96 well plate format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2007-06-13

    The methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and a modified version of the Somers and Evans color assay were adapted to high-throughput (HTP) analysis. To improve efficiency of the MCP tannin assay, a miniaturized 1 mL format and a HTP format using 96 well plates were developed. The Somers color assay was modified to allow the standardization of pH and ethanol concentrations of wine samples in a simple one-step dilution with a buffer solution, thus removing inconsistencies between wine matrices prior to analysis and allowing for its adaptation to a HTP format. Validation studies showed that all new formats were efficient, and results were reproducible and analogous to the original formats.

  4. Chemical, chromatic, and sensory attributes of 6 red wines produced with prefermentative cold soak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Bolcato, Esteban A; Sari, Santiago E

    2015-05-01

    Six red grape cultivars, Barbera D'Asti, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Syrah, were produced with or without prefermentative cold soak (CS). Cold soak had no effect on the basic chemical composition of the wines. At pressing, CS wines were more saturated and with a higher red component than control wines. After 1 year of bottle aging, CS wines retained 22% more anthocyanins than control wines, but tannins and total phenolics remained unaffected. Both saturation and the red component of colour were slightly higher in CS wines. From a sensory standpoint, CS only enhanced colour intensity in Barbera D'Asti and Cabernet Sauvignon wines, whereas it diminished colour intensity in Pinot Noir. Cold soak had no effect on perceived aroma, bitterness, astringency, and body of the wines. Principal Component Analysis suggested that the outcome of CS is contingent upon the specific cultivar to which the CS technique is applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Micro-oxygenation of red wine: techniques, applications, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoff R

    2011-02-01

    Wine micro-oxygenation (MOX) is the controlled addition of oxygen to wine in a manner designed to ensure that complete mass transfer of molecular oxygen from gaseous to dissolved state occurs. MOX was initially developed to improve the body, structure, and fruitfulness in red wines with high concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins, by replicating the ingress of oxygen thought to arise from barrel maturation, but without the need for putting all wine to barrel. This review describes the operational parameters essential for the effective performance of the micro-oxidation process as well as the chemical and microbiological outcomes. The methodologies for introducing oxygen into the wine, the rates of oxygen addition, and their relationship to oxygen solubility in the wine matrix are examined. The review focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the MOX process, including sensory assessment, physicochemical properties, and the critical balance of the rate of oxygen addition in relation to maintaining the sulfur dioxide concentration. The chemistry of oxygen reactivity with wine components, the changes in wine composition that occur as a consequence of MOX, and the potential for wine spoilage if proper monitoring is not adopted are examined. Gaps in existing knowledge are addressed focusing on the limitations associated with the transfer of concepts from research trials in small volume tanks to commercial practice, and the dearth of kinetic data for the various chemical and physical processes that are claimed to occur during MOX.

  6. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heating and reduction affect the reaction with tannins of wine protein fractions differing in hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Matteo; Vincenzi, Simone; Lucchetta, Marco; Curioni, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    During the storage, bottled white wines can manifest haziness due to the insolubilisation of the grape proteins that may 'survive' in the fermentation process. Although the exact mechanism of this occurrence is not fully understood, proteins and tannins are considered two of the key factors involved in wine hazing, since their aggregation leads to the formation of insoluble particles. To better understand this complex interaction, proteins and tannins from the same unfined Pinot grigio wine were separated. Wine proteins were then fractionated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). A significant correlation between hydrophobicity of the wine protein fractions and the haze formed after reacting with wine tannins was found, with the most reactive fractions revealing (by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC analyses) the predominant presence of thaumatin-like proteins. Moreover, the effects of both protein heating and disulfide bonds reduction (with dithiotreithol) on haze formation in the presence of tannins were assessed. These treatments generally resulted in an improved reactivity with tannins, and this phenomenon was related to both the surface hydrophobicity and composition of the protein fractions. Therefore, haze formation in wines seems to be related to hydrophobic interactions occurring among proteins and tannins. These interactions should occur on hydrophobic tannin-binding sites, whose exposition on the proteins can depend on both protein heating and reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen consumption rates by different oenological tannins in a model wine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Olga; Vignault, Adeline; Gombau, Jordi; Navarro, Maria; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of oxygen consumption by different oenological tannins were measured in a model wine solution using the non-invasive method based on luminiscence. The results indicate that the oxygen consumption rate follows second-order kinetics depending on tannin and oxygen concentrations. They also confirm that the oxygen consumption rate is influenced by temperature in accordance with Arrhenius law. The indications are that ellagitannins are the fastest oxygen consumers of the different oenological tannins, followed in decreasing order by quebracho tannins, skin tannins, seed tannins and finally gallotannins. This methodology can therefore be proposed as an index for determining the effectiveness of different commercial tannins in protecting wines against oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed.

  10. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ma

    Full Text Available Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs, belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP. However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5 was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed.

  11. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  12. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  13. Effect of SO2 concentration on polyphenol development during red wine micro-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiong; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2007-07-25

    A Merlot wine in 15 L research tanks was subjected to micro-oxygenation at 10 mL O2 per liter of wine per month over a 16 week period with additions of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L SO2. A large decrease in monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols was seen in wines with a lower concentration of SO2, coupled with an increase in nonbleachable pigments; an increase in tannin, measured using precipitation with methyl cellulose; and a greater size and red coloration of a proanthocyanidin extract obtained using Sephadex LH-20. These changes were largely suppressed in wines initially treated with 200 mg/L SO2 and occurred more slowly in wines stored in bottles in the absence of O2. The concentration of SO2 is shown to regulate the polyphenol chemistry involved in the formation of polymeric pigments and changes in tannin structure affecting wine astringency.

  14. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

  15. Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja red wines: characterization of their phenolic composition and evolution from 2000 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Quaglieri, Cindy; Prieto-Perea, Noelia; Berrueta, Luis; Gallo, Blanca; Rasines-Perea, Zurine; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis

    2017-01-01

    Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areas—the Aquitaine (France) and Rioja (Spain) regions—in order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface). Mean degree of polymerization (mDP) ...

  16. Application of the SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) to the evaluation of red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the astringency of red wines by means of a SDS-PAGE based-method. The optimization of the in vitro assay, named SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) that measured the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols, has been performed. Improvements included the choice of saliva:wine ratio, saliva typology (resting or stimulated saliva), and temperature of binding. The LOD (0.05 g/L of condensed tannin) and LOQ (0.1g/L of condensed tannin) for the binding reaction between salivary proteins and tannins added in white wine were also determined. Fifty-seven red wines were analysed by the optimised SPI, the Folin-Ciocalteu Index, the gelatine index, the content of total tannins and the sensory quantitative evaluation of astringency. A significant correlation between the SPI and the astringency of red wines was found (R(2)=0.969), thus indicating that this assay may be useful as estimator of astringency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja Red Wines: Characterization of Their Phenolic Composition and Evolution from 2000 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglieri, Cindy; Prieto-Perea, Noelia; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Rasines-Perea, Zurine; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2017-01-24

    Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areas-the Aquitaine (France) and Rioja (Spain) regions-in order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface). Mean degree of polymerization (mDP) was determined. The influence of the wine-growing region and the predominance of the properties of some grape varieties used are confirmed by the significant differences observed between both regions. Rioja and Bordeaux "generic" (Bordeaux and Bordeaux-Supérieur appellations) red wines showed the highest anthocyanic content and the highest mDP, as these wines are in a majority made from Merlot (Bordeaux "generic") and Tempranillo (Rioja). On the contrary, Bordeaux "specific" regions (Blayais, Médoc, Graves, and Libournais) showed the red wines with the highest total phenolic content and tannin concentration, as the predominant grape variety used is Cabernet Sauvignon. A principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) suggesting patterns between the chemical parameters and the distribution of the red wines in three groups were proposed. The comparison of the two wine-growing areas also reveals some similarities between the various grape varieties used. A general effect of a progressive decrease in anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derived pigment and tannins is observed for older wines.

  18. Three-dimensional structure and dynamics of wine tannin-saliva protein complexes. A multitechnique approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cécile; Barathieu, Karine; Laguerre, Michel; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Fouquet, Eric; Pianet, Isabelle; Dufourc, Erick J

    2003-09-09

    The interactions between the B3 (catechin-4alpha,8-catechin) red wine tannin and the human salivary protein fragment IB7(14) (SPPGKPQGPPPQGG) were monitored by (1)H magic angle spinning NMR, circular dichroism, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and molecular modeling. It is found that the secondary structure of IB7(14) is made of a type II helix (collagen helix) and random coil. The central glycine 8 appears to act as a flexible rotula separating two helix II regions. Three tannin molecules tightly complex the peptide, without modifying its secondary structure, but seem to reduce its conformational dynamics. The binding dissociation constant is in the millimolar range. B3 tannins with a "tweezers" conformation bind to the hydrophilic side of the saliva peptide, suggesting that the principal driving forces toward association are governed by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl functions of proline residues and both the phenol and catechol OH groups. These findings are further discussed in the frame of an astringency phenomenon.

  19. Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethylidene-bridged Flavan-3-ols in red wine and correlation with wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkine, Jessica; Lopes, Paulo; Kennedy, James A; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Saucier, Cedric

    2007-07-25

    Condensed tannins are responsible for astringency and bitterness and participate in the color stability of red wines. During wine making and aging, they undergo chemical changes including, for example, acetaldehyde-induced polymerization. Following this study, the ethylidene-bridged flavan-3-ols were monitored in different vintage wines made from grapes collected in the same vineyard in three wineries in Bordeaux, Pauillac, and Saint Julien. Flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges were quantified by wine 2,2'-ethylidenediphloroglucinol (EDP) phloroglucinolysis. This method was based upon the analysis of EDP, a product formed after acid-catalyzed cleavage of wine flavan-3-ols in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. The flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges were then compared to flavan-3-ol contents (phloroglucinolysis), phenolic contents, and color measurements. Low amounts of flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges (0.8-2.5 mg L(-1)) were quantified in wines. Flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges represent less than 4% of flavan-3-ol bonds, but the proportion of these linkages relative to native interflavan bonds increased with wine age. This proportion correlated with pigmented polymers.

  1. The influence of cation exchange treatment on the final characteristics of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Cristina; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2013-06-01

    Ion exchange technology has been applied to adjust the pH of red wine and improve its tartaric and oxidative stability. Ion exchange appears to be a useful technique to achieve these objectives. Regarding the effect of ion exchange on organoleptic characteristics and the quality of the obtained wines, a slight decrease in both anthocyanin and tannin contents was observed along with a small drop in the aromatic content. However, the treated wines had lower hue and higher colour intensity and gave better punctuations in the sensory evaluation. These results confirm that ion exchange is an interesting technique for application in red winemaking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  3. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  4. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  5. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  6. Influence of wine pectic polysaccharides on the interactions between condensed tannins and salivary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Elisabete; Mateus, Nuno; Plet, Benoit; Pianet, Isabelle; Dufourc, Erick; De Freitas, Victor

    2006-11-15

    Alpha-amylase, a major human salivary protein, and IB8c, a representative of the proline-rich proteins, were obtained by isolation from saliva and by solid-phase synthesis, respectively. The interactions between these proteins and condensed tannins isolated from grape seeds were studied at different protein and tannin concentrations by measuring their aggregation. Pectic polysaccharides were isolated from wine, and their effect on protein tannin aggregation was assessed. The results presented in this study showed that the most acidic fractions of arabinogalactan proteins have the ability to inhibit the formation of aggregates between the grape seed tannins and the two different salivary proteins. Rhamnogalacturonan II has the same ability toward alpha-amylase but not IB8c under the conditions of the present study. Polysaccharides show effects at concentrations at which they are present in wine, which could mean an influence in wine astringency. The interaction between condensed tannins and alpha-amylase is differently affected by ionic strength when compared with IB8c.

  7. Short-term effect of red wine (consumed during meals) on insulin requirement and glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, H; Morlat, P; Ragnaud, J M; Aubertin, J

    1992-04-01

    To determine the effect of wine on insulin requirement or glucose tolerance. Five men with insulin-treated diabetes and 10 men with non-insulin-treated diabetes ate the same lunch with the same volume of either water or red wine (2 glasses). Insulin requirement was determined with an artificial pancreas (Biostator). Glucose tolerance was evaluated from the postprandial glycemic level. There was no significant difference in insulin requirement determined with an artificial pancreas in the insulin-treated patients after the two meals (31.5 +/- 4.21 U with water and 31.8 +/- 4.3 U with wine). Glucose tolerance in the non-insulin-treated patients was lower after the meal with wine. Moderate prandial wine consumption has no adverse effect on the glycemic control of diabetic patients. Thus, it appears unnecessary to proscribe the consumption of red wine in moderation with meals to diabetic patients. Wine contains tannins and phytates that can explain its action.

  8. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  9. Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja Red Wines: Characterization of Their Phenolic Composition and Evolution from 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Quaglieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areas—the Aquitaine (France and Rioja (Spain regions—in order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface. Mean degree of polymerization (mDP was determined. The influence of the wine-growing region and the predominance of the properties of some grape varieties used are confirmed by the significant differences observed between both regions. Rioja and Bordeaux “generic” (Bordeaux and Bordeaux-Supérieur appellations red wines showed the highest anthocyanic content and the highest mDP, as these wines are in a majority made from Merlot (Bordeaux “generic” and Tempranillo (Rioja. On the contrary, Bordeaux “specific” regions (Blayais, Médoc, Graves, and Libournais showed the red wines with the highest total phenolic content and tannin concentration, as the predominant grape variety used is Cabernet Sauvignon. A principal component analysis (PCA and a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC suggesting patterns between the chemical parameters and the distribution of the red wines in three groups were proposed. The comparison of the two wine-growing areas also reveals some similarities between the various grape varieties used. A general effect of a progressive decrease in anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derived pigment and tannins is observed for older wines.

  10. Chemical and sensory characterization of DOC red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Boulton, Roger B; Thorngate, John H; Frega, Natale G

    2004-06-16

    Monomeric phenols, color and copigmentation parameters, pigments with different chemical structure, tannin, glucose, fructose, glycerol, ethanol, and organic acids were determined in DOC red wines from Marche (Italy), obtained during three different vintages ranging from 1996 to 2000. The intensity of the bitter and astringent tastes of the wines was determined with panel tastings. Lacrima di Morro and Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (obtained from local cultivars) were different from Rosso Piceno, Rosso Piceno Superiore, and Rosso Conero (produced from different percentages of Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Vernaccia, a red, sweet, "spumante" wine, was an outlier. Lacrima showed a low tannin content, a high content of small pigments and phenols, and a high ratio of copigmented color, which persisted after 3 years of aging. The chemical determinations accounted for a high percentage of variability of measured panel astringency, copigmented color, and measured wine absorbance at 520 nm. It was not possible to create a predictive model for bitterness.

  11. Polyphenols-enriched Chardonnay white wine and sparkling Pinot Noir red wine identically prevent early atherosclerosis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Cyril; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Vanderlinde, Regina; Bornet, Aurélie; Décordé, Kelly; Lequeux, Nadine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2005-12-14

    The effects of a white wine enriched with polyphenols (PEWW) from Chardonnay grapes and of a sparkling red wine (SRW) from Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes were studied for the first time on early atherosclerosis in hamsters. Animals were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received by force-feeding PEWW, SRW, ethanol 12% (ETH), or water as control (mimicking a moderate consumption of approximately 2 red wine glasses per meal for a 70 kg human). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in groups that consumed PEWW and SRW accompanied by an increase in the ratio apo A-1/apo B. Liver-specific activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased by PEWW (38 and 16%, respectively) and by SRW (48 and 15%, respectively). PEWW and ETH significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity and vitamin A concentrations. Aortic fatty streak area (AFSA) was significantly strongly reduced in the groups receiving PEWW (85%) and SRW (89%) in comparison with the control. AFSA was reduced by ethanol to a lesser extent (58%). These data suggest that tannins from the phenolics-enriched white wine induce a protective effect against early atherosclerosis comparable to that produced by sparkling red wine containing tanins and anthocyanins and dissociated from the antioxidant action of these compounds.

  12. Formation and Accumulation of Acetaldehyde and Strecker Aldehydes during Red Wine Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bueno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L−1 and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L−1, respectively. Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (<2 years-old bottled wines hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity toward ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity toward ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some

  13. Formation and accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes during red wine oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Escudero, Ana; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde) during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L-1) and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L-1, respectively). Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (wines) hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines) accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs) which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity towards ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity towards ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some quinones derived from catechin. All this

  14. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  15. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  16. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  17. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  19. The role of wine polysaccharides on salivary protein-tannin interaction: A molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda Santos; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Williams, Pascale; Mateus, Nuno; Doco, Thierry; de Freitas, Victor; Soares, Susana

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharides are described to inhibit aggregation between food polyphenols and salivary proteins (SP) and may hence lead to astringency modulation. In this work, the effect of two wine polysaccharides (arabinogalactan proteins-AGPs and rhamnogalacturonan II- RGII) on SP-polyphenol interaction was evaluated. In general, both polysaccharides were effective to inhibit or reduce SP-polyphenol interaction and aggregation. They can act by two different mechanisms (ternary or competitive) depending on the SP-tannin pair. In the case of salivary P-B peptide, AGPs and RGII seem to act by a ternary mechanism, in which they surround this complex, enhancing its solubility. Concerning acidic proline-rich proteins (aPRPs), it was possible to observe both mechanisms, depending on the tannin and the polysaccharide involved. Overall, this work point out for a specific property of wine polysaccharides important to modulate this and other beverages and food astringency perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary ...

  1. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa Vişan; Ciprian Nicolae Popa; Radiana Tamba-Berehoiu

    2017-01-01

    During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structu...

  2. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Astringency, bitterness and color changes in dry red wines before and during oak barrel aging: An updated phenolic perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-30

    To understand effects of using oak barrels on the astringency, bitterness and color of dry red wines, phenolic reactions in wines before and after barrel aging are reviewed in this paper, which has been divided into three sections. The first section includes an introduction to chemical reactivities of grape-derived phenolic compounds, a summary of the phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines before barrel aging, and a discussion of the effects of these reactions on wine astringency, bitterness and color. The second section introduces barrel types that determine the oak barrel constituents in wines (primarily oak aldehydes and ellagitannins) and presents reactions between the oak constituents and grape-derived phenolic compounds that may modulate wine astringency, bitterness and color. The final section illustrates the chemical differences between basic oxidation and over-oxidation in wines, discusses oxygen consumption kinetics in wines during barrel aging by comparing different oxygen consumption kinetics observed previously by others, and speculates on the possible preliminary phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines during oak barrel aging that soften tannins and stabilize pigments via basic oxidation. Additionally, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) addition during barrel aging and suitability of adopting oak barrels for aging wines are briefly discussed.

  4. Alcohol, Tannins, and Mannoprotein and their Interactions Influence the Sensory Properties of Selected Commercial Merlot Wines: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diako, Charles; McMahon, Kenneth; Mattinson, Scott; Evans, Marc; Ross, Carolyn

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel. One wine from each group was evaluated using the electronic tongue (e-tongue). Sensory evaluation results showed complex effects among tannins, alcohol, and mannoproteins on the perception of most aromas, flavors, tastes, and mouthfeel attributes (P wines as indicated by a high discrimination index (DI = 95). Strong correlations (r(2) > 0.930) were reported between the e-tongue and sensory perception of sweet, sour, bitter, burning, astringent, and metallic. This study showed that interactions among wine matrix components influence the resulting sensory perceptions. The strong correlation between the e-tongue and trained panel evaluations indicated the e-tongue can complement sensory evaluations to improve wine quality assessment. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effectiveness of Fibers from “Cabernet Sauvignon” (Vitis vinifera Pomace as Fining Agents for Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have highlighted the potential of fibers from grape cell wall material to be fining agents for red wines as alternatives to animal-derived proteins. The affinity of those fibers for grape proanthocyanidins (also known as condensed tannins seems to depend on the initial phenolic composition of the wines to be fined and on the applied dose of fibers. In the present work, “Cabernet Sauvignon” grapes were harvested at three different maturity levels and used for making red wine. The pomaces of the three vinifications were used to obtain the cell wall fibers. Each wine was treated with the three purified fibers at two different doses (0.2 g/L and 2.5 g/L under winery-like conditions in order to check the potential of fibers as fining agents. Color and phenolic composition of the treated wines were determined immediately after the treatments and after four and nine months of wine bottle ageing. The effectiveness of the fining strongly depends on the initial wine matrix. Wines treated at high doses had lower color density and higher hue than control untreated wines. Small differences were observed in the phenolic content of the treated wines. Those differences were dose dependent and almost disappeared after several months of ageing. The maturity of the grapes from which the fibers came had no influence on the effectiveness of the fining. Additionally, there was no evidence of polysaccharide release from the fibers to the wine.

  6. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  7. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  8. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  9. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Botden, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in many economically developed countries as well as in emerging economies.1 It has become a global epidemic problem, with type 2 diabetes,...

  10. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  11. Alcohol, red wine and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, S D; Jones, P J

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the existing literature concerning the effects and mechanisms of action of red wine consumption vs. other alcoholic beverages on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of particular interest is the form and quantity of alcohol consumed. This relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is well supported by epidemiologic studies, which have suggested that different forms of alcohol alter the relative risk values for mortality from CVD. Although not without exception, current evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests a protective effect against the development of CVD with moderate consumption of red wine. The exact nature of the protective effect remains to be established. However, mechanisms including LDL oxidation and alterations in hemostatic variables are being increasingly recognized as contributory. Key components of red wine thought to be responsible for the protective effects include phenolic compounds and alcohol content. Despite the research presented, some questions relating to the current recommendations regarding moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health remain. However, collectively, the literature aids in understanding some of the ways in which alcoholic beverages and their components affect the health of our population.

  12. Production of ready to drink red and rosé wines from new seedless grapevine crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonacci Donato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins content in grapes is higher in seeds compared to berry skins. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are more astringent, however, they can combine with other monomer, with anthocyanins and with mannoproteins released by yeast and therefore lose their harsh features in wines. Proanthocyanidins extracted during fermentation and maceration processes in red wines, are important for the organoleptic characteristics of the product and for its aging. There is a difference between skins and seeds proanthocyanidins, with the latter being perceived as more harsh and astringent. One of the most important purposes of refinement and aging of red wines very rich in polyphenols is the slow loss of bitterness. Instead, for wines ready to drink seeds tannins can give bitter overtones, therefore reducing their quality since consumers generally prefer a reduced astringency and attenuated bitterness. This paper investigates the possibility of employ some new seedless grapes crossings of Vitis vinifera L., obtained in recent breeding programs carried out at the CREA-VE of Turi, for the production of improved red and rosé wines made with traditionally red winemaking.

  13. Maceration with stems contact fermentation: effect on proanthocyanidins compounds and color in Primitivo red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, Serafino; Alba, Vittorio; Tarricone, Luigi; Di Gennaro, Domenico

    2015-06-15

    Three Primitivo (Vitis vinifera, cv.) red wines were microvinified by means of different winemaking technologies: no stem-contact fermentation destemming 100% of grapes (D100); stem-contact fermentation destemming 75%, 50% of grapes (D75-D50) respectively. The objectives of this work were to improve proanthocyanidins content in wine, to monitor the relationships between anthocyanins/tannins and to detect the effects on the polymerization state of polyphenols after 12 months storage of wines. D100 showed higher anthocyanins content but lower color intensity and phenolic compounds content with respect to the theses D75 and D50, the last two showing lower anthocyanins content due their partial adsorption by grape stems during the fermentation. D75 gave the best results in terms of anthocyanins/color intensity balance and showed a better wine tannin component with respect to D50. Moreover after 12 months storage D50 reached a more advanced and stable polymerization state of colored pigments than the other wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  15. Impact of concentration of ellagitannins in oak wood on their levels and organoleptic influence in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Silva, Maria A; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-05-25

    Some wood substances such as ellagitannins can be extracted during wine aging in oak barrels. The level of these hydrolyzable tannins in wine depends of some parameters of oak wood. Their impact on the organoleptic perception of red wine is poorly known. In our research, oak staves were classified in three different groups according to their level of ellagitannins estimated by NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) online procedure (Oakscan). First, the ellagitannin level and composition were determine for each classified stave and an excellent correlation between the NIRS classification (low, medium and high potential level of ellagitannin) and the ellagitannin content estimated by HPLC-UV was found. Each different group of NIRS classified staves was then added to red wine during its aging in a stainless tank, and the extraction and evolution of the ellagitannins were monitored. A good correlation between the NIRS classification and the concentration of ellagitannins in red wine aging in contact with the classified staves was observed. The influence of levels of ellagitannins on the resulting wine perception was estimated by a trained judge's panel, and it reveals that the level of ellagitannins in wine has an impact on the roundness and amplitude of the red wine.

  16. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms.

  17. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms. PMID:18650973

  18. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  19. Properties of wine polymeric pigments formed from anthocyanin and tannins differing in size distribution and subunit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Kassara, Stella; Hayasaka, Yoji; Schulkin, Alex; Smith, Paul

    2014-11-26

    To explore the effect of tannin composition on pigment formation, model ferments of purified 3-O-monoglucoside anthocyanins (ACN) were conducted either alone or in the presence of two different tannins. Tannins were isolated from grape seeds (Sd) or skins (Sk) following exhaustive extraction in 70% v/v acetone. The Sd and Sk tannin fractions had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 25.6, respectively. The Sd fraction was highly galloylated, at 22%, but galloylation was Wine color and polymeric pigment were highest in the treatment containing ACN+Sd and similar in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments. The same trend between treatments was observed for total and polymeric nonbleachable pigments. Only minor changes in tannin subunit composition were found following ACN incorporation, but the size distribution of polymeric pigments determined by gel permeation chromatography decreased, in particular for the ACN+Sk treatment. Color incorporation in the higher molecular mass range was lower for ACN+Sk wines than for ACN+Sd wines. Compositional differences between the two tannin fractions may therefore limit the incorporation of ACNs in the colored form. The results suggest that in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments, the formation of lower molecular mass oligomeric pigments was favored. In polymeric pigments derived from ACNs, the presence of ethyl- and vinyl-linked ACNs to the level of trimers was identified using mass spectrometry.

  20. Anthocyanins influence tannin-cell wall interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2016-09-01

    The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Color stabilization of red wines. A chemical and colloidal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Puente, Victor; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2014-07-23

    The effects of cold treatment and time on CIELAB color parameters and on anthocyanin and anthocyanin-derived pigments composition have been evaluated as has been the effectiveness of either an enological tannin or a mannoprotein (M) on their stabilization. With respect to color, hue (hab) was increased in the wines treated with both enological products. Furthermore, the color changes induced by cold treatment were lessened by the addition of these two enological products, although the protective effect was higher for the wines treated with M. The pigment analysis revealed higher percentages of anthocyanin-derived pigments in tannin and M-treated samples (in both cold treated and not) in relation to control ones. The addition of the enological tannin may favor the synthesis of anthocyanin-derived pigments, which are chemically more stable than native anthocyanins, whereas M seems to stabilize anthocyanin-derived pigments from a colloidal point of view, avoiding their aggregation and further precipitation.

  2. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR BY OPTICAL RED WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana STOIAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study exhaustive wine area is a frequently researched topic since the beginning of 2000 when it comes to legislative bases for wine and wine products. Among the considerations that led to its choice of study include: Romania considerable resources in terms of agricultural area, and especially the wine (mention here the existence of eight wine regions, vineyards and a hundred thirty seven support and attention given to the legislative branch of Romanian wine (by law 244/2002-Legea vineyard and wine, and the European and not least history as a wine producing country with Spain, Italy and France. The paper aims to determine whether or not a situation determinant of marketing in red wine consumption by analyzing questionnaire responses developed.

  3. Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits. Red wine seems to have heart-healthy benefits. But it's ... may have some of the same heart-healthy benefits of red wine. Other foods that contain some resveratrol include peanuts, ...

  4. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  5. Effect of red wine consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Berg, R. van; Sierksma, A.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hendriks, N.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic consumption of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine with a similar antioxidant capacity on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and F2-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) in healthy men. Methods: Nineteen healthy men

  6. Singlet Oxygen Detection Using Red Wine Extracts as Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes, Irene; Vázquez-Ortega, Fernanda; Trigos, Ángel

    2017-09-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine provides beneficial effects to health. This is attributed to polyphenol compounds present in wine such as resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, rutin, and vanillic acid. The amount of these antioxidants is variable; nevertheless, the main beneficial effects of red wine are attributed to resveratrol. However, it has been found that resveratrol and quercetin are able to photosensitize singlet oxygen generation and conversely, gallic acid acts as quencher. Therefore, and since resveratrol and quercetin are some of the most important antioxidants reported in red wines, the aim of this research was to evaluate the photosensitizing ability of 12 red wine extracts through photo-oxidation of ergosterol. The presence of 1 O 2 was detected by ergosterol conversion into peroxide of ergosterol through 1 H NMR analysis. Our results showed that 10 wine extracts were able to act as photosensitizers in the generation of singlet oxygen. The presence of 1 O 2 can damage other compounds of red wine and cause possible organoleptic alterations. Finally, although the reaction conditions employed in this research do not resemble the inherent conditions in wine making processing or storing, or even during its consumption, this knowledge could be useful to prevent possible pro-oxidant effects and avoid detrimental effects in red wines. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  9. NMR and molecular modeling of wine tannins binding to saliva proteins: revisiting astringency from molecular and colloidal prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Olivier; Pinaud, Noël; Simon, Cécile; Fouquet, Eric; Laguerre, Michel; Dufourc, Erick J; Pianet, Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    In organoleptic science, the association of tannins to saliva proteins leads to the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. To decipher this interaction at molecular and colloidal levels, the binding of 4 procyanidin dimers (B1-4) and 1 trimer (C2) to a human saliva proline-rich peptide, IB7(14), was studied. Interactions have been characterized by measuring dissociation constants, sizes of complexes, number, and nature of binding sites using NMR (chemical shift variations, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, and saturation transfer diffusion). The binding sites were identified using molecular mechanics, and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the interactions was resolved by calculating the molecular lipophilicity potential within the complexes. The following comprehensive scheme can be proposed: 1) below the tannin critical micelle concentration (CMC), interaction is specific, and the procyanidin anchorage always occurs on the same three IB7(14) sites. The tannin 3-dimensional structure plays a key role in the binding force and in the tannin's ability to act as a bidentate ligand: tannins adopting an extended conformation exhibit higher affinity toward protein and initiate the formation of a network. 2) Above the CMC, after the first specific hydrophilic interaction has taken place, a random hydrophobic stacking occurs between tannins and proteins. The whole process is discussed in the general frame of wine tannins eliciting astringency.

  10. Effect of certain clarification treatments on some components of red wine composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José García

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have worked on wine clarification pointing out the advantages that it has to obtain limpid and bright wines as the consumer requires nowadays. In this work, we study the influence of the clarification done with different doses on the main polyphenols, organic acids and poliols of the Monastrell red wines made by the system of continuous vinification in the Monovar cooperative cellar from Denomination of Origin Alicante (Spain. After fermentation and after decanting, the wine was clarified in 100 litres tanks. Five different clarifiers have been used with three different doses in each one. Two days after the treatment, the wines were filtered on the earth and were then submitted to -5° for one week to eliminate the bitartrate. They were filtered over plates when the treatment was finished. Finally, before bottling they were subjected to a sterile filtration.The results show that the clarification lowers the coloring intensity up to 27 p. cent. The higher the dose, the higher the decrease. As for the shade, we noticed that there is a slight increase in each clarificated wine. The tannin content decreases up to 20 p. cent for high and average doses of casein. The treatments used lower the content in anthocyans from 5 p. cent (for lower doses of casein to 19 p. cent (for higher doses of bentonite. As for the acids, the tartaric acid decreases with the quantity of clarifiers, the malic acid hardly changes with the treatment, the same happens with the lactic acid. For the citric acid, there is a small decrease with the clarification. The contents of glycerol decrease in all the wines, whatever clarifier is used. The contents in 2,3- butanediol of the wines hardly change with the claritication.

  11. Oxygen contribution to phenolic evolution during aging of red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Picariello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Red wine aging is essentially an oxidative process mainly regulated by wine phenolic composition and storage conditions. Wines contain hydroquinones such as catechol derivatives that undergo redox reactions, reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. These reaction are catalized by metals. Iron(II) species present react with hydrogen peroxide to form hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction. These radicals can then react with alcohols to form aldehydes. Because ethanol is the predomina...

  12. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of bottle storage time on colour, phenolic composition and sensory properties of sweet red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ana; Serratosa, Maria P; Merida, Julieta

    2014-03-01

    Changes in colour and phenolic composition in sweet red wines made from Merlot, Syrah and Tempranillo grapes were studied in order to assess the influence of bottle storage over a period of 12months. For this purpose, wine colour parameters, sensory analysis and concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanins, methylmethine-mediated condensation adducts, flavan3-ol derivatives and flavonols were measured. Hue increased and red colours decreased with the storage time, particularly over the first 3months. The concentrations of low molecular weight flavan-3-ol derivatives decreased with time due to the effect of their conversion into tannins of high molecular weight. In addition, the glycosylated flavonols decreased through hydrolysis to give the corresponding aglycones. Overall, the concentration of phenolic compounds decreased markedly with storage time, whereas the antioxidant activity in the wines remained constant throughout. A panel of expert tasters judged the colour, aroma and flavour of all initial and final wines to be acceptable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of red wine from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red wine was produced from must formulated by mixing 10% (w/v) roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdriffa var. sabdariffa) Hot water extract with pawpaw juice at the rate of 3:1. The must was formulated using a pure strain of Sacchromyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine, propagated and pitched at a rate of 8% (v/v).

  15. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increase the solubility of protein-tannin complexes and at high concentration, glucose and sucrose interfere with bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Yuan, Chunlong; Mireles, Maria S; Hanlin, Rachel L; Downey, Mark O

    2013-05-01

    Wines were modified with increasing sugar concentrations and decreasing tannin concentrations and analysed by a combination of protein precipitation and bisulphite bleaching. Increasing sugar concentration decreased the precipitation of tannin and protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (PPP). The use of a hydrogen bond disruptor (urea) to reduce protein-tannin and protein-pigment complex formation showed that the effect of sugar concentration occurred by increasing the solubility of the tannin-protein complex, not by interfering with protein-tannin complex formation. By increasing the solubility of pigment-protein complexes, non-protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (nPPP) appeared to increase. There was also an increase in total polymeric pigments at each tannin concentration with increasing glucose and sucrose concentration, indicating that sugar concentration might also affect bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments. While a significant effect of sugar concentration on tannin-protein complex solubility was observed, these effects were greatest at sugar concentrations far in excess of normal wine making conditions. Under normal wine making conditions, sugar concentration will have a negligible effect on protein-precipitable tannin, PPP and nPPP concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal Concentrations of Red Wines in Southeast Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumitru BORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily consumption, wine contributes to the requirements of essential elements, such as Ca, Fe, Mn, Mo, Co, Cr, K, Ni, Se and Zn for humans. However, the presence of significant amount of heavy metal in wine may harm the health of consumers. The present work is aimed at establishing the heavy metal content in red wines from Dealu Bujorului vineyard using ICP-MS method for the determination of metals content. In this study 3 red wines obtained from ‘Băbească neagră’, ‘Negru Aromat’ and ‘Burgund Mare’ cultivars were investigated. The wine samples were obtained from micro-wine production under conditions of 2014, 2015, 2016 from Dealu Bujorului vineyard. The determination of 13 elements was performed with ICP-MS. The high level of Ca (64.81-62.49 mg/L, Mg (132.61-101.44 mg/L and Fe were observed in the wine samples analysed. Heavy metals like As, Cd, U, Hg and Pb was found below acceptable limits. Concentration of Na (1 mg/L, Cu (1 mg/L, As (0.2 mg/L, Cd (0.01 mg/L, Zn (5 mg/L and Pb (0.15 mg/L metals in analysed wine samples were under Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL, respectively as published by the Organization of Vine and Wine. Calcium and magnesium were the most abundant elements in all investigated wine samples. Concentration of Na (1 mg/L, Cu (1 mg/L, As (0.2 mg/L, Cd (0.01 mg/L, Zn (5 mg/L and Pb (0.15 mg/L in analysed wine samples were under Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL, respectively as published by the Organization of Vine and Wine.

  17. Impact of Red Wine Consumption on Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Luca; Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Dallegri, Franco; Carbone, Federico

    2017-05-17

    The devastating effects of heavy alcohol drinking have been long time recognized. In the last decades, potential benefits of modest red wine drinking were suggested. In European countries in which red wide intake is not negligible (such as France), the association between cholesterol and cardiovascular (CV) risk was less evident, suggesting the action of some protective molecules in red wine or other foods and drinks. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of a J-shaped relationship between red wine intake and CV risk further supported the "French paradox". Specific components of red wine both in vitro and in animal models were discovered. Polyphenols and especially resveratrol largely contribute to CV prevention mainly through antioxidant properties. They exert beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic diseases, thus reducing the risk of adverse CV events such as myocardial infarction ischemic stroke and heart failure. Of interest, recent studies pointed out the role of ethanol itself as a potential cardioprotective agent, but a clear epidemiological evidence is still missing. The aim of this narrative review is to update current knowledge on the intracellular mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effects of polyphenols and ethanol. Furthermore, we summarized the results of epidemiological studies, emphasizing their methodological criticisms and the need for randomized clinical trials able to clarify the potential role of red wine consumption in reducing CV risk. Caution in avowing underestimation of the global burden of alcohol-related diseases was particularly used. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Addition of wood chips in red wine during and after alcoholic fermentation: differences in color parameters, phenolic content and volatile composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyraleou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the time of wood chip addition on phenolic content, color parameters and volatile composition of a red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko was evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak and Acacia were added in the wine during and after fermentation. Various chemical parameters of wines were studied after one, two and three months of contact with chips. The results showed that the addition of oak chips during alcoholic fermentation did not favor ellagitannin extraction and the reactions involved in tannin condensation and anthocyanin stabilization. Moreover, wines fermented with wood chips contained higher contents of whiskey lactones, eugenol, ethyl vanillate and acetate esters while their ethyl ester content was lower compared with the wines where chip addition took place after fermentation. Practical Application: The outcomes of this study would be of practical interest to winemakers since they could improve the control over the wood extraction process. When chips are added after fermentation wines seem to have a greater ageing potential compared to the wines fermented with chips due to their higher ellagitannin content and enhanced condensation reactions. On the other hand, color stabilization and tannin polymerization occur faster when chips are added during fermentation resulting in shorter ageing periods suitable for early consumed wines.

  19. The kinetics of oxygen and SO2 consumption by red wines. What do they tell about oxidation mechanisms and about changes in wine composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascón, Vanesa; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Sommerer, Nicolas; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-02-15

    This work seeks to understand the kinetics of O 2 and SO 2 consumption of air-saturated red wine as a function of its chemical composition, and to describe the chemical changes suffered during the process in relation to the kinetics. Oxygen Consumption Rates (OCRs) are faster with higher copper and epigallocatechin contents and with higher absorbance at 620nm and slower with higher levels of gallic acid and catechin terminal units in tannins. Acetaldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs) may be key elements determining OCRs. It is confirmed that SO 2 is poorly consumed in the first saturation. Phenylalanine, methionine and maybe, cysteine, seem to be consumed instead. A low SO 2 consumption is favoured by low levels of SO 2 , by a low availability of free SO 2 caused by a high anthocyanin/tannin ratio, and by a polyphenolic profile poor in epigallocatechin and rich in catechin-rich tannins. Wines consuming SO 2 efficiently consume more epigallocatechin, prodelphinidins and procyanidins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the components of quality in SO2-free wines obtained by innovative vinification protocols. Evaluation of the pre-fermentative addition of lysozyme and oenological tannins.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonni, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The research performed during the PhD candidature was intended to evaluate the quality of white wines, as a function of the reduction in SO2 use during the first steps of the winemaking process. In order to investigate the mechanism and intensity of interactions occurring between lysozyme and the principal macro-components of musts and wines, a series of experiments on model wine solutions were undertaken, focusing attention on the polyphenols, SO2, oenological tannins, pectines, ethanol, ...

  1. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  2. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulia, Danae S.; Anagnos, Efstathios K.; Liapis, Konstantinos S.; Klimentzos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  3. Red wine and cardiovascular health the "French Paradox" revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lippi1, Massimo Franchini2, Gian Cesare Guidi31U.O. di Diagnostica Ematochimica, 2Servizio di Immunoematologia e Trasfusione, Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina di Laboratorio, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 3Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico-Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, ItalyAbstract: The healthful and nutritive properties of wine have been acknowledged for thousands of years, but the observation that moderate consumption of red wine on a regular basis may be preventative against coronary disease is recent. Dr Renaud, a scientist working at the Bordeaux University in France, suggested wine consumption explains the “French Paradox”, the low incidence of heart attacks in France regardless of a remarkable dietary intake of saturated fats and alcohol. After nearly 20 years of research, there is now mounting evidence that light to moderate wine intake is beneficial for the cardiovascular health, acting through a variety of mechanisms that target all the crucial steps of atherosclerosis, from early formation of the atherosclerotic plaque to its life-threatening complications (ulceration, thrombosis, vessel occlusion and infarction. These effects are attributable to the synergic properties of several biochemical components of wine (alcohol, resveratrol, and especially polyphenolic compounds, particularly the red varieties. This article reviews the leading clinical observations and the hypothesized biological mechanisms that strongly support the cardiovascular benefits of moderate red wine consumption on cardiovascular health and that would make red wine a promising therapeutic supplement to prevent and even perhaps treat coronary artery disease.Keywords: wine, cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, atherosclerosis

  4. Grape tannin catechin and ethanol fluidify oral membrane mimics containing moderate amounts of cholesterol: Implications on wine tasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Saad, Ahmad; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2016-11-01

    Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes. Both catechin and ethanol fluidify the membranes as evidenced by solid-state 2 H NMR of perdeuterated lipids. The effect is however depending on the cholesterol proportion and may be very important and cumulative in the absence of cholesterol or presence of 18 mol % cholesterol. For 40 mol % cholesterol, mimicking highly keratinized membranes, both ethanol and catechin can no longer affect membrane dynamics. These observations can be accounted for by phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures and the role played by membrane defects for insertion of tannins and ethanol when several phases coexist. These findings suggest that the behavior of oral membranes in contact with wine should be different depending of their cholesterol content. Astringency and bitterness could be then affected; the former because of a potential competition between the tannin-lipid and the tannin-saliva protein interaction, and the latter because of a possible fluidity modification of membranes containing taste receptors. The lipids that have been up to now weakly considered in oenology may be become a new actor in the issue of wine tasting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between wine scores and visible-near-infrared spectra of Australian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Cowey, G; Lattey, K A; Godden, P; Cynkar, W U; Dambergs, R G; Janik, L; Gishen, M

    2008-06-01

    Sensory analysis of wine involves the measurement, interpretation and understanding of human responses to the properties perceived by the senses such as sight, smell and taste. The sensory evaluation of wine is often carried out by wine judges, winemakers and technical staff, and allows characterization of the quality of the wine. However, this method is lengthy, expensive, and its results depend on panel training and the specific vocabulary used by the panel. A robust, rapid, unbiased and inexpensive method to assist in quality assessment purposes will therefore be beneficial for the modern wine industry. This study aims to investigate the relationship between sensory analysis, visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sensory properties of commercial Australian wine varieties. For the purposes of this study 118 red wine samples (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Nebbiolo and blends) graded by a panel of experienced tasters and scored according to the Australian wine show system were scanned in transmission in the VIS and NIR range (400-2,500 nm). Partial least squares regression models were developed between the overall score given by the judges and the combined VIS-NIR spectra, using full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The results showed that NIR spectroscopy was able to predict wine quality scores in red wine samples (R = 0.61 and standard error of prediction of 0.81). The practical implication of this study is that instrumental methods such as VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used to complement sensory analysis and can facilitate the task at early stages of product development, making high-throughput screening of novel products feasible or maintaining the consistency of the product.

  6. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Les tannins du vins et les lipides de la bouche et du bol alimentaire : vers une modification des marqueurs du goût. Une approche moléculaire et sensorielle.

    OpenAIRE

    Saad , Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Tannins are polyphenol polymers present in significant amounts in red wine responsible for astringency and bitterness. The former is a tactile perception involving dryness and roughness in the mouth due to the interaction between tannins and saliva proteins and the latter is a primary taste due to the interaction between tannins and taste receptors in taste buds. Tannins are now known to also interact with lipids. Although not present in wine, lipids are yet present during tasting in the oral...

  8. Red Wine Prevents the Acute Negative Vascular Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-08

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield.

  10. Major phenolic and volatile compounds and their influence on sensorial aspects in stem-contact fermentation winemaking of Primitivo red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, S; Alba, V; Di Gennaro, D; Basile, T; Tamborra, M; Tarricone, L

    2016-08-01

    In red winemaking de-stemming is crucial since the stems contain polymeric phenolic compounds responsible for the astringency of wine. Wine such as Primitivo has low phenolic constituents and tannins and stems affect aroma, taste body and olfactory characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of presence of stems during fermentation on polyphenolic, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of wine. Primitivo grapes vinified in presence of different percentage of stems: 100 % de-stemmed (D100), 75 % de-stemmed (D75) and 50 % de-stemmed (D50). Results confirmed that the wines vinified in presence of stems were higher in tannins, flavans, to vanillin and proanthocyanidins, colour intensity with lower anthocyanins. The presence of stems during fermentation conferred more structure and flavour to wines. They facilitated must aeration thus promoting synthesis of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast. In particular, a higher content of hexan-1-ol, hex-3-en-1-ol and 2-phenyl ethanol in D50 and D75 gave the wines that suggest green grass, herb and floral. Wine from D75 seemed to be better than D50 in terms of volatile compounds as well as fruity, floral and balsamic components preserved, without any unpleasant taste of long chain fatty acids found in D50.

  11. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE BESTSELLING SLOVAK RED WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Čéryová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Large group of antioxidants are polyphenols, which affect sensory properties of fruit, vegetable and some drinks, like colour (anthocyans, taste (flavonoids or odour (phenols. The significant source of polyphenolic compounds are wines. Polyphenols (in optimal amount and combination, found mainly in red wines, have very complex (positive effects on organism. The aim of this work was to determine chosen antioxidant properties of the best-selling quality red wines - Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent, originating from different Slovak vineyard areas. Total polyphenols content was determined with phenol Folin-Ciocalteau´s reagent and antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH stable free radical. Both parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines were within the interval 1579 – 2734 mg.L-1 (Blaufränkisch, respectively 1409 – 3276 mg.L-1 (St. Laurent. Antioxidant activity in wines was within the interval 80.2 – 86.4 % (Blaufränkisch, respectively 71.0 – 84.8 % (St. Laurent. The differences between results of measured antioxidant properties (total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the wines originating from some vineyard Slovak areas were statistically significant.

  12. A simple method to separate red wine nonpolymeric and polymeric phenols by solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Laurie, V Felipe; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2006-04-19

    Simple polyphenols and tannins differ in the way that they contribute to the organoleptic profile of wine and their effects on human health. Very few straightforward techniques to separate red wine nonpolymeric phenols from the polymeric fraction are available in the literature. In general, they are complex, time-consuming, and generate large amounts of waste. In this procedure, the separation of these compounds was achieved using C18 cartridges, three solvents with different elution strengths, and pH adjustments of the experimental matrices. Two full factorial 2(3) experimental designs were performed to find the optimal critical variables and their values, allowing for the maximization of tannin recovery and separation efficiency (SE). Nonpolymeric phenols such as phenolic acids, monomers, and oligomers of flavonol and flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were removed from the column by means of an aqueous solvent followed by ethyl acetate. The polymeric fraction was then eluted with a combination of methanol/acetone/water. The best results were attained with 1 mL of wine sample, a 10% methanol/water solution (first eluant), ethyl acetate (second eluant), and 66% acetone/water as the polymeric phenols-eluting solution (third eluant), obtaining a SE of ca. 90%. Trials with this method on fruit juices also showed high separation efficiency. Hence, this solid-phase extraction method has been shown to be a simple and efficient alternative for the separation of nonpolymeric phenolic fractions and the polymeric ones, and this method could have important applications to sample purification prior to biological testing due to the nonspecific binding of polymeric phenolics to nearly all enzymes and receptor sites.

  13. Evolution of phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its contribution to wine sensory properties and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoshan; Neves, Ana C; Fernandes, Tiago A; Fernandes, Ana L; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Vítor; Leandro, Conceição; Spranger, Maria I

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its relationship with some sensory properties (astringency and bitterness) and antioxidant activities. Thus, red wine was made by a classic vinification method with Castelão and Tinta Miúda grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) harvested at maturity (3:2; w/w). Samples were taken at 2 and 7 days of maceration, at second racking, at the time of bottling and at 6 and 14 months after bottling. The total polyphenols extract (TPx) in each sample was isolated by column chromatography. The phenolic composition (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins), in vitro antioxidant activity, and sensory property (astringency, bitterness) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages were evaluated through high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl radical test, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic index, MWI (polyphenol molecular weight index), TSA (tannin specific activity), and sensory panel tasting. The results showed that the phenolic composition of red wine varied significantly during winemaking. The intensity of astringency (IA) and the intensity bitterness (IB) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages increased from 2 days of maceration until second racking and then decreased. Furthermore, MWI and TSA are positively correlated with IA and IB. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages maintained unchanged after alcoholic fermentation, which was independent of the variation of phenolic composition and sensory properties.

  14. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Sforza, Stefano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ghidini, Cristiana; Caporaso, Nicola; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2005-05-01

    Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant biological effects of trans-resveratrol. Thus, understanding the rate of intestinal absorption and metabolization in vivo of trans-resveratrol is the prerequisite to evaluate its potential health impact. Bioavailability studies mainly in animals or in humans using the pure compound at very high doses were performed. In this work, trans-resveratrol bioavailability from a moderate consumption of red wine in 25 healthy humans has been studied by three different experiments. The wine ingestion was associated to three different dietary approaches: fasting, a standard meal, a meal with high and low amount of lipids. Trans-resveratrol 3- and 4'-glucuronides were synthesized, purified, and characterized as pure standards. Bioavailability data were obtained by measuring the concentration of free, 3-glucuronide and 4'-glucuronide trans-resveratrol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, in serum samples taken at different times after red wine administration. Free trans-resveratrol was found, in trace amounts, only in some serum samples collected 30 min after red wine ingestion while after longer times resveratrol glucuronides predominated. Trans-resveratrol bioavailability was shown to be independent from the meal or its lipid content. The finding in human serum of trans-resveratrol glucuronides, rather than the free form of the compound, with a high interindividual variability, raises some doubts about the health effects of dietary resveratrol consumption and suggests that the benefits associated to red wine consumption could be probably due to the whole antioxidant pool present in red wine.

  15. Predicting the Composition of Red Wine Blends Using an Array of Multicomponent Peptide-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ghanem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  16. Predicting the composition of red wine blends using an array of multicomponent Peptide-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Eman; Hopfer, Helene; Navarro, Andrea; Ritzer, Maxwell S; Mahmood, Lina; Fredell, Morgan; Cubley, Ashley; Bolen, Jessica; Fattah, Rabia; Teasdale, Katherine; Lieu, Linh; Chua, Tedmund; Marini, Federico; Heymann, Hildegarde; Anslyn, Eric V

    2015-05-20

    Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  17. Acceleration of ageing on lees in red wines by application of ultrasounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fresno, Juan Manuel del; Morata Barrado, Antonio Dionisio; Loira, Iris; Escott, Carlos; Cuerda, Rafael; Calderon Fernandez, Fernando; Suarez Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A transfer of parietal polysaccharides and mannoproteins is produced during aging on lees [1]. This transfer of compounds to wine is carried out after cell death. It comes to breakdown of polysaccharides from cell wall (yeast autolysis). This technique increases the density in wines [2] and gives more body and structure. Interactions between yeast polysaccharides and wine tannins will result in decrease of tannic perception (decrease of astringency). Increase of varietal characteristics is pr...

  18. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  19. A glass of red wine to keep vascular disease at bay, but what about pemphigus vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarola, Giacomo; Feliciani, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune blistering disease, involving the skin and mucous epithelia, which is characterized by flaccid blisters and erosions. It is caused by the presence of autoantibodies directed against desmoglein, a glycoprotein that plays a critical role in cell-cell attachment. Upon a predisposing genetic background, different agents have been shown to act as triggers for the pathogenesis of pemphigus. The most evident association is with drug intake, while the role of diet is often underestimated. The aim of this article is to review the possible role of tannins, a group of phenolic metabolites that are widely distributed in almost all plant foods and beverages, particularly red wine, as a trigger for pemphigus vulgaris.

  20. Saliva tannin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J F; Lucas, P W

    2000-11-01

    Many plant foods contain tannins, compounds that bind proteins, such as mammalian enzymes. Although described as tasteless, tannins can be detected orally by their astringency. However, the actual mechanism of oral detection and the effect of tannins on mastication and swallowing have been little investigated. Here, we show from in vitro tests that tannic acid, a common standard in tests used to detect tannins, significantly reduces the lubricating qualities of human saliva both by decreasing its viscosity and increasing friction, both factors lending support to the notion that astringency is a tactile phenomenon. From the literature, it is clear that this effect depends on the presence of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP). In a mammalian context, ingestion of tannin-rich foods in a species with salivary PRP will be signalled by interference with bolus formation during mastication while the increase in friction may also be detectable and lead to increased tooth wear if the signal is ignored. In a human context, cross-cultural preferences for tannin-rich beverages such as tea, coffee and red wine at the end of meals may be explained by reduction in adhesion of food particles to the oral mucosa allowing their rapid oral clearance.

  1. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sulfites help limit growth of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, SO2 has been reported to decrease cell size, thereby potentially decreasing the porosities of filtration membranes required for removal. B. bruxellensis strains B1b and F3 were inoculated into red wines and after 12 days, half th...

  2. Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Nadine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-06

    After isolation from red wine by means of ultrafiltration and gel adsorption chromatography, the composition of the highly astringent tasting high-molecular weight polymers was analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-UV/vis, and ion chromatography after thiolytic, alkaline, and acidic depolymerization and, on the basis of the quantitative data obtained as well as model incubation experiments, key structural features of the red wine polymers were proposed. The structural backbone of the polymers seems to be comprised of a procyanidin chain with (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate units as extension and terminal units as well as (-)-epigallocatechin as extension units. In addition, acetaldehyde was shown to link different procyanidins at the A-ring via an 1,1-ethylene bridge and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins were found to be linked to the procyanidin backbone via a C-C-linkage at position C(6) or C(8), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated the polymeric procyanidins to be esterified with various organic acids and phenolic acids, respectively. In addition, the major part of the polysaccharides present in the red wine polymeric fraction were found not to be covalently linked to procyanidins. Interestingly, sensory evaluation of individual fractions of the red wine polymers did not show any significant difference in the astringent threshold concentrations, nor in the astringency intensity in supra-threshold concentrations and demonstrated the mean degree of polymerization as well as the galloylation degree not to have an significant influence on the astringency perception.

  3. Putative Role of Red Wine Polyphenols against Brain Pathology in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Mario; Cauchi, Ruben; Vassallo, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms that appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD. Among the various lifestyle factors that may prevent or slow age-related neurodegenerative diseases, epidemiological studies on moderate consumption of red wine, especially as part of a holistic Mediterranean diet, have attracted increasing interest. Red wine is particularly rich in specific polyphenolic compounds that appear to affect the biological processes of AD and PD, such as quercetin, myricetin, catechins, tannins, anthocyanidins, resveratrol, and ferulic acid. Indeed, there is now a consistent body of in vitro and in vivo data on the neuroprotective effects of red wine polyphenols (RWP) showing that they do not merely possess antioxidant properties, but may additionally act upon, in a multi-target manner, the underlying key mechanisms featuring in both AD and PD. Furthermore, it is important that bioavailability issues are addressed in order for neuroprotection to be relevant in a clinical study scenario. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the major classes of RWP and places into perspective their potential to be considered as nutraceuticals to target neuropathology in AD and PD.

  4. Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Revilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain, Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA.

  5. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-02

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components.

  6. Volatile phenolics in Teran PTP red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile phenolics, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol were quantified in Teran PTP wines that were produced in the Kras winegrowing district. The compounds were determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry after extraction with diethylether. Three years monitoring (2011, 2012, 2013 vintages showed that all four undesirable compounds were identified in Teran PTP wines, however their content did not influence significantly the sensory characteristics of the wine. The average contents gained over the three-year period (2011-2013; n=82 were 153±193 µg L-1 for 4-ethylphenol, 1265±682 µg L-1 for 4-vinylphenol, 69±94 µg L-1 for 4-ethylguaiacol and 128±106 µg L-1 for 4-vinylguaiacol. 7.3 % of samples showed contents of 4-ethylphenol above the odour threshold values. For 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol that percentage was 98.8 %, 25.6 % and 91.5 %, respectively.

  7. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  8. Exogenous acetaldehyde as a tool for modulating wine color and astringency during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Marlena K; Elias, Ryan J

    2015-06-15

    Wine tannins undergo modifications during fermentation and storage that can decrease their perceived astringency and increase color stability. Acetaldehyde acts as a bridging compound to form modified tannins and polymeric pigments that are less likely to form tannin-protein complexes than unmodified tannins. Red wines are often treated with oxygen in order to yield acetaldehyde, however this approach can lead to unintended consequences due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present study employs exogenous acetaldehyde at relatively low and high treatment concentrations during fermentation to encourage tannin modification without promoting potentially deleterious oxidation reactions. The high acetaldehyde treatment significantly increased polymeric pigments in the wine without increasing concentrations of free and sulfite-bound acetaldehyde. Protein-tannin precipitation was also significantly decreased with the addition of exogenous acetaldehyde. These results indicate a possible treatment of wines early in their production to increase color stability and lower astringency of finished wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Rise of Red and the Wane of White: Wine Demand in Ontario Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Dyack, Brenda; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2001-01-01

    Health Information is found to be a significant determinant of demand for white and red table wine using a two stage translog demand system model of wine demand in Ontario, Canada over the period 1985 to 1998. However, aging of the population seems to be the greatest factor affecting the shift from white to red wine over the study period.

  10. Red wine is a poor source of bioavailable flavonols in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jeanne H M; Hollman, Peter C H; Van Amersfoort, Ingrid; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Red wine is a source of polyphenolic antioxidants, of which flavonols such as quercetin are representatives. Red wine might therefore prevent LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. However, data on the bioavailability of flavonols from wine are lacking. Therefore, we compared the bioavailability of

  11. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on polysaccharide and tannin content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Smith, Paul A; Hranilovic, Ana; Bindon, Keren A; Jeffery, David W

    2018-04-01

    A changing climate has led to winegrapes being harvested with increased sugar levels and at greater risk of berry shrivel. A suggested easy-to-adopt strategy to manage the associated rising wine alcohol levels is the pre-fermentative substitution of juice with either "green harvest wine" or water. Our study investigates the effects of this approach on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality attributes. Wines were also made from fruit collected at consecutive earlier harvest time points to produce wines comparable in alcohol to the substituted wines. Tannin concentrations and colour did not change significantly in the wines with modified alcohol content even at higher juice substitution rates. Differences in polysaccharide and tannin composition indicated variability in extraction dynamics according to substitution rate and type of blending component. In scenarios where berry shrivel is inevitable, the incorporation of water in particular offers much promise as part of a strategy to manage wine alcohol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Vişan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structure was analyzed by their concentration in condensed tannins, astringent tannins and tannin-polysaccharide complex. Analyzes have been carried out in the wine by UV-VIS spectrometry techniques. Total content of polyphenols have been determined by spectrophotometric technique (DO280. Tannins have been determined by the Ribereau-Gayon method (1996, tannin structure after Glories method (1978; anthocyanins were determined by the discoloration technique with SO2. The study on color of red wines analyzed during their evolution referred to the study of chromatic parameters, the content of anthocyanin monomers and polymers (Glories method. Our results showed a decrease of the percent of anthocyanin monomers accompanied by an increase the percent of polymers, in both wines, during their maturation.

  13. LACTIC ACID AND ACETIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was the identification of red wine microbiota during the fermentation process using a classical microbiological method and real-time PCR. The changes in different groups of microorganisms were monitored in total counts of bacteria, Lactobacillus cells and Acetobacter cells. Microbiological parameters were observed during the current collection and processing of wine in 2012. Samples were taken during the fermentation process in wine enterprises and were storaged with different conditions. During this period were examined 4 bottles of wine berween Cabernet Sauvignon and Frankovka modra. The total counts of bacteria ranged from 4.98±0.08 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 5.63±0.13 log CFU.ml-1 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The number of lactobacilli ranged from 2.18±0.10 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C to 2.49±0.04 log CFU.ml-1 in the Frankovka modra wine at 25 °C of storage and the number of Acetobacter cells ranged from 4.21±0.04 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 4.52±0.15 log CFU.ml-1 in Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The presence and sensitivity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter orleaniensis were detected using Real time PCR.

  14. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Girón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33. It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1 UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis; and (2 UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis. Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

  15. Antioxidant activity of commercial food grade tannins exemplified in a wine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Arianna; Olejar, Kenneth J; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Mattioli, Alessia U; Teslić, Nemanja; Kilmartin, Paul A; Versari, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Although commercial tannins are widely used in foods and beverages, an improved understanding of the structure and composition of vegetable tannins is needed to promote the exploitation of agri-food by-products and waste and their valorisation in more sustainable industrial applications. This study aims to characterise the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of 13 food grade tannins using multiple analytical approaches, including spectrophotometry and HPLC-ECD to determine the amount of targeted polyphenolic compounds. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of tannins was assessed in terms of radical scavenging activity (DPPH• assay), reducing power (FRAP assay), and redox properties (cyclic voltammetry, CV). A statistical univariate and multivariate correlation analysis was performed on 17 parameters including tannin content (range: 0.71-1.62 mM), gallic acid, (+)-catechin, syringic acid and (‒)-epicatechin. The compositional profile of tannins was related to their chemical moiety, antioxidant activity and the botanical origin of the extracts. In particular, the CV signal at 500 mV was highly correlated with DPPH• value due to the catechol ring of flavonoids and trigalloyl moieties of gallic acid-based compounds. Practical examples of tannins application in winemaking are discussed.

  16. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Lu?s; Milheiro, Juliana; Matos, Carlos C.; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M.

    2017-01-01

    Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume (“Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality” Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (...

  17. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma C max of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  18. Exergy analysis of wine production: Red wine production process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, Mahmut; Genc, Seda; Goksungur, Yekta

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Red wine production process was studied thermodynamically by exergy analysis method. • The first study on exergetic analysis of a red wine production process. • Energetic and exergetic efficiencies are calculated as 57.2 and 41.8%, respectively. • Cumulative exergy loss is computed as 2692.51 kW for 1 kg/s grape. • Specific exergy loss is found as 5080.20 kW/kg wine. - Abstract: This paper performs exergy analysis of a red wine production line and defines the exergy destruction rates to assess the system performance in terms of sustainability. A model study with necessary data is chosen for the calculations. The total exergy destruction rate of the overall system was determined to be 344.08 kW while the greatest destruction rate of the exergy in the whole system occurred in the open fermenter (333.6 kW). The system thermal efficiency was obtained to be 57.2% while the exergy efficiency was calculated as 41.8%. The total exergy destruction rate of the overall system increases with the increase both in the grape flow rate and the reference temperature when the reference pressure is assumed as 101.325 kPa. Furthermore, the chemical exergy of streams was found much higher than the physical exergy for each stream. The exergy results were illustrated through the Grassmann diagram. Furthermore, cumulative exergy loss and specific exergy loss values were determined as 2692.51 kW/1 kg/s grape processed and 5080.20 kW/kg wine, respectively.

  19. Descriptor Fingerprints and Their Application to Red Wine Clustering and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangov, I. P.; Moskovkina, M.; Stojanov, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The investigation was performed to test the potentials of the fingerprint clustering algorithm for a set of 1599 red wines in relation to some wine properties, comprised in the notion "wine quality". We have obtained a distribution of the wines into different clusters as a result. Each cluster was composed of wine-objects with similar values of laboratory parameters and with a wine quality certificate. A correlation between the. quality of wines (a sensory taste factor) and the phisicochemical descriptors (laboratory analytical test results data) was observed and analyzed.

  20. Descriptor Fingerprints and Their Application to Red Wine Clustering and Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangov I.P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was performed to test the potentials of the fingerprint clustering algorithm for a set of 1599 red wines in relation to some wine properties, comprised in the notion “wine quality”. We have obtained a distribution of the wines into different clusters as a result. Each cluster was composed of wine-objects with similar values of laboratory parameters and with a wine quality certificate. A correlation between the. quality of wines (a sensory taste factor and the phisicochemical descriptors (laboratory analytical test results data was observed and analyzed.

  1. Red wine contains a potent inhibitor of phenolsulphotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, J T; Glover, V; Sandler, M

    1985-01-01

    Many ethanolic drinks, especially red wine, contain potent inhibitors of phenolsulphotransferase. At a dilution of 1/75 from the original beverage, extracts from six types of red wine inhibited human platelet phenolsulphotransferase P by a mean of 99% and human platelet phenolsulphotransferase M by 12%. Such extracts had no significant effect on rat liver monoamine oxidase A or human platelet monoamine oxidase B. The inhibitors, which have not yet been identified, can be extracted into ethyl acetate at acid or neutral pH. Thus, they are not monoamines. Flavonoid phenols are plausible candidates. As phenolsulphotransferase M and P are involved in the metabolism of many phenols, including drugs, the inhibition of these enzymes could result in the enhancement of pharmacological potency and have important clinical consequences. PMID:3857069

  2. Influence of red wine fermentation oenological additives on inoculated strain implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Filomena L; Alves, Ana Claudia; Alemão, Maria Filomena; Baleiras-Couto, M Margarida

    2013-06-01

    Pure selected cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae starters are regularly used in the wine industry. A survey of S. cerevisiae populations during red wine fermentations was performed in order to evaluate the influence of oenological additives on the implantation of the inoculated strain. Pilot scale fermentations (500 L) were conducted with active dry yeast (ADY) and other commercial oenological additives, namely two commercial fermentation activators and two commercial tannins. Six microsatellite markers were used to type S. cerevisiae strains. The methodology proved to be very discriminating as a great diversity of wild strains (48 genotypes) was detected. Statistical analysis confirmed a high detection of the inoculated commercial strain, and for half the samples an effective implantation of ADY (over 80 %) was achieved. At late fermentation time, ADY strain implantation in fermentations conducted with commercial additives was lower than in the control. These results question the efficacy of ADY addition in the presence of other additives, indicating that further studies are needed to improve knowledge on oenological additives' use.

  3. Quantitative reconstruction of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-10-08

    The first comprehensive quantitative determination of 82 putative taste-active metabolites and mineral salts, the ranking of these compounds in their sensory impact based on dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by the confirmation of their sensory relevance by taste reconstruction and omission experiments enabled the decoding of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine. For the first time, the bitterness of the red wine could be demonstrated to be induced by subthreshold concentrations of phenolic acid ethyl esters and flavan-3-ols. Whereas the velvety astringent onset was imparted by three flavon-3-ol glucosides and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides, the puckering astringent offset was caused by a polymeric fraction exhibiting molecular masses above >5 kDa and was found to be amplified by the organic acids. The perceived sourness was imparted by l-tartaric acid, d-galacturonic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, l-malic acid, and l-lactic acid and was slightly suppressed by the chlorides of potassium, magnesium, and ammonium, respectively. In addition, d-fructose and glycerol as well as subthreshold concentrations of glucose, 1,2-propandiol, and myo-inositol were found to be responsible for the sweetness, whereas the mouthfulness and body of the red wine were induced only by glycerol, 1,2-propandiol, and myo-inositol.

  4. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  5. Segmenting wine markets with diverse price functions: Evidence from California red and white wines sold in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Carew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous hedonic price studies on wine market segments, exploring diverse price functions, are constrained by pre-determined price breakpoints, the total number of segments, or both. Using British Columbia Liquor Distribution Branch (BCLDB retail price data of California red and white wines, this study adopts an endogenous approach to explore the total number of market segments and identify breakpoints in price dispersion simultaneously. Results show that red and white California wines are grouped into two (breaking at Can$14 per bottle and three (breaking at Can$16 and $30 per bottle price segments, respectively. Also, implicit prices of wine attributes such as grape variety and geographic origin differ for red and white wines across market segments.

  6. Effect of five enological practices and of the general phenolic composition on fermentation-related aroma compounds in Mencia young red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añón, Ana; López, Jorge F; Hernando, Diego; Orriols, Ignacio; Revilla, Eugenio; Losada, Manuel M

    2014-04-01

    The effects of five technological procedures and of the contents of total anthocyanins and condensed tannins on 19 fermentation-related aroma compounds of young red Mencia wines were studied. Multifactor ANOVA revealed that levels of those volatiles changed significantly over the length of storage in bottles and, to a lesser extent, due to other technological factors considered; total anthocyanins and condensed tannins also changed significantly as a result of the five practices assayed. Five aroma compounds possessed an odour activity value >1 in all wines, and another four in some wines. Linear correlation among volatile compounds and general phenolic composition revealed that total anthocyanins were highly related to 14 different aroma compounds. Multifactor ANOVA, considering the content of total anthocyanins as a sixth random factor, revealed that this parameter affected significantly the contents of ethyl lactate, ethyl isovalerate, 1-pentanol and ethyl octanoate. Thus, the aroma of young red Mencia wines may be affected by levels of total anthocyanins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drying/encapsulation of red wine to produce ingredients for healthy foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmari Jasel Alvarez Gaona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of coronary disease, atherosclerosis, and platelet aggregation. Wine is very rich in antioxidant compounds because of their phenolic components. However, many people for ethnic, social or religious reasons do not consume wine. Drying/encapsulation of red wine in the presence of adequate carbohydrates leads to water and more than 99% of alcohol removal; a glassy amorphous microstructure is obtained in which the wine’s phenolic compounds are entrapped. The resulting product is a free flowing powder which could be used for the polyphenol enrichment of healthy foods and/or drink powders, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The wine industry may take advantage of the dried/encapsulated red wine using as a raw material red wines which have little commercial value for different reasons; i.e. poor quality due to raw material, unfavourable climatic conditions, or wines that suffered some alteration during the wine making process. Dry encapsulated wine may be a new alternative to red wines that cannot be sold as such for different reasons, and open new opportunities to diversify wine products.

  8. Isolation of condensed tannins in individual size from grape seeds and their impact on astringency perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. The influence of DP size of condensed tannins on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the no...

  9. Putative role of red wine polyphenols against brain pathology in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caruana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms which appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD. Among the various lifestyle factors that may prevent or slow age-related neurodegenerative diseases, epidemiological studies on moderate consumption of red wine, especially as part of a holistic Mediterranean diet, have attracted increasing interest. Red wine is particularly rich in specific polyphenolic compounds which appear to affect the biological processes of AD and PD, such as quercetin, myricetin, catechins, tannins, anthocyanidins, resveratrol and ferulic acid. Indeed, there is now a consistent body of in vitro and in vivo data on the neuroprotective effects of red wine polyphenols showing that they do not merely possess anti-oxidant properties, but may additionally act upon, in a multi-target manner, the underlying key mechanisms featuring in both AD and PD. Further, it is important that bioavailability issues are addressed in order for neuroprotection to be relevant in a clinical study scenario. This review summarises the current knowledge about the major classes of red wine polyphenols and places into perspective their potential to be considered as nutraceuticals to target neuropathology in AD and PD.

  10. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  11. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  12. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  13. 2-Methylbutyl acetate in wines: Enantiomeric distribution and sensory impact on red wine fruity aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-15

    Enantiomers of 2-methylbutyl acetate were assayed in red and white commercial wines from various vintages and origins, using chiral gas chromatography (γ-cyclodextrin), revealing the exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. Results also confirmed that (S)-2-methylbutyl acetate levels were generally higher in red than white wines of the same age, and that acetate levels increased gradually during ageing. Olfactory threshold of (S)-2-methylbutyl acetate was evaluated at 313µg/L in dilute alcohol solution (12% v/v) and 1083µg/L in a fruity aromatic reconstitution, reflecting its presence in wines at subthreshold concentrations. At concentrations considerably lower than its olfactory threshold, 2-methylbutyl acetate was associated with blackberry-fruit and banana notes. It was also revealed that, even at subthreshold concentrations, this compound had a modification on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied. Sensory profiles highlighted, for the first time, its specific contribution to black-, fresh-, and jammy-fruit notes, despite its subthreshold concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wine tasting based on emotional responses: An expedite approach to distinguish between warm and cool climate dry red wine styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Amaury; Sousa, Paulo; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we improved an empirical tasting sheet including emotional responses and common sensory attributes. An Optimized Descriptive Profile (ODP) was run to characterize different red wines according to sensory descriptors used in the improved sheet. A total of 5 wines were evaluated by a Consumer Panel (CP) of 103 subjects (36 females, 67 males) using the improved sheet and a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) list of 25 emotions. In the ODP, the panel identified the main discriminating sensory attributes as "Complexity", "Astringency" and "Duration of the wine fragrance". However, this analysis did not allow for differentiating very distinct dry red wine styles originating from warmer or cooler regions. On the contrary, Principal Component Analysis of emotional attributes demonstrated that these two wine styles could be easily distinguished. In particular, wine with a red-brick color, complex smell and aggressive mouthfeel consistent with those from cooler regions was less liked by the CP than a warm climate gold-awarded wine. Although receiving lower scores considering its color and smell, the former wine was regarded as the most "surprising" in the CATA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resveratrol, phenolic antioxidants, and saccharides in South American red wines

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    Osorio-Macías DE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Osorio-Macías,1,2 Pamela Vásquez,3 Cristhian Carrasco,3 Bjorn Bergenstahl,1 J Mauricio Peñarrieta2 1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Natural Sciences, 3Institute of Research and Development of Chemical Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA, La Paz, Bolivia Abstract: Wine is an important beverage with a long tradition, and its moderate consumption may be considered beneficial for human health. Although there are many studies regarding phenolic compounds in wines, there is a lack of information about antioxidants and phenolic content in South American wines. In this study, 35 South American red wines from four different countries, vintages 2004–2013, purchased at retail stores in La Paz, Bolivia, were studied. Resveratrol content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods, total phenolic content (TPH, total flavonoids (TF, and main saccharides were assessed using the well-established spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The results ranged from 4 to 24 mmol/L for TAC determined by ABTS method and 14 to 43 mmol/L for TAC determined by FRAP method, 1600 to 3500 mg gallic acid equivalents/L for TPH, and 2 to 6 mmol catechin equivalents /L for TF. The resveratrol content ranged from 0.1 to 8 mg/L. Saccharides, glucose, and fructose content ranged from 0.4 to 10 g/L, 1.4 to 8.6 g/L, and 0.2 to 12 g/L, respectively. There was a high correlation among the different methods. The results showed that some wines growing at high altitude (>1500 meters above the sea level have higher amounts of TAC and phenolic content, including resveratrol, while non-varietal wines showed the lowest values. It was also observed that the saccharose

  16. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

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    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  17. Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging: I. Analysis of remnant polyphenolic compounds in the resulting wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2005-07-13

    Wine aging on yeast lees is a traditional enological practice used during the manufacture of wines. This technique has increased in popularity in recent years for the aging of red wines. Although wine polyphenols interact with yeast lees to a limited extent, such interactions have a large effect on the reactivity toward oxygen of wine polyphenolic compounds and yeast lees. Various domains of the yeast cell wall are protected by wine polyphenols from the action of extracellular hydrolytic enzymatic activities. Polysaccharides released during autolysis are thought to exert a significant effect on the sensory qualities of wine. We studied the chemical composition of polyphenolic compounds remaining in solution or adsorbed on yeast lees after various contact times during the simulation of wine aging. The analysis of the remnant polyphenols in the wine indicated that wine polyphenols adsorption on yeast lees follows biphasic kinetics. An initial and rapid fixation is followed by a slow, constant, and saturating fixation that reaches its maximum after about 1 week. Only very few monomeric phenolic compounds remained adsorbed on yeast lees, and no preferential adsorption of low or high polymeric size tannins occurred. The remnant condensed tannins in the wine contained fewer epigallocatechin units than the initial tannins, indicating that polar condensed tannins were preferentially adsorbed on yeast lees. Conversely, the efficiency of anthocyanin adsorption on yeast lees was unrelated to its polarity.

  18. Red Wine Polyphenols Do Not Lower Peripheral or Central Blood Pressure in High Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Ilse P. G.; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E.; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Zock, Peter L.; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data suggest that modest red wine consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine polyphenols improved human endothelial vascular function and reduced blood pressure (BP) in animal studies, but the results of human intervention studies investigating the effect

  19. Lowering the alcohol content of red wine does not alter its cardioprotective properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Kim; Blackhurst, Dee; Albertyn, Zulfah; Marais, David; Lecour, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies suggest that chronic and moderate consumption of red wine benefits cardiovascular health, because of the alcoholic content or the polyphenols/flavonoids. Aims. The antioxidant and cardioprotective properties of a French red wine (cabernet sauvignon, 12% alcohol by volume) were compared with those of the same wine subjected to reverse osmosis for partial removal of alcohol (6% alcohol by volume). METHODS: Antioxidant capacity wa...

  20. Release of (14C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ( 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action

  1. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  2. Application of insoluble fibers in the fining of wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; Smith, Paul; Bindon, Keren A

    2013-05-08

    The application of animal-derived proteins as wine fining agents has been subject to increased regulation in recent years. As an alternative to protein-based fining agents, insoluble plant-derived fibers have the capacity to adsorb red wine tannins. Changes in red wine tannin were analyzed following application of fibers derived from apple and grape and protein-based fining agents. Other changes in wine composition, namely, color, monomeric phenolics, metals, and turbidity, were also determined. Wine tannin was maximally reduced by application of an apple pomace fiber and a grape pomace fiber (G4), removing 42 and 38%, respectively. Potassium caseinate maximally removed 19% of wine tannin, although applied at a lower dose. Fibers reduced anthocyanins, total phenolics, and wine color density, but changes in wine hue were minor. Proteins and apple fiber selectively removed high molecular mass phenolics, whereas grape fibers removed those of both high and low molecular mass. The results show that insoluble fibers may be considered as alternative fining agents for red wines.

  3. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds and headspace aroma compounds after treatment of red wines with chitosans with different structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe-Ribeiro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds and headspace aroma abundance of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with a commercial crustacean chitin (CHTN, two commercial crustacean chitosans (CHTB, CHTD, one fungal chitosan (CHTF, one additional chitin (CHTNA and one additional chitosan (CHTC produced by alkaline deacetylation of CHTN and CHTB, respectively. Chitin and chitosans presented different structural features, namely deacetylation degree (DD, average molecular weight (MW, sugar and mineral composition (“Reducing the negative sensory impact of volatile phenols in red wine with different chitosan: effect of structure on efficiency” (Filipe-Ribeiro et al., 2018 [1]. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in headspace aroma abundance of red wines with the chitosans structural features at 10 g/h L application dose. Keywords: Red wine, 4-Ethylphenol, 4-Ethylguaiacol, Chitosan, Chitin, Chromatic characteristics, Phenolic compounds, Headspace aroma abundance

  4. Effect of Red Wine Consumption on Serum Oxidation and Adiponectin Levels in Overweight and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadeniz Muammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well-known independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome. It has been shown that moderate red wine consumption might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether red wine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect in overweight subjects.

  5. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-Hui; Martín, Juan Francisco García; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radicals. Spin adducts of hydroxyl free radicals were detected in DMPO aqueous solution after sonication while 1-hydroxylethyl free radical adducts were observed in ultrasound-processed red wine and model wine. The latter radical arose from ethanol oxidation via the hydroxyl radical generated by ultrasound in water, thus providing the first direct evidence of the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl free radical in red wine exposed to ultrasound. Finally, the effects of ultrasound frequency, ultrasound power, temperature and ultrasound exposure time were assessed on the intensity of 1-hydroxylethyl radical spin adducts in model wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Affinity and selectivity of plant proteins for red wine components relevant to color and aroma traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Tiziana Mariarita; Ferranti, Pasquale; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco

    2018-08-01

    The effects of fining with various plant proteins were assessed on Aglianico red wine, using both the young wine and wine aged for twelve and twenty-four months, and including wine unfined or fined with gelatin as controls. Color traits and fining efficiency were considered, along with the content of various types of phenolics and of aroma-related compounds of either varietal or fermentative origin. All agents had comparable fining efficiency, although with distinct kinetics, and had similar effects on wine color. Individual plant proteins and enzymatic hydrolyzates differed in their ability to interact with some anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins complexes, and with some aroma components of fermentative origin. Changes in varietal aroma components upon fining were very limited or absent. Effects of all the fining agents tested in this study on the anthocyanidin components were most noticeable in young red wine, and decreased markedly with increasing wine ageing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braga de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives. Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical methodology. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic content of wine samples presented concentrations varying between 1582.35 and 2896.08 mg gallic acid.L-1 since the major part corresponds to flavonoid content. In these compounds' concentration range, a direct relationship between phenolic compounds content and levels of antioxidant activity was not observed. Among the identified phenolic compounds, chlorogenic, caffeic, and syringic acids were found to be the major components. Using three principal components, it was possible to explain 81.36% of total variance of the studied samples. Principal Components Analysis does not differentiate between vintages.

  9. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe-Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume (“Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality” Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017 [1]. Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  10. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Milheiro, Juliana; Matos, Carlos C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2017-06-01

    Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume ("Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality" Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017) [1]). Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  11. Simultaneous determination of 20 components in red wine by LC-MS: application to variations of red wine components in decanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Lulu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-11-01

    The decanting of red wines has a long tradition in red wine service from the perspective of modifying the aroma or taste of a wine. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 organic acids and polyphenols in decanting red wine. The separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1% acetic acid under gradient elution. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization interface. All the linear regressions showed good linear relationships (r(2) > 0.9973) between the peak area and concentration of each marker. The assay was reproducible with overall intra and interday variation of less than 5.0%. The recoveries for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 92.1-108.3% with RSD values less than 5.7%. The method developed was successfully applied to determine the variations of the 20 components in red wine after decanting in different conditions. Concentrations of most organic acids and polyphenols investigated in the red wine were decreased in decanting. In addition, increment of duration, temperature, and light intensity would intensify the changes. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quing An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-Hui; García-Martín, Juan Francisco; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radic...

  13. Vasodilator effects of red wines in subcutaneous small resistance artery of patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Platto, Caterina; Pilu, Annamaria; Miclini, Marco; Agabiti Rosei, Claudia; Bulgari, Giuseppe; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that in animal models, red wine may have a protective effect on the vascular endothelium. However, it is not known whether this effect is also present in human small vessels and whether it is specific for certain wines. The objective of this study is to compare the vasodilator effects in subcutaneous small resistance arteries of wines with different flavonoid content as well as of ethanol vs. wines in normotensive (NT) subjects and in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Twenty-six EH and 27 NT were included in the study. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a micromyograph. Then we evaluated vasodilator responses as concentration-response curves (20, 30, and 50 microl) to the following items: (i) a red wine produced in small oak barrels ("en barrique": EB) (Barolo Oberto 1994), (ii) a red wine produced in large wood barrels (LB) (Barolo Scarzello 1989), (iii) a red wine produced in steel tanks (Albarello Rosso del Salento 1997), and (iv) a white wine produced in steel tanks in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NMMA 100 micromol/l). A dose-dependent vasodilator effect of red wines (particularly EB and LB) was detected in both NT and HT. The observed response was not reduced after preincubation with L-NMMA. Our results suggest red wines are more potent vasodilator than ethanol alone, possibly depending on the content of polyphenols or tannic acid. HT show similar responses compared with NT, indicating that red wine is not harmful in this population.

  14. Use of Winemaking Supplements To Modify the Composition and Sensory Properties of Shiraz Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijing; Bindon, Keren; Bastian, Susan E P; Jiranek, Vladimir; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2017-02-22

    Wine quality can be significantly affected by tannin and polysaccharide composition, which can in turn be influenced by grape maturity and winemaking practices. This study explored the impact of three commercial wine additives, a maceration enzyme, an enotannin, and a mannoprotein, on the composition and sensory properties of red wine, in particular, in mimicking the mouthfeel associated with wines made from riper grapes. Shiraz grapes were harvested at 24 and 28 °Brix and the former vinified with commercial additives introduced either individually or in combination. Compositional analyses of finished wines included tannin and polysaccharide concentration, composition and size distribution by high-performance liquid chromatography, whereas the sensory profiles of wines were assessed by descriptive analysis. As expected, wines made from riper grapes were naturally higher in tannin and mannoprotein than wines made from grapes harvested earlier. Enzyme addition resulted in a significantly higher concentration and average molecular mass of wine tannin, which increased wine astringency. Conversely, mannoprotein addition reduced tannin concentration and astringency. Addition of enotannin did not meaningfully influence wine composition or sensory properties.

  15. Putative Role of Red Wine Polyphenols against Brain Pathology in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Mario; Cauchi, Ruben; Vassallo, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms that appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD. Among the various lifestyle factors that may prevent or slow age-related neurodegenerative diseases, epidemiological studies on moderate consumption of red wine, especially as part of a holistic Mediterranean diet, have attracted increasing interest. Red wine is particularly rich in specific polyphenolic compounds that appear to affect the biological processes of AD and PD, such as quercetin, myricetin, catechins, tannins, anthocyanidins, resveratrol, and ferulic acid. Indeed, there is now a consistent body of in vitro and in vivo data on the neuroprotective effects of red wine polyphenols (RWP) showing that they do not merely possess antioxidant properties, but may additionally act upon, in a multi-target manner, the underlying key mechanisms featuring in both AD and PD. Furthermore, it is important that bioavailability issues are addressed in order for neuroprotection to be relevant in a clinical study scenario. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the major classes of RWP and places into perspective their potential to be considered as nutraceuticals to target neuropathology in AD and PD. PMID:27570766

  16. Red wine consumption improves in vitro migration of endothelial progenitor cells in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Alshiek, Jonia; Aharon, Anat; Brenner, Benjamin; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the maintenance of vascular endothelial function. The moderate consumption of red wine provides cardiovascular protection. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of EPC migration in young, healthy individuals who drank red wine. Fourteen healthy volunteers consumed 250 mL red wine daily for 21 consecutive days. Vascular endothelial function, plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF1alpha) concentrations, and the number, migration, and nitric oxide production of EPCs were determined before and after the daily consumption of red wine. EPCs were glucose stressed to study the effect of red wine on EPC migration, proliferation, and senescence and to study the expressions of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and members of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling pathway by Western blotting. Daily red wine consumption for 21 consecutive days significantly enhanced vascular endothelial function. Although plasma SDF1alpha concentrations were unchanged, EPC count and migration were significantly increased after this 21-d consumption period. Red wine increased the migration, proliferation, CXCR4 expression, and activity of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and decreased the extent of apoptosis in glucose-stressed EPCs. The results of the present study indicate that red wine exerts its effect through the up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and activation of the SDF1alpha/CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which results in increased EPC migration and proliferation and decreased extent of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that these effects could be linked to the mechanism of cardiovascular protection that is associated with the regular consumption of red wine.

  17. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  18. Sensorial properties of red wine polyphenols: Astringency and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Polyphenols have been the subject of numerous research over the past years, being referred as the nutraceuticals of modern life. The healthy properties of these compounds have been associated to a natural chemoprevention of 21st century major diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). This association led to an increased consumption of foodstuffs rich in these compounds such as red wine. Related to the ingestion of polyphenols are the herein revised sensorial properties (astringency and bitterness) which are not still pleasant. This review intends to be an outline both at a sensory as a molecular level of the mechanisms underlying astringency and bitterness of polyphenols. Up-to-date knowledge of this matter is discussed in detail.

  19. New method for evaluating astringency in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaudy, María C; Canals, Roser; Canals, Joan-Miquel; Rozés, Nicolas; Arola, Lluís; Zamora, Fernando

    2004-02-25

    Astringency is an important sensory attribute of red wine. It is usually estimated by tasting and is subject to a certain subjectivity. It can also be estimated by using the gelatin index. This procedure is not very reproducible because there are many gelatins on the market with a heterogeneous composition. Furthermore, the gelatin index determines procyanidin concentration by acid hydrolysis that gives only an approximate result. This paper proposes a new and reproducible method that determines astringency by using ovalbumin as the precipitation agent and tannic acid solutions as standards. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that this method is more reproducible (RSD = 5%) than the gelatin index (RSD = 12%) and correlates better with sensorial analysis.

  20. Protective effect of red wine on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Joksic, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of red wines 'Cabernet Sauvignon' on the micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes. Blood samples of healthy volunteers were irratiated in vitro using 60 Co as a source of radiation, dose of 2Gy. Irradiated samples, as well as unirradiated controls, were treated with concentrations of red wine ranged from 100-500 ml/2x106 cells. Obtained results demonstrated significant decrease of the micronuclei frequency (t=9.14; p0.05) in treated samples versus untreated controls. The results of our study demonstrated radioprotective effect of red wine

  1. Dietary inclusion of tannin extract from red quebracho trees (Schinopsis spp. in the rabbit meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Cossu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two levels (1% and 3% of condensed tannin extract from red quebracho (QT were added to a diet of growing rabbits in a 6-wk feeding trial up to 12 wk of age. Health status was unaf- fected by the QT supplementation. The E. coli count of caecal content denoted a bactericidal activity of the QT. Weight gain and slaughter weigh were significantly higher and conversion index was sig- nificantly lower in rabbits fed QT diets, compared to those fed the control diet (P<0.05. Meat traits, as well the meat fatty acid profile weren’t influenced by the QT supplementation. Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the dietary use of QT in the rabbit. QT extract supplemented at 1% and 3% in fattening rabbits diet had a clear beneficial effect on live performance. Further studies are needed to assess if supplementing diets with QT can be a valuable strategy.

  2. Revisiting the mechanistic basis of the French Paradox: red wine inhibits the activity of protein disulfide isomerase in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Christine N.; Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Kennedy, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic evidence points to cardioprotective activity of red wine, the mechanistic basis for antithrombotic activity has not been established. Quercetin and related flavonoids are present in high concentrations in red but not white wine. Quercetin-glycosides were recently shown to prevent thrombosis in animal models through the inhibition of extracellular protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). We evaluated whether red or white wine inhibited PDI activity in vitro. Methods Quercetin levels in red and white wines were measured by HPLC analysis. Inhibition of PDI activity by red and white wines was assessed by an insulin reduction turbidity assay at various concentrations of wine. PDI inhibition was confirmed using a reduced peptide that contained a disulfide containing peptide as a substrate. The inhibition of PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57 was also assessed. Results We observed a dose-dependent decrease of PDI activity for a variety of red but not white wines. Red wine diluted to 3% final concentration resulted in over 80% inhibition of PDI activity by insulin reductase assay for all varieties tested. This inhibition was also observed in the peptide based assay. Red grape juice yielded similar results but ethanol alone did not affect PDI activity. Interestingly, red wine also inhibited the PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57, albeit to a lesser degree than PDI. Conclusions PDI activity is inhibited by red wine and grape juice, identifying a potentially novel mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefits attributed to wine consumption. PMID:26585763

  3. Implementation of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Quantification of Allergenic Egg Residues in Red Wines Using Commercially Available Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Carole; Simonin, Céline; Belcher, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the early 2000s, labeling of potentially allergenic food components to protect people who suffer from food allergies is compulsory in numerous industrialized countries. In Europe, milk and egg components used during the winemaking process must be indicated on the label since July 1, 2012. Several ELISA procedures have been developed to detect allergenic residues in wines. However, the complexity of the wine matrix can inhibit the immunoenzymatic reaction. The aim of this study was to implement an ELISA assay for the detection of ovalbumin in red wines using commercially available antibodies. The specificity of the acquired antibodies and the absence of cross reactivity were assessed by immunoblotting and ELISA. An ELISA assay with a LOD of 14.2 μg/L and a LOQ of 56.4 μg/L of ovalbumin in aqueous solution was obtained. Differences in ELISA signals were observed when analyzing various fining agents, although reproducible conformation of the antigen could be reached for the comparison of ovalbumin and Ovicolle. The differences between samples in terms of pH could be leveled but the inhibition of the ELISA signal, positively correlated to the tannin content of the wines, could not be suppressed. Thus, standard curves of ovalbumin in several wines were obtained by relative quantification. The control steps and the difficulties encountered presented in this study should be considered by anybody working toward the development of ELISA assays for the detection of allergenic residues in complex food matrices. PMID:27356183

  4. Pre-fermentative cold maceration, saignée, and various thermal treatments as options for modulating volatile aroma and phenol profiles of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Budić-Leto, Irena; Bubola, Marijan; Damijanić, Kristijan; Staver, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The effects of six maceration treatments on volatile aroma and phenol composition of Teran red wine were studied: standard maceration (control C), cold pre-fermentation maceration (CPM), saignée (S), pre-fermentation heating with extended maceration (PHT) or juice fermentation (PHP), and post-fermentation heating (POH). PHP wine contained the highest amounts of esters, fatty acids and anthocyanins, and the lowest content of other phenols. Alternative treatments decreased higher alcohols in relation to control C. CPM treatment lowered the extraction of seed tannins, exhibited the highest acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and C 6 -compounds levels, and had increased ester levels in relation to control C. POH wine contained the highest concentration of total phenols, flavonoids, monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric flavanols, and color intensity and hue. S and PHT wines contained lower amount of total phenols, but higher than in C and CPM wines. The calculated Odor Activity Values were used to establish significant differences between the treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lowering the alcohol content of red wine does not alter its cardioprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Kim; Blackhurst, Dee; Albertyn, Zulfah; Marais, David; Lecour, Sandrine

    2012-05-23

    Many epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies suggest that chronic and moderate consumption of red wine benefits cardiovascular health, because of the alcoholic content or the polyphenols/flavonoids. The antioxidant and cardioprotective properties of a French red wine (cabernet sauvignon, 12% alcohol by volume) were compared with those of the same wine subjected to reverse osmosis for partial removal of alcohol (6% alcohol by volume). Antioxidant capacity was assessed in vitro using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. To test the cardioprotective effect of 12% v. 6% wine, the drinking water of rats used for controls was supplemented with red wine (12% or 6%). After 10 days, hearts were isolated on a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 minutes of global ischaemia plus 30 minutes of reperfusion (I/R). No differences in antioxidant capacity were observed between wine of 12% and 6% alcohol content (n=8 per group). Control hearts subjected to I/R presented a rate pressure product (heart rate x left ventricular developed pressure, expressed as a percentage of baseline value) of 16±4% (mean±standard error). Pretreatment with wine 12% or 6% improved the rate pressure product to 40±6% and 43±6%, respectively (pwine did not alter its antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Moderate and regular consumption of lower alcohol content wines may confer beneficial effects without the risks associated with traditional wines of higher alcohol content.

  6. Exploring American and Italian consumer preferences for Californian and Italian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Noble, Ann Curtis; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-06-01

    To increase the market share of Californian wines in other countries, wine preferences need to be explored in potential markets. This work studied the preferences of American and Italian consumers for red wines produced in California and Italy, focusing on wines made from the same varieties in each location. Descriptive analysis and consumer preference tests were performed. Americans scored each of the Californian wines significantly higher in preference than the Italian wines. In contrast, the Italian consumer preference scores for many Italian and Californian wines overlapped. By external preference mapping of the American consumer segments, the ideal flavour of one cluster was closest to the Californian Zinfandel, Merlot and Syrah, which had the 'most balanced' flavour profiles. Another cluster of Italians also preferred the Californian wines. In addition, one Italian cluster was driven by a dislike of the leather, band-aid and medicinal aromas of the Italian Merlot and Refosco. The results provided information that can contribute to wine marketing research necessary for successfully exporting Californian red wines to Italy and vice versa. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Determination of total iron-reactive phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins in wine grapes of skins and seeds based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Xu; Jin, Xiaoduo; Li, Chen; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Shuqin; Ning, Jifeng; Yanne, Paul

    2017-12-15

    Phenolics contents in wine grapes are key indicators for assessing ripeness. Near-infrared hyperspectral images during ripening have been explored to achieve an effective method for predicting phenolics contents. Principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were built, respectively. The results show that SVR behaves globally better than PLSR and PCR, except in predicting tannins content of seeds. For the best prediction results, the squared correlation coefficient and root mean square error reached 0.8960 and 0.1069g/L (+)-catechin equivalents (CE), respectively, for tannins in skins, 0.9065 and 0.1776 (g/L CE) for total iron-reactive phenolics (TIRP) in skins, 0.8789 and 0.1442 (g/L M3G) for anthocyanins in skins, 0.9243 and 0.2401 (g/L CE) for tannins in seeds, and 0.8790 and 0.5190 (g/L CE) for TIRP in seeds. Our results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging has good prospects for evaluation of phenolics in wine grapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors affecting culturability, viability, and filterability of Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-eight commercial Washington red wines suspected of Dekkera bruxellensis contamination, determined by winemakers, were donated for this work. Only eight out of 48 wines were confirmed to contain D. bruxellensis by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. Nine strains of D. bruxellensis, one Candida par...

  9. Fining of red wines: effects on their analytical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asimenia Karamanidou

    2011-03-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The outcomes of such study might be of practical interest to winemakers since they could optimize red wine production technology by selecting the appropriate fining agent according to the specific phenolic profiles of the produced wines and thus improve their quality.

  10. Characteristics of piraltin, a polyphenol concentrate, produced by freeze-drying of red wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Golde, PH; van der Westelaken, M; van de Wiel, A; Bouma, Bonno N.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk for coronary heart disease. Apart from alcohol, an additive role for wine polyphenols has been suggested. However, the real contribution of these compounds can only be studied when available without the alcohol component. The

  11. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.mierczynska-vasilev@awri.com.au; Smith, Paul A., E-mail: paul.smith@awri.com.au

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO{sub 3}H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH{sub 2} and NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR{sub 3} and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO{sub 3}H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH{sub 2} and −NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR{sub 3} and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  12. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO_3H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH_2 and NR_3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR_3 and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO_3H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH_2 and −NR_3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR_3 and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  13. Cole-Cole Measurement of Dispersion Properties for Quality Evaluation of Red Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality of red wine, measurement of the complex relative permittivity was conducted in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 40 GHz with a network analyzer. Results showed that the Cole-Cole plot of red wine consists of a semicircle at frequencies above 1 GHz and a straight line at frequencies below 1 GHz, which come from the dispersion properties for the water solution of alcohol and ingredients peculiar to red wine, respectively. Based on the Cole-Cole plots measured for seven kinds of red wines made from the same brand of Merlot in different production years, we estimated Debye dispersion parameters to reveal that the alcohol concentration and ingredient property can simultaneously be evaluated from the parameters for the semicircle and straight line, respectively.

  14. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits, and beer on serum homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Ubbink, J B; Sillanaukee, P; Nikkari, S; Hendriks, H F

    2000-04-29

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine.

  15. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

  16. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Qing Duan; Malcolm J. Reeves; Qiu-Hong Pan; Lin Mu; Na-Na Liang; Fei He; Jun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enha...

  17. Discrimination of different red wine by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy were applied to analyze main components of liquid red wine with different sugar contents and volatilization residues of dry red wine from different manufactures. The infrared spectra, second derivative spectra of dry red wine show the typical peaks of alcohol, while the spectra of sweet wine are composed of the peaks of both alcohol and sugar, and the contribution of sugar enhanced as the increase of sugar content. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method, dry and sweet wine can be readily classified. Analysis of the infrared spectra of the volatilization residues of dry red wine samples from five different manufactures indicates that dry red wine may be composed of glycerol, carboxylic acids or esters and carboxyl ate, at the same time, different dry red wine show different characteristic peaks in the second derivative spectra and 2D IR correlation spectra, which can be used to discriminate the different manufactures and evaluate the quality of wine samples. The results suggested that infrared spectroscopy is a direct and effective method for the analysis of principle components of different red wines and discrimination of different red wines.

  18. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  20. Influence of red wine polyphenols and ethanol on the gut microbiota ecology and biochemical biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Boto-Ordóñez, María; Murri, Mora; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan Miguel; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Estruch, Ramon; Cardona Diaz, Fernando; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured. The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P red wine consumption can significantly modulate the growth of select gut microbiota in humans, which suggests possible prebiotic benefits associated with the inclusion of red wine polyphenols in the diet. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN88720134.

  1. An EPR study of the lacquer-type bottle deposits from red wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Pilbrow, J.R.; Hunter, C.A.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Lacquer-type deposits from 4 naturally aged red wines and one 'artificially', aged wine (by heating for 16 hrs at 84 deg C) were obtained from the Australian Wine Research Institute, Adelaide, and examined by EPR spectroscopy with a Varian E- 12 spectrometer working at ∼ 9.1 GHz The naturally aged wine deposits showed Fe 3+ in a low-symmetry site (g = 4.3), and Cu 2+ in an axial symmetry site (as deduced from the hyperfine structure) showing superhyperfine structure from N nuclei. A strong free radical signal was also present. The artificially aged wine deposit spectrum was similar, except no superhyperfine structure was present. The deposits are known to be anthocyanines cross-linked to a protein. The older the wine, the more intense was the superhyperfine structure, due to copper-amine interaction with the protein. The free radical signal is associated with the anthocyanines

  2. Effects of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Aglianico red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Morena; Gerardi, Chiara; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura; Domenici, Valentina

    2018-04-15

    This study analyzed the effect of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on the chromatic properties, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Aglianico red wines with respect to wines produced from conventional winemaking. We determined the phytochemical composition by spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD analysis and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different wine samples by the ORAC assay. The main important classes of fluorophore molecules in red wine were identified by Front-Face fluorescence spectroscopy, and the emission intensity trend was investigated at various sulfur dioxide concentrations. Lastly, we tested the effects of both conventional and low sulfite wines on ex vivo human erythrocytes under oxidative stimulus by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and the hemolysis test. The addition of sulfur dioxide, which has well-known side effects, increased the content of certain bioactive components but did not raise the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71. This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine.

  4. Chemical and sensory characterisation of Sangiovese red wines: comparison between biodynamic and organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Simoni, Marco; Versari, Andrea

    2015-01-15

    The effects of biodynamic production practices on composition and sensory attributes of Sangiovese wines were examined for 2 years (2009 and 2010) in a vineyard that was converted from organic (ORG) to biodynamic (BDN) viticulture. During the first year (2009), the BDN wines were characterised by low alcohol strength, colour intensity, total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins and catechin. Conversely, the second year BDN wines differed from the organic wines in terms of total polyphenols and phenolic compounds, including polymeric pigments, co-pigmentation, tannins and iron-reactive polyphenols. The effect of management practices, harvest and their interaction was analysed for each compound. Positive interaction was observed for total acidity, volatile acidity, cyanidin-3-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, quercetin and trans-resveratrol. ORG wine initially showed a more complex aroma profile; however, the differences were almost indistinguishable during the second year. Trained panellists highlighted differences in colour intensity between ORG and BDN wines although no preference was found by consumers. The concentrations of ochratoxin A and biogenic amines were far below the health-hazardous threshold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactivity of polymeric proanthocyanidins toward salivary proteins and their contribution to young red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoshan; de Sá, Marta; Leandro, Conceição; Caldeira, Ilda; Duarte, Filomena L; Spranger, Isabel

    2013-01-30

    Recent studies have indicated the presence of significant amount of highly polymerized and soluble proanthocyanidins in red wine and such compounds interacted readily with proteins, suggesting that they might be particularly astringent. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the astringency of polymeric proanthocyanidins and their contribution to red wine astringency. The precipitation reactions of the purified oligomeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 12-15) and polymeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 12-15 to 32-34) with human salivary proteins were studied; salivary proteins composition changes before and after the reaction was verified by SDS-PAGE and procyanidins composition changes by spectrometric, direct HPLC and thiolysis-HPLC methods. The astringency intensity of these two procyanidin fractions was evaluated by a sensory analysis panel. For verifying the correlation between polymeric proanthocyanidins and young red wine astringency, the levels of total oligomeric and total polymeric proanthocyanidins and other phenolic composition in various young red wines were quantified and the astringency intensities of these wines were evaluated by a sensory panel. The results showed that polymeric proanthocyanidins had much higher reactivity toward human salivary proteins and higher astringency intensity than the oligomeric ones. Furthermore, young red wine astringency intensities were highly correlated to levels of polymeric proanthocyanidins, particularly at low concentration range (correlation coefficient r = 0.9840) but not significant correlated to total polyphenols (r = 0.2343) or other individual phenolic compounds (generally r wine astringency and the levels of polymeric polyphenols in red wines may be used as an indicator for its astringency.

  6. Odorant Screening and Quantitation of Thiols in Carmenere Red Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry and Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, Carolina; Agosin, Eduardo; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-05-04

    The sensory impact of thiols in Vitis vinifera 'Carmenere' red wines was evaluated. For this purpose, aroma extract dilution analysis was applied to the thiols isolated from a Carmenere red wine by affinity chromatography with a mercurated agarose gel. Results revealed the presence of four odorants, identified as 2-furanylmethanethiol, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, and 2-methyl-3-sulfanyl-1-butanol, with the latter being described here for the first time in Carmenere red wines. Quantitation of the four thiols in the Carmenere wine screened by aroma extract dilution analysis and in three additional Carmenere wines by stable isotope dilution assays resulted in concentrations above the respective orthonasal odor detection threshold values. Triangle tests applied to wine model solutions with and without the addition of the four thiols showed significant differences, thus suggesting that the compounds do have the potential to influence the overall aroma of red wine.

  7. Renal damage mediated by oxidative stress: a hypothesis of protective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2002-08-01

    Over the last decade, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of seemingly unrelated renal diseases. Epidemiological studies have documented an association of moderate wine consumption with a decreased risk of cardiovascular and neurological diseases; however, similar studies in the kidney are still lacking. The kidney is an organ highly vulnerable to damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), likely due to the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the composition of renal lipids. ROS are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of conditions such as glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The health benefits of moderate consumption of red wine can be partly attributed to its antioxidant properties. Indeed, the kidney antioxidant defense system is enhanced after chronic exposure to moderate amounts of wine, a response arising from the combined effects of ethanol and the nonalcoholic components, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols behave as potent ROS scavengers and metal chelators; ethanol, in turn, modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, a hypothesis that red wine causes a decreased vulnerability of the kidney to the oxidative challenges could be proposed. This view is partly supported by direct evidences indicating that wine and antioxidants isolated from red wine, as well as other antioxidants, significantly attenuate or prevent the oxidative damage to the kidney. The present hypothesis paper provides a collective body of evidence suggesting a protective role of moderate wine consumption against the production and progression of renal diseases, based on the existing concepts on the pathophysiology of kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress.

  8. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  9. Aroma profile of malbec red wines from La Mancha region: Chemical and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Trujillo, M; García Ruiz, A; González Viñas, M A

    2017-10-01

    The aroma of La Mancha Malbec red wines over four consecutive vintages was characterized by chemical and sensory analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to isolate and analyze free volatile compounds. Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA) was carried out to characterize the sensory aroma profile. A total of 79 free volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the wines over these four vintages. Volatile aroma compounds were classified into seven aromatic series and their odour activity values were calculated in order to determine the aroma impact compounds in these wines. The aroma sensory profile of these wines was characterized by red fruit, fresh, prune, liquorice, clove, caramel, leather, tobacco and coffee aromas. This study provides a complete aroma characterization of La Mancha Malbec red wines and it is proposed that these wines can be considered as an alternative to wines from traditional grape varieties of this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research advance on stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to red wine colour during the aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Lijun; Li, Yashan; Cui, Changwei; Ning, Na; Huang, Jing; Xu, Chengdong; Tao, Fang; Zhang, Jinyong

    2018-04-01

    Based on the fact that persistent mutation of vinous color was not conducive to the stabilization of vinous quality during the aging, research advance on the stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to colour of red wine during the aging, including investigative status and developmental dynamic at home and abroad, endophytes and pigment of materials in wine, including effect of endophyte on vinaceous color, and even the application of tracer method in wine was summarized, respectively. The relationship between diversity of community the endophytic fungi and the main pigment material in wine was existent objectively, also included the response mechanism on colony dynamic of endophytic fungi to the various pigment as well as substance related to color, which laid the foundation for exploring the relationships between endophytic fungi and wine color, and the variational mechanism of the color under endophytic fungi during the aging period of wine. Color as an important reference index of wine quality influenced not only the sensory evaluation of consumer, but also the quality of wine because of the self-aggregation or combination of phenolic composition with other substances under the endophytic fungi during the storage. Only steady wine in the color could guarantee the security of quality.

  11. Effect of clarification process on the removal of pesticide residues in red wine and comparison with white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2018-04-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of seven clarifying agents to remove pesticides in red wine. The presence of pesticides in wine consists a great problem for winemakers and therefore, results on pesticide removal by clarification are very useful for taking a decision on the appropriate adsorbent. The selection of an efficient adsorbent can be based on data correlating pesticide removal in red wine to pesticides' properties, given the great number and variety of pesticides used. So, this experimental work is focused on the collection of results with regard to pesticide removal by clarification using a great number of pesticides and fining agents. A Greek red wine, fortified with single solutions and mixtures of 23 or 9 pesticides was studied. The seven fining agents, used at two concentrations, were activated carbon, bentonite, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), gelatin, egg albumin, isinglass-fish glue, and casein. Pesticides were selected with a wide range of properties (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K ow ) 2.7-6.3 and water solubility 0.0002-142) and belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the clarified fortified wine. The correlation of the clarifying agents' effectiveness to pesticide's chemical structure and properties (log K ow , water solubility) was investigated. The antagonistic and/or synergistic effects, occurring among the pesticides in the mixtures, were calculated by indices. Pesticide removal effectiveness results of the red wine were compared to those obtained from a white wine under the same experimental conditions and discussed. The order of decreasing adsorbent effectiveness (mixture of 23 pesticides) was: activated carbon 40% > gelatin 23% > egg albumin 21% > PVPP 18% > casein 12% > bentonite 7%. Isinglass showed 12% removal at the highest permitted concentration. In the case of

  12. Influence of aging conditions on the quality of red Sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, M; Piermattei, B; Arfelli, G; Amati, A

    2001-08-01

    A red Sangiovese wine was stored in barrels of different woods (oak and chestnut) and types (225-L "barriques" and 1000-L barrels) at 12 and 22 degrees C for 320 days to evaluate the effects of different aging conditions on wine quality. Chestnut barrels led to wines richer in phenolics, and which were more tannic, colored, and fruity. Oak barrels gave wines with more monomeric phenolics, but less astringent, with higher vanilla smell, and more harmonious. The type of barrel could be used as a parameter to regulate the extraction of wood components and the polymerization of monomeric phenolics. Storage at 22 degrees C favored the formation of polymerized phenolics and the increase of color density and color hue. The temperature produced less pronounced effects on aroma and taste, even if wines stored at 12 degrees C showed more harmony.

  13. Red wine consumption and risk of prostate cancer: the California men's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Haque, Reina; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Caan, Bette J; Poon, Kwun-Yee T; Quinn, Virginia P

    2010-01-01

    Red wine contains polyphenol antioxidants that inhibit prostate cancer development in animal studies. We investigated the effect of red wine intake on the risk of prostate cancer using data prospectively collected in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS). CMHS is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men aged 45-69 years who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Southern and Northern California Health Plans. Information on demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using mailed questionnaires between 2002 and 2003. We used Cox models to estimate the effect of red wine on prostate cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 1,340 incident prostate cancer cases identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result-affiliated cancer registries were included in the analyses. We did not find a clear association between red wine intake and risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates for consuming or =1 drink/week but or =1 drink/day were 0.89, 95% confidence interval (0.74-1.07), 0.99 (0.83-1.17) and 0.88 (0.70-1.12), respectively. Further, we observed no linear dose response. The lack of association for red wine intake was consistently observed when we restricted the analyses to those with and without a history of PSA screening. In addition, we also did not observe any association with prostate cancer for beer, white wine, liquor or combined alcoholic beverage intake (HR for combined alcoholic beverage intake of > or =5 drinks/day = 1.16 (0.83-1.63). Neither red wine nor total alcohol consumption were associated with prostate cancer risk in this population of moderate drinkers.

  14. Evolution of phenolic compounds and astringency during aging of red wine: effect of oxygen exposure before and after bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuti, Angelita; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen exposure of red wine, before (micro-oxygenation) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on the phenolic composition and astringency of wine. The astringency was evaluated by sensory analysis and by a method based on the SDS-PAGE of salivary proteins after reaction of saliva with wine (SPI, saliva precipitation index). Micro-oxygenation caused a stabilization of color, but this effect disappeared after long aging. For the wine with the lower pH a decrease of wine astringency and SPI was observed 42 months after micro-oxygenation. Oxygen ingress through the closure postbottling was positively correlated with the decrease of SPI. Therefore, the astringency and reactivity of wines toward salivary proteins of a bottled red wine can be modulated by controlled oxygen exposure during aging. For both experiments the effect of oxygen exposure depended on wine composition.

  15. Application of ultrasound to improve lees ageing processes in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Loira, Iris; Morata, Antonio; González, Carmen; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio; Cuerda, Rafael

    2018-09-30

    Ageing on lees (AOL) is a technique that increases volatile compounds, promotes colour stability, improves mouthfeel and reduces astringency in red wines. The main drawback is that it is a slow process. Several months are necessary to obtain perceptible effects in wines. Different authors have studied the application of new techniques to accelerate the AOL process. Ultrasound (US) has been used to improve different food industry processes; it could be interesting to accelerate the yeast autolysis during AOL. This work evaluates the use of the US technique together with AOL and oak chips for this purpose studying the effects of different oenological parameters of red wines. The results obtained indicate an increase of polysaccharides content when US is applied in wine AOL. In addition, total polyphenol index (TPI) and volatile acidity were not affected. However, this treatment increases the dissolved oxygen affecting the volatile compounds and total anthocyanins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EPR studies of a red wine bottle deposit, and the precipitates from a 'model' wine , and a white wine, both artificially aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A red wine waxy bottle deposit is known to be an anthocyanin-protein compound. The EPR signal shows the presence of a free radical signal, and a Cu(2+) signal with N superhyperfme structure. Subsequently, EPR study of a model wine, catechin being the only phenol, showed a Cu(2+) signal and a free radical signal. The precipitate thrown by the model wine after artificial aging for 3 months at 45C showed a Cu(2+) signal of different bonding, and a free radical signal. All the previously mentioned Cu(2+) signals showed (differing) hyperfine structures. The precipitate thrown by a similarly artificially aged Chardonnay showed a free radical signal, and a Cu(2+) signal without hyperfine structure: no Cu(2+) signal was detected in the mother liquor. The Cu(2+) bonding in each case will be discussed

  17. Red wine consumption not associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Haque, Reina; Caan, Bette J; Poon, Kwun-Yee T; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Quinn, Virginia P

    2010-01-01

    Red wine contains polyphenol antioxidants that inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) development in animal studies. We investigated the effect of red wine intake on risk of CRC in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS). CMHS is a prospective, multiethnic cohort of middle-aged men who were members of the Kaiser Permanente (KP) California Health Plans and completed study questionnaires between 2002-2003. Incident CRC were identified from the health plan cancer registries through the end of 2007 (n = 287). To properly account for potential confounding by previous endoscopy screening, we restricted the primary analyses to CMHS men continuously enrolled in KP between 1998-2002 (n = 43,483 and CRC = 176). We used multivariable Cox regression to adjust for important confounders. We did not find an inverse association between moderate red wine intake and risk of CRC. The hazard ratio for consuming >/=1 drink/day (average = 2 drinks/day) was 1.16, 95% confidence intervals 0.56-2.40. There was no linear dose-response. The lack of clear association for red wine intake was consistently observed when we stratified the analyses by CRC stage at diagnosis and cancer site (colon or rectum). Moderate red wine consumption was not associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in this population of middle-aged men.

  18. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction.

  19. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  20. Properties of Chitosan-Genipin Films Grafted with Phenolic Compounds from Red Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Fernando Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan has been studied as a renewable biopolymer to form edible films and coatings to improve the shelf life of food products. Chemical modification of chitosan is a strategy to prepare chitosan films with enhanced properties to be used as food preservatives. Wine, particularly red wine, is a rich natural source of phenolic compounds, namely anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, monomeric catechins, and phenolic acids. Phenolic compounds, in general, present strong antioxidant properties. The a...

  1. Finding sensory profilers amongst red wine composition: a novel nationwide approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, A. J.; Ávila, P.; Silva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the signaling/profiling potential of wine compounds and the physicochemical and bioclimatic winerelated measurements on a nationwide sensory scale of red wine typicality. Color tonality evolved from violet-purple in cooler northern regions to ruby-garnet in hotter southern regions. Acidity and astringency were enhanced from south to north. Conversely, alcohol and viscosity progressed southward. Bitterness was primarily affected by inland-coastal influe...

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp] y1 ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    . Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein ( VLDL)- triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen......Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...

  4. A review of the content of the putative chemopreventive phytoalexin resveratrol in red wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stervbo, Ulrik; Vang, Ole; Bonnesen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound of various fruits such as grapes, is thought to possess chemopreventive properties. The levels of resveratrol in grapes and grape products including wine, varies from region to region and from one year to another. This paper reviews the resveratrol...... content in red wine based on relevant published data. Red wine contains an average of 1.9 ± 1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/ l (8.2 ± 7.5 lM), ranging from non-detectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 lM) trans-resveratrol. In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot Noir and St. Laurent varieties showed...... the highest level of trans-resveratrol. No region can be said to produce wines with significantly higher level of trans-resveratrol than all other regions. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol. The average level of trans-resveratrol-glucoside (trans-piceid) in a red wine may...

  5. Influence of the temperature and oxygen exposure in red Port wine: A kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Barros, António S; Silva Ferreira, António César; Silva, Artur M S

    2015-09-01

    Although phenolics are recognized to be related with health benefits by limiting lipid oxidation, in wine, they are the primary substrates for oxidation resulting in the quinone by-products with the participation of transition metal ions. Nevertheless, high quality Port wines require a period of aging in either bottle or barrels. During this time, a modification of sensory properties of wines such as the decrease of astringency or the stabilization of color is recognized to phenolic compounds, mainly attributed to anthocyanins and derived pigments. The present work aims to illustrate the oxidation of red Port wine based on its phenolic composition by the effect of both thermal and oxygen exposures. A kinetic approach toanthocyanins degradation was also achieved. For this purpose a forced red Port wine aging protocol was performed at four different storage temperatures, respectively, 20, 30, 35 and 40°C, and two adjusted oxygen saturation levels, no oxygen addition (treatment I), and oxygen addition (treatment II). Three hydroxycinnamic esters, three hydroxycinnamic acids, three hydroxybenzoic acids, two flavan-3-ols, and six anthocyanins were quantitated weekly during 63days, along with oxygen consumption. The most relevant phenolic oxidation markers were anthocyanins and catechin-type flavonoids, which had the highest decreases during the thermal and oxidative red Port wine process. Both temperature and oxygen treatments affected the rate of phenolic degradation. In addition, temperature seems to influence mostly the phenolics kinetic degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of micro-oxygenation treatment before oak aging on phenolic compounds composition, astringency, and color of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaudy, María del Carmen; Canals, Roser; González-Manzano, Susana; Canals, Joan Miquel; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Zamora, Fernando

    2006-06-14

    Micro-oxygenation is usually applied to red wines as a cheaper alternative to oak aging. It has been suggested, however, that micro-oxygenation can also be used to complement oak aging in order to improve the quality of very astringent and herbaceous red wines. In this paper we study how applying the micro-oxygenation technique before oak aging affects the composition and quality of astringent red wines. When this technique is applied prior to oak aging, the wines have a slightly less intense red color and significantly higher levels of combined and free anthocyanins and ethyl-bridged anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. On the other hand, no differences in other newly formed pigments are found. Applying micro-oxygenation before oak aging does not affect the total proanthocyanidin concentration, but it produces wines with a slightly (though significantly) higher mean degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization and a drastically lower astringency. These wines also present a clearer impact of wood aromas.

  7. Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabolic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoski, Melissa M; Garavaglia, Juliano; Oliveira, Aline; Olivaes, Jessica; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids. These substances have known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities, and are considered as regulatory agents in cardiometabolic process. In this study, the main chemical components present in the wine, its interaction with molecules and biological mechanisms, and their interference with intra- and extracellular signaling are reviewed. Finally, the properties of wine that may benefit cardiovascular system are also revised.

  8. Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabolic Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoski, Melissa M.; Garavaglia, Juliano; Oliveira, Aline; Olivaes, Jessica; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids. These substances have known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities, and are considered as regulatory agents in cardiometabolic process. In this study, the main chemical components present in the wine, its interaction with molecules and biological mechanisms, and their interference with intra- and extracellular signaling are reviewed. Finally, the properties of wine that may benefit cardiovascular system are also revised. PMID:27512338

  9. Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabolic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Markoski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids. These substances have known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities, and are considered as regulatory agents in cardiometabolic process. In this study, the main chemical components present in the wine, its interaction with molecules and biological mechanisms, and their interference with intra- and extracellular signaling are reviewed. Finally, the properties of wine that may benefit cardiovascular system are also revised.

  10. Maceration enzymes and mannoproteins: a possible strategy to increase colloidal stability and color extraction in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Palacios, Antonio; Ayestaran, Belén

    2007-06-13

    Different strategies were adopted to achieve increases in color stability in Tempranillo wines: (i) addition of maceration enzymes directly to the must, (ii) addition of commercial mannoproteins to the must, and (iii) inoculation of must with yeast overexpressed of mannoproteins. The addition of enzymes favored color extraction, and the wines obtained presented higher values of wine color, color intensity, bisulfite-stable color, and visually enhanced color intensity. The enzyme hydrolytic activity produced an increase in the acid polysaccharide content and polyphenol index and yielded to wines with more astringency, tannin, and length. Added mannoproteins had clearer effects on the analyzed parameters than yeast. Contrary to what may be thought, mannoproteins did not maintain the extracted polyphenols in colloidal dispersion and neither ensured color stability. These compounds clearly modified the gustative structure of the wines, enhancing the sweetness and roundness.

  11. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  13. Direct liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Palma, Miguel; Puertas, Belen

    2011-11-09

    A validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in red wines is described. Detection conditions for both compounds were optimized (excitation at 279 and 278 and emission at 631 and 598 nm for hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, respectively). The validation of the analytical method was based on selectivity, linearity, robustness, detection and quantification limits, repeatability, and recovery. The detection and quantification limits in red wines were set at 0.023 and 0.076 mg L(-1) for hydroxytyrosol and at 0.007 and 0.024 mg L(-1) for tyrosol determination, respectively. Precision values, both within-day and between-day (n = 5), remained below 3% for both compounds. In addition, a fractional factorial experimental design was developed to analyze the influence of six different conditions on analysis. The final optimized HPLC-fluorescence method allowed the analysis of 30 nonpretreated Spanish red wines to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents.

  14. Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of pigments of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiktusnádi Kiss, G A; Forgács, E; Cserháti, T; Candeias, M; Vilas-Boas, L; Bronze, R; Spranger, I

    2000-08-11

    The adsorption and desorption capacities of 11 different solid-phase extraction sorbents were tested for the preconcenration of pigments of various Hungarian red wines. The concentrates were evaluated by multiwavelengh spectrophotometry combined with a spectral mapping technique (SPM) and by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest (10-fold) concentration of pigments was achieved on octadecylsilica sorbent. It can be used five times without losing adsorption and desorption characteristics. SPM indicated that multiwavelength spectrophotometry can be employed for the differentiation of red wines. Comparison of the chromatograms of pigments with and without preconcentration showed that preconcentration makes possible the separation and detection of pigments present in low concentration in red wines.

  15. Lignin-derived oak phenolics: a theoretical examination of additional potential health benefits of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2011-08-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds can be extracted from oak barrels during the aging of red wine, and it is hypothesized that these compounds may contribute to the health benefits of red wine by their antioxidant, radical-scavenging, or chemopreventive activities. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G) support the radical-scavenging abilities of the oak phenolics. Sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, syringol, and syringylacetone all have bond dissociation energies that are lower than resveratrol and comparable to the flavonoid catechin. Molecular docking studies of the oak phenolics with known resveratrol protein targets also show that these compounds dock favorably to the protein targets. Thus, lignin-derived oak phenolics, although found in small concentrations, may contribute to the beneficial antioxidant, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective effects of red wine.

  16. Determination of Fe, Mn and Pb by GFAAS in red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Zhecong; Jin Hua; Su Yulan

    2008-01-01

    A method for determination of Fe, Mn and Pb in red wine samples was developed by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric. Several different matrix modifiers were necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately in sample incineration. Red wine samples were analyzed after microwave digestion using HNO 3 . Standard addition method was used, the calibration concentration was 1 ng · ml -1 , 3 ng · ml -1 , 5 ng · ml -1 which containing 580 μg/ml KNO 3 as matrix and 0.2% HNO 3 . The correlation coefficient of the calibration line was very good within the measurement area. The recovery with red wine sample was very good at the range from 95%-107.5%. (authors)

  17. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  18. Influence of Temperature and Storing Time on Selected Red Wine Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hlaváč

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented article is focused on red wine rheological and thermal properties. Effects of temperature and short term storage on density, rheological parameters and thermal parameters were investigated. First measurement was done at the beginning of storage and then the same sample was measured again after one week of storing. Density was measured by densimeter Mettler Toledo DM 40 at different temperatures. For dynamic viscosity measurement was used rotational viscometer Anton Paar DV-3P. The kinematic viscosity and fluidity were determined according to the definitions. Thermal parameters were measured by instrument Isomet 2104. Temperature dependencies of wine dynamic and kinematic viscosity had decreasing exponential shape and temperature dependencies of fluidity had an increasing exponential shape. Temperature dependencies of red wine thermal conductivity and diffusivity had increasing linear character. Decreasing polynomial functions were obtained for temperature dependencies of red wine density. The values of dynamic and kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, and density of red wine were a little bit higher after short term storing, which can be expressed by changed amount of water caused by evaporation. Due to the same reasons were values of fluidity little bit lower after storage.

  19. Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging. II. Analysis of desorbed polyphenol compounds from yeast lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2006-05-31

    In the first part of this work, the analysis of the polyphenolic compounds remaining in the wine after different contact times with yeast lees during simulation of red wine aging was undertaken. To achieve a more precise view of the wine polyphenols adsorbed on lees during red wine aging and to establish a clear balance between adsorbed and remnant polyphenol compounds, the specific analysis of the chemical composition of the adsorbed polyphenolic compounds (condensed tannins and anthocyanins) after their partial desorbtion from yeast lees by denaturation treatments was realized in the second part of the study. The total recovery of polyphenol compounds from yeast lees was not complete, since a rather important part of the initial wine colored polyphenols, especially those with a dominant blue color component, remained strongly adsorbed on yeast lees, as monitored by color tristimulus and reflectance spectra measurements. All anthocyanins were recovered at a rather high percentage (about 62%), and it was demonstrated that they were not adsorbed in relation with their sole polarity. Very few monomeric phenolic compounds were extracted from yeast lees. With the use of drastic denaturing treatments, the total recovery of condensed tannins reached 83%. Such tannins extracted from yeast lees exhibited very high polymeric size and a rather high percentage of galloylated residues by comparison with initial wine tannins, indicating that nonpolar tannins were preferentially desorbed from yeast lees by the extraction treatments.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of red wine-based formulations containing plant extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the bactericidal activities of red wine and red wine solutions containing a commercial olive extract called Hydrox-12, oregano oil, or a mixture of both in red wine against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Stap...

  1. Dynamic sensory description of Rioja Alavesa red wines made by different winemaking practices by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaio, Iñaki; Meillon, Sophie; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco J; Schlich, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    Although sensory description of wines in scientific literature is very large, there is an evident lack of studies describing wines from a dynamic approach. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of the sensations perceived in red wines from Rioja Alavesa by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and also to compare wines made with the two winemaking procedures used in Rioja Alavesa: carbonic maceration (CM) and destemming (DS). Ten sensory attributes were evaluated in eight wines (four CM and four DS wines) in triplicate by a panel of 16 trained assessors. Red/black berry and woody aromas were dominant firstly, whereas heat, astringent, bitter and pungent sensations were dominant later. CM wines showed higher dominance for woody, spicy, pungent and acid sensations and lower dominance for red/black berry aroma and astringency than DS wines. This study is the first to describe Rioja wines from a dynamic approach and it also provides information about the dynamic sensory differences between wines made by CM or by DS. In this sense, this work shows the usefulness of TDS to describe and differentiate wines and to provide additional information to the conventional static descriptive analysis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Vine water deficit impacts aging bouquet in fine red Bordeaux wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guyon, François; Gaillard, Laetitia; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth) in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed correlations between δ13C values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  3. Phylogenetic profile of gut microbiota in healthy adults after moderate intake of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Elvira; Muñoz-González, Irene; Jiménez, Esther; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Peláez, Carmen; Del Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, María; Requena, Teresa

    2017-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how human colonic microbiota can be modified by dietary habits. We examined the influence of moderate red wine intake on the colonic microbiota of 15 healthy volunteers, related to the high concentration of polyphenols present in this beverage. The volunteers were classified into high, moderate, and low polyphenol metabolizers (metabotypes) due to their ability to metabolize polyphenols and the results were compared with that of five control (no wine intake) subjects. We analyzed the composition, diversity, and dynamics of their fecal microbiota before and after 1 month of wine consumption. The 16S rDNA sequencing allowed detection of 2324 phylotypes, of which only 30 were found over the 0.5% of mean relative frequency, representing 84.6% of the total taxonomical assignments. The samples clustered more strongly by individuals than by wine intake or metabotypes, however an increase in diversity, after the wine intake, was observed. The results of this study suggest an increase in the global fecal microbial diversity associated to the consumption of red wine, confirm the high variability of the microbiota from different individuals, and show the stability of their singular microbiota composition to small and short-term dietary changes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  5. Partial dealcoholization of red wine by nanofiltration and its effect on anthocyanin and resveratrol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banvolgyi, Szilvia; Savaş Bahçeci, K; Vatai, Gyula; Bekassy, Sandor; Bekassy-Molnar, Erika

    2016-12-01

    The present work studies the use of nanofiltration for the production of red wine concentrate with low alcohol content. Factorial design was applied to measure the influences of transmembrane pressure (10-20 bar) and temperature (20-40 ℃) on the retention of valuable components such as anthocyanins and resveratrol, and on the nanofiltration membrane performance. The highest retention of anthocyanin and resveratrol was achieved at low temperature (20 ℃), while the high transmembrane pressure (20 bar) was found to increase the permeate flux considerably. The experiments demonstrated that nanofiltration appears as a valid technique for the production of low alcohol content red wine concentrate. Reduction of volume by a factor of 4, leads to 2.5-3 times more anthocyanins and resveratrol in the wine concentrates. The final new wine products - obtained by using various forms of reconstitution of the concentrated wine - had low alcohol content (4-6 % by volume) and their sensory attributes were similar to those of the original wine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Vine Water Deficit Impacts Aging Bouquet in Fine Red Bordeaux Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Picard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C, this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C-values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed correlations between δ13C-values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  7. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volatile profiles and chromatic characteristics of red wines produced with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-07-01

    The use of mixed fermentations with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is gaining attention in recent years due to their ability to modulate the metabolites production of enological interest. In the present study, four of the most popular planted red grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir and Shiraz) were fermented using the aforementioned species and two different inoculation protocols (inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 and 48 h from the Starm. bacillaris inoculation), in order to evaluate their impact on the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics of wines. Analysis from chemical composition showed that titratable acidity and glycerol content exhibited marked differences among wines after fermentation. For volatile compounds, mixed fermented wines using an inoculation delay of 48 h led to reduction of volatile compounds (mainly esters). A shorter 24 h delay produced wines with higher values of color intensity than pure fermented wines. The differences observed between the inoculation protocols can be explained by the growth dynamics of both species during fermentation. These findings suggest that mixed fermentations posed a great potential in reducing metabolites which are considered negative for wine quality (mainly ethyl acetate and volatile fatty acids) and with an improvement of the chromatic profile of the wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementation of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Quantification of Allergenic Egg Residues in Red Wines Using Commercially Available Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Carole; Simonin, Céline; Belcher, Sandrine; Rösti, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Since the early 2000s, labeling of potentially allergenic food components to protect people who suffer from food allergies is compulsory in numerous industrialized countries. In Europe, milk and egg components used during the winemaking process must be indicated on the label since July 1, 2012. Several ELISA procedures have been developed to detect allergenic residues in wines. However, the complexity of the wine matrix can inhibit the immunoenzymatic reaction. The aim of this study was to implement an ELISA assay for the detection of ovalbumin in red wines using commercially available antibodies. The specificity of the acquired antibodies and the absence of cross reactivity were assessed by immunoblotting and ELISA. An ELISA assay with a LOD of 14.2 μg/L and a LOQ of 56.4 μg/L of ovalbumin in aqueous solution was obtained. Differences in ELISA signals were observed when analyzing various fining agents, although reproducible conformation of the antigen could be reached for the comparison of ovalbumin and Ovicolle. The differences between samples in terms of pH could be leveled but the inhibition of the ELISA signal, positively correlated to the tannin content of the wines, could not be suppressed. Thus, standard curves of ovalbumin in several wines were obtained by relative quantification. The control steps and the difficulties encountered presented in this study should be considered by anybody working toward the development of ELISA assays for the detection of allergenic residues in complex food matrices. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  10. Toward the optical tongue: flow-through sensing of tannin-protein interactions based on FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Andrea; Lendl, Bernhard

    2002-12-11

    The interaction of polyphenols (tannins) with proline-rich proteins (gelatin) has been studied using an automated flow injection system with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic detection to gain insight into chemical aspects related to astringency. In the perception of astringency, a major taste property in red wines and other beverages such as beer, tea, or fruit juices, an interaction between proline-rich salivary proteins and tannins present in the sample takes place. To study this interaction, agarose beads carrying gelatin (a proline-rich protein) were placed in the IR flow cell in such a way that the beads were probed by the IR beam. Using an automated flow system, we injected samples in a carrier stream and flushed over the proteins in a highly reproducible manner. Simultaneously, any retardation due to tannin-protein interactions taking place inside the flow cell was monitored by infrared spectroscopy. Tannins of different sources (grapes, wooden barrels, formulations used in wine making) were investigated, and their flow-through behavior was characterized. Significant differences in their affinity toward gelatin could be observed. Furthermore, because of small but characteristic differences in the IR spectrum, it is possible to distinguish condensed from hydrolyzable tannins. Nonastringent substances such as alcohols, sugars, and acids did not show retention on gelatin. The selectivity of the flow-through sensor was also demonstrated on the example of red and white wine. In contrast to white wine, where no interaction could be observed, in red wine a major interaction of the red wine tannins was found.

  11. Rationale for Haze Formation after Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) Addition to Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Stephan; Dickescheid, Christian; Harbertson, James F; Fischer, Ulrich; Cohen, Seth D

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to identify the source of haze formation in red wine after the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and to characterize the dynamics of precipitation. Ninety commercial wines representing eight grape varieties were collected, tested with two commercial CMC products, and analyzed for susceptibility to haze formation. Seventy-four of these wines showed a precipitation within 14 days independent of the CMC product used. The precipitates of four representative samples were further analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS analysis) and solubility under different conditions to determine the nature of the solids. All of the precipitates were composed of approximately 50% proteins and 50% CMC and polyphenols. It was determined that the interactions between CMC and bovine serum albumin are pH dependent in wine-like model solution. Furthermore, it was found that the color loss associated with CMC additions required the presence of proteins and cannot be observed with CMC and anthocyanins alone.

  12. Assessing the Role of Emotional Associations in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Classical Music and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people intuitively make consistent matches between classical music and specific wines. It is not clear, however, what governs such crossmodal mappings. Here, we assess the role of emotion—specifically different dimensional aspects of valence, arousal, and dominance—in mediating such mappings. Participants matched three different red wines to three different pieces of classical music. Subsequently, they made emotion ratings separately for each wine and each musical selection. The results revealed that certain wine–music pairings were rated as being significantly better matches than others. More importantly, there was evidence that the participants’ dominance and arousal ratings for the wines and the music predicted their matching rating for each wine–music pairing. These results therefore support the view that wine–music associations are not arbitrary but can be explained, at least in part, by common emotional associations.

  13. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  14. Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Bittencourt Berger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10. Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments.

  15. ENAMEL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RED WINE STAINING AFTER 35% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Coelho, Alessandra Sanchez; Oliveira, Valéria Aparecida Pessatti; Cavalli, Vanessa; Giannini, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10). Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments. PMID:19089218

  16. Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sirén

    2015-03-01

    The wine products showed different profiles of carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Especially, saccharose (max. 0.21 g/L, rhamnose (max. 0.45 g/L, fructose (max. 1.9 g/L, and phosphate (max 1.4 g/L quantities were extremely high in some wines. The results also showed that yeast fermentation in winemaking agitated high production of lactic (max 5.7 g/L and tartaric (max 1.7 g/L acids. The red wines processed by cold maceration and natural fermentation gave similar profiles. Only one of the Pinot Noir wines entirely differentiated from the others with comparison of carbohydrates and organic acids.

  17. Evaluation of Tannins and Anthocyanins in Marquette, Frontenac, and St. Croix Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Rice

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-hardy grape cultivars have become popular in northern regions. Wines from these cultivars are low in tannins and lighter in color compared to Vitis vinifera. The northern regions are striving to enhance desired ″full body″ and red color qualities in the wine produced from cold-hardy grapes. The objective of this study was to compare tannin and pigment content in skins and seeds of three cold-hardy red grape cultivars, at two time points, from two locations, using the Adams-Harbertson (A-H assay. The A-H assay is based on protein precipitation and spectrophotometry. Total tannin concentrations detected in Frontenac, Marquette, and St. Croix berries, ranged from 0.29 to 0.66 mg/berry catechin equivalents (CE. Bitter seed tannins were most abundant in Marquette berries (0.54 ± 0.66 mg/berry CE. Softer skin tannins were most abundant in St. Croix berries (0.24 ± 0.19 mg/berry CE. Monomeric anthocyanins contributed to over 60% of the total color at pH 4.9 and were highest in St. Croix skins (74.21% of the total color at pH 4.9. Varying amounts of short polymeric pigments and long polymeric pigments were present in grape skins, indicating that pigmented tannins had already formed by harvest. This is the first evaluation of tannins and pigments in Frontenac, Marquette, and St. Croix berries.

  18. Prediction of wine color from phenolic profiles of red grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted

    2008-01-01

    afhandlingen påviste de fremsatte hypoteser og ser lovende ud med henblik på at introducere hurtige og objektive målinger af drue phenoler til at forudsige farve parametre i rødvin. Resultaterne var også lovende med henblik på at anvende FT-MIR spektroskopi til at kvantificere tannin i rødvin og druer....

  19. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B.; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A.; Gordon, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with me...

  20. Polyphenols and Red Wine as Antioxidants against Peroxynitrite and other Oxidants

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    LAURA B VALDEZ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of polyphenols (+-catechin, (--epicatechin and myricetin, and of different types of red wines (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and blended wine was evaluated by three assays. (a NADH oxidation by peroxynitrite (ONOO-: the ONOO- scavenging activity was higher for myricetin (IC50=35 µM than for (+-catechin (IC50=275 µM and (--epicatechin (IC50=313 µM. (b Peroxynitrite initiated chemiluminescence in rat liver homogenate: (--epicatechin (IC50=7.0 µM and (+-catechin (IC50=13 µM were more potent than myricetin (IC50=20 µM in inhibiting the chemiluminescence signal. (c Lucigenin chemiluminescence in aortic rings: (--epicatechin (IC50=15 µM and (+-catechin (IC50=18 µM showed higher antioxidant capacity than myricetin (IC50=32 µM. All the assayed red wines were able to scavenge the oxidants and free radical species that generate the signal in each assay. Cabernet Sauvignon was the red wine with the highest antioxidant capacity in comparison with Malbec and blended wine. It is concluded that the use of sensitive biological systems (as the aortic ring chemiluminescence provides important information in addition to the results from chemical (NADH oxidation by peroxynitrite and biochemical (homogenate chemiluminescence assays and offers advances in the physiological role of polyphenols

  1. Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzone, Martín; Zamora, Fernando; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of wine and its association with the grape variety/cultivar is of paramount importance in oenology and a necessary tool for marketing. Phenolic compounds are very important quality parameters of wines because of their impact on colour, taste and health properties. The aim of the present work was to study and describe the non-flavonoid and flavonoid composition of wines from the principal red grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza (Argentina). Sixty phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids/derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and dihydroflavonols, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Marked quantitative differences could be seen in the phenolic profile among varieties, especially in stilbenes, acylated anthocyanins and other flavonoids. The polyphenolic content of Malbec wines was higher compared with the other red varieties. Dihydroflavonols represent a significant finding from the chemotaxonomic point of view, especially for Malbec variety. This is the first report on the individual phenolic composition of red wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and suggests that anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids exert a great influence on cultivar-based differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Avaliação da cv. Tannat para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Tannat to elaborate red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2004-06-01

    small, spherical berries (1.54g. The must showed a high titratable acidity (155mqL-1. The wine had a high concentration of total phenols (43.0, tannins (1.9gL-1, anthocyanins (539mgL-1, potassium (1,856mgL-1 and sum of higher alcohols (512mgL-1. The sensory evaluation showed a wine with an intense red-violet color, tannins, relatively hard and having the flavor of small red fruits. It is recommended for blending with other red wines toincrease their color and structure and to produce varietal wines. Furthermore, it may be better if aged in oak barrels.

  3. Effect of cofermentation of grape varieties on aroma profiles of la mancha red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Sensory characteristics changes of red Grenache wines submitted to different oxygen exposures pre and post bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Wirth, Jérémie; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Vidal, Stéphane; Cheynier, Véronique

    2010-02-15

    It is widely accepted that oxygen contributes to wine development by impacting its colour, aromatic bouquet, and mouth-feel properties. The wine industry can now also take advantage of engineered solutions to deliver known amounts of oxygen into bottles through the closures. This study was aimed at monitoring the influence of oxygen pick-up, before (micro-oxygenation, Mox) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on wine sensory evolution. Red Grenache wines were prepared either by flash release (FR) or traditional soaking (Trad) and with or without Mox during elevage (FR+noMox, FR+Mox, Trad+noMox, Trad+Mox). The rate of nano oxygenation was controlled by combining consistent oxygen transfer rate (OTR) closures and different oxygen controlled storage conditions. Wine sensory characteristics were analyzed by sensory profile, at bottling (T0) and after 5 and 10 months of ageing, by a panel of trained judges. Effects of winemaking techniques and OTR were analyzed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering) and analysis of variance. Results showed that, at bottling, Trad wines were perceived more animal and FR wines more bitter and astringent. Mox wines showed more orange shade. At 5 and 10 months, visual and olfactory differences were observed according to the OTR levels: modalities with higher oxygen ingress were darker and fruitier but also perceived significantly less animal than modalities with lower oxygen. Along the 10 months of ageing, the influence of OTR became more important as shown by increased significance levels of the observed differences. As the mouth-feel properties of the wines were mainly dictated by winemaking techniques, OTR had only little impact on "in mouth" attributes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonic preliminary measurements of oenological malolactic fermentation parameters in red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Díaz, D. F.; Puig-Pujol, A.; García-Álvarez, J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Mínguez, S.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Bertran, E.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the winemaking process, the malolactic fermentation is an essential process in the production of high quality red wines which concerns the conversion of malate into lactate. In this work, the ultrasonic velocity through wine samples with different concentrations of malate and lactate was measured using the pulse echo technique with 1 MHz tone burst signals. The evolution of these concentrations during malolactic fermentation was taken into account in order to determine the ratio between concentrations of malate and lactate of the different samples. These preliminary results have revealed that the ultrasonic velocity increases during the conversion of malate to lactate. In addition, measurements have been conducted to quantify the influence of variations in turbidity and temperature on test samples. Therefore, these results show the possibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for on-line monitoring the malolactic fermentation of red wine and may help to improve and contribute to the development of the winemaking process.

  6. Ultrasonic preliminary measurements of oenological malolactic fermentation parameters in red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa-Díaz, D F; García-Álvarez, J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; García-Hernández, M J; Salazar, J; Puig-Pujol, A; Mínguez, S; Bertran, E

    2012-01-01

    In the winemaking process, the malolactic fermentation is an essential process in the production of high quality red wines which concerns the conversion of malate into lactate. In this work, the ultrasonic velocity through wine samples with different concentrations of malate and lactate was measured using the pulse echo technique with 1 MHz tone burst signals. The evolution of these concentrations during malolactic fermentation was taken into account in order to determine the ratio between concentrations of malate and lactate of the different samples. These preliminary results have revealed that the ultrasonic velocity increases during the conversion of malate to lactate. In addition, measurements have been conducted to quantify the influence of variations in turbidity and temperature on test samples. Therefore, these results show the possibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for on-line monitoring the malolactic fermentation of red wine and may help to improve and contribute to the development of the winemaking process.

  7. Regular moderate intake of red wine is linked to a better women's sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, Nicola; Cai, Tommaso; Gontero, Paolo; Gavazzi, Andrea; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Boddi, Vieri; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2009-10-01

    While some evidence does exist for a positive correlation between moderate wine intake and men's sexual health, there is no study addressing the potential correlation between red wine intake and women's sexual function. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a tie between daily red wine intake and sexual function in a sample of healthy Italian women, living in the Chianti area (Tuscany) not complaining of any sexual disorders. We recruited 798 women (age 18-50), living in the Chianti area (Tuscany), not complaining of any sexual disorders. We divided the participants into three groups: daily moderate (one to two glasses) red wine intake (group 1); teetotallers (group 2); and daily intake of more than two glasses of red wine and/or other types of alcoholic drinks (including white wine), as well as of those reporting occasional drinking (group 3). All participants completed anonymously the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and were asked to report on their amount and type of alcohol consumption. Group 1 had significantly higher total (P = 0.001), as well as desire and lubrication domain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) FSFI scores than participants in groups 2 and 3. No significant differences between the groups were observed concerning sexual arousal, satisfaction, pain, and orgasm. Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between age, alcohol consumption (P = 0.009), and a better score at questionnaire examination. During multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption was identified as an independent prognostic parameter (P = 0.002) in predicting the better score at questionnaire examination. The finding that regular moderate intake of red wine is associated with higher FSFI scores for both sexual desire, lubrication, and overall sexual function as compared to the teetotaller status is intriguing. While this finding needs to be interpreted with some caution, because of the small sample size, self-reported data, and the

  8. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  9. Prediction of soluble solids content and ph in red wine by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; He, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-02-01

    Soluble solids content (SSC) and pH are two major characteristic used for assessing quality of red wine, and they are also two important quality indexes in the manufacture of red wine. For rapid detection of SSC and pH in red wine, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) transmittance spectroscopy technique combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were used in this study. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of 175 red wine samples were obtained using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then, PLS was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, latent variables (LVs) selected by PLS could be used to replace the complex spectral data. All samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. The LVs (selected by PLS) of each sample in calibration set was used as the inputs to train the LS-SVM model, then the optimal model was used to predict the SSC and pH values of samples in validation set based on their LVs. Standard error prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (r2) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the SEP and r2 for the prediction of SSC were 0.2313 and 0.9348; while 0.0071 and 0.9986 for pH. This prediction model was more accurate compared with the related research.

  10. Polyphenols from red wine are potent modulators of innate and adaptive immune responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that the consumption of dietary polyphenols leads to beneficial effects for human health as in the case of prevention and/or attenuation of cardiovascular, inflammatory, neurodegenerative and neoplastic diseases. This review summarizes the role of polyphenols from red wine in the immune function. In particular, using healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we have demonstrated the in vitro ability of Negroamaro, an Italian red wine, to induce the release of nitric oxide and both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus leading to the maintenance of the immmune homeostasis in the host. All these effects were abrogated by deprivation of polyphenols from red wine samples. We have also provided evidence that Negromaro polyphenols are able to activate extracellular regulated kinase and p38 kinase and switch off the NF-kappaB pathway via an increased expression with time of the IkappaBalpha phosphorylated form. These mechanisms may represent key molecular events leading to inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cascade and atherogenesis. In conclusion, according to the current literature and our own data, moderate consumption of red wine seems to be protective for the host in the prevention of several diseases, even including aged-related diseases by virtue of its immunomodulating properties.

  11. Protective effects of red wine flavonols on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a moderate consumption of red wine has health benefits, such as the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases. Although this is generally attributed to resveratrol, the protective mechanisms and the active substance(s) remain unclear. We examined whether and how red wine extract (RWE) and red wine flavonols quercetin and myricetin inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced apoptosis of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. RWE attenuated HNE-induced PC12 cell death in a dose-dependent manner. HNE induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is involved in DNA repair in the nucleus, and this was inhibited by RWE treatment. Treatment with RWE also inhibited HNE-induced nuclear condensation in PC12 cells. Data of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate showed that RWE protected against apoptosis of PC12 cells by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effects on HNE-induced cell death were stronger for quercetin and myricetin than for resveratrol. HNE-induced nuclear condensation was attenuated by quercetin and myricetin. These results suggest that the neuroprotective potential of red wine is attributable to flavonols rather than to resveratrol.

  12. The French Paradox: Determining the Superoxide-Scavenging Capacity of Red Wine and Other Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Barry A.; Hammond, Matthew P.; Stormo, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant-derived phenolic compounds such as those found in red wine, tea, and certain fruit juices may protect against cardiovascular disease by detoxifying (scavenging) superoxide and other unstable reactive oxygen species. We present a laboratory exercise that can be used to assess the superoxide-scavenging capacity of beverages. Among the…

  13. Is solar radiation a key to good red wine grape anthocyanin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a century of research, we still lack a concrete, mechanistic understanding of solar radiation and temperature effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition, crucial for red wine grapes. Our aim was to elucidate the mechanistic response to microclimate of anthocyanin metabolism in Viti...

  14. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Parra, Diego; Chirife, Jorge; Zamora, Clara; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2018-04-07

    Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3- O -glucoside, malvidin 3- O -(6″-acetyl-glucose), petunidin-3- O -glucoside, quercetin-3- O -glucuronide, syringenin-3- O -glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA).

  15. Lead in Hair and in Red Wine by Potentiometric Stripping Analysis: The University Students' Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephsen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    A new program for training upper secondary school chemistry teachers (SE 537 693) depends heavily on student project work. A project in which lead in hair and in red wine was examined by potentiometric stripping analysis is described and evaluated. (JN)

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum XJ25 Isolated from Chinese Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meijing; Liu, Shuwen; He, Ling; Tian, Yu

    2016-11-17

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum XJ25, isolated from Chinese red wine that had undergone spontaneous malolactic fermentation, which consists of 25 contigs and is 3,218,018 bp long. Copyright © 2016 Zhao et al.

  17. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  18. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha-Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF. More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-(6″-acetyl-glucose, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, syringenin-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA.

  19. Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder. This review summarizes the available epidemiological and interventional human studies providing evidence for and against this effect. Overall observational data suggest a benefit, but results are still equivocal and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of data indicate favourable effects on diabetes risk factors for tea, red wine and cocoa intake, and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in human studies. However, despite the growing evidence it remains uncertain whether tea, red wine and cocoa consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-12-23

    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  1. The effect of alcohol and red wine consumption on clinical and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Chua, Alicia S; Malik, Muhammad Taimur; Kaplan, Tamara; Glanz, Bonnie I; Egorova, Svetlana; Guttmann, Charles R G; Bakshi, Rohit; Weiner, Howard L; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol and in particular red wine have both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties, and may exert an effect on the disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the association between alcohol and red wine consumption and MS course. MS patients enrolled in the Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB) who completed a self-administered questionnaire about their past year drinking habits at a single time point were included in the study. Alcohol and red wine consumption were measured as servings/week. The primary outcome was the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at the time of the questionnaire. Secondary clinical outcomes were the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) and number of relapses in the year before the questionnaire. Secondary MRI outcomes included brain parenchymal fraction and T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV). Appropriate regression models were used to test the association of alcohol and red wine intake on clinical and MRI outcomes. All analyses were controlled for sex, age, body mass index, disease phenotype (relapsing vs. progressive), the proportion of time on disease modifying therapy during the previous year, smoking exposure, and disease duration. In the models for the MRI outcomes, analyses were also adjusted for acquisition protocol. 923 patients (74% females, mean age 47 ± 11 years, mean disease duration 14 ± 9 years) were included in the analysis. Compared to abstainers, patients drinking more than 4 drinks per week had a higher likelihood of a lower EDSS score (OR, 0.41; p = 0.0001) and lower MSSS (mean difference, - 1.753; p = 0.002) at the time of the questionnaire. Similarly, patients drinking more than 3 glasses of red wine per week had greater odds of a lower EDSS (OR, 0.49; p = 0.0005) and lower MSSS (mean difference, - 0.705; p = 0.0007) compared to nondrinkers. However, a faster increase in T2LV was observed in patients consuming 1

  2. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Michelle; Lexis, Louise; Lewandowski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs) and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs) volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P < 0.03), and significant decreases in plasma MDA (P < 0.001) and GSH (P < 0.004) in young and old subjects. The results show that the consumption of 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, significantly increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status. PMID:17888186

  3. Aroma modulation of Cabernet Gernischt dry red wine by optimal enzyme treatment strategy in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Xuan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    Cabernet Gernischt (CG) is a famous Chinese wine grape cultivar, the red wine of which is known for its green trait, especially when produced from grapes cultivated in regions with monsoon climate. To modify CG wine aroma, three enzyme preparations (H. uvarum extracellular enzyme, AR2000, and pectinase) were introduced in different winemaking stages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Free and bound aroma compounds in young wines were detected using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantified by trained panelists. Results showed that simultaneous inoculation of enzymes and yeasts improved wine aroma. Partial least-squares regression revealed that the green trait was due mainly to varietal compounds, especially C 6 compounds, and could be partly weakened by fermentative compounds. Moreover, H. uvarum enzyme treatments enriched the acid fruit note of CG wine by enhancing the synergistic effect of varietal volatiles and certain fermentative compounds, such as esters and phenylethyls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and viscosity of Brazilian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Flávia S P P; de Castilhos, Maurício B M; Telis, Vânia R N; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full-bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C for the microbiological stabilization of red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Fábio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional procedure for the control of the microbiological stability of wine consists of the addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2, which acts as an antimicrobial agent and also as an antioxidant. The search for alternative methods of microbiological control is important and necessary, since SO2 is a potential allergen and consumers are increasingly looking for healthier and preservative free products. Ultraviolet radiation was tested as an innovative technology that can help reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide used in winemaking. The object of this study was to optimize the process conditions compared to the results obtained previously, and to evaluate the efficiency of microbiological stabilization and its influence on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic composition and sensory profile. Thus, red wine with very low content of sulphur dioxide was subjected to UV-C radiation in two different doses 424J/l e 778J/l, and the preparation of a control wine was carried out to which 30 mg/l sulfur dioxide was added. The wines (control=UV0, UV1 and UV2 were analyzed over time (from 0 to 4 months. The results show that treatment with a lower dosage is effective in the microbiological control of the product. The wines subjected to treatment with UV-C showed an increase in intensity of colour, and the treatment does not affect the flavour and taste of the wine.

  6. The combined impact of vineyard origin and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    The combined effects of vineyard origin and winery processing have been studied in 65 red wines samples. Grapes originating from five different vineyards within 40 miles of each other were processed in at least two different wineries. Sixty-three different elements were determined with inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and wines were classified according to vineyard origin, processing winery, and the combination of both factors. Vineyard origin as well as winery processing have an impact on the elemental composition of wine, but each winery and each vineyard change the composition to a different degree. For some vineyards, wines showed a characteristic elemental pattern, independent of the processing winery, but the same was found for some wineries, with similar elemental pattern for all grapes processed in these wineries, independent of the vineyard origin. Studying the combined effects of grapegrowing and winemaking provides insight into the determination of geographical origin of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W.

    2015-01-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm 2 .s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  9. Utilization of Jamun Fruit (Syzygium cumini for Production of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant S. Patil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jamun (Syzygium cumini fruit was utilized for the production of red wine which is offering lot of health benefits by acting as an effective medicine. The alcohol content of wine varied from 6.62 to 10.25 depending upon the variable concentration of total soluble sugars (7.88 to 10.53% and varying levels of yeast (5, 10, 15 and 20%. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in the process of fermentation. The wine that had 8.22% alcohol obtained by fermentation with 10% yeast level, 8.18% TSS (Treatment T2 was considered to be the best acceptable when compared with others (T1, T3 and T4 Treatments. This wine was found to be the best by the panel members with respect to colour, taste, astringency and flavour. The wine that had 6.62% alcohol obtained by fermentation with 5% yeast level, 7.88% TSS was considered to be the least preferred and less acceptable when compared with others. No significant changes were observed in colour and clarity of wine obtained with 5% addition of yeast. However, with 5% addition of yeast, the taste, flavor and astringency attributes of wine were the least preferred when compared with others. The highest test score for taste, flavour and astringency properties was obtained for Treatment (T2. The time required for fermentation was 7 days at 28 ± 20C. The wine obtained with 15% (9.16% alcohol content and 20% (10.25% alcohol content yeast levels were found to have moderately acceptable scores.

  10. Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe

    2018-01-01

    To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that...

  11. Model of acceptance of a new type of beverage: application to natural sparkling red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Olarte; Jorge Pelegrín; Eva Reinares

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a traditional beverage with a saturated market, in which consumers are open to innovation. In this context, an innovative experience was launched to create a new natural sparkling red wine with a view to diversifying production and studying its acceptance. This paper uses an original acceptance model for new foods called the Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model. The model was tested on a sample of 500 Spanish consumers in a real-world test context and explains 64.1% of the intent...

  12. Heterogeneity in Red Wine Polyphenolic Contents Differentially Influences Alzheimer's Disease-type Neuropathology and Cognitive Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lap; Chen, Ling Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Talcott, Stephen T.; Ono, Kenjiro; Teplow, David; Humala, Nelson; Cheng, Alice; Percival, Susan S.; Ferruzzi, Mario; Janle, Elsa; Dickstein, Dara L.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2009-01-01

    We recently found that moderate consumption of two unrelated red wines generate from different grape species, a Cabernet Sauvignon and a muscadine wine that are characterized by distinct component composition of polyphenolic compounds, significantly attenuated the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type brain pathology and memory deterioration in a transgenic AD mouse model. Interestingly, our evidence suggests that the two red wines attenuated AD phenotypes through independent mechanisms. In particular, we previously found that treatment with Cabernet Sauvignon reduced the generation of AD-type amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. In contrast, evidence from our present study suggests that muscadine treatment attenuates Aβ neuropathology and Aβ-related cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice by interfering with the oligomerization of Aβ molecules to soluble high-molecular-weight Aβ oligomer species that are responsible for initiating a cascade of cellular events resulting in cognitive decline. Collectively, our observations suggest that distinct polyphenolic compounds from red wines may be bioavailable at the organism level and beneficially modulate AD phenotypes through multiple Aβ-related mechanisms. Results from these studies suggest the possibility of developing a “combination” of dietary polyphenolic compounds for AD prevention and/or therapy by modulating multiple Aβ-related mechanisms. PMID:19158422

  13. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Umiker, Nicole L.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO2, ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a......, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO2 in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (103-104 cfu/ml) along with lower...... populations of Saccharomyces (red grape juice and red wine incubated at two temperatures, 15 C and 21 C. Although Saccharomyces quickly dominated fermentations in grape juice, B1b and Q2 grew and eventually reached populations >105 cfu/ml. In wine, Q3 never entered logarithmic growth...

  14. Efficiency of population-dependent sulfite against Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Degueurce, Claudine; Julliat, Frédérique; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-11-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered as a spoilage yeast encountered mainly in red wine. It is able to reduce vinylphenols from phenolic acids to ethylphenols. These volatiles are responsible for the phenolic "Brett character" described as animal, farm, horse sweat and animal leather odors. Other molecules are responsible for organoleptic deviations described as "mousiness taint". SO 2 is the product most often used by winemakers to prevent B. bruxellensis growth. Usually, the recommended molecular dose of SO 2 (active SO 2 , mSO 2 ) is highly variable, from 0.3 to 0.8mg/L. But these doses do not take into account differences of strain resistance to sulfites or population levels. Moreover, SO 2 is known as a chemical stressor inducing a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of B. bruxellensis. These cells, which are non-detectable by plate counting, can lead to new contamination when the amount of sulfite decreases over time. Consequently, we first assessed the effect of SO 2 levels in red wine on two strains with phenotypically different sulfite resistances. Then, we studied the relationship between amounts of SO 2 (0, 0.5, 0.9 and 1.1mg/L active SO 2 ) and population levels (10 3 , 10 4 and 10 5 cells/mL) in red wine. Yeasts were enumerated by both plate counting and flow cytometry over time using viability dye. Our results showed different SO 2 resistances according to the strain used. A relationship between yeast population level and SO 2 resistance was demonstrated: the higher the yeast concentration, the lower the efficiency of SO 2 . Under certain conditions, the VBNC state of B. bruxellensis was highlighted in red wine. Yeasts in this VBNC state did not produce 4-EP. Moreover, cells became culturable again over time. All these results provide new information enabling better management of sulfite addition during wine aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) × Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (RP-LC-UV-MS) Analysis of Anthocyanins and Derived Pigments in Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Chandré M; Stander, Maria A; Vestner, Jochen; Tredoux, Andreas G J; de Villiers, André

    2015-12-15

    Changes in anthocyanin chemistry represent some of the most important transformations involved in red wine aging. However, accurate analysis of the derived pigments, as required to study the evolution of anthocyanins and tannins during aging, is hampered by their extreme structural diversity, low levels, and the fact that many of these compounds have identical mass spectral characteristics. In this context, chromatographic separation is critical. In this contribution, the application of online hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) separation coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) is described for the detailed characterization of anthocyanins and their derived pigments in aged red wine. A systematic approach was followed for the optimization of HILIC × RP-LC separation parameters using a capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system in the first dimension and an ultrahigh-pressure LC system in the second dimension to ensure maximum sensitivity and performance. Ninety four (94) anthocyanin-derived pigments were tentatively identified in one- and six-year-old Pinotage wines using accurate mass and fragmentation information obtained using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). Online HILIC × RP-LC-MS was found to offer high-resolution separation, because of the combination of two different separation modes, while the structured elution order observed improved the certainty in compound identification. Therefore, this approach shows promise for the detailed elucidation of the chemical alteration of anthocyanins during wine aging.

  16. The effect of inactivated yeast-based products on the process of wine aging, phenolic compounds and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malićanin Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keeping of red wine in bottles is very important for its maturation and quality. However, there are numerous changes that happen during that period, usually caused by oxidative processes and changes in structure and content of polyphenolic compounds. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Inactivated dry yeast (IDY products on aging, phenolics content, colour stability and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac (Serbian autochthonous variety. The treatment of wine was done by 3 different IDYP (Lallemand, Canada: Optimum White, Opti Less and Noblesse, applied as 0.2 g/L and 0.4 g /L during 15 days. Subsequently, wine clarification was done, followed by filtration and bottling. Untreated wines were used for comparison. Wine was subjected to accelerated aging (10 days at 55 ° C and also to normal aging conditions during one year. To determine the influence of IDYP following parameters were monitored: dissolved O2, free and total SO2, sugar free extract, content of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, percent of polymeric color, color tint, color intensity and sensory characteristics (Panel method. The obtained results clearly show that IDY products are good scavengers of oxygen and have a positive impact on wine quality preservation and its organoleptic characteristics. However, a slight decrease of polyphenols content was detected.

  17. Relationship between the sensory-determined astringency and the flavanolic composition of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Regueiro, Jorge; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Tomás, Esperanza; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2012-12-19

    The relationship between the proanthocyanidin profile and the perceived astringency was assessed in 13 commercial Tempranillo red wines. The concentration and compositional information were obtained by liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after acid-catalyzed depolymerization of wine proanthocyanidins in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant correlations between sensory and chemical determinations. Astringency was more affected by the subunit composition than by the total concentration or the average degree of polymerization of wine proanthocyanidins. Higher proportions of epicatechin (EC) subunits in extension positions and gallocatechin (GC) subunits in terminal positions were shown to increase astringency. On the contrary, the amount of epigallocatechin (EGC) in both extension and terminal positions was negatively correlated with the perceived astringency.

  18. Effect of commercial mannoprotein addition on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2008-10-08

    Commercially available mannoprotein preparations were tested in Tempranillo winemaking to determine their influence on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition. No effect was found in the content of grape arabinogalactans, homogalacturonans, and type II rhamnogalacturonans. In contrast, mannoprotein-treated samples showed considerably higher values of high-molecular-weight mannoproteins (bMP) than controls from the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, although these differences diminished as vinification progressed. The bMP decrease observed in the mannoprotein-treated samples coincided with a substantial reduction in their proanthocyanidin content and wine stable color, suggesting a precipitation of the coaggregates mannoprotein-tannin and mannoprotein-pigment. Contrary to what is widely described, these results revealed that at the studied conditions, mannoproteins did not act as stabilizing colloids. Mannoprotein addition did not modify the content and composition of either monomeric anthocyanins or other monomeric phenolics, and it did not affect monomeric anthocyanin color.

  19. Bentonite and Gelatine Impact on the Young Red Wine Coloured Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Jović

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of two fining agents (bentonite and gelatine on the coloured matters of young red wines Vranac, Pinot Noir and Gamay Noir. Both agents caused decrease in these substances. The effect is more intensive with the dose of bentonite of 1 g/L, but the variability depends on variety. Higher decrease was found in the colour intensity, coloured anthocyanins and polymers (up to 44 %, but lower in the colourless anthocyanins (up to 20 %. The intensity of red and blue colours decreases, while that of yellow colour increases. The use of bentonite in dosages higher than those recommended may cause the wine to obtain more pronounced »brick red« colour (the colour tint increases while the value of the spectrum form decreases. Fewer changes occurred in the coloured matters after treating the wine with gelatine. The colour intensity, colourless and coloured anthocyanins showed a decrease of up to 10 % and polymers of up to 16 %. The intensity of yellow colour decreases, while that of red increases as well as the ΔA/% value.

  20. Effect of fermentation conditions on content of phenolic compounds in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of compounds that increase the nutritive value of red wines has been presented in a number of papers. These compounds include catechins and proanthocyanidins among others. Their protective effect on the cardiovascular system and anticarcinogenic properties has been proved. The effect of maceration conditions and increased solid grape parts content, seed in the first place, on the content of phenolic compounds of wine was investigated. Several micro-trials were performed with Cabernet sauvignon sort; in some variants time and temperature of maceration were varied, while the ratio of residual stem and content of seed was increased several times, resulting in a significant change of phenolic compounds content in the obtained wine samples. The presence of ripe stem yielded good results, but only during six days of maceration, while in the case of longer maceration, the change of colour quality was negative. Supplementary quantities of seeds during maceration resulted in an increase of total phenols and catechins. A significant influence on colour of wines was also observed, especially in wines obtained applying shorter maceration.

  1. Effects of Vinification Techniques Combined with UV-C Irradiation on Phenolic Contents of Red Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaz, Hande; Söylemezoğlu, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    Red wines are typically high in phenolic and antioxidant capacity and both of which can be increased by vinification techniques. This study employed 3 vinification techniques to assess the increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Wines were obtained from Boğazkere grape cultivar by techniques of classical maceration, cold maceration combined with ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, and thermovinification combined with UV irradiation and changes in phenolic contents were examined. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of wines were measured spectrophotometrically and phenolic contents (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and cis-resveratrol were measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). As a result of the study, the highest phenolic content except for quercetin was measured in the wines obtained by thermovinification combined with UV irradiation. We demonstrated that the highest phenolic compounds with health effect, total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity were obtained from thermovinification with UV-C treatment than classical wine making. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. A novel preparation technique of red (sparkling wine for protein analysis

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    Elisabeth I. Vogt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low concentration, proteins can influence several key enological parameters such as foam stability or haze formation in (sparkling wine. Most studies focus on white (sparkling wine since the higher content of phenolic compounds in red wines impairs proteomic research. The aim of the study was the development of a method for the preparation of red (sparkling wine proteins for proteomic analysis. Three methods of sample preparation were assessed on silver stained SDS-PAGE gels and with MALDI-TOF MS. Our new method was highly suitable for the preparation of proteins for the aforementioned applications. The results showed a substantial increase in signal intensity with a simultaneous decrease in background noise. The preparation protocol consists of (i dialysis and freeze drying of the sample, (ii removal of phenolic compounds by water-saturated phenol and (iii protein precipitation by addition of ammonium acetate. Employment of this method followed by SDS-PAGE analysis allowed for silver stained gels with diminished background or streaking and clearly resolved protein bands. Analysis of spectra obtained from samples prepared according to the proposed protocol showed increased intensity and signal-to-noise ratio in MALDI-TOF MS. Furthermore it was demonstrated that this method can be applied to various kinds of grape products.

  3. Taste and mouthfeel properties of red wines proanthocyanidins and their relation to the chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2013-09-18

    The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the in-mouth sensory properties of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and its chemical composition. To achieve such a goal, the proanthocyanidin fraction from six different young commercial red wines was obtained by gel permeation chromatography. A sensory panel, selected on the basis of their PROP status and trained in taste and mouthfeel sensations, described both the wines and fractions. MALDI-TOF-MS and UPLC-MS were used to identify thoroughly the polyphenolic composition of each proanthocyanidin fraction. The results showed that the PAs fractions were exclusively described as astringent and persistent. The astringent subqualities studied (velvety and puckering/drying) were mainly related to the quantity of proanthocyanidins and the proportion of the extension flavanol units linked to proanthocyanidins. A significant negative correlation was found between both of the astringencies (velvety and puckering/drying). Furthermore, both subqualities appeared to contribute to the persistence. A significant correlation was observed between the astringency and the persistence data of the wines and fractions. Significant multiple linear regressions were found between the sensory astringency data and the chemical compounds analyzed. The concentration of proanthocyanidins present in young red wines is the major determinant of the differences perceived in the astringency. Additionally, the extension flavanol units linked to the proanthocyanidins seem to have a different impact on the astringent subqualities.

  4. Electrochemical Evaluation of trans-Resveratrol Levels in Red Wine Based on the Interaction between Resveratrol and Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lantao; Zhou, Yanli; Kang, Yiyu; Huang, Haihong; Li, Congming; Xu, Maotian; Ye, Baoxian

    2017-01-01

    trans-Resveratrol is often considered as one of the quality standards of red wine, and the development of a sensitive and reliable method for monitoring the trans-resveratrol levels in red wine is an urgent requirement for the quality control. Here, a novel voltammetric approach was described for probing trans-resveratrol using a graphene-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The proposed electrode was prepared by one-step electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) at a GC electrode....

  5. Contribution of non-volatile and aroma fractions to in-mouth sensory properties of red wines: wine reconstitution strategies and sensory sorting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Avizcuri, José Miguel; Valentin, Dominique; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-06-30

    This work explores to what extent the aroma or the non-volatile fractions of red wines are responsible for the overall flavor differences perceived in-mouth. For this purpose, 14 samples (4 commercial and 10 reconstituted wines), were sorted by a panel of 30 trained assessors according to their sensory in-mouth similarities. Reconstituted wines were prepared by adding the same volatile fraction (coming from a red wine) to the non-volatile fraction of 10 different red wines showing large differences in perceived astringency. Sorting was performed under three different conditions: (a) no aroma perception: nose-close condition (NA), (b) retronasal aroma perception only (RA), and (c) allowing retro- and involuntary orthonasal aroma perception (ROA). Similarity estimates were derived from the sorting and submitted to multidimensional scaling (MDS) followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Results have clearly shown that, globally, aroma perception is not the major driver of the in-mouth sensory perception of red wine, which is undoubtedly primarily driven by the perception of astringency and by the chemical compounds causing it, particularly protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PAs). However, aroma perception plays a significant role on the perception of sweetness and bitterness. The impact of aroma seems to be more important whenever astringency, total polyphenols and protein precipitable PAs levels are smaller. Results also indicate that when a red-black fruit odor nuance is clearly perceived in conditions in which orthonasal odor perception is allowed, a strong reduction in astringency takes place. Such red-black fruit odor nuance seems to be the result of a specific aroma release pattern as a consequence of the interaction between aroma compounds and the non-volatile matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose. PMID:26078708

  7. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Louise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status.

  8. Sequencing of red wine proanthocyanidins by UHPLC-ESI-Q-ToF

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    Adéline Delcambre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dimers of proanthocyanidins with four monomeric units and two distinct linkages are detected and tentatively identified for the first time in Merlot red wine variety without sample preparation. These compounds were characterized by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry in negative mode. Fragments ions derived from retro-Diels Alder, heterocyclic ring fission and quinone methide were detected in targeted MS/MS mode and then assigned by using well-known theoretical fragmentation pathways. The sequencing of these compounds was correlated with the theoretical numbers of oligomers established by mathematical relationship taking in consideration the four monomeric units, the interflavan bond and the ether bond. Our analytical method allows the identification of twenty B-type dimers and twelve A-type dimers in red wine.

  9. Pallidol, a resveratrol dimer from red wine, is a selective singlet oxygen quencher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shan; Jiang Liyan; Wu Bin; Pan Yuanjiang; Sun Cuirong

    2009-01-01

    Pallidol is a naturally occurring resveratrol dimer from red wine with antioxidant and antifungal activities. In this report, with the use of the EPR spin-trapping technique, the scavenging and quenching effects of pallidol on reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The results demonstrated that pallidol showed strong quenching effects on singlet oxygen at very low concentrations, but it was ineffective to scavenge hydroxyl radicals or superoxide anions. Further kinetic study revealed that the reaction of pallidol with singlet oxygen had an extremely high rate constant (k a = 1.71 x 10 10 ). Therefore, pallidol is a potent and selective singlet oxygen quencher in aqueous systems. It may be used in singlet oxygen-mediated diseases as a pharmacological agent, which may contribute to the health beneficial effects of red wine.

  10. Influence of different phenolic fractions on red wine astringency based on polyphenol/protein binding

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, M.; Wang, X.; Du, G.; Tian, C.; Zhang, J.; Song, X.; Zhu, D.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of phenolic compounds can make a great contribution to the perception of astringency in red wines based on their interactions with proteins. Human salivary protein and bovine serum albumin were used in this study to investigate the relationship between astringency and polyphenol composition. The interactions between polyphenols and proteins were analysed by means of electrophoresis and fluorescence spectra, and they were further confirmed by sensory analysis. The results indicate...

  11. Effect of flash release treatment on phenolic extraction and wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Salmi, Cécile; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Bes, Magali; Cheynier, Véronique

    2006-06-14

    The flash release (FR) process, consisting of rapidly heating the grapes and then applying strong vacuum, has been proposed to increase the polyphenol content of red wines. Its impact on polyphenol extraction kinetics and on the polyphenol composition of red juice and wines was studied over two seasons on different grape varieties (Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan). The FR process allows fast extraction of all phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins) and can be used to produce polyphenol-enriched grape juices. However, the concentration of all polyphenols dramatically decreased throughout fermentation when pressing was achieved immediately after FR. The FR wines made with pomace maceration were also enriched in polyphenols compared to the corresponding control wines. Increasing the duration of high-temperature exposure in the FR treatment further increased extraction of phenolic compounds but also accelerated their conversion to derived species. The tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio was particularly low in the wine fermented in the liquid phase, higher after FR than in the control, and even higher after longer heating. FR resulted in an increased tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio and an increased conversion of anthocyanins to tannin-anthocyanin adducts showing the same color properties as anthocyanins. The tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio was particularly low in the wine fermented in the liquid phase that also contained larger amounts of orange sulfite bleaching-resistant pigments.

  12. The effect of prefermentative addition of gallic acid and ellagic acid on the red wine color, copigmentation and phenolic profiles during wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; He, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Reeves, Malcolm J; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Xu; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-04-01

    Though non-anthocyanin phenolics normally do not have red color, they affect the red color expression in the copigmentation of red wines. In this study, the influence of prefermentative addition of 300mg/L gallic acid and ellagic acid, as cofactors, on aging dry red wines had been systematically evaluated at the industrial scales from the perspectives of color, phenolic profiles and copigmentation effects of anthocyanins. Red wines made with these two compounds exhibited better color properties than the control, having better CIELAB chromatic parameters. Additionally, significantly higher levels of detectable anthocyanins and copigmented anthocyanin ratio had been observed. Wines with ellagic acid showed better chromatic properties and phenolic profiles than wines with gallic acid, as shown in previous theoretical results. Anti-copigmentation phenomenon was noticed and elucidated. These practical results confirmed that ellagic acid was the better cofactor, and would give more additional guidance for the production of high quality wine. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,652); Petunidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,651); Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,650); Peonidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,654); Ellagic acid (PubChem CID: 5,281,855); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 443,654); Caffeic acid (PubChem CID: 689,043); (+)-catechin (PubChem CID: 9064); Vanillic acid (PubChem CID: 8468). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Merlot grapes was -1.94%, which is lower than any of the bottled wines measured, thus far, whether white or red. The wine made from this juice yielded -1.16%, which points to fermentation being the principal source of isotopic variability found in bottled wine. The working hypothesis is that light isotopes of Ca are preferentially stripped from the juice during maceration, fermentation, and lees contact, by ion exchange sites on solid organic-matter comprising the skins and yeast and/or by Ca-tartrate precipitation. High quality wines (especially reds) tend to involve longer contact times between juice and skins in order to increase the extraction of color and phenolic compounds (tannins) from the grape skins, a practice that might also result in greater losses of light isotopes of Ca from the juice, thus explaining the isotopic pattern in bottled wine.

  14. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

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    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically

  15. Red wine alcohol promotes quercetin absorption and directs its metabolism towards isorhamnetin and tamarixetin in rat intestine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Stefania; Gee, Jennifer; Bennett, Richard; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2006-04-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with beneficial effects on human health, and this has been attributed to the flavonoid content. Factors that influence the bioavailability of this group of polyphenolic compounds are therefore important. Using the rat cannulated everted jejunal sac technique, we have investigated the effect of alcohol on the intestinal absorption of quercetin and its 3-O-glucoside from red wine. Tissue preparations were incubated in whole or dealcoholised red wine, diluted 1 : 1 with Krebs buffer for 20 min at 37 degrees C, after which the mucosa was removed and processed for HPLC analysis. Tissues exposed to red wine had significantly higher amounts of both quercetin (x 3; P wine, were significantly elevated approximately two fold (P moderate alcohol content of red wine contributes to its beneficial health effects in humans by both increasing the absorption of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside and by channelling their metabolism towards O-methylation to yield compounds (T and I), which have potential protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  18. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  19. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  20. Red wine produced from the Isabella and Ives cultivar (Vitis Labrusca: profile of volatiles and aroma descriptors

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    Narciza Maria de Oliveira ARCANJO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the potential consumption and economic the importance that Isabella and Ives wines represent in the Brazilian consumer market as well as the scarcity of scientific data examining their quality, the objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality and the volatiles profile of these wines. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and a total of 54 compounds were detected in red wine samples including esters (23, terpenes (12, alcohols (10, aldehydes and ketones (5 and amines (1 as well as 3 compounds belonging to other classes. Isabella and Ives red wines were sensorially characterized by 14 descriptors, through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. The PCAs fruity descriptors were the primary contributors to the aroma profile of the analyzed wines due to the presence of ethyl acetate and esters, especially in the wine coded as QM, which exhibited the highest variety of compounds. The differences observed in the principal components analysis, might have been influenced by the grape composition of each wine. Although the wines were from the same region, each came from a different winery and was subject to unique production processes.

  1. Effect of Saccharomyces strains on the quality of red wines aged on lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loira, I; Vejarano, R; Morata, A; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M; Laureano, O; González, M C; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2013-08-15

    Ageing on lees involves ageing the wine in contact with yeast cells after fermentation. If combined with the addition of oak chips, it can soften the wood flavour and increase the aromatic complexity of wine. The aim of the present work is to optimise both ageing techniques through selection of an adequate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The study lasted 6 months and content of polysaccharides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, volatile compounds, colour parameters and sensory analysis, were periodically evaluated. Among the strains tested, G37 showed the highest release of polysaccharides (24.4±5.5 mg l(-1)). Vanillin, syringaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol increased with ageing time in 7VA2 treatment. The wine aged with CTPL14 strain presented fewer monomeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (12.4±0.6 and 83.4±8.3 mg l(-1), respectively), and showed the lowest astringency and bitterness sensations. Results show an improvement in the sensory profile of the red wine aged with a combination of these two techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  3. Influence of Brettanomyces ethylphenols on red wine aroma evaluated by consumers in the United States and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Megan R; Chandra, Mahesh; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Ross, Carolyn F

    2017-10-01

    Brettanomyces may add complexity to wine at low concentrations but at high concentrations, can result in objectionable wines. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations at which consumers from two different locations were able to detect Brettanomyces volatile compounds present in a red wine. A red wine blend, used in both countries, was spiked to create five treatments containing different concentrations of 4-ethylphenol (4-EP), 4-ethylguiacol (4-EG), and 4-ethylcatechol (4-EC) in a 5:1:1 ratio, respectively. These treatments were evaluated by consumers in the United States and Portugal (n=121) using a difference from control test. Consumers were also classified as having low, medium, or high wine knowledge. Among the spiked samples, the greatest degree of difference was found between the second and third treatments, corresponding to reported detection and recognition threshold ranges of 4-EP and 4-EG. For some treatments, consumers from Portugal classified in the medium or high knowledge level reported significantly higher mean differences from the control than those in the low knowledge group (p<0.05). Results demonstrated consumers' ability to detect differences in red wines due to Brettanomyces volatile compounds. Results provide useful context on how wine knowledge and cultural variants may affect the detection of Brettanomyces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tartaric acid in red wine as one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe0.8S0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Keita; Okuda, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Demura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tohru; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Masaya; Denholme, Saleem James; Ozaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Saito, Fumie; Hisamoto, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the key factor of superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx induced by alcoholic beverages. To understand the reason why red wine shows larger shielding volume fraction than the other alcoholic beverages, the red wine dependence of superconductivity was performed. All the samples heated in red wine made from different grapes shows large shielding volume fraction compared with the samples heated in water and other alcoholic beverages. The shielding volume fraction of the red wine samples is proportional to the concentration of tartaric acid. We found that tartaric acid is one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx.

  5. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

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    Xi Chu

    Full Text Available Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells, and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV. Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively. Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  6. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities. PMID:26625122

  7. Differential protective effects of red wine polyphenol extracts (RWEs) on colon carcinogenesis.

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    Mazué, Frédéric; Delmas, Dominique; Murillo, Genoveva; Saleiro, Diana; Limagne, Emeric; Latruffe, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Various epidemiological studies have shown that a regular and moderate consumption of red wine is correlated with a decreased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and cancer. These health benefits are commonly attributed to high contents of polyphenols, particularly resveratrol, representing important sources of antioxidants. However, resveratrol does not seem to be the only bioactive compound present in the wine which contains numerous other polyphenols. The present study investigates the efficiency of red wine extracts (RWEs), containing different polyphenols, on colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo. Proliferation, cell cycle analysis and incidence of ACF were monitored to examine the effects of RWEs. RWEs derived from a long vinification process exhibit superior anti-proliferative activity in colon cancer cells and prevent the appearance of ACF in mice. Interestingly, quercetin and resveratrol, representing two major bio-active polyphenols, exhibit synergistic anti-proliferative effects. These data suggest that the efficacy of RWEs on colon carcinogenesis may depend on the polyphenolic content, synergistic interaction of bio-active polyphenols and modulation of cellular uptake of polyphenols.

  8. Isolation of proanthocyanidins from red wine, and their inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in vitro.

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    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Mori, Shoko; Horikawa, Manabu; Fukui, Yuko

    2018-05-15

    The red wines made from Vitis vinifera were identified as skin-whitening effectors by using in vitro assays. OPCs in the wine were evaluated for tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed in fractions with high oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) content. Among OPC dimers, a strong inhibitory effect on tyrosinase was observed with OPCs which contain (+)-catechin as an upper unit. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect was observed with OPCs which have (-)-epicatechin as upper units. Also, OPC trimers, upper and middle units joined with 4 → 8 bonds, showed stronger effects compared to trimers with 4 → 6 linkages. Interestingly, (-)-epicatechin-(4β → 8)-(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, which is a unique component of grapes has potent inhibitory effects on both tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Our data provide structural information about such active compounds. These results suggest that red wines containing OPC, have high melanogenesis inhibitory effect and are supposed to have skin-whitening effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electricity generation using white and red wine lees in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe Sciarria, Tommy; Merlino, Giuseppe; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Mecheri, Barbara; Borin, Sara; Licoccia, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a useful biotechnology to produce electrical energy from different organic substrates. This work reports for the first time results of the application of single chamber MFCs to generate electrical energy from diluted white wine (WWL) and red wine (RWL) lees. Power obtained was of 8.2 W m-3 (262 mW m-2; 500 Ω) and of 3.1 W m-3 (111 mW m-2; 500Ω) using white and red wine lees, respectively. Biological processes lead to a reduction of chemical oxygen (TCOD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) of 27% and 83% for RWL and of 90% and 95% for WWL, respectively. These results depended on the degradability of organic compounds contained, as suggest by BOD5/TCOD of WWL (0.93) vs BOD5/TCOD of RWL (0.33), and to the high presence of polyphenols in RWL that inhibited the process. Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 15 ± 0%, for WWL, was in line with those reported in the literature for other substrates, i.e. CE of 14.9 ± 11.3%. Different substrates led to different microbial consortia, particularly at the anode. Bacterial species responsible for the generation of electricity, were physically connected to the electrode, where the direct electron transfer took place.

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Three Red Wine Polyphenols and Their Mixtures: An Interaction Study

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    Elena Kurin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known antioxidant activity of red wine is explained mostly by its polyphenols content, where the final effect is based on the wine components’ interaction. The aim of our work was the study of the interaction of three red wine polyphenols—quercetin, resveratrol and caffeic acid—alone and in their equimolar binary and ternary mixtures in different antioxidant/scavenging assays (inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation by hydroxyl radical, FRAP, Fe(III reducing power, DPPH, ABTS and NO scavenging, respectively. Interaction analysis, based on median effect equation, was performed for the determination of synergy and/or antagonism. The obtained results indicate that the mutual interactions of tested polyphenols in their mixtures are markedly different from each other, depending on the reaction mechanism of the assay used. The measured antioxidant activity of individual polyphenols is not a constant value when other substances are present in the mixture with this polyphenol. Interactions can cause the finally observed synergy/antagonism/additive effects without any possibility of predicting them from the known activities of single compounds. This “unpredictability” claim based on in vitro assay results should be very important in multiple systems and processes in Nature, where the interactions among compounds in mixtures need to be take into account.

  11. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol profile of Vranac red wines from Balkan region

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    Mitić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the radical-scavenging properties (measured by evaluating the quenching of the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil radical of Serbian, Macedonian and Montenegran red wine Vranac of different geographical origins, and their contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids and polyphenol profile. All tested Vranac wines samples showed a high antioxidant activity ranging from 13.00 to 15.02 mmol/L, while the total polyphenolic content was between 3478.70 and 3935.19 mg/L. The predominant anthocyanin was malvidin-3-glucoside (179.04-281.31 mg/L, predominant flavonol was quercetin-3-glucoronide (5.88-11.78 mg/L, predominant flavan-3-ol was catechin (24.43 - 76.78 mg/L and predominant hydroxicinnamic acid was t-caftaric acid (13.46-38.56 mg/L. Generally, red wines Vranac produced from Balkan regions are a rich source of phenolics, which the evident antioxidant capacity showed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174007 i br. TR31060

  12. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  13. Red wine and component flavonoids inhibit UGT2B17 in vitro

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    Jenkinson Carl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism and excretion of the anabolic steroid testosterone occurs by glucuronidation to the conjugate testosterone glucuronide which is then excreted in urine. Alterations in UGT glucuronidation enzyme activity could alter the rate of testosterone excretion and thus its bioavailability. The aim of this study is to investigate if red wine, a common dietary substance, has an inhibitory effect on UGT2B17. Methods Testosterone glucuronidation was assayed using human UGT2B17 supersomes with quantification of unglucuronidated testosterone over time using HPLC with DAD detection. The selected red wine was analyzed using HPLC; and the inhibitory effects of the wine and phenolic components were tested independently in a screening assay. Further analyses were conducted for the strongest inhibitors at physiologically relevant concentrations. Control experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the ethanol on UGT2B17. Results Over the concentration range of 2 to 8%, the red wine sample inhibited the glucuronidation of testosterone by up to 70% over 2 hours. The ethanol content had no significant effect. Three red wine phenolics, identified by HPLC analyses, also inhibited the enzyme by varying amounts in the order of quercetin (72%, caffeic acid (22% and gallic acid (9%; using a ratio of phenolic:testosterone of 1:2.5. In contrast p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid had no effect on the UGT2B17. The most active phenolic was selected for a detailed study at physiologically relevant concentrations, and quercetin maintained inhibitory activity of 20% at 2 μM despite a ten-fold excess of testosterone. Conclusion This study reports that in an in vitro supersome-based assay, the key steroid-metabolizing enzyme UGT2B17 is inhibited by a number of phenolic dietary substances and therefore may reduce the rate of testosterone glucuronidation in vivo. These results highlight the potential interactions of a number of common

  14. Rapid assay of resveratrol in red wine by paper spray tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donna, Leonardo; Taverna, Domenico; Indelicato, Serena; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Fabio

    2017-08-15

    A rapid analytical approach for the assay of resveratrol in red wines, based on Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry (PS-MS) and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is described. The assay involves the use of the stable isotope dilution method. The analytical parameters calculated analyzing fortified samples confirm the reliability of the proposed approach, with accuracy values about 100%, and LOD and LOQ values calculated at 0.5 and 0.8μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, both the recovery, which was quantitative for the analyte, and the reproducibility (RSD%), checked on different days on the same wine, always below 7%, highlighted the consistency of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resveratrol and Alzheimer’s disease: message in a bottle on red wine and cognition

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    Alberto eGranzotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is the final outcome of a complex network of molecular mechanisms ultimately leading to dementia. Despite major efforts aimed at unraveling the molecular determinants of dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT, effective disease-modifying approaches are still missing. An interesting and still largely unexplored avenue is offered by nutraceutical intervention. For instance, robust epidemiological data have suggested that moderate intake of red wine may protect against several age-related pathological conditions (i.e.: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer as well as DAT-related cognitive decline. Wine is highly enriched in many polyphenols, including resveratrol. Resveratrol is a well recognized antioxidant which may modulate metal ion deregulation outcomes as well as main features of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD brain. The review will discuss the potentiality of resveratrol as a neuroprotectant in dementia in relation to the oxidative stress produced by amyloid and metal dysmetabolism.

  16. Analysis of polymeric phenolics in red wines using different techniques combined with gel permeation chromatography fractionation.

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    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Soldevilla, Alberto; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ayestarán, Belén

    2006-04-21

    A multiple-step analytical method was developed to improve the analysis of polymeric phenolics in red wines. With a common initial step based on the fractionation of wine phenolics by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), different analytical techniques were used: high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and spectrophotometry. This method proved to be valid for analyzing different families of phenolic compounds, such as monomeric phenolics and their derivatives, polymeric pigments and proanthocyanidins. The analytical characteristics of fractionation by GPC were studied and the method was fully validated, yielding satisfactory statistical results. GPC fractionation substantially improved the analysis of polymeric pigments by CZE, in terms of response, repeatability and reproducibility. It also represented an improvement in the traditional vanillin assay used for proanthocyanidin (PA) quantification. Astringent proanthocyanidins were also analyzed using a simple combined method that allowed these compounds, for which only general indexes were available, to be quantified.

  17. A procedure for the measurement of Oxygen Consumption Rates (OCRs) in red wines and some observations about the influence of wine initial chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2018-05-15

    The rates at which wine consumes oxygen are important technological parameters for whose measurement there are not accepted procedures. In this work, volumes of 8 wines are contacted with controlled volumes of air in air-tight tubes containing oxygen-sensors and are further agitated at 25 °C until O 2 consumption is complete. Three exposure levels of O 2 were used: low (10 mg/L) and medium or high (18 or 32 mg/L plus the required amount to oxidize all wine SO 2 ). In each oxygen level, 2-4 independent segments following pseudo-first order kinetics were identified, plus an initial segment at which wine consumed O 2 very fast. Overall, multivariate data techniques identify six different Oxygen-Consumption-Rates (OCRs) as required to completely define wine O 2 consumption. Except the last one, all could be modeled from the wine initial chemical composition. Total acetaldehyde, Mn, Cu/Fe, blue and red pigments and gallic acid seem to be essential to determine these OCRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  19. Influence of the use of selected and non-selected yeasts in red wine production

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    Daniela Dorneles

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae selected varieties in the elaboration of Terci red wine from Colombo. The winemaking method followed the classic red wine vinification system and the samples were analyzed according to the official table wine methods. The assays performed showed differences mainly over volatile acids, acetaldehyde, esters and methanol contents, confirming that the use of selected yeasts contributed on improving the wine quality.Dentre os diferentes tipos de vinho, o vinho proveniente de Vitis labrusca ainda é o mais consumido no Brasil. Seu preparo em pequenas vinícolas envolve antigas tradições que acarretam características indesejáveis e imprevisíveis à bebida. Em Colombo (Paraná, Brasil são cultivados anualmente 130 hectares de videiras, produzindo 1300 toneladas de uvas comuns do gênero Vitis labrusca e 800.000 L/ano de vinho artesanal de mesa, sem nenhum procedimento padronizado, como o uso de leveduras selvagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência do uso de variedades selecionadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae na elaboração de vinho tinto com uva Terci, proveniente do município de Colombo. A técnica de preparo dos vinhos seguiu o sistema clássico de vinificação para vinhos tintos e as amostras foram analisadas de acordo com os métodos oficiais. Os resultados demonstraram diferenças nas amostras, principalmente em relação aos teores de acidez volátil, acetaldeído, ésteres e metanol, comprovando que com a utilização de leveduras selecionadas contribui para melhorar os parâmetros de qualidade e padronização do vinho.

  20. The Use of Grape Seed Byproducts Rich in Flavonoids to Improve the Antioxidant Potential of Red Wines

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    María José Jara-Palacios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adding seeds from grape pomace during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been studied. Seeds of Pedro Ximenez variety were rich in phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids such as catechin and procyanidins. Changes in total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity of red wines were observed. These changes depended on the vinification stage and the amount of seeds (SW: 450 g or DW: 900 g seeds/150 kg grapes applied. In general, antioxidant activity was greater when a simple dose (SW was considered. Results indicate that seeds rich in flavonoids could be used as wine additives, which could improve the antioxidant potential of red wines in a warm climate.

  1. Red wine and green tea reduce H pylori- or VacA-induced gastritis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Paolo; Rossi, Giacomo; Tombola, Francesco; Pancotto, Laura; Lauretti, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Zoratti, Mario

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether red wine and green tea could exert anti-H pylori or anti-VacA activity in vivo in a mouse model of experimental infection. METHODS: Ethanol-free red wine and green tea concentrates were administered orally as a mixture of the two beverages to H pylori infected mice, or separately to VacA-treated mice. Gastric colonization and gastric inflammation were quantified by microbiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: In H pylori-infected mice, the red wine and green tea mixture significantly prevented gastritis and limited the localization of bacteria and VacA to the surface of the gastric epithelium. Similarly, both beverages significantly prevented gastric epithelium damage in VacA-treated mice; green tea, but not red wine, also altered the VacA localization in the gastric epithelium. CONCLUSION: Red wine and green tea are able to prevent H pylori-induced gastric epithelium damage, possibly involving VacA inhibition. This observation supports the possible relevance of diet on the pathological outcome of H pylori infection. PMID:17230601

  2. Resveratrol and Red Wine Function as Antioxidants in the Nervous System without Cellular Proliferative Effects during Experimental Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Merlo, Suélen; Souto, André Arigony; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Gomez, Rosane; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg), resveratrol (20 mg/kg) or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status. PMID:21307644

  3. Resveratrol and Red Wine Function as Antioxidants in the Nervous System without Cellular Proliferative Effects during Experimental Diabetes

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    Carina Duarte Venturini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg, resveratrol (20 mg/kg or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status.

  4. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  5. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. Objective To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Design Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Results Screening of ~150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ~1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Conclusions Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. PMID:24052273

  6. Identification and quantification of stilbenes in some Tunisian red wines using UPLC-MS and HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Arraki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven Tunisian red wines mainly from the Mornag appellation were analyzed for resveratrol and analogues. The wines of each variety were evaporated, concentrated, and then subjected to fractionation and purification using XAD16 and DOWEX column chromatography. In addition to resveratrol, seven stilbenes were identified by UPLC-MS. The stilbenes derived were shown to be piceatannol, piceid, a-viniferin, e-viniferin, hopeaphenol and isohopeaphenol. From the point of view of the presence of resveratrol derivatives, one wine, Sidi Zahia, was the richest qualitatively.

  7. Impact of eight closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of two (red and rosé) wines

    OpenAIRE

    Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of closure are two key factors of the shelf life of bottled wines before bringing them to market. The impact of eight closures (four screw caps, two synthetic stoppers and two technical stoppers) was evaluated on a red Merlot/Tannat wine. The results of a rosé wine are also discussed. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out over 538 days of storage at 20°C,...

  8. An automatic flow injection analysis procedure for photometric determination of ethanol in red wine without using a chromogenic reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sivanildo S; Frizzarin, Rejane M; Reis, Boaventura F

    2006-05-01

    An automatic reagentless photometric procedure for the determination of ethanol in red wine is described. The procedure was based on a falling drop system that was implemented by employing a flow injection analysis manifold. The detection system comprised an infrared LED and a phototransistor. The experimental arrangement was designed to ensure that the wine drop grew between these devices, thus causing a decrease in the intensity of the radiation beam coming from the LED. Since ethanol content affected the size of the wine drop this feature was exploited to develop an analytical procedure for the photometric determination of ethanol in red wine without using a chromogenic reagent. In an attempt to prove the usefulness of the proposed procedure, a set of red wines were analysed. No significant difference between our results and those obtained with a reference method was observed at the 95% confidence level. Other advantages of our method were a linear response ranging from 0.17 up to 5.14 mol L(-1) (1.0 up to 30.0%) ethanol (R = 0.999); a limit of detection of 0.05 mol L(-1) (0.3%) ethanol; a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (n = 10) using typical wine sample containing 2.14 mol L(-1) (12.5%) ethanol; and a sampling rate of 50 determinations per hour.

  9. Changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine: a human trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of moderate consumption of red wine to modulate the intestinal inflammation response on healthy humans. Fecal samples from a human intervention study (n=34 were collected before and after consumption of red wine for 4 weeks, and 24 immune markers including immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, were analysed. When considering the whole group of case volunteers, almost no statistically significant differences were found in the immune markers after wine consumption. However, a detailed exploration of the values differentiated a 6-volunteer subgroup that showed unusually high values of cytokines before wine consumption. For this subgroup, wine consumption significantly reduced the content of 16 out of 24 markers down to usual values, especially noticeable for cytokines related to the promotion of initial inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma. This study reveals, for the first time, changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine.

  10. Role of Pigments and Tannins in the Reaction of Tan and Red Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) plant pigments have been associated with resistance to leaf diseases and grain deterioration. Four near-isogenic pairs of tan and non-tan (red) sorghum lines were assayed for their phenolic content and evaluated for their reaction to leaf diseases along with six other sorghum lines.

  11. Red Wine Inhibits Aggregation and Increases ATP-diphosphohydrolase (CD39) Activity of Rat Platelets in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Idolo; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ialenti, Armando; Cicala, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to exert a peculiar cardioprotective effect compared with other alcoholic beverages; inhibition of platelet aggregation seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. CD39/ATP-diphosphohydrolase is an integral membrane glycoprotein metabolizing ATP and ADP to AMP; in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase, it contributes to extracellular adenosine accumulation. CD39 is considered a key modulator of thrombus formation; it inhibits platelet aggregation by promoting ADP hydrolysis. There is evidence that red wine consumption increases CD39 activity in platelets from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Here we show that two kinds of Aglianico red wines inhibit aggregation and increase ATP--and ADPase activity in rat platelets.

  12. Fast and sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in red wine by nanoparticle-enhanced SPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Hageneder, Simone; Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Dostálek, Jakub; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-21

    Herein, we present a fast and sensitive biosensor for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in a red wine that utilizes gold nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By combining an indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay and signal enhancement by secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), highly sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds (such as OTA) was achieved. The reported biosensor allowed for OTA detection at concentrations as low as 0.75 ng mL(-1) and its limit of detection was improved by more than one order of magnitude to 0.068 ng mL(-1) by applying AuNPs as a signal enhancer. The study investigates the interplay of size of AuNPs and affinity of recognition elements affecting the efficiency of the signal amplification strategy based on AuNP. Furthermore, we observed that the presence of polyphenolic compounds in wine samples strongly interferes with the affinity binding on the surface. To overcome this limitation, a simple pre-treatment of the wine sample with the binding agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was successfully applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Orosensory-directed identification of astringent mouthfeel and bitter-tasting compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-02-27

    Application of sequential solvent extraction, followed by HPLC combined with the taste dilution analysis, enabled the localization of the most intense velvety astringent, drying, and puckering astringent, as well as bitter-tasting, compounds in red wine, respectively. Isolation of the taste components involving gel adsorption chromatography, ultrafiltration, and synthesis revealed the identification of 26 sensory-active nonvolatiles, among which several hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavon-3-ol glycosides, and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides as well as a structurally undefined polymeric fraction (>5 kDa) were identified as the key astringent components. In contradiction to literature suggestions, flavan-3-ols were found to be not of major importance for astringency and bitter taste, respectively. Surprisingly, a series of hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl esters and hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters were identified as bitter compounds in wine. Taste qualities and taste threshold concentrations of the individual wine components were determined by means of a three-alternative forced-choice test and the half-mouth test, respectively.

  14. Proanthocyanidin screening by LC-ESI-MS of Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Natércia; Azevedo, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one of the most important polyphenolic compounds in wine. Among PAs, prodelphinidin (PD) dimers and trimers have not been widely detected in wines due to the lack of available commercial standards and the difficulty to detect and isolate them from natural sources. LC-ESI-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) with the right chromatographic conditions has proven to be a powerful tool for PAs detection and identification in complex samples. This technique has been applied to an exhaustive study of PA composition of two Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes, especially for the identification of PD dimers and trimers. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with ion trap provided additional information about the structures of these compounds through the fragmentation patterns of the pseudomolecular ions. A LC-ESI-MS method was optimized and 41 different compounds were found. Among them are included 8 PD dimers and 13 PD trimers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RED WINE EXTRACT OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-BASED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION: PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  17. Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy, obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices.

  18. Influence of different yeast/lactic acid bacteria combinations on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammacurta, Marine; Marchand, Stéphanie; Moine, Virginie; de Revel, Gilles

    2017-09-01

    The typical fruity aroma of red Bordeaux wines depends on the grape variety but also on microbiological processes, such as alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. These transformations involve respectively the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni. Both species play a central role in red winemaking but their quantitative and qualitative contribution to the revelation of the organoleptic qualities of wine has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of sequential inoculation of different yeast and bacteria strains on the aromatic profile of red Bordeaux wine. All microorganisms completed fermentations and no significant difference was observed between tanks regarding the main oenological parameters until 3 months' aging. Regardless of the yeast strain, B28 bacteria required the shortest period to completely degrade the malic acid, compared to the other strain. Quantification of 73 major components highlighted a specific volatile profile corresponding to each microorganism combination. However, the yeast strain appeared to have a predominant effect on aromatic compound levels, as well as on fruity aroma perception. Yeasts had a greater impact on wine quality and have more influence on the aromatic style of red wine than bacteria. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Price estimation and economic evaluation of the production cost of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiris Tsakiris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Argiris Tsakiris1, Kiriaki Sotirakoglou2, Panagiotis Kandylis3, Panagiotis Kaldis1, Constantina Tzia4, Yiannis Kourkoutas31Department of Oenology and Beverage Technology, Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 3Applied Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: The aim of the study was initially to estimate the price of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries and subsequently to investigate whether the estimated price was sufficient to counterbalance the increased investment and operational costs required for industrial application of the novel biotechnological process. Price estimation of the experimental wines was based on the correlation of sensory quality, determined by a group of trained tasters, and the price of commercial wines available in a certain market. Application of principal component analysis (PCA provided improved results over simple and exponential regression analysis, as only a part of the relationship between the two variables was represented (68.4% and 75.3%, respectively. However, with PCA the total variance explained by the two components was 100%. Taste was more important than aroma in determining sensory quality, and wine price was mainly affected by sensory quality rather than wine age in the Greek market. The total increase of production cost was estimated to be €0.032/bottle, which is significantly lower than the increase of €2.08/bottle price estimated by PCA for the red wines produced by immobilized cells, due to the improved aromatic potential compared with wines produced by

  20. Determination of total polyphenolic content in red wines by means of the combined He-Ne laser optothermal window and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and the concept of optothermal window (OW), a variant of the open photoacoustic cell, were combined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry assay to quantitate phenolics in four red wines. The total polyphenolic content in selected red wines varied between 786 and 1630 mg/L

  1. Insights on the chemical basis of the astringency of Spanish red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of the present study is to provide an insight on the role played by non-volatile molecules on the different in-mouth attributes, particularly astringency. For achieving such goal, the main in-mouth sensory attributes of 34 oaked Spanish red wines were measured by a trained panel. The wine content in 30 sensory-active molecules was analysed by different HPLC based methodologies together with classical enological parameters and two proanthocyanidin indexes. Fourteen compounds (aconitic acids, polymeric proanthocyanidins, caftaric, caffeic and coutaric acids and seven quercetins) were found to be at concentrations above reported taste thresholds and to have a reasonably high range of occurrence. Two highly statistically significant models for astringency were built with those compounds. Even if the models could not be fully validated by sensory addition experiments, the research has demonstrated that wine astringency is driven by polymeric proanthocyanidins and by certain phenolic acids, the rate trans/cis-aconitic acid and flavonol profiles. The research has highlighted the existence of extremely complex interactions between non-volatile compounds on the in-mouth sensory perception. Particularly remarkable is the lack of additivity and potential antagonism found between the pairs cis/trans-aconitic acids, between aconitic and caffeic acids and between quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Also remarkable was the sweetness×astringent interaction and the matrix-dependence of the sensory responses elicited by flavonols. These results suggest the need for new paradigms and experimental procedures for fully decoding the real sensory relevance of individual non-volatile compounds in the overall wine flavour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resveratrol, a Red Wine Polyphenol, Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer by Inhibiting Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Naomi; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Nadas, Janos; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Pugliese, Angelo; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer effects of red wine have attracted considerable attention. Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a well-known polyphenolic compound of red wine with cancer chemopreventive activity. However, the basis for this activity is unclear. We studied leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) as a relevant target in pancreatic cancer. LTA4H knockdown limited the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the enzymatic product of LTA4H, and suppressed anchorage-independent growth of pancreatic cancer cells. An in silico shape similarity algorithm predicted that LTA4H might be a potential target of resveratrol. In support of this idea, we found that resveratrol directly bound to LTA4H in vitro and in cells and suppressed proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of pancreatic cancer by inhibiting LTB4 production and expression of the LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). Notably, resveratrol exerted relatively stronger inhibitory effects than bestatin, an established inhibitor of LTA4H activity, and the inhibitory effects of resveratrol were reduced in cells where LTA4H was suppressed by shRNA-mediated knockdown. Importantly, resveratrol inhibited tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model of human pancreatic cancer by inhibiting LTA4H activity. Our findings identify LTA4H as a functionally important target for mediating the anticancer properties of resveratrol. PMID:20952510

  3. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of supplementation with red wine pomace in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Croft, Kevin D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-07-19

    Hypertension is associated with enhanced vascular oxidative stress and impaired endothelial function, which is related to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide bioavailability. Short-term supplementation with a polyphenol-rich powdered red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) was investigated for its effects on blood pressure and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative status in a model of essential hypertension. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (12-week-old, 5 rats per group) were administered RWPS (300 mg kg -1 day -1 ; equivalent to 7.32 mg gallic acid per kg per day) or vehicle by gavage. In SHRs, 4-week RWPS supplementation progressively decreased blood pressure, reaching 11.5% reduction at the end of the study (p < 0.001). RWPS consumption also increased the ferric reducing ability of plasma and attenuated the oxidation of plasma lipids and proteins, as evidenced by F 2 -isoprostanes, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups as oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, nitric oxide production (indirectly measured) was 1.5-fold higher in SHRs + RWPS than that in SHRs (p < 0.05). These beneficial effects were partly attributed to the ability of RWPS-derived bioactive compounds to modulate aortic gene expression, with eNOS, SOD2 and HO-1 over-expression, ACE down-regulation, and no changes in NOX4. In conclusion, this study suggests the potential of red wine pomace-derived seasonings to help in the management of hypertension.

  4. Chemopreventive Potential of Powdered Red Wine Pomace Seasonings against Colorectal Cancer in HT-29 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; García Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-01-11

    This study evaluates the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic actions of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (Sk-S, seedless; W-S, whole; Sd-S, seeds). In vitro gastrointestinal digested and colonic fermented fractions of the seasonings were used as cell treatments. Phenolic acids from Sk-S showed the highest bioaccessibility in the small intestine, whereas polyphenols contained in Sd-S might be the most fermentable in the colon. Dietary fiber from Sk-S was the best substrate for short chain fatty acids production by gut microbiota. Colon cancerous (HT-29) cell viability was inhibited by 50% (IC 50 values) at treatment concentrations ranging from 845 (Sk-S) to 1085 (Sd-S) μg/mL prior digestion, but all digested fractions exhibited similar antiproliferative activities (mean IC 50 = 814 μg/mL). Oxidative DNA damage in cells was also attenuated by the treatments (200 μg/mL, 24 h preincubation), with all colonic fermented fractions displaying similar genoprotective action. These results suggest the potential of red wine pomace seasonings as chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer.

  5. Patterns of sweetness preference in red wine according to consumer characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Esteves, Maria Madalena; Mota, Mariana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The preference for sweet taste in red wine was examined according to consumer categories of age, gender, drinking experience and personality type (Big-5 personality-test). A total of 114 subjects revealed their preferences for sweetness after tasting dry red wine spiked with equal concentrations of glucose and fructose at 2g/L, 4g/L, 8g/L, 16g/L and 32g/L, following an ascending forced choice paired comparison method (2-AFC). The overall preference for sweetness was shown within the range of 4.8 to 21.9g/L, with maximal liking at 8g/L. Three patterns of response to sweetness were observed (sweet dislikers, sweet likers and indifferent to sweet) according to the different categories of consumers. Differences (p>0.05) were not found in sweetness preference among the categories up to 16g/L sugar except for the trait extraversion at 8g/L, where low extraverts showed a higher proportion of responses preferring the sweeter sample. Most significant differences were found only under the highest tasted concentration (32g/L). Females and novices preferred sweeter samples (pconsumers, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of initial red wine composition on changes in color and anthocyanin content during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Echávarri, José-Federico; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-12-15

    Sixteen commercial red wines, selected to cover a different range of color and total polyphenols index (TPI), were stored at 25°C during 6months under controlled and different oxygen additions (0, 1.1, 3.1, 10.6 and 30.4mgL(-1)) during the bottling process. Changes in color and the anthocyanic composition were evaluated using transmittance spectra and UPLC-MS-UV/Vis respectively. Results reveal a general pattern in the evolution of wines. However, different patterns of evolution related to initial wine composition, especially to TPI, were observed. Wines with higher TPI had a lower evolution, whereas wines with lower TPI showed a higher evolution and greater variability in behavior. In general, oxygen seemed to accelerate all changes observed during aging although the oxygen effect was more limited than the effect of the storage time. These results are relevant for wine experts and help explain the evolution of wine at the bottling stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring mouthfeel in model wines: Sensory-to-instrumental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Laura; Sarkar, Anwesha; Bryant, Michael G; Beadling, Andrew R; Bartolomé, Begoña; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2017-12-01

    Wine creates a group of oral-tactile stimulations not related to taste or aroma, such as astringency or fullness; better known as mouthfeel. During wine consumption, mouthfeel is affected by ethanol content, phenolic compounds and their interactions with the oral components. Mouthfeel arises through changes in the salivary film when wine is consumed. In order to understand the role of each wine component, eight different model wines with/without ethanol (8%), glycerol (10g/L) and commercial tannins (1g/L) were described using a trained panel. Descriptive analysis techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of the mouthfeel attributes. Alongside, the suitability of different instrumental techniques (rheology, particle size, tribology and microstructure, using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) to measure wine mouthfeel sensation was investigated. Panelists discriminated samples based on their tactile-related components (ethanol, glycerol and tannins) at the levels found naturally in wine. Higher scores were found for all sensory attributes in the samples containing ethanol. Sensory astringency was associated mainly with the addition of tannins to the wine model and glycerol did not seem to play a discriminating role at the levels found in red wines. Visual viscosity was correlated with instrumental viscosity (R=0.815, p=0.014). Hydrodynamic diameter of saliva showed an increase in presence of tannins (almost 2.5-3-folds). However, presence of ethanol or glycerol decreased hydrodynamic diameter. These results were related with the sensory astringency and earthiness as well as with the formation of nano-complexes as observed by TEM. Rheologically, the most viscous samples were those containing glycerol or tannins. Tribology results showed that at a boundary lubrication regime, differences in traction coefficient lubrication were due by the presence of glycerol. However, no differences in traction coefficients were observed in presence

  9. Red wine alcohol promotes quercetin absorption and directs its metabolism towards isorhamnetin and tamarixetin in rat intestine in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Stefania; Gee, Jennifer; Bennett, Richard; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2006-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with beneficial effects on human health, and this has been attributed to the flavonoid content. Factors that influence the bioavailability of this group of polyphenolic compounds are therefore important. Using the rat cannulated everted jejunal sac technique, we have investigated the effect of alcohol on the intestinal absorption of quercetin and its 3-O-glucoside from red wine. Tissue preparations were incubated in whole or dealcoholised red wine, diluted 1 : 1 with Krebs buffer for 20 min at 37°C, after which the mucosa was removed and processed for HPLC analysis. Tissues exposed to red wine had significantly higher amounts of both quercetin (× 3; P<0.001) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (× 1.5; P<0.01) associated with them, compared with sacs incubated in the dealcoholised equivalent. In addition, both tamarixetin (T) and isorhamnetin (I), in the mucosal tissue from sacs exposed to the whole wine, were significantly elevated approximately two fold (P<0.05; P<0.01, respectively). Similar results were obtained when sacs were incubated in Krebs buffer containing a mixture of pure quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside with or without alcohol, and, although effects on the apparent absorption of Q and Q-3-G were not so marked, concentrations of the metabolites quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and I were significantly increased by the presence of alcohol (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). It is therefore plausible that the moderate alcohol content of red wine contributes to its beneficial health effects in humans by both increasing the absorption of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside and by channelling their metabolism towards O-methylation to yield compounds (T and I), which have potential protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16444288

  10. Moderate consumption of beer, red wine and spirits has counteracting effects on plasma antioxidants in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; van den Berg, R; van den Berg, H; Schaafsma, G; Hendriks, H F

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effects of moderate consumption of red wine, beer and spirits on antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity. Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Twelve apparently healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men were included; 11 of them completed the study. Each subject consumed four glasses of red wine, beer, spirits and water (negative control) with evening dinner during four successive periods of 3 weeks, daily at the Institute. The total diet was supplied to the subjects and had essential the same composition during these 12 weeks. Neither the enzyme activities of serum glutathion peroxidase, erythrocyte glutathion reductase and superoxide dismutase nor the plasma concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxantin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and alpha-carotene were affected. Plasma beta-carotene concentrations were decreased after 3 weeks' consumption of red wine, beer and spirits (40 g alcohol/day) as compared to consumption of water, by 15% (P=0.0005), 11% (P=0.010) and 13% (P=0.003), respectively. Also, plasma ascorbic acid was decreased after beer (15%, P=0.004) and spirits (12%, P=0.030), but not after wine consumption. Serum uric acid concentrations were increased after consumption of beer (15%, Pspirits (8%, P=0.008) and red wine (9%, P=0.003). The overall serum antioxidant capacity, assessed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), was similar for all treatments. Moderate consumption of red wine, beer and spirits has counteracting effects on plasma antioxidant components, resulting in no significant effect on overall antioxidant status. The effects on antioxidant parameters are largely independent of the type of alcoholic beverage, and probably irrelevant to chronic disease risk. Dutch Foundation for Alcohol Research (SAR).

  11. Determination of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in Brazilian red wine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniele, Anna Paula; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: annapaula@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs due to important nutritional role in human body functions. Such information is crucial to any intervention in the diet of a population, thus becoming representative in the public health field. Trace elements are good indicators of wine’s origin and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. Although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies on the content of organic and inorganic compounds in wine are still small compared to other major producers. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental concentration of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in seven national red wine samples acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. The analytical method applied was INAA. Concentrations of the elements in wine samples showed high variation among samples. (author)

  12. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in Brazilian red wine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniele, Anna Paula; Maihara, Vera Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs due to important nutritional role in human body functions. Such information is crucial to any intervention in the diet of a population, thus becoming representative in the public health field. Trace elements are good indicators of wine’s origin and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. Although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies on the content of organic and inorganic compounds in wine are still small compared to other major producers. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental concentration of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in seven national red wine samples acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. The analytical method applied was INAA. Concentrations of the elements in wine samples showed high variation among samples. (author)

  14. Volatile composition of Merlot red wine and its contribution to the aroma: optimization and validation of analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcari, Stefany Grützmann; Caliari, Vinicius; Sganzerla, Marla; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-11-01

    A methodology for the determination of volatile compounds in red wine using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/ mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) and flame ionization detector (GC -FID) was developed, validated and applied to a sample of Brazilian red wine. The optimization strategy was conducted using the Plackett-Burman design for variable selection and central composite rotational design (CCRD). The response surface methodology showed that the performance of the extraction of the volatile compounds using divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber is improved with no sample dilution, the addition of 30% NaCl, applying an extraction temperature of 56°C and extraction time of 55min. The qualitative method allowed the extraction and identification of 60 volatile compounds in the sample studied, notably the classes of esters, alcohols, and fatty acids. Furthermore, the method was successfully validated for the quantification of 55 volatile compounds of importance in wines and applied to twelve samples of Merlot red wine from South of Brazil. The calculation of the odor activity value (OAV) showed the most important components of the samples aroma. Ethyl isovalerate, ethyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, octanoic acid and ethyl cinnamate had the greatest contribution to the aroma of the wines analyzed, which is predominantly fruity with the presence of herbal and fatty odors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aroma composition of red wines by different extraction methods and Gas Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Dimaggio, Rosa; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    One hundred and one volatile compounds, reported in literature as powerful odorants of wine, were quantified by Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring/Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM/MS) in Primitivo, Aglianico, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Wine samples were extracted by 3 different extraction methods: 1) separation of the alcoholic fraction from the aqueous phase by salting-out and subsequent extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113); 2) extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with dichloromethane; 3) solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge: 800 mg of LiChrolut EN resin) with pentane-dichloromethane (20:1) and dichloromethane. The selection of the ion fragments used for quantification was directly performed on a red wine sample. For each compound the area of the corresponding peak was normalized respect to the peak of the internal standard and then interpolated in a calibration curve obtained analysing a model wine solution (water, ethanol, tartaric acid and known amounts of analytes and of internal standard). The methods showed a good linearity: r2>0.990, except for farnesol (isomer a and c), octanal, decanal, furaneol and phenylacetic acid with 0.966 furaneol and sotolon. The Aglianico wines were characterised by the major fermentation compounds (esters, fatty acids and 2-phenylethanol), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone and linalool. The Primitivo wines were characterized by furaneol, methoxypyrazine, gamma-nonalactone and acetaldehyde, while Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines principally by cask derivates (vanillin, (Z) 3-methyl-gamma-octalactone [(Z) wiskylactone], maltol and eugenol), some aldehydes and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine.

  16. The effect of high power ultrasound on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and aroma compounds of red wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natka Ćurko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power ultrasound (HPU is a novel, non-thermal technology the application of which has been primarily evaluated in managing food quality. The application of high power ultrasound in wine technology is therefore directed at modulating microbial activity during fermentation, extraction of phenolic and aroma compounds from grapes to must, as well as at accelerating aging reactions in wine. The main aim of this article was to evaluate the effect of different HPU process parameters on sustaining the phenolic and aroma composition of red wine and its colour characteristics. Three different red wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Plavac mali, were treated with high power ultrasound (20kHz, considering the variations in ultrasound probe diameter size (12.7 and 19 mm, amplitude level (20, 30, and 40 %, and processing time (2, 4, and 6 minutes. Total polyphenol content, total anthocyanin concentration, and chromatic characteristics were analyzed by spectrophotometry, free anthocyanins were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, and wine aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography combined with solid-phase microextraction. The obtained results show that ultrasonic irradiation induces chemical changes in phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and aroma compounds concentration, and accelerates chemical reactions responsible for wine aging. The intensity of the mentioned chemical changes depends on the selected processing parameters and on the treated variety. Among three different parameters, the selection of the probe diameter was showed to be most significant factor influencing chemical composition, followed by the amplitude level and processing time. The smaller diameter probe size (12.7 mm, lowest amplitude (20%, and a shorter processing time (2 minutes showed a more favourable and lighter effect on the chemical composition of the treated red wines.

  17. Specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for analysis of residual allergenic food proteins in commercial bottled wine fined with egg white, milk, and nongrape-derived tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jennifer M; Apostolou, Effie; de Leon, Maria P; Stockley, Creina S; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-01-23

    Regulations introduced by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand in December 2002 require all wine and wine product labels in Australia to identify the presence of a processing aid, additive or other ingredient, which is known to be a potential allergen. The objective of this study was to establish sensitive assays to detect and measure allergenic proteins from commonly used processing aids in final bottled wine. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed and established for the proteins casein, ovalbumin, and peanut. Lower limits of detection of these proteins were 8, 1, and 8 ng/mL, respectively. A panel of 153 commercially available bottled Australian wines were tested by these ELISA, and except for two red wines known to contain added whole eggs, residuals of these food allergens were not detected in any wine. These findings are consistent with a lack of residual potentially allergenic egg-, milk-, or nut-derived processing aids in final bottled wine produced in Australia according to good manufacturing practice at a concentration that could cause an adverse reaction in egg, milk, or peanut/tree-nut allergic adult consumers.

  18. A Comparison of Methods Used to Define the Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Croatian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Martinez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant activities were determined for three different vintages of red varietal Plavac mali wines (Grgich, white varietal Pošip wines (Grgich and white varietal Žlahtina wines (Gršković. All three mentioned cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. are well exploited in vineyards along the Croatian coast. Two different tests, the spectrophotometric Folin-Ciocalteau test and redox derivative potentiometric titration with electrogenerated chlorine, were used to quantify phenolic antioxidants and express them in gallic acid equivalents. The sequence of wines obtained by the two methods, ranked according to the increasing phenolic content, was comparable. Among all the tested wines, Plavac mali of the vintage 2003 showed the highest phenol content of ~5 g/L. As expected, due to the lack of anthocyanins and other pigments present in red wines, all six white wines showed approximately ten times lower phenolic levels in comparison with red wines, averaging between 190–380 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utilization of quick and reliable analytical techniques, spectrophotometry and derivative potentiometric titration, in quantification of wine phenolics. The change in free radical scavenging ability of the same set of wines was evaluated according to the Brand-Williams assay. The results show, on average, eight times higher free radical scavenging ability of red wines. Also, a slight decrease in the free radical scavenging ability of the older vintage white wines was observed, while the antioxidant activities of the older vintage red wines (Plavac mali were slightly higher, due to formation of condensed tannins with time.

  19. Impact of Short-Term Intake of Red Wine and Grape Polyphenol Extract on the Human Metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Fuhrmann, J.C.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Rein, D.; Peters, S.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Hollebrands, B.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Garczarek, U.

    2012-01-01

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from

  20. In-office bleaching for the remineralization of enamel lesions filled with organic components of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Yuichi; Iizuka, Junko; Taniguchi, Motoe; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Mukai, Yoshiharu

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of in-office bleaching on the remineralization of enamel lesions filled with organic components of red wine. Enamel specimens were exposed to 0.1% NaF solution for 1 minute immersed in red wine for 5 days at 37°C, and subjected to in-office bleaching followed by remineralization in 1.5 mM CaCl₂, 0.9 mM KH₂PO₄, 130 mM KCl, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.0, at 37°C for 28 days. The presence of organic substances on the enamel surface was detected by Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were also subjected to transverse microradiography (TMR). Raman spectroscopy of baseline lesions showed characteristic peaks at 1,300-1,600 cm-1 which disappeared in bleached specimens. TMR showed that red wine formed subsurface lesions with surface content at approximately 22 mineral volume %. The integrated mineral loss (IML) was significantly lower in unbleached remineralized specimens than at baseline (P 0.05). Lesion depth was significantly lower in the bleached than in the unbleached group (P< 0.05). In-office bleaching can enhance the remineralization of enamel lesions filled with organic components of red wine. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.

  1. The colloidal state of tannins impacts the nature of their interaction with proteins: the case of salivary proline-rich protein/procyanidins binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Olivier; Dufourc, Erick J; Fouquet, Eric; Manigand, Claude; Laguerre, Michel; Pianet, Isabelle

    2012-12-18

    While the definition of tannins has been historically associated with its propensity to bind proteins in a nonspecific way, it is now admitted that specific interaction also occurs. The case of the astringency perception is a good example to illustrate this phenomenon: astringency is commonly described as a tactile sensation induced by the precipitation of a complex composed of proline-rich proteins present in the human saliva and tannins present in beverages such as tea or red wines. In the present work, the interactions between a human saliva protein segment and three different procyanidins (B1, B3, and C2) were investigated at the atomic level by NMR and molecular dynamics. The data provided evidence for (i) an increase in affinity compared to shortest human saliva peptides, which is accounted for by protein "wraping around" the tannin, (ii) a specificity in the interaction below tannin critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ca. 10 mM, with an affinity scale such that C2 > B1 > B3, and (iii) a nonspecific binding above tannin CMC that conducts irremediably to the precipitation of the tannins/protein complex. Such physicochemical findings describe in accurate terms saliva protein-tannin interactions and provide support for a more subtle description by oenologists of wine astringency perception in the mouth.

  2. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, M., E-mail: montse.meneses@uab.cat [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Systems Engineering and Telecomunication Department, ESE, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Torres, C.M.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Environmental Analysis and Management Group, AGA, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  3. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, M.; Torres, C.M.; Castells, F.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  4. Separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts using high speed counter current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Lingxi; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Shuting; Sun, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    Polyphenols are important compounds of red wine owing to their contribution to sensory properties and antioxidant activities. In this study, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with semi-preparative HPLC was used for large-scale separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts. With the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1-50-50), various oligomeric procyanidins including monomer catechin, epicatechin, dimers B1, B2; phenolic acids including coutaric acid, caftaric acid and other type of polyphenols were largely separated within 370min and most of these compounds presented high yields (0.97mg to 13.79mg) with high purity (90.34% to 98.91%) after the semi-preparative HPLC isolation. Using the solvent system of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) - n-butyl alcohol- acetonitrile-water (1-40-1-50, acidified with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)) by one-step HSCCC of 100mg of the red wine extracts, the major anthocyanins, i.e., malvidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions were successfully separated one another within 320min. The yields of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were 12.12mg, 1.78mg and 11.57mg with the purity of 92.74%, 91.03% and 91.21%, respectively. Thiolysis-UPLC analysis indicated that the two polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions presented high purity, with mean degree of polymerization of 7.66±0.12 and 6.20±0.09, respectively. The further experiments on the antioxidant activities by DPPH radical test, FRAP assay and ABTS method showed that all of the isolated procyandins and anthocyanins and the two polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions, with exception of phenolic acids possessed much greater antioxidant activities compared to standard Trolox andl-ascorbic acid (2-14 times). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  6. Development of a QCM-D biosensor for Ochratoxin A detection in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Haupt, Karsten; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2017-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a highly toxic compound, is one of the most widely spread mycotoxins that contaminates a large variety of agricultural commodities. Due to its presence in the food chain, it imposes a hazard on both human and animal health. Therefore, there is a need for precise, fast and simple methods for toxin quantification. Herein, a novel sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and antibodies for specific analyte recognition was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of OTA in red wine. The combination of indirect competitive assay with QCM-D gives a straightforward device, which can simultaneously measure frequency (Δf) and dissipation (ΔD) changes resulting in detailed information about the mass attached to the sensor surface as well as conformational changes, viscoelastic properties and the hydration state of the film. Small molecules (such as OTA) suffer from poor LOD due to the high concentration of primary antibody needed to generate adequate signal. In the present study, amplification of the QCM-D signal was obtained by applying secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Thanks to this, a linear detection range of 0.2-40ngmL -1 has been achieved with an excellent LOD of 0.16ngmL -1, which is one order of magnitude lower than LOD specified by European Union legislation concerning the limit of OTA in food. Moreover, a matrix effect (caused by the occurrence of polyphenols in wine) and associated non-specific interactions with the sensor surface was completely eliminated by a simple pre-treatment of the wine with the addition of 3% poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Model of acceptance of a new type of beverage: application to natural sparkling red wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, C.; Pelegrín, J.; Reinares, E.

    2017-09-01

    Wine is a traditional beverage with a saturated market, in which consumers are open to innovation. In this context, an innovative experience was launched to create a new natural sparkling red wine with a view to diversifying production and studying its acceptance. This paper uses an original acceptance model for new foods called the Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model. The model was tested on a sample of 500 Spanish consumers in a real-world test context and explains 64.1% of the intention to consume the new wine. The results showed the importance of the cognitive factor in consumer intention. In particular, sensory and price benefits were found to be the key criteria explaining the intention to consume (41.34%). The results also confirmed the usefulness of expanding the factors that determine new food acceptance to include the emotional and normative dimensions of consumer behaviour. The social norm (18.54%) and affective factors (4.2%) contributed to the explanation of the underlying reasons influencing consumers’ assessments of the product. It is proposed that efforts focus on new visual, olfactory and taste-related sensations with a view to producing an appetising product that offers good value for money. Research and development institutes should innovate towards products that highlight these sensations. Therefore, attention should be drawn to the importance of acting on potential consumers’ reference groups and membership groups, with a view to involving them in recommending the product. Managers should focus on measuring and influencing social opinion, working on marketing communication to achieve acceptance.

  8. Model of acceptance of a new type of beverage: application to natural sparkling red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Olarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a traditional beverage with a saturated market, in which consumers are open to innovation. In this context, an innovative experience was launched to create a new natural sparkling red wine with a view to diversifying production and studying its acceptance. This paper uses an original acceptance model for new foods called the Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN model. The model was tested on a sample of 500 Spanish consumers in a real-world test context and explains 64.1% of the intention to consume the new wine.  The results showed the importance of the cognitive factor in consumer intention. In particular, sensory and price benefits were found to be the key criteria explaining the intention to consume (41.34%. The results also confirmed the usefulness of expanding the factors that determine new food acceptance to include the emotional and normative dimensions of consumer behaviour. The social norm (18.54% and affective factors (4.2% contributed to the explanation of the underlying reasons influencing consumers’ assessments of the product. It is proposed that efforts focus on new visual, olfactory and taste-related sensations with a view to producing an appetising product that offers good value for money. Research and development institutes should innovate towards products that highlight these sensations. Therefore, attention should be drawn to the importance of acting on potential consumers’ reference groups and membership groups, with a view to involving them in recommending the product. Managers should focus on measuring and influencing social opinion, working on marketing communication to achieve acceptance.

  9. Model of acceptance of a new type of beverage: application to natural sparkling red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olarte, C.; Pelegrín, J.; Reinares, E.

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a traditional beverage with a saturated market, in which consumers are open to innovation. In this context, an innovative experience was launched to create a new natural sparkling red wine with a view to diversifying production and studying its acceptance. This paper uses an original acceptance model for new foods called the Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model. The model was tested on a sample of 500 Spanish consumers in a real-world test context and explains 64.1% of the intention to consume the new wine. The results showed the importance of the cognitive factor in consumer intention. In particular, sensory and price benefits were found to be the key criteria explaining the intention to consume (41.34%). The results also confirmed the usefulness of expanding the factors that determine new food acceptance to include the emotional and normative dimensions of consumer behaviour. The social norm (18.54%) and affective factors (4.2%) contributed to the explanation of the underlying reasons influencing consumers’ assessments of the product. It is proposed that efforts focus on new visual, olfactory and taste-related sensations with a view to producing an appetising product that offers good value for money. Research and development institutes should innovate towards products that highlight these sensations. Therefore, attention should be drawn to the importance of acting on potential consumers’ reference groups and membership groups, with a view to involving them in recommending the product. Managers should focus on measuring and influencing social opinion, working on marketing communication to achieve acceptance.

  10. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  11. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer's attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  12. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  13. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501.970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Clarissa M.M. dos; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Pozebon, Dirce, E-mail: dircepoz@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501.970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasound was investigated and applied for red wine samples preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aliquots of 50 {mu}L of sample were nebulized and transported to plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FI and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LODs of the ICP-MS method for lanthanides determination were at ng L{sup -1} level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanides concentration allowed red wines classification. - Abstract: This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 {mu}L of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration.

  14. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  15. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S.; Santos, Clarissa M.M. dos; Flores, Érico M.M.; Pozebon, Dirce

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrasound was investigated and applied for red wine samples preparation. ► Aliquots of 50 μL of sample were nebulized and transported to plasma. ► FI and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used. ► LODs of the ICP-MS method for lanthanides determination were at ng L −1 level. ► Lanthanides concentration allowed red wines classification. - Abstract: This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 μL of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L −1 , respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration.

  16. Multistarter from organic viticulture for red wine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the use of a multistarter fermentation process has been proposed to improve the organoleptic characteristics of wines. In the present study the fermentation performances and the interactions of mixed and sequential cultures of H. uvarum, C. zemplinina and a strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from organic musts were investigated. To evaluate the oenological performances of the tested strains microvinifications in pasteurized red grape juice from Montepulciano d’Abruzzo cultivar were compared. The course of fermentation has been controlled through classical determinations (CO2 evolution, ethanol, glycerol, pH, total titratable acidity, sugar content, free sulfur dioxide (SO2, dry extract, sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds. Moreover, the yeast population was determined by both culture-dependent and independent approaches. In particular, the pure culture of H. uvarum and C. zemplinina didn’t end the fermentation. On the contrary, when S. cerevisiae was added, fermentations were faster confirming that yeast interactions influence the fermentation kinetics. Moreover, C. zemplinina showed a good interaction with S. cerevisiae by increasing the fermentation kinetic in high gravity Montepulciano must, with low ethyl acetate and acetic acid production. This study confirmed that non-Saccharomyces (NS yeasts play a crucial role also in organic wines and their activity could be modulated through the selection of appropriate strains that correctly interact with S. cerevisiae.

  17. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of acute and chronic moderate red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Costantine F; Slaiby, Rita; Haddad, Najib; Boustany, Karim; Baroody, George M

    2006-06-01

    The effects of acute and chronic (10 wk) red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat model are reported. Fasted rats, in the acute study, were loaded intragastrically with 5 ml of an olive oil emulsion (30% w/v) in the presence or absence of wine (8% v/v ethanol), and either mesenteric lymph or blood was collected 3 h postprandially. Animals in the chronic study received either red or white wine in drinking water for a period of 10 wk (3% v/v ethanol). Blood samples were collected from animals in either the fasted state or after fat-wine loading. Postprandially, wine delayed gastric emptying, reduced lymph triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion concomitantly with increased number and decreased chylomicron (CM) size, and increased plasma TAG and CM concentrations. Phospholipid and cholesterol contents of CM, but not very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), were increased, indicating enhanced liver bile secretion; however, a significant increase in plasma VLDL concentration was observed. In the chronic study, a wine-fat load resulted in increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration and less pronounced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperchylomicronemia. In the fasted state, plasma TAG and total apolipoprotein B concentrations were not modified in these animals, and an increase in HDL and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL cholesterol ratios were observed. No liver function or intestinal lipid absorption impairment was observed. In conclusion, unlike binge drinking, chronic moderate wine consumption appears to have a cardioprotective effect in the fasted state, an effect attenuated by the observed temporary postprandial hyperchylomicronemia and hypertriglyceridemia resulting from a direct effect of alcohol on CM size and number.

  19. A Fluorescent Probe for Sensitive Detection of Hydrazine and Its Application in Red Wine and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Wang, Hao; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Hao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-01-01

    A fluorescent probe, 7-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-4-carbaldehyde (probe 1), was designed and synthesized for the sensitive detection of hydrazine. The addition of N 2 H 4 caused the fluorescence intensity of probe 1 to decrease. The probe's fluorescence was turn-off after adding N 2 H 4 , which could be observed under UV light at 365 nm. Moreover, once treated with different concentrations N 2 H 4 solutions, the solution color change could be distinguished, which indicates that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for hydrazine. Moreover, probe 1 can be used as a signal tool to determine hydrazine levels in solutions, such as red wine and water.

  20. Effects of resveratrol, an important component of red wine, on intestinal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Zhang1, Jan Anderson1, Radhey S Kaushik2,3, Chandradhar Dwivedi11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2Department of Veterinary Sciences; 3Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAAbstract: Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes and an important component of red wine, has been shown to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prevent various cancers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary grape extract, a source of resveratrol on intestinal cancer development in rats and to determine effects of resveratrol on cell growth in human colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, thus elucidating possible mechanisms of action of resveratrol. Results showed that dietary grape extract (5%, about 7 μg resveratrol consumed daily significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of tumors in small intestine in rats and resveratrol significantly inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells.Keywords: resveratrol, grapes, colonic adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cells

  1. Red wine extract, resveratrol, on maintenance of organ function following trauma-hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Resveratrol, is a polyphenol that can be extracted from grapes and red wine, possess potential anti-inflammatory effects, which would result in the reduction of cytokine production, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecule molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. Resveratrol might also act as an antioxidant, anti-aging, and control of cell cycle and apoptosis. Resveratrol has been shown to have protective effects for patients inshock-like states. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways including the regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/ hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway, activates estrogen receptor (ER, and the mediation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and reactive. Moreover, through anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant properties, the resveratrol is believed to maintain organ function following trauma-hemorrhage.

  2. Polyphenolic compounds of red wine: relationship with the antioxidant properties and effects on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Majo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists have observed that a diet rich in polyphenolic compounds may provide a positive effects due to their antioxidant properties. Red wine is an excellent source of polyphenolic compounds. Objective of this work is a review of the polyphenolic compounds of red wine. The first study evaluates the antioxidant properties of Sicilian red wines in relationship with their polyphenolic composition; the second investigates the corrective offects of some phenolic molecules on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats.

  3. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Primitivo wine: comparison among winemaking technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, A; Terracone, C; Gambacorta, G; La Notte, E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 9 winemaking technologies (traditional, delestage, saignée, delayed punching-down, addition of grape seed tannins, addition of ellagic-skin-seed tannins, heating of must-wine, cryo-maceration, and prolonged maceration) on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Primitivo musts and wines. Three methods for the determination of the antioxidant activity were compared: DPPH, beta-carotene bleaching assay, and ABTS. Oenological parameters and composition of the phenolic fraction of 1-y-aged wines was also determined. The addition of tannins allowed the increase of the phenolic content of musts and wines in a greater amount than the other technologies. The results concerning the antioxidant activity depended on the method applied. Concerning musts, the DPPH assay did not highlight great differences among technologies, whereas the addition of tannins allowed the obtainment of the highest antioxidant activity according to beta-carotene and ABTS assays. The wine aging determined an increase of the antioxidant activity, independently on the method applied. Wine obtained through traditional technology, saignée, and addition of tannins showed the highest antioxidant activities according to DPPH and beta-carotene. The highest correlation coefficients (0.961 and 0.932) were calculated between phenolic content and ABTS values of musts whereas the lowest values (0.413 and 0.517) were calculated between phenolic content and ABTS values of wines. Wines produced through traditional technology were the richest in anthocyanins. The addition of tannins allowed to obtain high content in monomeric anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavans reactive to vanillin, and coumaroylated malvidin and a low content in acetylated malvidin. Practical Applications: It is well known that a moderate consumption (equivalent to 2 glasses per day) of red wine is actually recommended since it appears associated with a decreased incidence of

  4. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jean-Claude; Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the stu...

  5. Association between modification of phenolic profiling and development of wine color during alcohol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Pei-Tong; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Shi, Ying; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To solve the problem of wine color instability in western China, different additives (the maceration enzymes Vinozym G and Ex-color, yeasts VR5 and Red Star, and commercial tannins) were added during alcoholic fermentation of Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.). The phenolic profile and color characteristics of wine were examined using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and CIELAB, respectively. The results showed that the combination of the enzyme Ex-color with the Red Star yeast eased the release of non-anthocyanins from grape berries into wine, whereas the use of enzyme Vinozym G and VR5 yeast enhanced the concentration of anthocyanins and achieved a higher red hue (a* value) and a lower yellow hue (b* value) in the wine. The addition of commercial tannins greatly promoted the level of gallic acid in the wine and led to a relatively higher concentration of anthocyanins. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to find out the major phenolics, which were in close relation with color parameters; principal component analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of different winemaking techniques to wine color. The combination of these 2 analytic methods indicated that Vinozym G and VR5 yeast together with commercial tannins should be an appropriate combination to enhance the stability of wine color during alcohol fermentation, which was related to a significant increase in cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, trans-peonidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, trans-malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-pyruvic acid, all of which played an important role in stabilizing wine color. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenuGopal, K S; Cherita, Chris; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2018-03-01

    The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Carrasco-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Volatile phenols, such as 4-ethyphenol (4-EP and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG, are responsible for the “Brett character” found in wines contaminated with Brettanomyces yeast (i.e., barnyard, animal, spicy and smoky aromas. In these trials, we explore the effectiveness of polyaniline-based compounds (polyaniline emeraldin salt (PANI-ES and polyanaline emeraldin base (PANI-EB, for the removal of 4-EP and 4-EG from acidic model solutions and red wine. First, a screening study, performed in an acidified 12% ethanol solution, was used to optimize parameters such as contact time and the amount of polymers required to remove 4-EP and 4-EG. Then, the trapping ability of PANI agents towards 4-EP and 4-EG was evaluated in a model solution containing other wine phenolics that could potentially be trapped by PANI (i.e., gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol. The results of this trial showed that both PANI compounds were capable of removing 4-EP, 4-EG, regardless of the presence of other phenolic compounds present at a much higher concentration. Finally, the capturing ability of PANI was evaluated in a red wine sample containing 5 mg·L−1 of 4-EP, 5 mg·L−1 of 4-EG and 2.03 ± 0.02 g·L−1 of total phenolics. The results showed that PANI-EB removed significantly more 4-EP and 4-EG than PANI-ES. For instance, a treatment with 10 mg·mL−1 of PANI-EB produced a 67.8% reduction of 4-EP, 50% reduction of 4-EG and 41.38% decrease in total phenols.

  8. Is red wine a SAFE sip away from cardioprotection? Mechanisms involved in resveratrol- and melatonin-induced cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Kim T; Somers, Sarin; Lacerda, Lydia; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular moderate consumption of red wine confers cardioprotection but the mechanisms involved in this effect remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate the presence of melatonin in wine. We propose that melatonin, at a concentration found in red wine, confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, we investigated whether both melatonin and resveratrol protect via the activation of the newly discovered survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE) prosurvival signaling pathway that involves the activation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Isolated perfused male mouse (wild type, TNFα receptor 2 knockout mice, and cardiomyocyte-specific STAT3-deficient mice) or rat hearts (Wistars) were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. Resveratrol (2.3 mg/L) or melatonin (75 ng/L) was perfused for 15 min with a 10-min washout period prior to an ischemia-reperfusion insult. Infarct size was measured at the end of the protocol, and Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate STAT3 activation prior to the ischemic insult. Both resveratrol and melatonin, at concentrations found in red wine, significantly reduced infarct size compared with control hearts in wild-type mouse hearts (25 ± 3% and 25 ± 3% respectively versus control 69 ± 3%, P < 0.001) but failed to protect in TNF receptor 2 knockout or STAT3-deficient mice. Furthermore, perfusion with either melatonin or resveratrol increased STAT3 phosphorylation prior to ischemia by 79% and 50%, respectively (P < 0.001 versus control). Our data demonstrate that both melatonin and resveratrol, as found in red wine, protect the heart in an experimental model of myocardial infarction via the SAFE pathway. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Low molecular-weight phenols in Tannat wines made by alternative winemaking procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Guzmán; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Baldi, Cecilia; Hernández, Natalia; Traverso, Sofía; Gil, Graciela; González-Neves, Gustavo

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular weight phenols of Tannat red wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM), Prefermentative Cold Maceration (PCM), Maceration Enzyme (ENZ) and grape-Seed Tannins additions (ST), were performed and discussed. Alternatives to TM increased wine phenolic contents but unequally, ST increased mainly smaller flavans-3-ol, PCM anthocyanins and ENZ proanthocyanidins (up to 2250 mg/L). However low molecular weight flavan-3-ols remained below 9 mg/L in all wines, showing that there is not necessarily a correspondence between wine richness in total tannins and flavan-3-ols contents at low molecular weight. PCM wines had particularly high concentrations of tyrosol and tryptophol, yeast metabolism derived compounds. The use of grape-seed enological tannins did not increase grape seed derived phenolic compounds such as gallic acid. Caftaric acid was found in concentrations much higher than those reported in other grape varieties. Wine phenolic content and composition was considerably affected by the winemaking procedures tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  11. Evaluation of red wines antioxidant capacity by means of a voltammetric e-tongue with an optimized sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavi; Apetrei, Constantin; Valle, Manel del; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, two sets of voltammetric sensors -prepared using different strategies- have been combined in an electronic tongue to evaluate the complete antioxidant profile of red wines. To this aim, wine samples were analyzed with the whole set of sensors. In order to reduce the large dimensionality of the data set while keeping the relevant information provided by the sensors, two different methods of feature selection and data compression were used (the kernels method and Discrete Wavelet Transform feature extraction method). Then, the coefficients obtained were used as the input variables of Principal Component Analysis (to evaluate the capability of discrimination. Partial-least squares regression (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were performer to build the quantitative prediction models that allowed the quantification of the antioxidant capacity of the tested wines

  12. Impact of pulsed-electric field and high-voltage electrical discharges on red wine microbial stabilization and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsart, C; Grimi, N; Boussetta, N; Miot Sertier, C; Ghidossi, R; Vorobiev, E; Mietton Peuchot, M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pulsed-electric fields (PEF) and high-voltage electrical discharges (HVED) are proposed as new techniques for the microbial stabilization of red wines before bottling. The efficiency of the treatment was then evaluated. PEF and HVED-treatments have been applied to wine for the inactivation of Oenococcus oeni CRBO 9304, O. oeni CRBO 0608, Pediococcus parvulus CRBO 2.6 and Brettanomyces bruxellensis CB28. Different treatment times (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ms) were used at 20 kV cm(-1) for the PEF treatments and at 40 kV for the HVED treatments, which correspond to applied energies from 80 to 800 kJ l(-1) . The effects of the treatments on the microbial inactivation rate and on various characteristics of red wines (phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics and physico-chemical parameters) were measured. The application of PEF or HVED treatments on red wine allowed the inactivation of alteration yeasts (B. bruxellensis CB28) and bacteria (O. oeni CRBO 9304, O. oeni CRBO 0608 and P. parvulus CRBO 2.6). The electric discharges at 40 kV were less effective than the PEF even after 10 ms of treatments. Indeed, 4 ms of PEF treatment at 20 kV cm(-1) were sufficient to inactivate all micro-organisms present in the wines. Also, the use of PEF had no negative impact on the composition of wines compared to the HVED treatments. Contrary to PEF, the phenolics compounds were degraded after the HVED treatment and the physico-chemical composition of wine were modified with HVED. PEF technology seems to be an interesting alternative to stabilize microbiologically wines before bottling and without modifying their composition. This process offers many advantages for winemakers: no chemical inputs, low energy consumption (320 kJ l(-1) ), fast (treatment time of 4 ms) and athermal (ΔT ≈ 10°C). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b* was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the study. The wine was bottled with an average total oxygen content of 2 mg/L. The heterogeneity intra and inter procedure was controlled, including for the dissolved carbon dioxide content. Conclusion: Unlike closures with highest OTR, the two technical corks and the two screw caps with Saranex seal, harboring the lowest OTR, matched with the wines exhibiting a low total O2 content at equilibrium (from 4th to 18th month, with more free SO2 and less changed colour. However this OTR gradient (5 to 67 μg/d observed through the physicochemical analyses was not necessarily confirmed by both sensory analyses performed. Significance and impact of study: This study puts into perspective the impact of OTR closure on sensory characteristics evolution of wine consumed during the first two years, especially when the total oxygen at bottling exceeds 1.5 mg/L.

  14. New spectroscopic techniques for wine analysis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the presented thesis was the development of new, rapid tools for wine analysis based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) - spectroscopy. The results of this thesis are presented in the form of five publications. In publication I a sensor for assessing the main sensory property of red wine polyphenols (tannins), namely astringency, was developed on basis of the underlying chemical reaction between the tannins and the proline-rich proteins in the saliva. The interaction of polyphenols (tannins) with proline rich proteins (gelatin) has been studied using an automated flow injection system with FTIR detection. In Publication II FTIR-spectroscopy of polyphenolic wine extracts combined with multivariate data analysis was applied for the varietal discrimination of Austrian red wines. By hierarchical clustering it could be shown that the mid-infrared spectra of the dry extracts contain information on the varietal origin of wines. The classification of the wines was successfully performed by soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). Publication III describes the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine by Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with FTIR-detection, where a diamond attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-element was employed for the design of a rugged detector. Partly or completely co-eluting peaks were chemometrically resolved by multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Publication IV reports the first application of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) for molecular specific laser detection in liquid chromatography. Using a laser wavelength of 9.3721 μm glucose and fructose could be specifically detected and quantified in red wine in spite of the presence of organic acids. Publication V presents the development of an automated method for measuring the primary amino acid concentration in wines and musts by

  15. Reducing the negative sensory impact of volatile phenols in red wine with different chitosans: Effect of structure on efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2018-03-01

    "Brett character" is a negative sensory attribute acquired by red wines when contaminating Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts produce 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, known as volatile phenols (VPs), from cinnamic acid precursors. In this study, chitins and chitosans with different structural features, namely deacetylation degree (5-91%) and molecular weight (24-466kDa) were used for the reduction of this sensory defect. Chitins and chitosans decreased 7-26% of the headspace abundance of VPs without changing their amounts in wines. The efficiency of reduction increased with the deacetylation degree and applied dose. Reduction of headspace abundance of VPs by chitosans enabled significant decreases in the negative phenolic and bitterness attributes and increased positive fruity and floral attributes. Results show that chitosan with high deacetylation degrees, including fungal chitosan, which is already approved for use in wines, is an efficient approach for reducing the negative sensory impact of VPs in red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification of red wine based on its protected designation of origin (PDO) using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S; Rosales, J D; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of red wines with protected designation of origin (PDO) by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with Neural Networks (NN) in order to increase the quality assurance and authenticity issues. A total of thirty-eight red wine samples from different PDO were analyzed to detect fake wines and to avoid unfair competition in the market. LIBS is well known for not requiring sample preparation, however, in order to increase its analytical performance a new sample preparation treatment by previous liquid-to-solid transformation of the wine using a dry collagen gel has been developed. The use of collagen pellets allowed achieving successful classification results, avoiding the limitations and difficulties of working with aqueous samples. The performance of the NN model was assessed by three validation procedures taking into account their sensitivity (internal validation), generalization ability and robustness (independent external validation). The results of the use of a spectroscopic technique coupled with a chemometric analysis (LIBS-NN) are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry, providing a methodology able to perform the quality control of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Intake of Red Wine in Different Meals Modulates Oxidized LDL Level, Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy People: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Di Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald’s Meal (McD and a Mediterranean Meal (MM, with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox- LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P<0.05 and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P<0.05. SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P<0.001. GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070.

  19. Intake of Red Wine in Different Meals Modulates Oxidized LDL Level, Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy People: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Laura; Valente, Roberto; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  20. Determination of lead in red wine for CCQM-K30 international comparison by using ID-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Wang Jun; Lu Hai; Zhao Motian

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead in red wine for CCQM-K30 international key comparison is determined by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). This test almost reach detect limit of the method because the content of lead in red wine was only 3 ng/g and the procedure blank was about 0.3 ng. The comparison results indicate that it is easy to achieve agreements using IDMS. In uncertainty analysis, all of the factors about IDMS method were considered. But, procedure blank took great inference to experiment precision and enlarged the total uncertainty. Therefore the controls of procedure blank were very important for the analysis of ultra-trace concentration of samples. (authors)

  1. Incremental Support Vector Machine Combined with Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy for Rapid Discriminant Analysis of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a new method to overcome the increased training time when a recognition model is updated based on the condition of new features extracted from new samples. As a common complex system, red wine has a rich chemical composition and is used as an object of this research. The novel method based on incremental learning support vector machine (I-SVM combined with ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was applied to discriminant analysis of the brands of red wine for the first time. In this method, new features included in the new training samples were introduced into the recognition model through iterative learning in each iteration, and the recognition model was rapidly updated without significantly increasing the training time. Experimental results show that the recognition model established by this method obtains a good balance between training efficiency and recognition accuracy.

  2. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, S.R.; Lage, S.H.; Brandizzi, L.; Yoshida, V.; da Luz, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Although red wine (RW) reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM), and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 ± 8.1 years) without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects we...

  3. Solid cation exchange phase to remove interfering anthocyanins in the analysis of other bioactive phenols in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Letícia Flores; Guerra, Celito Crivellaro; Klein, Diandra; Bergold, Ana Maria

    2017-07-15

    Bioactive phenols (BPs) are often targets in red wine analysis. However, other compounds interfere in the liquid chromatography methods used for this analysis. Here, purification procedures were tested to eliminate anthocyanin interference during the determination of 19 red-wine BPs. Liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS), was used to compare the direct injection of the samples with solid-phase extractions: reversed-phase (C18) and strong cation-exchange (SCX). The HPLC-DAD method revealed that, out of 13BPs, only six are selectively analyzed with or without C18 treatment, whereas SCX enabled the detection of all BPs. The recovery with SCX was above 86.6% for eight BPs. Moreover, UPLC-MS demonstrated the potential of SCX sample preparation for the determination of 19BPs. The developed procedure may be extended to the analysis of other red wine molecules or to other analytical methods where anthocyanins may interfere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Bognar

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Red Wine administration to Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice reduces their Macrophage-derived Extracellular Matrix Atherogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIELLE KAPLAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteoglycans (PGs from the arterial extracellular matrix (ECM contribute to the trapping of LDL and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL in the arterial wall, a phenomenon called "lipoprotein retention". Moreover, we have shown that subsequent to their binding to the matrix, LDL and Ox-LDL are taken up by macrophages. Oxidative stress significantly increases macrophage secretion of ECM-PGs, lipoprotein binding to the ECM and the uptake of ECM-retained lipoproteins by macrophages. The aim of the present study was to determine whether red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice would affect their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix properties, such as the glycosaminoglycan content and the ability to bind LDL. In addition, we questioned the ability of LDL bound to the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM to be taken up by macrophages. Red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice did not affect the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM glycosaminoglycan content but it significantly reduced the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM ability to bind LDL and the subsequent uptake of ECM-retained LDL by the macrophages. The present study thus clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effect of red wine consumption by E0 mice on their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix atherogenic properties.

  6. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  7. Electrochemical Evaluation of trans-Resveratrol Levels in Red Wine Based on the Interaction between Resveratrol and Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lantao; Zhou, Yanli; Kang, Yiyu; Huang, Haihong; Li, Congming; Xu, Maotian; Ye, Baoxian

    2017-01-01

    trans -Resveratrol is often considered as one of the quality standards of red wine, and the development of a sensitive and reliable method for monitoring the trans -resveratrol levels in red wine is an urgent requirement for the quality control. Here, a novel voltammetric approach was described for probing trans -resveratrol using a graphene-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The proposed electrode was prepared by one-step electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) at a GC electrode. Compared with the bare GC electrode, the introduced graphene film on the electrode surface dramatically improved the sensitivity of the sensor response due to the π - π interaction between the graphene and trans -resveratrol. The developed sensor exhibited low detection limit of 0.2  μ M with wide linear range of 0.8-32  μ M and high stability. For the analysis of trans -resveratrol in red wine, the high anti-interference ability and the good recoveries indicated the great potential for practical applications.

  8. Electrochemical Evaluation of trans-Resveratrol Levels in Red Wine Based on the Interaction between Resveratrol and Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available trans-Resveratrol is often considered as one of the quality standards of red wine, and the development of a sensitive and reliable method for monitoring the trans-resveratrol levels in red wine is an urgent requirement for the quality control. Here, a novel voltammetric approach was described for probing trans-resveratrol using a graphene-modified glassy carbon (GC electrode. The proposed electrode was prepared by one-step electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide (ERGO at a GC electrode. Compared with the bare GC electrode, the introduced graphene film on the electrode surface dramatically improved the sensitivity of the sensor response due to the π-π interaction between the graphene and trans-resveratrol. The developed sensor exhibited low detection limit of 0.2 μM with wide linear range of 0.8–32 μM and high stability. For the analysis of trans-resveratrol in red wine, the high anti-interference ability and the good recoveries indicated the great potential for practical applications.

  9. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R S; dos Santos, Clarissa M M; Flores, Erico M M; Pozebon, Dirce

    2012-01-13

    This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 μL of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L(-1), respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  11. Determination of total polyphenolic content in red wines by means of the combined He-Ne laser optothermal window and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, Ottó; Bicanic, Dane

    2002-05-01

    The He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and the concept of optothermal window (OW), a variant of the open photoacoustic cell, were combined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry assay to quantitate phenolics in four red wines. The total polyphenolic content in selected red wines varied between 786 and 1630 mg/L gallic acid equivalent (GAE) as determined by OW-Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry, which compares well to 778 and 1614 mg/L GAE obtained for the same wines by means of classical spectrophotometry. The originality and merit of OW colorimetry used here is that, unlike what is encountered in conventional spectrometry, no intermediate dilution step is required when total polyhenolics are determined in red wine. The precision, defined as the closeness to each other of 256 replicate readings of the OW signal, is generally better than 2%.

  12. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Wan; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    TMEM16A was found recently to be a calcium-activated Cl− channel (CaCC). CaCCs perform important functions in cell physiology, including regulation of epithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, and smooth muscle contraction. CaCC modulators are of potential utility for treatment of hypertension, diarrhea, and cystic fibrosis. Screening of drug and natural product collections identified tannic acid as an inhibitor of TMEM16A, with IC50 ∼ 6 μM and ∼100% inhibition at higher concentrations. Tannic acid inhibited CaCCs in multiple cell types but did not affect CFTR Cl− channels. Structure-activity analysis indicated the requirement of gallic or digallic acid substituents on a macromolecular scaffold (gallotannins), as are present in green tea and red wine. Other polyphenolic components of teas and wines, including epicatechin, catechin, and malvidin-3-glucoside, poorly inhibited CaCCs. Remarkably, a 1000-fold dilution of red wine and 100-fold dilution of green tea inhibited CaCCs by >50%. Tannic acid, red wine, and green tea inhibited arterial smooth muscle contraction and intestinal Cl− secretion. Gallotannins are thus potent CaCC inhibitors whose biological activity provides a potential molecular basis for the cardioprotective and antisecretory benefits of red