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Sample records for red river formation

  1. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  2. Using a novel Mg isotope tracer to investigate the dolomitization of the Red River Formation in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, S. R.; Holmden, C. E.; Qing, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Williston Basin is a sub-circular intracratonic basin spanning central North America with its center in NW North Dakota. The Late Ordovician Red River Formation is an economically viable unit in the Williston Basin containing large hydrocarbon reserves in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Manitoba, and Montana. Red River dolomitization contributed to the reservoir-quality porosity and permeability observed today with three types of dolomite (burrow, matrix, and saddle) possibly representing three events. Dolomitization is widely believed to have resulted from downward percolating brines, due to the stratigraphically close association between dolomite deposits and overlying basin-scale evaporites. However, in contrast, Sr isotope evidence suggests an upward fluid migration in the basin. Spatial variation of Mg isotopes (δ26Mg) may serve as a direct tracer of dolomitizing fluid flow. Dolomite sequesters light isotopes of Mg from dolomitizing fluids, therefore, the fluid will evolve with time and distance to heavier δ26Mg values. Accordingly, the δ26Mg values of the Red River dolomite should increase in the direction of fluid flow. We test this hypothesis on Red River burrow dolomite from the Williston Basin; the first event most often attributed to downward infiltration of brines. Burrow δ26Mg values range between -1.89‰ and -1.31‰. Using contouring software, the data are shown to form a pattern of increasing δ26Mg values out from the center of the Williston Basin, indicating an up-dip migration of dolomitizing fluids through the burrow network, rather than down-dip as suggested by the brine reflux model. We conclude that dolomitization of the Red River carbonate is not tied to the spatial and temporal history of evaporite deposition in the Williston Basin, but rather to the thermal history of the basin, suggesting dolomitization likely occurred during a late Paleozoic heating event that drove Mg-rich connate waters ponded in the center of the basin upwards

  3. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  4. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take care...

  5. Red River National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Red River NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  6. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River Floodplain, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Jessen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis. The...

  7. 75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone is... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI in the...

  8. A National Wildlife Refuge Proposal : Proposed Establishment of a National Wildlife Refuge at the Confluence of the Red and Red Lake Rivers of North Dakota and Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Red River Valley experienced catastrophic flooding in April of 1997 from the Red and Red Lake Rivers, and Congressional delegations and the U.S. Army Corps of...

  9. Maple River Subbasin, Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    officials report no anticipated problems with their water supply. Erosion Problems Wind erosion is prevalent over most of the subbasin. Cultivated ...fully investigated. Wastewater Management The Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission (1977) reported high fecal coliform counts and a fecal coliform ...of the subbasin’s land area is under cultivation , and another 6.6 percent is devoted to pasture. The major crops grown in the subbasin are

  10. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  12. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  13. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone is... in conjunction with the Red Bull Air Race. The safety zone will be in effect from 9 a.m. June 3, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2010-0728] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ AGENCY... of the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety zone is necessary to protect... vessels and vessels from any debris in the water as a result from the event. Basis and Purpose Red Bull...

  15. Quality of water in the Red River alluvial aquifer; Pool 1, Red River waterway area, Vick, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, C.W.; Seanor, R.C.; Huff, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality changes in the Red River alluvial aquifer within the area affected by pool 1 near Vick, Louisiana, were monitored during pre-construction (1974-78) and post-construction (1984-92) of Lock and Dam 1. Changes greater or less than background values have occurred in an area within 2 miles of Lock and Dam 1, and in one well located about 10 miles west of Lock and Dam 1. Comparison between the pre-construction and post-construction water-quality analyses indicated the total hardness as calcium carbonate and concentrations of dissolved chloride, iron, and manganese generally have decreased in the Red River alluvial aquifer south of the Red River and near Lock and Dam l. The maximum decrease of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 730 to 330 mg/L (milligrams per liter), dissolved chloride from 77 to 46 mg/L, dissolved iron from 18 to 6.9 mg/L, and dissolved manganese from 1.4 to 0.56 mg/L. Analyses of water from wells west of Lock and Dam 1 indicated an increase of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 200 to 260 mg/L, and dissolved iron concentration was from 0.33 to 1.4 mg/L. North of the river and 1 mile west of Lock and Dam l, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 45 to 130 mg/L in water from one well, and median total hardness as calcium cabonate and concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese also increased. Because well Ct-74 is completed in a sand that is in contact with a saltwater sand of Tertiary age, this increase is probably a temporal increase due to upconing after lowering the water level in the alluvial aquifer by pumping of dewatering wells during construction of Lock and Dam 1.

  16. Overview of the Proposed Mississippi Headwaters - Red River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Gerla, P. J.; Kucera, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    A consortium of universities, led by The Ohio State University and the University of North Dakota, in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy - Minnesota and the Dakotas Chapter, are proposing to develop the Mississippi Headwaters - Red River (MHRR) Hydrologic Observatory (HO). The region encompassed by the observatory includes the Red River watershed, the Upper Crow Wing River, the headwaters of the Mississippi River above Leech Lake, the closed Devils Lake basin and the central portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). The MHRR HO covers about 101,000 km2 and straddles the continental divide. The large size will permit the study of unique science problems and will provide a large contiguous region suitable for coupled large-scale climatic/hydrologic/ecological investigations. Although not part of this proposal, we are also organizing a consortium of primarily Canadian universities interested in carrying out complementary studies on the large Assiniboine basin in Manitoba and Saskatchewan with funding from Canadian sources. The combined study areas will facilitate climate/hydrologic/ecological studies on a broad scale, together with much more focused local scale studies. The research plan focuses on (i) climate variability and future climate change, (ii) wetland dynamics, restoration, and policy considerations associated with global climate change, (iii) carbon, nutrient, and contaminant cycling in complex systems, (iv) assessment and modeling of large, coupled climate/water systems, and (v) new and emerging technologies for near real-time monitoring and assessment. The science themes focus explicitly on exploring the interfaces among traditional science disciplines (hydrology, ecology, climatology) and implicitly on the atmosphere/land surface/subsurface interfaces that are part of the hydrologic cycle. The location of the MHRR HO was purposely selected as one of the most promising areas to pursue these science and technology themes. The region is

  17. Flood-inundation maps for Grand River, Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek near Lansing, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2015-08-26

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a total of 19.7 miles of the Grand River, the Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Lansing, Michigan, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at three USGS streamgages: Grand River at Lansing, MI (04113000), Red Cedar River at East Lansing, MI (04112500), and Sycamore Creek at Holt Road near Holt, MI (04112850). Near-real-time stages at these streamgages can be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at all of these sites.

  18. 77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden... to establish a safety zone for the ``Red Bull Flugtag Camden'', a marine event to be held on... Red Bull is sponsoring a Flugtag event along the Camden Riverfront. During this event participants...

  19. 78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National...; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor Access Channel, MD'' in the... safety of life on navigable waters of the United States during the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...

  20. 78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National... during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event,'' to be held on the waters of the Potomac River on... of National Harbor, Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event, a competition...

  1. 77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River... east of the South Andrews Avenue Bascule Bridge in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Red Bull Candola...

  2. [Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu-San; Li, Zi-Cheng; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Tang, Jing-Liang

    2011-09-01

    The events of red tide were collected in Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters from 1972 to 2009. Based on geographic information system (GIS) analysis on the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide, the distribution map was generated accordingly. The results show: (1) There are three red tide-prone areas, which are outside the Yangtze River estuary and the eastern of Sheshan, Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi, Zhoushan and the eastern of Zhujiajian. The red tide occurred 174 times in total, in which there were 25 times covered the area was larger than 1 000 km2. After 2000, the frequency of red tide were significantly increasing; (2) The frequent occurrence of red tide was in May (51% of total occurrence) and June (20% of total occurrence); (3) In all of the red tide plankton, the dominant species were Prorocentrum danghaiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, Nactiluca scientillans. The red tides caused by these species were 38, 35, 15, 10 times separately.

  3. Aggregation of red blood cells: From rouleaux to clot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Steffen, Patrick; Svetina, Saša

    2013-06-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the adhesion mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the adhesion strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life-saving in the case of wound healing, but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  4. A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

  5. Nutrient dynamics in mangrove areas of the Red River Estuary in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Willigen, de P.; Tri, N.H.; Lien, T.V.; Smith, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics of mangrove in the 107 kmr large estuary of the Red River Delta in Vietnam are studied using the existing LOICZ-CABARET budget model. The methodology and assumptions underlying this model are described. Input data for evaporation, rainfall, river discharge, and concentrations of

  6. Flood forecasting for the upper reach of the Red River Basin, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vu Quang station on the Lo River. Located on the upper reach of the Red River basin, these stations do not have any tidal effect. As such, no tidal data are needed for forecasting purposes . Multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The general forecasting equation based on MLR can be written as follows: H, =A+Iaj Hr- I +.

  7. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  8. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  9. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  10. Invasive Plants (poly) - Red Sesbania - San Joaquin River [ds633

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The purpose of this work is to estimate the occurrence, distribution, approximate locations, and abundance of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) and four other major...

  11. Induced rouleaux formation in interspecies populations of red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewchand, L; Canham, P B

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of rouleaux formation between erythrocytes of different species when suspended in Ringer solution with polyvinylpyrrolidone added (PVP with M.W 360 000, 4.0 G/L). PVP was shown previously to be a suitable asymmetric macromolecule for promoting rouleaux formation. For the present study fresh samples of blood were obtained from humans, cats, rats, mice, dogs, rabbits and guinea pigs. Initally homogenous populations of cells were allowed to form rouleaux in the microscope chamber for the purpose of determining the average cellular dimensions for each species. Subsequently red cells from two species at a time were mixed in equal proportions to assess the degree of preference for the cells of one species to form rouleaux among themselves rather than with cells of the other species. The sequencing of the cells in the mixed rouleaux which formed on the coverslip was determined from photomicrographs, using the previously determined knowledge of the cellular dimensions. Although the visual impression was that the rouleaux were composed of a random selection of cells from the mixed population, a preferencnstrated statisically in nine of the ten combinations tested. Only the rat-mouse mixture of cells was excepted, perhaps because these animals are closely related members of the same family.

  12. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  13. Analysis of change of red tide species in Yodo River estuary by the numerical ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mitsuru; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence number of red tides in Osaka Bay in Japan is more than 20 cases every year. Diatom red tide was dominant in Osaka Bay, but the non-diatom red tide was dominant in early 1990s. Therefore, the material cycling in Yodo River estuary in Osaka Bay during August from 1991 to 2000 was analyzed by using the numerical ecosystem model and field observation data to clarify the reasons of change in red tide species. Year-to-year variation in calculated concentration ratio of diatom to non-diatom corresponds to the variation in observed ratio of red tide days of diatom to non-diatom. Limiting nutrient of primary production is phosphate over the period. Diatom dominated from 1991 to 1993, but it was difficult for non-diatom to grow due to the limitation by physical condition. Non-diatom was able to grow because of good physical and nutrient conditions from 1994 to 1996. And diatom dominated again under the good physical condition, and phosphorus supply was not enough for non-diatom to grow from 1998 to 2000. Phosphate concentration in the lower layer of Yodo River estuary was important to the variation in red tide species in the upper layer of Yodo River estuary.

  14. A model for rouleaux pattern formation of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobuchi, Y; Ito, T; Ogiwara, A

    1988-01-21

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) in a solution form rouleaux patterns under various conditions. The degree of rouleaux formation depends on, for example, the concentration and molecular weight of added large molecules. We present a two-dimensional discrete cellular space model in which an RBC is represented by a rectangle and differential adhesion is assumed among the longer (a-site), the shorter (b-site) sides of the rectangle and the solvent. The total sum of the adhesion energy is assumed to guide the step-by-step change of the model cell configuration and also define absolutely stable patterns. We compare the set of absolutely stable patterns and cell aggregate patterns for both actual and computer-simulated cases to obtain the basic validity of our framework. Then we proceed to assess the effects of added high polymers to the adhesion parameters. We first note that under suitable conditions, decrease in a-site-solvent affinity is necessary to have complex patterns rather than increase of a-a affinity. The hypothesis that addition of high polymers reduce the a-site-solvent affinity is concomitant with a newly proposed osmotic stress theory. The parameter fitting results for the experimental phase change curves can also be interpreted as supporting more the new theory than existing traditional explanations.

  15. Stratigraphic reconnaissance of the Middle Jurassic Red Glacier Formation, Tuxedni Group, at Red Glacier, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, David L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are implementing ongoing programs to characterize the petroleum potential of Cook Inlet basin. Since 2009 this program has included work on the Mesozoic stratigraphy of lower Cook Inlet, including the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group between Tuxedni and Iniskin bays (LePain and others, 2013; Stanley and others, 2013; fig. 5-1). The basal unit in the group, the Red Glacier Formation (fig. 5-2), is thought to be the principal source rock for oil produced in upper Cook Inlet, and available geochemical data support this contention (Magoon and Anders, 1992; Magoon, 1994). Despite its economic significance very little has been published on the formation since Detterman and Hartsock’s (1966) seminal contribution on the geology of the Iniskin–Tuxedni area nearly 50 years ago. Consequently its stratigraphy, contact relations with bounding formations, and source rock characteristics are poorly known. During the 2014 field season, a nearly continuous stratigraphic section through the Red Glacier Formation in its type area at Red Glacier was located and measured to characterize sedimentary facies and to collect a suite of samples for analyses of biostratigraphy, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, and sandstone composition (fig. 5-3).The poorly known nature of the Red Glacier Formation is likely due to its remote location, steep terrain, and the fact that the type section is split into two segments that are more than 3 km apart. The lower 375 m segment of the formation is on the ridge between Red Glacier and Lateral Glacier and the upper 1,009 m segment is on the ridge between Red Glacier and Boulder Creek (fig. 5-3). Structural complications in the area add to the difficulty in understanding how these two segments fit together.

  16. 77 FR 43591 - Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River... North Country Ethanol (Tri-State), and Red River Energy, LLC (Red River) filed an application, pursuant....P. in Richland County, North Dakota, to the Tri- State's ethanol facility near Rosholt, in Roberts...

  17. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin.

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological and sedimentological study of the Simao Basin, Yunnan: Implications for the Early Cenozoic evolution of the Red River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yan, Maodu; Fang, Xiaomin; Song, Chunhui; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Bingshuai; Yang, Yongpeng; Zhang, Dawen

    2017-10-01

    The paleo-Red River is suggested to have been a continental-scale drainage system connecting the Tibetan Plateau to the South China Sea. However, the evolution of the paleo-Red River is still under debate. This study presents new results from sedimentological analyses and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data from fluvial sedimentary rocks of Paleocene to Oligocene age of the Simao Basin to constrain the nature of the paleo-drainage system of the Red River. The detrital zircon U-Pb results reveal multiple age groups at 190-240 Ma, 260-280 Ma, 450-540 Ma, 1700-1900 Ma and 2400-2600 Ma for the Paleocene to late Eocene Denghei Formation (Fm.), but only one conspicuous peak at 220-240 Ma for the late Eocene-Oligocene Mengla Fm. Provenance analyses illustrate that the former likely had source areas that included the Hoh-Xil, Songpan-Ganzi, northern Qiangtang, Yidun and western Yangtze Terranes, which are consistent with the catchments of the Upper and Lower Jinshajiang Segments, whereas the latter mainly transported material from a limited number of sources, such as the Lincang granitic intrusions west of the Simao Basin. Integrated with available detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and paleogeographic data, our study suggests the existence of a paleo-Red River during the Paleocene to late Eocene that was truncated and lost its northern sources after approximately 35 Ma, due to left-lateral strike-slip faulting of the Ailao Shan-Red River and clockwise rotation of the Lanping-Simao Terrane.

  19. Bathymetry of the Hong and Luoc River Junction, Red River Delta, Vietnam, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Toan, Duong Duc; Thanh, Mung Dinh; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Water Resources University in Hanoi, Vietnam, conducted a bathymetric survey of the junction of the Hong and Luoc Rivers. The survey was done to characterize the channel morphology of this delta distributary network and provide input for hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. The survey was carried out in December 2010 using a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system. A bathymetric map of the Hong and Luoc River junction was produced which was referenced to the datum of the Trieu Duong tide gage on the Luoc River.

  20. Investigation of trihalomethanes formation potential in Karoon River water, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooladvand, Moradali; Ramavandi, Bahman; Zandi, Keyvan; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-07-01

    Organic matters in raw water have a potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) during the chlorination process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) in Karoon River water and to determine the effect of several factors including total organic carbon (TOC), pH, chlorine dosage, water temperature, and seasonal variation. The results showed that, among all factors, TOC and water temperature have a remarkable effect on THMFP. The experimental results from batch studies indicated that increasing of pH value yielded a greater THMFP concentration for Karoon River water. THMFP levels of Karoon River water in summer times, when water temperature exceeded 26°C, were 1.2-1.6 times higher than in the spring and fall seasons, when water temperature was below 15°C. It was found that the measured THMFP at Karoon River water in the spring and fall seasons were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L.

  1. The Red Sea: The Formation, Morphology, Oceanography and Environment of a Young Ocean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasul, Najeeb M.A; Stewart, Ian C.F

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a broad overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the Red Sea, from its geological formation and oceanographic development to the environmental influences on its ecology...

  2. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  3. Managing the Economics of Soil Salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrich, Joleen

    2012-01-01

    Saline soils result in decreased crop growth and yield with the potential for losing productive farm land. Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota for corn, soybeans, wheat, sugar beets, and barley. Installing tile drainage decreased per acre crop profitability from 19 to 49 percent. Lost revenues were estimated to be $150 million due to 1.2 million acres of slightly saline s...

  4. The increasing sacrcity of red oaks in Mississippi river floodplain forestS: Influence of the residual overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick Dearing Oliver; E.C. Burkhardt; Daniel A. Skojac

    2005-01-01

    Red oaks - cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), and Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley; aka: Quercus nuttallii Palmer) - are not regrowing in Mississippi Delta river floodplain forests in the southeastern United...

  5. Association constants and enthalpies of formation of heteroassociates of anions of cresol red and thymol blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency of anions of sulfophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, cresol red, thymol blue, and non-substituted phenol red. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single (HAn-) and doubly charged anions (An2-) of sulfophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of the composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated semi-empirically and compared with experimentally determined values of the equilibrium association constants.

  6. Kinetics of Linear Rouleaux Formation Studied by Visual Monitoring of Red Cell Dynamic Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Barshtein, G; Wajnblum, D.; Yedgar, S

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of plasma proteins or other macromolecules may form aggregates, normally in rouleaux formations, which are dispersed with increasing blood flow. Experimental observations have suggested that the spontaneous aggregation process involves the formation of linear rouleaux (FLR) followed by formation of branched rouleaux networks. Theoretical models for the spontaneous rouleaux formation were formulated, taking into consideration that FLR may involve both "po...

  7. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-06-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-11-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  9. The Rose-red Glow of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The vivid red cloud in this new image from ESO's Very Large Telescope is a region of glowing hydrogen surrounding the star cluster NGC 371. This stellar nursery lies in our neighbouring galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The object dominating this image may resemble a pool of spilled blood, but rather than being associated with death, such regions of ionised hydrogen - known as HII regions - are sites of creation with high rates of recent star birth. NGC 371 is an example of this; it is an open cluster surrounded by a nebula. The stars in open clusters all originate from the same diffuse HII region, and over time the majority of the hydrogen is used up by star formation, leaving behind a shell of hydrogen such as the one in this image, along with a cluster of hot young stars. The host galaxy to NGC 371, the Small Magellanic Cloud, is a dwarf galaxy a mere 200 000 light-years away, which makes it one of the closest galaxies to the Milky Way. In addition, the Small Magellanic Cloud contains stars at all stages of their evolution; from the highly luminous young stars found in NGC 371 to supernova remnants of dead stars. These energetic youngsters emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation causing surrounding gas, such as leftover hydrogen from their parent nebula, to light up with a colourful glow that extends for hundreds of light-years in every direction. The phenomenon is depicted beautifully in this image, taken using the FORS1 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Open clusters are by no means rare; there are numerous fine examples in our own Milky Way. However, NGC 371 is of particular interest due to the unexpectedly large number of variable stars it contains. These are stars that change in brightness over time. A particularly interesting type of variable star, known as slowly pulsating B stars, can also be used to study the interior of stars through asteroseismology [1], and several of these have been confirmed in this cluster. Variable stars

  10. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: michael.berg@eawag.ch; Stengel, Caroline [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland); Trang, Pham Thi Kim [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hung Viet, Pham [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sampson, Mickey L. [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Leng, Moniphea [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Samreth, Sopheap [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Fredericks, David [Phnom Penh (Cambodia)

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 {mu}g/L in Cambodia (average 217 {mu}g/L) and 1-845 {mu}g/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 {mu}g/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 {mu}g/L (average 159 {mu}g/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 {mu}g/g (average 7 {mu}g/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 {mu}g/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 {mu}g/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority.

  11. Red River Waterway, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, Mississippi River to Shreveport, Louisiana. General Reevaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    project. The primary grass found in pastures is bermuda, although bahia , carpet, rye, dallis, bent, and Johnson grass are also present. Clovers...units. The population increased in direct response to a land grant offer which attracted American, French Canadian and Acadian immigrants . River...from Loggy Bayou north to the Hurricane Bluffs. The impediment of the Raft was not great enough to influence the rising number of immigrants intent on

  12. Assessment of climate change impact on river flow regimes in The Red River Delta, Vietnam – A case study of the Nhue-Day River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Cao Duong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has caused dramatic changes in regional climate variability, particularly regarding fluctuations in temperature and rainfall. Thus, it is predicted that river flow regimes will be altered accordingly. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of modeling such changes by simulating discharge using the HEC-HMS model. The precipitation was projected using super-high resolution multiple climate models (20 km resolution with newly updated emission scenarios as the input for the HEC-HMS model for flow analysis at the Red River Basin in the northern area of Vietnam. The findings showed that climate change impact on the river flow regimes tend towards a decrease in the dry season and a longer duration of flood flow. A slight runoff reduction is simulated for November while a considerable runoff increase is modeled for July and August amounting to 30% and 25%, respectively. The discharge scenarios serve as a basis for water managers to develop suitable adaptation methods and responses on the river basin scale.

  13. Late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault (SE Tibet): implications for kinematic change during Plateau growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Schoenbohm, Lindsay; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhou, Renjie; Hou, Jianjun

    2016-04-01

    The India-Eurasia continental collision has created the Tibetan Plateau, a spectacular example of continental plateaus. Along its southeastern margin, surface uplift, river incision, shear-zone exhumation and displacement along active faults have all interacted to shape the landscape. The Ailao Shan-Red River fault, a continental-scale strike-slip fault striking over 1000 km from the Tibetan Plateau to South China Sea, is an excellent recorder for those processes, providing important insights into the evolution of the southeastern plateau margin. However, its late Cenozoic tectonic evolution still remains elusive. This work presents new structural and stratigraphic data from the Miocene basin in the bend area and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological data from the shear zone to put constraints on the timing and nature of structural and geomorphic evolution of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault region. Our observations indicate that the major bend in the fault was a releasing bend in the early Miocene, but became a restraining bend after the late Miocene reversal of displacement. The strata preserved in bend area record the nature and timing of exhumation of the shear zone. Apatite (U-Th)/He data show two phases of rapid exhumation in the Miocene. The first rapid exhumation occurred before 16 Ma, the timing of which is supported by the early Miocene sedimentary record and previous geochronologic results. It may have ended before the formation of a low-relief erosion surface. The second episode of rapid exhumation began at ~14-13 Ma, lasting 2-3Myr. During this interval, the Ailao Shan range may have uplift to the modern elevation and the high relief may have developed along the range due to river incision. Metamorphic clasts from the shear zone were deposited in the Red River valley. Regional compilation reveals a coincidence of tectonic events in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings in the middle-late Miocene, indicating dramatic kinematic change during the course

  14. Relationship of urinary arsenic metabolites to intake estimates in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Biology and Chemistry (BCH), City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Pham Thi Kim Trang [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 {mu}g/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 {mu}g/L. Also, estimated inorganic As intake from groundwater and rice were over Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (15 {mu}g/week/kg body wt.) by FAO/WHO for 92% of the residents examined. Inorganic As and its metabolite (monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations in human urine were positively correlated with estimated inorganic As intake. These results suggest that residents in these areas are exposed to As through consumption of groundwater and rice, and potential health risk of As is of great concern for these people. Urinary concentration ratios of dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid in children were higher than those in adults, especially among men, indicating greater As methylation capacity in children. - Positive correlations between estimated arsenic intake and urinary inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were observed in human from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  15. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  16. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, M.; Małek, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Pollo, A.; Haines, C. P.; Fritz, A.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marchetti, A.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Ilbert, O.; Gargiulo, A.; Moscardini, L.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive red galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The detailed spectral analysis of stellar populations of intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies allows the build up of their stellar content to be followed over the last 8 billion years. Methods: We extracted a sample of passive red galaxies in the redshift range 0.4 history of passive red galaxies. We compare the results with a grid of synthetic spectra to constrain the star formation epochs of these galaxies. We characterize the formation redshift-stellar mass relation for intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies. Results: We find that at z 1 stellar populations in low-mass passive red galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive red galaxies, similar to what is observed at the present epoch. Over the full analyzed redshift range 0.4 time passes, I.e., what has become known as the downsizing picture. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  18. Changes in total phosphorus concentration in the Red River of the North Basin, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Akyüz, F. Adnan; Lin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Red River of the North drains much of eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota and flows north into Manitoba, Canada, ultimately into Lake Winnipeg; therefore, water quality is an International concern. With increased runoff in the past few decades, phosphorus flux (the amount of phosphorus transported by the river) has increased. This is a concern, especially with respect to Lake Winnipeg, an important inland fishery and recreational destination. There is pressure at the State and International levels to reduce phosphorus flux, an expensive proposition. Depending on the method (controlling sources, settling ponds, buffer strips), control of phosphorus flux is not always effective during spring runoff. This work represents a first step in developing a causal model for phosphorus flux by examining available data and changes in concentration over time. Total phosphorus concentration data for the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, and at Fargo, North Dakota-Moorhead, Minnesota, were summarized and then analyzed using WRTDS (Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season) to describe total phosphorus changes over time in two analysis periods: 1970-1993 and 1993-2012. Total phosphorus concentration increased in the first period at Emerson, Manitoba, indicating phosphorus was likely being transported to streams during runoff events. A very different pattern occurred at Fargo-Moorhead with declines in concentration, except at high discharge. While concentration continually changes, during the second period it decreased during spring runoff at Emerson and Fargo-Moorhead and during the growing season at Fargo-Moorhead, perhaps because of improved agricultural practices and declines in some uses of phosphorus.

  19. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  20. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The UP modelling system for large scale hydrology: simulation of the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Kilsby

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The UP (Upscaled Physically-based hydrological modelling system to the Arkansas-Red River basin (USA is designed for macro-scale simulations of land surface processes, and aims for a physical basis and, avoids the use of discharge records in the direct calibration of parameters. This is achieved in a two stage process: in the first stage parametrizations are derived from detailed modelling of selected representative small and then used in a second stage in which a simple distributed model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the whole basin. The first stage of the process is described in a companion paper (Ewen et al., this issue, and the second stage of this process is described here. The model operated at an hourly time-step on 17-km grid squares for a two year simulation period, and represents all the important hydrological processes including regional aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge, infiltration- and saturation-excess runoff, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, overland and channel flow. Outputs from the model are discussed, and include river discharge at gauging stations and space-time fields of evaporation and soil moisture. Whilst the model efficiency assessed by comparison of simulated and observed discharge records is not as good as could be achieved with a model calibrated against discharge, there are considerable advantages in retaining a physical basis in applications to ungauged river basins and assessments of impacts of land use or climate change.

  2. [Preliminary analysis of the characteristics of red tide areas in Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingjiang; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Jingzhong

    2003-07-01

    A review was made on the main environmental characteristics such as currents and water body, diluted water and its turning direction, upwelling, front, nutrients and its sources and plankton community in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent sea areas which could affect the growth, migration, assembling, resting and competition of harmful algae to form red tides. Analyses were also conducted to reveal features of the red tides events recorded in this area in terms of time, location and causative species. Some preliminary results from recent cruises carried out in the investigated sea area, where red tides were frequently occurring, were introduced.

  3. Financial Impacts of Priority Swine Diseases to Pig Farmers in Red River and Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H T T; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Grosbois, V; Moula, N; Truong, B D; Phan, T D; Vu, T D; Trinh, T Q; Vu, C C; Rukkwamsuk, T; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    A study was conducted between May 2013 and August 2014 in three provinces of Vietnam to investigate financial impacts of swine diseases in pig holdings in 2010-2013. The aim of the study was to quantify the costs of swine diseases at producer level in order to understand swine disease priority for monitoring at local level. Financial impacts of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), foot and mouth disease (FMD), and epidemic diarrhoea were assessed for 162 pig holders in two Red River Delta provinces and in one Mekong River Delta province, using data on pig production and swine disease outbreaks at farms. Losses incurred by swine diseases were estimated, including direct losses due to mortality (100% market value of pig before disease onset) and morbidity (abortion, delay of finishing stage), and indirect losses due to control costs (treatment, improving biosecurity and emergency vaccination) and revenue foregone (lower price in case of emergency selling). Financial impacts of swine diseases were expressed as percentage of gross margin of pig holding. The gross margin varied between pig farming groups (P gross margin for large farm, 38% for fattening farm and 63% for smallholder. Cost incurred by FMD was lower with 19%, 25% and 32% of gross margin of pig holding in large farm, fattening farm and smallholder, respectively. The cost of epidemic diarrhoea was the lowest compared to losses due to PRRS and FMD and accounted for around 10% of gross margin of pig holding in the three pig farming groups. These estimates provided critical elements on swine disease priorities to better inform surveillance and control at both national and local level. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Integrated and Sustainable Water Management of Red-Thai Binh Rivers System Under Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Mason, E.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Vietnam is currently undergoing a rapid economic and demographic development, characterized by internal migrations from the rural areas to the main cities with increasing water demands to guarantee adequate energy and food productions. Hydropower is the primary renewable energy resource in the country, accounting for 33% of the total electric power production, while agriculture contributes for 18% of the national GDP and employs 70% of the population. To cope with this heterogeneous and fast-evolving context, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and by adopting effective tools to analyze the potential of current and projected infrastructure along with their operating strategies. This work contributes a novel decision-analytic framework based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Direct Policy Search (MOE-DPS) to support the design of integrated and sustainable water resources management strategies in the Red-Thai Binh River system. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, with a total area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating flood primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. The dimensionality of the system and the number of objectives involved increase the complexity of the problem. We address these challenges by combining the MOE-DPS framework with Gaussian radial basis functions policy approximation and the Borg MOEA, which have been demonstrated to guarantee good solutions quality in such many objective policy design problems. Results show that the proposed framework successfully identified alternative management strategies for the system, which explore different tradeoffs among the multi-sector services involved

  5. Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang

    2013-07-15

    Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam: Controlling geochemical processes and reactive transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Hue, N.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The groundwater chemistry was investigated in a transect of 100 piezometers. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition......(III) but some As(V) is always found. Arsenic correlates well with NH4, relating its release to organic matter decomposition and the source of As appears to be the Fe-oxides being reduced. Part of the produced Fe(II) is apparently reprecipitated as siderite containing less As. Results from sediment extraction...... indicate most As to be related to the Fe-oxide fractions. The measured amount of sorbed As is low. In agreement, speciation calculations for a Fe-oxide surface suggest As(III) to constitute only 3% of the surface sites while the remainder is occupied by carbonate and silica species. The evolution in water...

  7. PermVeg: A model to design crop sequences for permanent vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong; Everaarts, A.P.; Berg, van den W.; Neeteson, J.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The constraints in current vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, in which vegetables are rotated with flooded rice, called for the design of alternative systems of permanent vegetable production. The practical model, PermVeg, was developed to generate vegetable crop sequences

  8. Boreal Forest Carbon Sequestration Strategies : a Case Study of the Little Red River Cree First Nation Land Tenures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, creation of carbon offset and emission reduction credits are examined from the perspective of the Little Red River Cree Nation (LRRCN), a forest tenure holder in northern Alberta. Carbon credits are produced under three scenarios: (1) carbon uptake in forest ecosystems, with

  9. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  10. Inhibition of Amyloid-like Fibril Formation of Trypsin by Red Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotorman, Marta; Kasi, Phanindra B; Halasz, Laszlo; Borics, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the potential role and applicability of dietary supplements in reducing the risk of development of amyloid diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract, such as type II diabetes. Trypsin, a well-known serine protease was used as a model protein in our experiments. The effect of various red wines on the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin was studied in vitro, in aqueous ethanol, at pH 7.0. Turbidity measurements, aggregation kinetics experiments, Congo red binding assays and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements were used to follow the aggregation process in the presence or absence of various red wines. The results suggest that red wines effectively inhibit the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The extent of inhibition was found to be proportional to the total concentration of phenolic compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Elastic energy of curvature-driven bump formation on red blood cell membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations were performed to explore quantitative aspects of the discocyte-echinocyte shape transformation in red blood cells. The shape transformation was assumed to be driven by changes in the preferred curvature of the membrane bilayer and opposed by the elastic shear rigidity of the membrane skeleton. The energy required for echinocyte bump formation was calculated for a range of bump shapes for different preferred curvatures. Energy minima corresponding to nonzero bump heights we...

  12. Mineral Occurrence data for the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance and Uinta Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This legacy database lists occurrences of minerals identified in the Green River Formation in the Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado using X-ray...

  13. Exploring the Potential for Sustainable Future Bioenergy Production in the Arkansas-White-Red River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, L.; Jager, H.; Kreig, J.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy production in the US has been projected to increase in the next few years and this has raised concerns over environmentally sustainable production. Specifically, there are concerns that managing lands to produce bioenergy feedstocks in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) may have impacts over the water quality in the streams draining these lands and hamper with efforts to reduce the size of the Gulf of Mexico's "Dead Zone" (hypoxic waters). However, with appropriate choice of feedstocks and good conservation practices, bioenergy production systems can be environmentally and economically sustainable. We evaluated opportunities for producing 2nd generation cellulosic feedstocks that are economically sustainable and improve water quality in the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin, which is major part of the MARB. We generated a future bioenergy landscape by downscaling county-scale projections of bioenergy crop production produced by an economic model, POLYSYS, at a market price of $60 per dry ton and a 1% annual yield increase. Our future bioenergy landscape includes perennial grasses (switchgrass and miscanthus), short-rotated woody crops (poplar and willow) and annual crops (high yield sorghum, sorghum stubble, corn stover and wheat straw). Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) we analyzed changes in water quality and quantity by simulating a baseline scenario with the current landscape (2014 land cover) and a future scenario with the bioenergy landscape. Our results over the AWR indicate decreases in median nutrient and sediment loadings from the baseline scenario. We also explored methods to evaluate if conservation practices (such as reducing fertilizer applications, incorporating filter strips, planting cover crops and moving to a no-till system) can improve water quality, while maintaining biomass yield. We created a series of SWAT simulations with varying levels of conservation practices by crop and present our methods towards

  14. Groundwater salinity influenced by Holocene seawater trapped in incised valleys in the Red River delta plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Flemming; Tran, Long Vu; van Hoang, Hoan; Tran, Luu Thi; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Pham, Nhan Quy

    2017-04-01

    Salty and brackish groundwater has been observed at least 100 km inland in some aquifers contained within Quaternary delta plains. This phenomenon limits access to fresh groundwater resources, particularly in the densely populated deltas of Southeast Asia. However, the causes of inland salinity are unclear. Here we present borehole and geophysical data that show that in the Red River delta plain of Vietnam, salty and brackish groundwater primarily occurs in incised valleys that were formed during sea-level lowstands during the Pleistocene. During the mid-Holocene, these valleys were filled with fine-grained marine deposits containing trapped seawater. We conduct groundwater flow simulations that show that the age, thickness, and permeability of the marine sediments are the primary controls on the leaching of salty porewater into the freshwater aquifer. We find that salty groundwater originating from this trapped seawater is still present in Holocene-aged sediments with low permeability, and affects groundwater salinity in adjacent aquifers. In contrast, trapped seawater from all Pleistocene-aged sediments has been leached. We identify a number of brackish to saline delta aquifers elsewhere in Asia and throughout the world that have a similar sedimentary history, and thus are likely to be influenced by this leaching process.

  15. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  16. Atmospheric Contributors to Heavy Rainfall Events in the Arkansas-Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A. McCorkle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the top 1% 24-hour rainfall events from 1994 to 2013 at eight climatological sites that represent the east to west precipitation gradient across the Arkansas-Red River Basin in North America. A total of 131 cases were identified and subsequently classified on the synoptic-scale, mesoscale, and local-scale to compile a climatological analysis of these extreme, heavy rainfall events based on atmospheric forcings. For each location, the prominent midtropospheric pattern, mesoscale feature, and predetermined thermodynamic variables were used to classify each 1% rainfall event. Individual events were then compared with other cases throughout the basin. The most profound results were that the magnitudes of the thermodynamic variables such as convective available potential energy and precipitable water values were poor predictors of the amount of rainfall produced in these extreme events. Further, the mesoscale forcings had more of an impact during the warm season and for the westernmost locations, whereas synoptic forcings were extremely prevalent during the cold season at the easternmost locations in the basin. The implications of this research are aimed at improving the forecasting of heavy precipitation at individual weather forecasts offices within the basin through the identified patterns at various scales.

  17. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  18. Hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow and availability in the North Fork Red River aquifer, southwest Oklahoma, 1980–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Ellis, John H.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2017-09-28

    On September 8, 1981, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board established regulatory limits on the maximum annual yield of groundwater (343,042 acre-feet per year) and equal-proportionate-share (EPS) pumping rate (1.0 acre-foot per acre per year) for the North Fork Red River aquifer. The maximum annual yield and EPS were based on a hydrologic investigation that used a numerical groundwater-flow model to evaluate the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals on groundwater availability in the North Fork Red River aquifer. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is statutorily required (every 20 years) to update the hydrologic investigation on which the maximum annual yield and EPS were based. Because 20 years have elapsed since the final order was issued, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an updated hydrologic investigation and evaluated the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals on groundwater flow and availability in the North Fork Red River aquifer in Oklahoma. This report describes a hydrologic investigation of the North Fork Red River aquifer that includes an updated summary of the aquifer hydrogeology. As part of this investigation, groundwater flow and availability were simulated by using a numerical groundwater-flow model.The North Fork Red River aquifer in Beckham, Greer, Jackson, Kiowa, and Roger Mills Counties in Oklahoma is composed of about 777 square miles (497,582 acres) of alluvium and terrace deposits along the North Fork Red River and tributaries, including Sweetwater Creek, Elk Creek, Otter Creek, and Elm Fork Red River. The North Fork Red River is the primary source of surface-water inflow to Lake Altus, which overlies the North Fork Red River aquifer. Lake Altus is a U.S. Bureau of Reclamation reservoir with the primary purpose of supplying irrigation water to the Lugert-Altus Irrigation District.A hydrogeologic framework was developed for the North Fork Red River aquifer and included a

  19. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  20. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE

  1. Genetic differentiation in red-bellied piranha populations (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner, 1858) from the Solimões-Amazonas River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos A; de Sá Leitão, Carolina S; Paula-Silva, Maria de N; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F

    2016-06-01

    Red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões-Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red-bellied piranha is unavailable. Here, we describe the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of red-bellied piranha populations collected at different locations of Solimões-Amazonas River system. We collected 234 red-bellied piranhas and analyzed throughout eight microsatellite markers. We identified high genetic diversity within populations, although the populations of lakes ANA, ARA, and MAR have shown some decrease in their genetic variability, indicating overfishing at these communities. Was identified the existence of two biological populations when the analysis was taken altogether at the lakes of Solimões-Amazonas River system, with significant genetic differentiation between them. The red-bellied piranha populations presented limited gene flow between two groups of populations, which were explained by geographical distance between these lakes. However, high level of gene flow was observed between the lakes within of the biological populations. We have identified high divergence between the Catalão subpopulation and all other subpopulations. We suggest the creation of sustainable reserve for lakes near the city of Manaus to better manage and protect this species, whose populations suffer from both extractive and sport fishing.

  2. Formation and microscopical application of a fluorescent 1,10-phenanthroline derivative of ruthenium red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, G E; de Cidre, L L; Stockert, J C

    1995-10-01

    In this work we describe the formation and microscopical application of a fluorescent derivative of Ruthenium Red (RR) obtained by heating the dye in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (OP). The RR-OP reaction product showed absorption maxima at 416 and 444 nm and intense fluorescence emission at 578 nm under 440 nm exciting light. Neither RR nor OP solutions alone were fluorescent when excited at 440 nm. Using fluorescence microscopy, chicken blood cell smears stained 5 min with the RR-OP derivative showed the chromatin of erythrocyte nuclei with a bright orange fluorescence under violet-blue (436 nm) exciting light.

  3. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice promotes bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Bakr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu, i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

  4. Degradation and bound-residue formation of nonylphenol in red soil and the effects of ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shan, Jun; Jiang, Bingqi; Wang, Lianhong; Yu, Bin; Chen, Jianqiu; Guo, Hongyan; Ji, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Fate of nonylphenol (NP) in soils and the effects of nitrogen fertilizers are unclear. Using (14)C-tracer, we studied the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of 4-NP111 in a paddy red soil amended without and with ammonium chloride. Under oxic conditions, 4-NP111 had a half-life of 16.1 ± 1.6 days and minor mineralization (3.84 ± 0.02%), forming no extractable metabolite but abundant bound residues (60.9 ± 1.7%, mostly bound to humin) after 49 days of incubation. The ammonium amendment (8 mmol/kg soil) significantly inhibited the degradation (half-life of 68.0 ± 7.7 days), mineralization (2.0 ± 1.1%), and bound-residue formation (23.7 ± 0.2%). Under anoxic conditions, 4-NP111 did not degrade during 49 days of incubation and the ammonium amendment (40 mmol/kg soil) did not affect its persistence. Our results demonstrate that bound-residue formation was a major mechanism for NP dissipation in the red soil under oxic conditions and that chemical nitrogen fertilizer at average field application rate may already considerably increase NP recalcitrance in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages

  6. Red blood cell storage increases hypoxia-induced nitric oxide bioavailability and methemoglobin formation in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almac, Emre; Bezemer, Rick; Hilarius-Stokman, Petra M.; Goedhart, Peter; de Korte, Dirk; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Ince, Can

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether storage of red blood cells (RBCs) leads to alterations in nitrite reductase activity, hence in altered hypoxia-induced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and methemoglobin formation. Hypoxia-induced NO bioavailability and methemoglobin formation were measured in

  7. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Lacassin, Robin; Tapponnier, Paul; Schärer, Urs; Zhong, Dalai; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Liangshang; Ji, Shaocheng; Trinh, Phan Trong

    1995-12-01

    The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow ( axis fabrics, indicate that the gneisses have undergone intense, progressive left-lateral shear. P-T studies show that left-lateral strain occurred under amphibolite-facies conditions (3-7 kb and 550-780°C). In both ranges high-temperature shear was coeval with emplacement of leucocratic melts. Such deformed melts yield {U}/{Pb} ages between 22.4 and 26.3 Ma in the Ailao Shan and between 22.4 and 24.2 Ma in the Diancang Shan, implying shear in the Lower Miocene. The mylonites in either range rapidly cooled to ≈ 300°C between 22 and 17 Ma, before the end of left-lateral motion. The similarity of deformation kinematics, P-T conditions, and crystallization ages in the aligned Ailao and Diancang Shan metamorphic cores, indicate that they represent two segments of the same Tertiary shear zone, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone. Our results thus confirm the idea that the ASRR belt was the site of major left-lateral motion, as Indochina was extruded toward the SE as a result of the India-Asia collision. The absence of metamorphic rocks within the 80 km long "Midu gap" between the gneissic cores of the two ranges results from sinistral dismemberment of the shear zone by large-scale boudinage followed by uplift and dextral offset of parts of that zone along the Quaternary Red River Fault. Additional field evidence suggests that the Xuelong Shan in northern Yunnan and the Day Nui Con Voi in Vietnam are the northward and southward extensions, respectively, of the ASRR shear zone, which therefore reaches a length of nearly 1000 km. Surface balance restoration of amphibolite boudins trails indicates layer parallel extension of more than 800% at places where strain can be measured, suggesting shear strains on the order of 30, compatible with a minimum

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanism underlying gray-to-red body color formation in red crucian carp (Carassius auratus, red var.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Jinhui; Peng, Liangyue; Ren, Li; Zhang, Huiqin; Zou, Lijun; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Yamei

    2017-10-01

    Red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) is an ornamental fish with vivid red/orange color. It has been found that the adult body color of this strain forms a gray-to-red change. In this study, skin transcriptomes of red crucian carp are first obtained for three different stages of body color development, named by gray-color (GC), color-variation (CV), and red-color (RC) stages, respectively. From the skins of GC, CV, and RC, 103,229; 108,208; and 120,184 transcripts have been identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that 2483, 2967, and 4473 unigenes are differentially expressed between CV and GC, RC and CV, and RC and GC, respectively. A part of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are involved in the signaling pathway of pigment synthesis, such as the melanogenesis genes (Mitfa, Pax3a, Foxd3, Mc1r, Asip); tyrosine metabolism genes (Tyr, Dct, Tyrp1, Silva, Tat, Hpda); and pteridine metabolism genes (Gch, Xdh, Ptps, Tc). According to the data of transcriptome and quantitative PCR, the expression of Mitfa and its regulated genes which include the genes of Tyr, Tyrp1, Dct, Tfe3a, and Baxα, decreases with gray-to-red change. It is suggested that Mitfa and some genes, being related to melanin synthesis or melanophore development, are closely related to the gray-to-red body color transformation in the red crucian carp. Furthermore, the DEGs of cell apoptosis and autophagy pathway, such as Tfe3a, Baxα, Hsp70, Beclin1, Lc3, Atg9a, and Atg4a, might be involved in the melanocytes fade away of juvenile fish. These results shed light on the regulation mechanism of gray-to-red body color transformation in red crucian carp, and are helpful to the selective breeding of ornamental fish strains.

  9. Formation history of open clusters constrained by detailed asteroseismology of red giant stars observed by Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Lee, Yueh-Ning; García, Rafael A.; Hennebelle, Patrick; Mathur, Savita; Beck, Paul G.; Mathis, Stephane; Stello, Dennis; Bouvier, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    Stars originate by the gravitational collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud of a diffuse medium, and are often observed to form clusters. Stellar clusters therefore play an important role in our understanding of star formation and of the dynamical processes at play. However, investigating the cluster formation is diffcult because the density of the molecular cloud undergoes a change of many orders of magnitude. Hierarchical-step approaches to decompose the problem into different stages are therefore required, as well as reliable assumptions on the initial conditions in the clouds. We report for the first time the use of the full potential of NASA Kepler asteroseismic observations coupled with 3D numerical simulations, to put strong constraints on the early formation stages of open clusters. Thanks to a Bayesian peak bagging analysis of about 50 red giant members of NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, the two most populated open clusters observed in the nominal Kepler mission, we derive a complete set of detailed oscillation mode properties for each star, with thousands of oscillation modes characterized. We therefore show how these asteroseismic properties lead us to a discovery about the rotation history of stellar clusters. Finally, our observational findings will be compared with hydrodynamical simulations for stellar cluster formation to constrain the physical processes of turbulence, rotation, and magnetic fields that are in action during the collapse of the progenitor cloud into a proto-cluster.

  10. Water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data for the Red River of the North and its tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, water years 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, William C.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2016-08-25

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fargo Diversion Board of Authority, collected water-surface elevations during a range of discharges needed for calibration of hydrologic and hydraulic models for specific reaches of interest in water years 2014–15. These water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data were collected for design planning of diversion structures on the Red River of the North and Wild Rice River and the aqueduct/diversion structures on the Sheyenne and Maple Rivers. The Red River of the North and Sheyenne River reaches were surveyed six times, and discharges ranged from 276 to 6,540 cubic feet per second and from 166 to 2,040 cubic feet per second, respectively. The Wild Rice River reach also was surveyed six times during 2014 and 2015, and discharges ranged from 13 to 1,550 cubic feet per second. The Maple River reach was surveyed four times, and discharges ranged from 16.4 to 633 cubic feet per second. Water-surface elevation differences from upstream to downstream in the reaches ranged from 0.33 feet in the Red River of the North reach to 9.4 feet in the Maple River reach.

  11. Change in Sahelian Rivers hydrograph: The case of recent red floods of the Niger River in the Niamey region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descroix, Luc; Genthon, Pierre; Amogu, Okechukwu; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Sighomnou, Daniel; Vauclin, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the hydrological regime of Sahelian Rivers are considered based upon the example of the Middle Niger River and its exceptional flood in 2010 near the city of Niamey. It is shown that rainfall in 2010 was only average with respect to the long term record, with neither the monthly rainfall distribution in terms of the amount of rainfall nor the distribution of rainy events changing significantly in the last few decades. Particularly, no increase in the number of extreme rainfall events is observed. In spite of this, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970s, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in a modification of the Niger River's regime from a single hydrograph to a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. This modification is likely due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure, resulting mostly from the spatial extension of crop areas and the shortening of fallow periods. Changes in connectivity of the river networks on both banks of the Niger such as endorheism bursting events also caused an increase in the contributing basin area. Policy makers should be alerted to the effects of intensive cropping, land clearing and overgrazing in some areas, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian Rivers.

  12. Record of Lower Gondwana megafloral assemblage from Lower Kamthi Formation of Ib River Coalfield, Orissa, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2006-03-15

    Recent investigations carried out in the Ib River Coalfield, Mahanadi Master Basin, Orissa, identified some fossiliferous beds in the Lower Gondwana deposits. Two exposures of the Lower Kamthi Formation yielded diverse and abundant plant remains, which include Neomariopteris, Vertebraria, and a scale leaf along with 14 Glossopteris species otherwise mapped as Barren Measures and Upper Kamthi formations. Glossopteris indica dominates the flora (22.78%) followed by G. communis (17.72%) and G. browniana (13.92%). Based on megafloral assemblages, different beds exposed at Gopalpur and Laxamanpur Pahar are assigned here to the Lower Kamthi Formation (Late Permian). The floristic composition suggests that a warm and humid climate prevailed during the Late Permian. The status of the Kamthi Formation in the Ib River Coalfield has been redefined in the present study.

  13. Tuning solid-state blue and red luminescence by the formation of solvate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng; Fan, Guoling; Guan, Yan; Meng, Qingyun; Li, Congju; Wang, Jiaona

    2013-12-07

    Tuning and controlling the solid-state luminescence of molecular solids play a key role in developing multi-color displays and tunable dye laser. In this work, we report the tunable blue and red luminescence by the formation of solvate crystals of 1,4-bis(5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene (POPOP) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). Upon introduction of guest solvents (chloroform and dichloromethane) into the POPOP and DCM host matrices, the obtained solvate crystals exhibit an alternated stacking arrangement, interaction fashion, and crystal symmetry compared with the pristine chromophore solids. Furthermore, the solvates of POPOP (CCl3H) and DCM (CCl2H2) present changeable luminescent properties (such as one-/two-photon emissive wavelength, fluorescence lifetime and photoluminescent quantum yield) in the blue/red regions relative to the pristine POPOP and DCM. In addition, the second harmonic generation can also be obtained for the DCM (CCl2H2) due to the transformation of the centrosymmetric to a non-centrosymmetric structure from pristine DCM. Periodic density functional theoretical calculations suggest that the guest solvents do not participate in the frontier orbital distribution within the solvate crystals. Therefore, by the combination of experimental and theoretical studies on the solvate crystals, this work not only reports the supramolecular assembly of new types of host-guest photoactive systems, but also provides a detailed understanding of the electronic structures of the solid-state luminescent materials.

  14. Light and acid dual-responsive organogel formation based on m-methyl red derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinhua; Gao, Aiping; Lv, Haiting; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Fan, Yang

    2013-12-07

    A new gelator 1 that included m-methyl red was synthesized and fully characterized. It was found that the organogel of 1 was stable in DMSO even if the organogel was stimulated by acid or light. The organogel was thoroughly characterized using various microscopic techniques including field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The organogel exhibited tunable structures and optical properties under different stimulation. The regular nanoring structure was turned into microspheres after the organogel in DMSO was stimulated at 254 nm light or acid. At the same time, the color of molecule 1 in gel state and solution state was all changed after stimulation by light or acid. The hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking were found to be the main driving forces for gel formation. This dual-responsive gel held promise for soft materials application in upscale smart responsive materials.

  15. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  16. Impact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, V. D.; Ouillon, S.; Thanh, T. D.; Chu, L. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Hoa Binh dam (HBD), located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although it is important for flood prevention, electricity production and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from a 50-year data set of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010), and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was simulated using the MIKE11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 9%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average, by 61% at Son Tay near Hanoi (from 119 to 46 × 106 t yr-1). Along the coast, reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh dam. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season (-14% in the Red River at Son Tay) and increased water discharge in the dry season (+12% at the same station). The ratios of water and suspended sediment flows, as compared to the total flows in the nine mouths, increased in the northern and southern estuaries and decreased in the central, main Ba Lat mouth. The increasing volume of dredged sediments in the Haiphong harbour is evidence of the silting up of the northern estuary of Cam-Bach Dang. The effect of tidal pumping on enhanced flow occurring in the dry season and resulting from changed water regulation is discussed as a possible cause of the enhanced siltation of the estuary after Hoa Binh dam impoundment.

  17. The Niobrara Formation as a challenge to water quality in the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Study regionArkansas River, east of the Rocky Mountains.Study focusCretaceous sedimentary rocks in the western United States generally pose challenges to water quality, often through mobilization of salts and trace metals by irrigation. However, in the Arkansas River Basin of Colorado, patchy exposure of multiple Cretaceous formations has made it difficult to identify which formations are most problematic. This paper examines water quality in surface-water inflows along a 26-km reach of the Arkansas River relative to the presence or absence of the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation within the watershed.New hydrological insights for the regionPrincipal component analysis (PCA) shows Niobrara-influenced inflows have distinctive geochemistry, particularly with respect to Na, Mg, SO42−, and Se. Uranium concentrations are also greater in Niobrara-influenced inflows. During the irrigation season, median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 83%, 646%, and 55%, respectively, greater than medians where Niobrara Formation surface exposures were absent. During the non-irrigation season, which better reflects geologic influence, the differences were more striking. Median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 288%, 863%, and 155%, respectively, greater than median concentrations where the Niobrara Formation was absent. Identification of the Niobrara Formation as a disproportionate source for dissolved solids, Se, and U will allow for more targeted studies and management, particularly where exposures underlie irrigated agriculture.

  18. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute 20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids.

  19. Geochemical processes underlying a sharp contrast in groundwater arsenic concentrations in a village on the Red River delta, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiche, Elisabeth [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: elisabeth.eiche@img.uni-karlsruhe.de; Neumann, Thomas [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Berg, Michael [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Weinman, Beth [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240 (United States); Geen, Alexander van [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Norra, Stefan; Berner, Zsolt [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Stueben, Doris [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The spatial variability of As concentrations in aquifers of the Red River Delta, Vietnam, was studied in the vicinity of Hanoi. Two sites, only 700 m apart but with very different As concentrations in groundwater (site L: <10 {mu}g/L vs. site H: 170-600 {mu}g/L) in the 20-50 m depth range, were characterized with respect to sediment geochemistry and mineralogy as well as hydrochemistry. Sequential extractions of the sediment were carried out in order to understand why As is released to groundwater at one site and not the other. No major differences were observed in the bulk mineralogy and geochemistry of the sediment, with the exception of the redox state of Fe oxyhydroxides inferred from sediment colour and diffuse spectral reflectance. At site H most of the As in the sediment was adsorbed to grey sands of mixed Fe(II/III) valence whereas at site L As was more strongly bound to orange-brown Fe(III) oxides. Higher dissolved Fe and low dissolved S concentrations in groundwater at site H ({approx}14 mg Fe/L, <0.3 mg S/L) suggest more strongly reducing conditions compared to site L (1-2 mg Fe/L, <3.8 mg S/L). High concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ({approx}10 mg/L), HCO{sub 3}{sup -} (500 mg/L) and dissolved P (600 mg/L), in addition to elevated As at site H are consistent with a release coupled to microbially induced reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. Other processes such as precipitation of siderite and vivianite, which are strongly supersaturated at site H, or the formation of amorphous Fe(II)/As(III) phases and Fe sulfides, may also influence the partitioning of As between groundwater and aquifer sands. The origin of the redox contrast between the two sites is presently unclear. Peat was observed at site L, but it was embedded within a thick clayey silt layer. At site H, instead, organic rich layers were only separated from the underlying aquifer by thin silt layers. Leaching of organic matter from this source could cause reducing conditions and therefore

  20. Chute Formation and Iterative Adjustment in Large, Sand-Bed Meandering Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, M. C.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A.

    2011-12-01

    The meandering-braided continuum is a planform manifestation of excess available river energy; a balance between the energy of flow (commonly quantified as unit steam power or shear stress), and dynamic resistance due to bed material calibre and bank strength. Single-thread meandering rivers plot in part of the continuum defined by low excess available river energy, while braided rivers plot in part of the continuum defined by high excess available river energy. Planform patterns that are transitional between single-thread meandering and braided occur where chute channel formation is prolific. In this presentation we will elucidate the morphodynamic implications of chute formation for sinuosity and planform pattern in large, sand-bed meandering rivers. We draw on the results of recent research that applied binary logistic regression analysis to determine the possibility of predicting chute initiation based on attributes of meander bend character and dynamics (Grenfell et al., accepted, ESP&L). Regression models developed for the Strickland River, Papua New Guinea (54 bends), the lower Paraguay River, Paraguay/Argentina (45 bends), and the Beni River, Bolivia (114 bends), revealed that the probability of chute initiation at a meander bend is a function of the bend extension rate (the rate at which a bend elongates). Image analyses of all rivers and field observations from the Strickland suggest that the majority of chute channels form during scroll-slough development. Rapid extension is shown to favour chute initiation by breaking the continuity of point bar deposition and vegetation encroachment at the inner bank, resulting in widely-spaced scrolls with intervening sloughs that are positively aligned with primary over-bar flow. The rivers plot in order of increasing chute activity on an empirical meandering-braided pattern continuum (Kleinhans and van den Berg, 2011, ESP&L 36) defined by potential specific stream power (ωpv) and bedload calibre (D50). Increasing

  1. Yeast influence on the formation of stable pigments in red winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Antonio; Loira, Iris; Heras, José María; Callejo, María Jesús; Tesfaye, Wendu; González, Carmen; Suárez-Lepe, José Antonio

    2016-04-15

    The anthocyanin profile of a wine greatly varies over time depending on many factors. In addition to color modifications due to changes in the chemical composition of wine, there may be some influence of the yeast strain used in fermentation. The main aim of this study is to identify and quantify the different ways in which yeast may influence on wine color and its stability, during red winemaking. Hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase activity was measured by the ability to transform the p-coumaric acid (HPLC-DAD). Acetaldehyde (GC-FID) and pyruvic acid (Y15 enzymatic autoanalyser) contents were monitored along fermentation. Stable pigments formation, including vitisins, vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins and flavanols-anthocyanins adducts, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Moreover, the ability of adsorbing color molecules by yeasts' cell walls was assessed. It could be concluded that the strain used has substantial influence on the formation of stable pigments, and therefore, proper yeast selection is important to ensure the stability of the wine coloring matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of vitisins and anthocyanin-flavanol adducts during red grape drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Serratosa, María P; Merida, Julieta

    2012-07-11

    This study evaluated the formation of anthocyanin-derived compounds during the production of sweet red wines from Merlot and Syrah grapes previously chamber-dried under controlled-temperature conditions. The musts from both grape varieties were found to contain pelargonidin-3-glucoside throughout the vinification process. Besides, HPLC-DAD-MS revealed the presence of pyranoanthocyanins in unfermented musts from the raisins. These compounds are adducts resulting from the cycloaddition of pyruvic acid (type A vitisins) and acetaldehyde (type B vitisins) to anthocyanin molecules. The analyses additionally revealed the presence of products of the condensation via a methylmethine bridge between anthocyanins and (epi)catechin, which requires the presence of acetaldehyde. The absence of pyruvic acid, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in the musts from fresh grapes and their presence in those from dried grapes support the idea that these compounds result from enzymatic transformations because the vinification of the musts involves no alcoholic fermentation. The drying process alters the permeability of grape membranes by the lipoxygenase activation effect (LOX), a switch to an anaerobic metabolism and the resulting triggering of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (ADH). The activation of these and several other enzymes confirmed the occurrence of enzymatic transformations and the formation of vitisin A, acetylvitisin A, and the B vitisins of malvidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-acetylglucoside, and malvidin-3-acetylglucoside, as well as the adducts Pn-3-glc-methylmethine(epi)catechin, Mv-3-glc-methylmethine(epi) catechin, and Mv-3-acetylmethylmethine(epi)catechin.

  3. Identification of red blood cell rouleaux formation using photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Fayruz; Hysi, Eno; Strohm, Eric M.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) rouleaux formation is a reversible phenomenon that occurs during low blood flow and small shearing forces in circulation. Certain pathological conditions can alter the molecular constituents of blood and properties of the RBCs leading to enhanced rouleaux formation, which results in impaired perfusion and tissue oxygenation. In this study rouleaux were artificially generated using Dextran-70 and examined using a photoacoustic (PA) microscope. Individual rouleau were irradiated with a 532 nm pulsed laser focused to a 10 μm spot size, and the resulting PA signals recorded with a 200 MHz transducer. The laser and transducer were co-aligned, with the sample positioned between them. The frequency-domain PA ultrasound spectra were calculated for rouleaux with lengths ranging from 10 to 20 μm. For the rouleaux, a single spectral minimum at 269+/-4 MHz was observed. The spectral minima were in good agreement with a theoretical thermoelastic expansion model using an infinite length cylindrical absorber, bearing a diameter equivalent to an average human RBC (7.8 μm). These results suggest that PA ultrasound spectroscopy can be potentially used as a tool for monitoring blood samples for the presence of rouleaux.

  4. Nitric oxide diffusion to red blood cells limits extracellular, but not intraphagosomal, peroxynitrite formation by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolo, Carolina; Álvarez, María Noel; Ríos, Natalia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Radi, Rafael; Romero, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    Macrophage-derived nitric oxide ((•)NO) participates in cytotoxic mechanisms against diverse microorganisms and tumor cells. These effects can be mediated by (•)NO itself or (•)NO-derived species such as peroxynitrite formed by its diffusion-controlled reaction with NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide radical anion (O(2)(•-)). In vivo, the facile extracellular diffusion of (•)NO as well as different competing consumption routes limit its bioavailability for the reaction with O(2)(•-) and, hence, peroxynitrite formation. In this work, we evaluated the extent by which (•)NO diffusion to red blood cells (RBC) can compete with activated macrophages-derived O(2)(•-) and affect peroxynitrite formation yields. Macrophage-dependent peroxynitrite production was determined by boron-based probes that react directly with peroxynitrite, namely, coumarin-7-boronic acid (CBA) and fluorescein-boronate (Fl-B). The influence of (•)NO diffusion to RBC on peroxynitrite formation was experimentally analyzed in co-incubations of (•)NO and O(2)(•-)-forming macrophages with erythrocytes. Additionally, we evaluated the permeation of (•)NO to RBC by measuring the intracellular oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. Our results indicate that diluted RBC suspensions dose-dependently inhibit peroxynitrite formation, outcompeting the O(2)(•-) reaction. Computer-assisted kinetic studies evaluating peroxynitrite formation by its precursor radicals in the presence of RBC are in accordance with experimental results. Moreover, the presence of erythrocytes in the proximity of (•)NO and O(2)(•-)-forming macrophages prevented intracellular Fl-B oxidation pre-loaded in L1210 cells co-cultured with activated macrophages. On the other hand, Fl-B-coated latex beads incorporated in the macrophage phagocytic vacuole indicated that intraphagosomal probe oxidation by peroxynitrite was not affected by nearby RBC. Our data support that in the proximity of a blood vessel, (

  5. Analogue modelling of microcontinent formation: a case study from the Danakil Block, southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Nicolas; Cruden, Alexander; Betts, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The kinematic evolution of the Danakil Block is well constrained but the processes responsible for the formation of an isolated continental segment around 13 Ma ago with an independent pole of rotation are still matter of debate. We performed three-dimensional analogue experiments of rotational continental extension containing a pre-existing linear weakness zones in the lithospheric mantle to investigate the formation of the Red Sea, including the Danakil Block. We imposed a rotational extensional boundary condition that simulates the progressive anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate with respect to the Nubia Plate over the last 13-15 Ma and we simulated the presence of a narrow thermal anomaly related to the northward channelling of Afar plume by varying the viscosity of the model lithospheric mantle. The results from experiments containing a linear zone of weakness oriented at low angles with respect to the rift axis show that early stages of deformation are characterised by the development of two rift sub-parallel compartments that delimit an intra-rift block in the vicinity of the weak lithosphere boundary zone, which are analogous to the two rift branches that confine the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea. The imposed rotational boundary condition creates a displacement gradient along the intra-rift block and prevents the nucleation of the early rift compartments to the north of the block, enhancing the formation of an independently rotating intra-rift segment. Comparison with geodetic data supports our modelling results, which are also in agreement with the "crank-arm" model of Sichler (1980. La biellette Danakile: un modèle pour l'évolution géodynamique de l'Afar. Bull. la Société Géologique Fr. 22, 925-933). Additional analogue models of i) orthogonal extension with an identical lithospheric mantle weakness and, ii) rotational extension with a homogeneous lithosphere (i.e., no lithospheric mantle weakness) show no evidence of developing

  6. Key volatile compounds in red koji-shochu, a Monascus-fermented product, and their formation steps during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Yen Yen Sally; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Futagami, Taiki; Tamaki, Hisanori; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    Red koji, which refers the solid culture grown koji mold on the steamed rice, is one of the ingredients of Asian fermented foods including the Japanese spirit shochu. This study was aimed at elucidating the characteristic flavor and key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu as well as the mechanism of their formation. Sensory evaluation showed that red koji-shochu has the distinctive flavors cheese, sour, milky, and oily. Fifteen key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, and by comparison between red koji-shochu and white koji-shochu, as another typical shochu. The mash analysis revealed that ketone compounds and short-chain acids derive from red koji. Furthermore, although other key compounds were produced by yeast, it is highly likely that their concentrations were affected directly or indirectly by the high activities of protease and lipase in red koji. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions...... by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin...

  8. Pesticides in soil and sediment of a dyke-protected area of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gianna; Bläsing, Melanie; Kruse, Jens; Amelung, Wulf; Renaud, Fabrice; Sebesvari, Zita

    2017-04-01

    Coastal regions are densely populated but at the same time represent important agricultural areas for food production of the growing world population. To sustain high agricultural yields, in monocultures such as permanent rice systems, pesticides are used in high quantity and frequency. While earlier studies monitored the fate of pesticides in paddy rice systems, the overall fate of these compounds is altered nowadays due to the construction of dykes, which are needed in many delta regions to protect them from high tides, storm surges and salt water intrusion such as in the Red River Delta. The dyke system regulates the discharge and water exchange inside the diked area including irrigation channels for the paddy rice production. Local authorities observed increasing pollution towards the sea (highest pollution close to the dykes) and hypothesized that the dyke system would prevent water exchange and thus lead to an accumulation of pollutants within the diked area. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dykes on pesticide pollution patterns in coastal delta regions of the Red River Delta. The study was conducted in the district Giao Thuy of the Red River Delta, Vietnam. This area is surrounded by a sea and river dyke; both have several inlet and outlet gates to control the water level in the irrigation channels. We determined the pesticide pollution pattern in a diked agricultural area, as well as along salinity gradients in and outside the diked areas. Samples were taken from rice fields and sediments from irrigation channels inside the diked area as well from saline aquaculture fields located outside the dyke. Pesticide analysis was conducted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), followed up by the clean-up process described by Laabs et al. (2007) and analyses using gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (MSD). Preliminary results suggest that out of the 26 analysed compounds chlorpyrifos, propiconazole and

  9. The SAURON project : XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star

  10. The SAURON project - XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star

  11. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States)]|[Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  12. Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonas, Anna E; Tucker, John K; Brunkow, Paul E; Johnson, Kevin A; Hussein, Hussein S; Lin, Zhi-Qing

    2006-03-01

    The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river near Grafton, IL. This study was conducted to determine current levels of metal contamination in water, sediment, soil, and plants in the habitat, as well as to reveal temporal and spatial variations of metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider. Aluminum, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Sn, and Zn were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. High concentrations of metals were observed in lake sediment, compared with the concentrations in water, soil, and plant tissues. Sediment Ni concentrations (mg kg(-1)) varied from 66 to 95 and Sn from 1100 to 1600. Five detectable metals in egg content were Zn (24.2 +/- 13), Al (2.2 +/- 1.2), Sn (1.8 +/- 1.1), Mn (1.1 +/- 0.6), and Cu (0.9 +/- 0.5); nine detectable metals in egg shell were Zn (6.8 +/- 3.9), Sn (3.7 +/- 3.1), Cu (1.9 +/- 1.3), Cr (1.6 +/- 1.5), V (1.6 +/- 1.4), Pb (1.3 +/- 0.7), Ni (1.3 +/- 0.9), Mn (1.0 +/- 0.8), and Cd (0.16 +/- 0.11). Zinc accumulation in egg content was significantly correlated with Zn in egg shell (r = 0.445, P < 0.002, n = 42). While significant spatial variation was observed in egg shell, metal accumulation in eggs (content and shell) collected from the same ground of turtles consecutively for 4 years did not show a significant temporal change.

  13. Sacramento River, Chico Landing to Red Bluff, California Bank Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    fertilized to assist in good germination. Willow sprigs will be planted in scarred areas above the rock. The river stage will be below the sustained high...miles to 40 miles. The evolution of the fertile Sacramento Valley involved a succession of countless river configurations and channel changes...ae 3 CO Ul 4 HERBACEOUS PLANTS (Cont’d) Cali forn i a mugwort Occasional-Pacific States X (" Artemisia dou gl asi ana) Western ragweed

  14. Archaeology and Geomorphology of Red Oak Ridge Island, Navigation Pool 7, Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    localities along the Mississippi River - archaeologists have mistakenly equated this deep A horizon with stability and antiquity (e.g., Geier 1978...Investigations Number 11, Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center. La Crosse, Wisconsin. BOUYOUCOS, GEORGE J. 1936 Directions for making mechanical analyses of...The Late Wisconsin Savanna Terrace in Tributaries to the Upper Mississippi River. Quaternary Research 20: 2 165-176. FORD, BENJAMIN W. JR.,, JOHN T

  15. Effect of water quality and operational parameters on trihalomethanes formation potential in Dez River water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the influence of the total organic carbon (TOC content, chlorine quantity, water temperature, bromide ion concentration, and seasonal variations on trihalomethanes (THMs formation potential (THMFP in Dez River water in Iran. The water temperature and TOC content had a significant effect on THMFP. Further, the experimental results showed that increasing the concentration of bromide ions enhances the formation of dibromochloromethane and bromoform. It was found that the THMFP in Dez River water during summer times was relatively higher than 100 µg/L, maximum contaminant level for THMs in drinking water. By increasing the reaction time until 80 h, the THMFP was gradually increased and reached to 177.4 µg/L. The most abundant fraction of natural organic matter in the river was hydrophobic acid fraction (49.4 μg/L. Overall, our study demonstrated that however the THMFP of Dez River water was relatively high but a usual waterworks could effectively reduce THMFP.

  16. Kinetics of red blood cell rouleaux formation studied by light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna-Chodór, Alicja; Bosek, Maciej; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2015-02-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) rouleaux formation was experimentally studied using a light scattering technique. The suspensions of RBCs were obtained from the blood of healthy donors. Hematocrit of the samples was adjusted ranging from 1% to 4%. Measurements of the intensity of the coherent component of light scattered by the suspensions were performed and the scattering coefficient of the suspensions was determined. The number of RBCs per rouleaux was obtained using anomalous diffraction theory. The technique was used to show the effect of time, hematocrit, and sample thickness on the process. The number of cells per rouleaux first increases linearly, reaches a critical value at ˜3 cells per rouleaux, and then a further increase in the rouleaux size is observed. The kinetic constant of the rouleaux growth in the linear region is found to be independent of hematocrit. The aggregation rate increases as the sample thickness increases. The time at which the critical region appears strongly decreases as the hematocrit of the suspension increases.

  17. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  18. [Formation of geochemistry in underground river under rainfall conditions: an examule for underground river at Xueyu Cave, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Kang; Liang, Zuo-Bing; Yu, Zheng-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Li

    2014-10-01

    Through the monitoring of geochemical indexes in underground river of Xueyu Cave in Chongqing under rainfall conditions, we found that all indexes responded quickly to rainfall, and there was a correlation among them. Each index was analyzed with the principal component analysis, three main components were extracted which can represent 82.761% of the information to reflect the formation of geochemistry in underground river under rainfall conditions. The results showed that the contribution rates of soil leaching represented as increased concentration of total Fe, total Mn, and Al3+, and dilution effect represented as reduced concentration of K+, Na+ and Sr2+ to the change of geochemical characteristics were 41.718%, which should be paid more attentions for its great damage to karst soil and safety of drinking water. Karst water dissolution of dolomite and recharge area of agricultural activities, caverns were 29.958%, as for karst water on limestone dissolution represented, as increased concentration of Ca2+ the contribution rate was 11.084%.

  19. 77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... of the navigable waters of the James River centered on position 37 31'13.1'' N/077 25'07.84'' W (NAD..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... which do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule...

  20. Developing an Integrated Pest Management Program for Tomatoes in The Red River Delta of Vietnam: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecologically based approaches to pest management in crop production have been embraced in recent decades due to their validity and effectiveness. Integrated Pest Management (IPM is not a new concept. It has been adopted in various regions in Vietnam, particularly in tomato production, an economically important vegetable crop in the Red River Delta (RRD. Given the occurrence and development of tomato pests are influenced by many factors such as soil types, crop varieties and growth habits, production practices, local climatic conditions, and growing seasons, this paper therefore developed an IPM program for tomatoes in the RRD based on the defined major pests in the region. Detailed factsheets for six major pests were developed and different components of the IPM were explored and employed for the ease of identification and management. Practical suggestions for tomato growers were also presented.

  1. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  2. Recent flow regime and sedimentological evolution of a fluvial system as the main factors controlling spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater (Red River, Vietnam)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Larsen, F.; Jakobsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a relationship between geological history, groundwater flow paths and the spatial distribution of arsenic in aquifers of the upper part of the Red River delta in Vietnam. Hydrogeological conditions in the research area are complex. The fining upward sequence of Pleistocene alluvial...

  3. Structural equation model of total phosphorus loads in the Red River of the North Basin, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time. The objectives of the study are to investigate structural equation modeling methods for application to water-quality problems and to test causal hypotheses related to the drivers of total phosphorus loads over the period 1970 to 2012. Multiple working hypotheses that explain total phosphorus loads and methods for estimating missing ancillary data were developed, and water-quality related challenges to structural equation modeling (including skewed data and scaling issues) were addressed. The model indicates that increased precipitation in season 1 (November–February) or season 2 (March–June) would increase total phosphorus loads in the basin. The effect of agricultural practices on total phosphorus loads was significant, although the effect is about one-third of the effect of season 1 precipitation. The structural equation model representing loads at six sites in the basin shows that climate and agricultural practices explain almost 60% of the annual total phosphorus load in the Red River of the North basin. The modeling process and the unexplained variance highlight the need for better ancillary long-term data for causal assessments.

  4. The significance of geological and zircon age data derived from the wall rocks of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, NW Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelaźniewicz, Andrzej; Hòa, Trần Trọng; Larionov, Alexander N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers new evidence on whether the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone of NW Vietnam is part of a suture zone between two continental blocks (the IndoChina Block and the South China Block) or whether it is itself of intracontinental origin, developed within the South China margin. To help clarify the role that the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone plays in South China tectonic reconstructions, we gathered new whole-rock geochemistry, structural field data, and zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages from granites, rhyodacites, and migmatites that occur within geological units adjacent to both the SW and NE sides of the Red River Fault Zone, a segment of the larger shear zone. The new zircon ages show that both walls of the Red River Fault Zone contain metamorphic and intraplate A-type granitoid rocks of Late Permian-Early Triassic age (263-240 Ma) and are of Indosinian origin. In the SW wall, the Fan Si Pan complex is a Neoproterozoic basement of metagranites and metasediments that was intruded by Late Permian (˜260 Ma), peralkaline, A-type granites and by subalkaline, A-type, biotite granite of Eocene age (˜35 Ma), containing xenoliths of gneissified Permian granitoids. The two intrusive episodes were separated by regional tectonic deformations occurring within a transpressional regime of a NW/W-vergent thrusting with a left-lateral oblique component, that was associated with greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism, presumably also of Eocene age (˜50-35 Ma), and that may have been related to the left-lateral movement on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. In the NE wall, the Lo Gam complex is a Neoproterozoic basement (˜767 Ma) that was repeatedly subjected to tectonothermal activity throughout the Palaeozoic (at ˜450-420 Ma, ˜350 Ma, ˜265 Ma), ending in the Early Triassic (˜248 Ma). There was no thermal overprint during the Cenozoic. In this wall, a significant part of the Permo-Triassic thermotectonism was ductile shearing that was concentrated along

  5. Physical-biological coupling induced aggregation mechanism for the formation of high biomass red tides in low nutrient waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhigang; Yin, Kedong

    2014-01-01

    Port Shelter is a semi-enclosed bay in northeast Hong Kong where high biomass red tides are observed to occur frequently in narrow bands along the local bathymetric isobars. Previous study showed that nutrients in the Bay are not high enough to support high biomass red tides. The hypothesis is that physical aggregation and vertical migration of dinoflagellates appear to be the driving mechanism to promote the formation of red tides in this area. To test this hypothesis, we used a high-resolution estuarine circulation model to simulate the near-shore water dynamics based on in situ measured temperature/salinity profiles, winds and tidal constitutes taken from a well-validated regional tidal model. The model results demonstrated that water convergence occurs in a narrow band along the west shore of Port Shelter under a combined effect of stratified tidal current and easterly or northeasterly wind. Using particles as dinoflagellate cells and giving diel vertical migration, the model results showed that the particles aggregate along the convergent zone. By tracking particles in the model predicted current field, we estimated that the physical-biological coupled processes induced aggregation of the particles could cause 20-45 times enhanced cell density in the convergent zone. This indicated that a high cell density red tide under these processes could be initialized without very high nutrients concentrations. This may explain why Port Shelter, a nutrient-poor Bay, is the hot spot for high biomass red tides in Hong Kong in the past 25 years. Our study explains why red tide occurrences are episodic events and shows the importance of taking the physical-biological aggregation mechanism into consideration in the projection of red tides for coastal management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and characterization of RED120: a conserved PWI domain protein with links to splicing and 3'-end formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Puri; Longman, Dasa; McCracken, Susan; Ip, Joanna Y; Poot, Raymond; Mattaj, Iain W; Cáceres, Javier F; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2007-06-26

    Precursor (pre)-mRNA splicing can impact the efficiency of coupled steps in gene expression. SRm160 (SR-related nuclear matrix protein of 160 kDa), is a splicing coactivator that also functions as a 3'-end cleavage-stimulatory factor. Here, we have identified an evolutionary-conserved SRm160-interacting protein, referred to as hRED120 (for human Arg/Glu/Asp-rich protein of 120 kDa). hRED120 contains a conventional RNA recognition motif and, like SRm160, a PWI nucleic acid binding domain, suggesting that it has the potential to bridge different RNP complexes. Also, similar to SRm160, hRED120 associates with snRNP components, and remains associated with mRNA after splicing. Simultaneous suppression in Caenorhabditis elegans of the ortholog of hRED120 with the orthologs of splicing and 3'-end processing factors results in aberrant growth or developmental defects. These results suggest that RED120 may function to couple splicing with mRNA 3'-end formation.

  7. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  8. Adsorption and desorption of arsenic to aquifer sediment on the Red River floodplain at Nam Du, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Hoa Mai, Nguyen; Postma, Dieke; Thi Kim Trang, Pham; Jessen, Søren; Hung Viet, Pham; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-10-01

    The adsorption of arsenic onto aquifer sediment from the Red River floodplain, Vietnam, was determined in a series of batch experiments. Due to water supply pumping, river water infiltrates into the aquifer at the field site and has leached the uppermost aquifer sediments. The leached sediments remain anoxic but contain little reactive arsenic and iron, and are used in our experiments. The adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out by addition or removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase in sediment suspensions under strictly anoxic conditions. Also the effects of HCO3, Fe(II), PO4 and Si on arsenic adsorption were explored. The results show much stronger adsorption of As(V) as compared to As(III), full reversibility for As(III) adsorption and less so for As(V). The presence or absence of HCO3 did not influence arsenic adsorption. Fe(II) enhanced As(V) sorption but did not influence the adsorption of As(III) in any way. During simultaneous adsorption of As(III) and Fe(II), As(III) was found to be fully desorbable while Fe(II) was completely irreversibly adsorbed and clearly the two sorption processes are uncoupled. Phosphate was the only solute that significantly could displace As(III) from the sediment surface. Compiling literature data on arsenic adsorption to aquifer sediment in Vietnam and Bangladesh revealed As(III) isotherms to be almost identical regardless of the nature of the sediment or the site of sampling. In contrast, there was a large variation in As(V) adsorption isotherms between studies. A tentative conclusion is that As(III) and As(V) are not adsorbing onto the same sediment surface sites. The adsorption behavior of arsenic onto aquifer sediments and synthetic Fe-oxides is compared. Particularly, the much stronger adsorption of As(V) than of As(III) onto Red River as well as on most Bangladesh aquifer sediments, indicates that the perception that arsenic, phosphate and other species compete for the same surface sites of iron oxides in

  9. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  10. Geology of the Sabie River Basalt Formation in the Southern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Sweeney

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sabie River Basalt Formation (SRBF in the central Lebombo is a virtually continuous sequence of basaltic lavas some 2 500 m thick that was erupted 200 - 179 Ma ago. Flows are dominantly pahoehoe in character and vary from 2 m to 20 m in thickness. Dolerite dykes cross-cutting the basalt sequence probably represent feeders to this considerable volcanic event. Volcanological features observed within the SRBF are described. Two chemically distinct basaltic magma types are recognised, the simultaneous eruption of which presents an intriguing geochemical problem as to their origins.

  11. The Triassic Santa Juana Formation at the lower Biobío River, south central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sven N.

    2005-09-01

    A sequence of Triassic rocks is exposed near the town of Concepción, Chile. These clastic strata are interpreted as the deposits of rivers, lakes, playas, and alluvial fans. The deposits comprise conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, and sand-, silt- and mudstones. Four facies associations comprising eight sedimentary facies can be distinguished. Plant fossils from the sedimentary sequence of the Santa Juana Formation indicate a Carnian age. The flora includes ferns ( Gleichenites, Cladophlebis, Dictyophyllum, Thaumatopteris, Asterotheca, Saportaea) and seed ferns ( Kurtziana, Antevsia, Dicroidium), ginkgophytes ( Sphenobaiera), cycads ( Pseudoctenis), conifers ( Heidiphyllum, Telemachus, Rissikia), and gymnosperms of uncertain affinities ( Linguifolium, Gontriglossa). Two new species are presented: Pseudoctenis santajuanensis and Gontriglossa reinerae.

  12. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly

  13. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  14. Far-red light promotes biofilm formation in the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A; Li, Yaqiong; Postier, Bradley L; Blankenship, Robert E; Chen, Min

    2017-10-20

    Light quantity and quality promotes ecological-niche differentiation of photosynthetic organisms. The existence of cyanobacteria capable of performing photosynthesis using red-shifted chlorophylls, chlorophyll d and f, reduces competition between species in light-limiting environments, and permits them to thrive in niches enriched in far-red light. We examined global transcriptome changes due to changing the culture light conditions in Acaryochloris marina, a chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium. We identified the functional category of 'photosynthesis' as the most down-regulated and the category of 'cell wall/membrane biogenesis' as the most up-regulated through a functional enrichment analysis of genes differentially expressed. Within the category of 'cell wall/membrane biogenesis', genes encoding glycosysltransferases accumulated the most in response to far-red light. Further experimental results confirmed that cells grown under far-red light form biofilms with a significantly increased adherence compared to cells grown under white light. Taken together, these results indicate that Acaryochloris marina shifts its lifestyle from a planktonic state under white light to an immobilized state under far-red light. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. MAPPING SUBSURFACE FORMATIONS ON THE EASTERN RED SEA COAST IN JORDAN USING GEOELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES: GEOLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batayneh Awni T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2006, geoelectrical measurements using the vertical electrical sounding (VES method were conducted on the eastern Red Sea coast in Jordan, using the SYSCAL-R2 resistivity instrument.
    The objectives of the study were (i to evaluate the possibility of mapping of Quaternary sediments medium in areas where little is known about the subsurface geology and to infer shallow geological
    structure from the electrical interpretation, and (ii to identify formations that may present fresh aquifer waters, and subsequently to estimate the relationship between groundwater resources and geological structures. Data collected at 47 locations were interpreted first with curve matching techniques, using theoretically calculated master curves, in conjunction with the auxiliary curves. The initial earth
    models were second checked and reinterpreted using a 1-D inversion program (i.e., RESIX-IP in order to obtain final earth models. The final layer parameters (thicknesses and resistivities were then
    pieced together along survey lines to make electrical cross sections. Resistivity measurements show a dominant trend of decreasing resistivity (thus increasing salinity with depth and westward toward
    the Red Sea. Accordingly, three zones with different resistivity values were detected, corresponding to three different bearing formations: (i a water-bearing formation in the west containing Red Sea saltwater; (ii a transition zone of clay and clayey sand thick formation; (iii stratas saturated with fresh groundwater in the east disturbed by the presence of clay and clayey sand horizons. Deep borehole (131 m drilled in the northwestern part of the study area for groundwater investigation, has
    confirmed the findings of the resistivity survey.

  16. Knowledge and associated factors towards type 2 diabetes among a rural population in the Red River Delta region, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Tran Quang; Phuong, Pham Tran; Nhung, Bui Thi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about type 2 diabetes (T2D) and attitude towards the condition are known to affect compliance and play an important role in diabetes management. T2D knowledge is a prerequisite for individuals and communities to take action on control of the disease. A cross-sectional study was designed to identify knowledge and related factors towards T2D, risk factors, complications, prevention and treatment of the disease. A total of 2580 subjects representative of the general population aged 40-64 years was recruited from a typical province of Red River Delta region, Vietnam. The trained surveyors interviewed subjects directly to collect data, using a structured questionnaire. To evaluate the overall knowledge of T2D, 14 questions were used to calculate the 100 points. Total knowledge score was classified into the following four categories: highly insufficient (≤25 points), insufficient (26-50 points), satisfactory (51-75 points), and highly satisfactory (>75 points). Association between inadequate knowledge (knowledge were 75, 17.9, 6.8, and 0.3%, respectively. Of the total population, more than 65% thought that there is no cure for diabetes, and more than 90% did not know the essential combination of drugs, diet, and physical activity in T2D treatment. Less than 10% of the population understood the concept of T2D, its risk factors, complications, approaches to prevention and treatment. The rural-urban difference of T2D knowledge was found in rates of understanding at least one risk factor (34.8% vs 63%), all the three methods for T2D prevention (1.7% vs 10.3%), and three combined approaches for T2D treatment (8.9% vs 16.4%). Age, residence, educational level, and occupation were the most significant factors associated with inadequate knowledge. The study shows a low level of diabetes knowledge among the general population aged 40-64 years in the Red River Delta, and significantly lower awareness in rural areas compared with urban areas. The limited awareness has

  17. Formation of polymeric pigments in red wines through sequential fermentation of flavanol-enriched musts with non-Saccharomyces yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escott, Carlos; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Loira, Iris; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; González, María Del Carmen; Suárez-Lepe, José Antonio

    2018-01-15

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts may contribute to enrich wine aroma while promoting the formation of stable pigments. Yeast metabolites such as acetaldehyde and pyruvate participate in the formation of stable pigments during fermentation and wine aging. This work evaluated the formation of polymeric pigments in red musts added with (+)-Catechin, ProcyanidinB2 and ProcyanidinC1. The non-Saccharomyces yeasts used were Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequential fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Use of Lachancea thermotolerans led to larger amounts of polymeric pigments in sequential fermentation. (+)-Catechin is the flavanol prone to forming such pigments. The species Metschnikowia pulcherrima produced higher concentration of esters and total volatile compounds. The sensory analysis pointed out differences in fruitiness and aroma quality. The results obtained strengthen the fact that metabolites from non-Saccharomyces yeasts may contribute to form stable polymeric pigments while also influencing wine complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for the formation of endothelin by lysed red blood cells from endogenous precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippler, B; Herbst, C; Simmet, T

    1994-12-12

    The release of endothelin from various blood cell fractions was investigated. Human as well as rat blood cell fractions homogenized by sonification were incubated in buffer for up to 60 min. Neither in platelet nor leukocyte homogenates from either species could immunoreactive endothelin be detected. In contrast, homogenates of red blood cells from both species showed a rapid and time-dependent rise of immunoreactive endothelin levels, reaching a peak at 15 min and decreasing thereafter. However, at time point 0 no immunoreactive endothelin could be detected. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed immunoreactive endothelin to consist of endothelin-1 as well as big endothelin-1. The release of immunoreactive endothelin in human and rat homogenates was concentration-dependently inhibited by the protease inhibitors, leupeptin, phosphoramidon, chymostatin and pepstatin A in order of increasing potency. Intact red blood cells did not incorporate [125I]endothelin-1 nor did they transform exogenous big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1. However, haemolysis of red blood cells with hypotonic saline (0.2%) or incubation with pore-forming staphylococcal alpha-toxin induced the release of immunoreactive endothelin into the buffer samples. Thus, apart from the indirect vasoconstrictor, haemoglobin, red blood cells can also liberate the direct vasoconstrictor, endothelin, a finding expected to be of considerable pathophysiological significance.

  19. Effect of Pre-ozonation on Haloacetic Acids Formation in Ganga River Water at Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naladala, Nagasrinivasa Rao; Singh, Rambabu; Katiyar, Kumud Lata Devi; Bose, Purnendu; Dutta, Venkatesh

    2017-11-01

    Almost all natural water bodies which are considered to be sustainable sources of drinking water contain organic matter in dissolved form and pathogens. This dissolved organic matter and pathogens cannot be removed effectively through traditional filtering processes in drinking water treatment plants. Chlorination of such water for disinfection results in large amounts of disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (HAAs), which showed many health effects like cancer and reproductive problems in lab animals and in human beings as well. Complete removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is a precursor compound for HAAs formation, is impossible from a practical point of view; hence, it will be better if DOC activity towards DBPs formation can be reduced via some process. The present article describes the process of pre-ozonating post-coagulated Ganga River water at Kanpur in a continuous flow mode and its effect on HAAs formation. Nearly 58% reduction in HAAs formation was observed during this study at higher doses of ozone.

  20. Recent flow regime and sedimentological evolution of a fluvial system as the main factors controlling spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater (Red River, Vietnam)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Larsen, F.; Jakobsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    isolating Pleistocene and Holocene aquifers were eroded, to the deep groundwater flow system discharging to Red River. Previously reported pattern of arsenic groundwater concentrations decreasing with an increasing sediment age is modified by the observed flow regime. Connection of the younger and older......We investigate a relationship between geological history, groundwater flow paths and the spatial distribution of arsenic in aquifers of the upper part of the Red River delta in Vietnam. Hydrogeological conditions in the research area are complex. The fining upward sequence of Pleistocene alluvial...... sediments was partially eroded during the Holocene and covered by sand and clay deposited in fluvial environments. Sedimentary processes lead to the development of two flow systems. Shallow groundwater discharges either to the local surface water bodies or, in the areas where low permeable sediments...

  1. Contributions of Climate Variability and Human Activities to Runoff Changes in the Upper Catchment of the Red River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes will contribute to regional water resource planning and management. This study aims to separate the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes in the upper catchment of the Red River Basin in China. The Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt’s test methods were applied to identify the trends and change points of the hydro-meteorological variables. The hydrological sensitivity, climate elasticity and hydrological simulation methods were adopted to estimate the contributions of climate variability and human activities to runoff changes. Results showed that annual runoff significantly decreased by 1.57 mm/year during the period of 1961–2012. A change point in annual runoff coefficient occurred in 2002. Accordingly, the annual runoff series were divided into the baseline period (1961–2002 and the impacted period (2003–2012. Mean annual runoff of the impacted period decreased by 29.13% compared with the baseline period. Similar estimates of the contributions of climate variability and human activities were obtained by the three different methods. Climate variability was estimated to be responsible for 69%–71% of the reduction in annual runoff, and human activities accounted for 29%–31%. Climate variability was the main driving factor for runoff decrease in the catchment.

  2. Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

  3. Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

    2002-09-01

    Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas.

  4. Rheological weakening of high-grade mylonites during low-temperature retrogression: The exhumed continental Ailao Shan-Red River fault zone, SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Bernroider, Manfred; Cheng, Xuemei; Li, Junyu; Yu, Zunpu; Genser, Johann

    2017-05-01

    We present a detailed case study of an exhumed continental strike-slip fault zone, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) strike-slip fault zone, to investigate how deformation promotes strain localization, and how the weak second phases and fluids trigger rheological weakening during retrogression near the ductile to brittle transition during exhumation. Along the ASRR strike-slip fault zone, in the Diancang Shan (DCS) metamorphic massif, high-temperature ductile deformation (D1) pervasively occurred during shearing and exhumation since late Oligocene. The high-temperature microstructures and textures are in part or entirely altered by subsequent low-temperature shearing (D2) since late Miocene, which is under the conditions of frictional-viscous transition of K-feldspar (ca. 450 °C) during further exhumation to the upper crustal levels. The formation of D2 microstructures and shear bands overprinted high-temperature intracrystalline plasticity phases (D1) in mylonitic rocks. Depending on the main rock-forming minerals, the results also demonstrate that the brittle-ductile transition involves a combination of different deformation mechanisms and possible rheological paths. In quartz-rich rocks, quartz was deformed in the dislocation creep regime and records transition of microfabrics and slip systems during decreasing temperature, which lasted until retrogression related to exhumation. As a result, grain-size reduction associated with fluids circulating within the ASRR strike-slip fault zone at brittle-ductile transition leads to reaction and texture weakening. Rheological weakening is the consequence of the syntectonic deformation, fluid flow, reaction softening, reaction creep and textural softening. The hydrous fluids resulted in hydration of silicates. Decompression occurred during shearing and as a result of tectonic exhumation. All these results demonstrate that the exhumation through the ductile to ductile-brittle transition involves a combination of different

  5. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions....... Between 11.9 and ∼8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed......-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed...

  6. Application of discrete choice experiment to assess farmers' willingness to report swine diseases in the Red River Delta region, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoa T T; Peyre, Marisa; Trinh, Tuyen Quang; Nguyen, Oanh Cong; Vu, Ton Dinh; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer's decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine diseases. Data were collected between March and July 2015 in two provinces in the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam, from 196 pig producers by face-to face interview. A conditional logit model is used to measure the relative importance of the socio-economic factors and calculate the expected probability of disease reporting under changes of levels of these factors. Results of the study indicated that the likelihood of compensation and the type of culling implemented (all or only unrecovered pigs) are the two most important factors influencing farmer reporting. Compensation level, movement restriction and delay in compensation payment also have significant impacts on farmer's decision to report animal disease but they are not as important as the above factors. Three different scenarios including changes in six different factors (attributes) are tested to predict probability of animal disease reporting. Under the current situation (uncertainty of being compensated), only 4% of the farmers would report swine disease outbreak to the official surveillance system if the culling policy involves all pigs in affected farms. This number is increased to 26% if culling in affected farms is restricted to unrecovered pigs only. Ensuring certainty of compensation increases reporting probability by up to 50% and 90% if all or only unrecovered pigs are destroyed, respectively. The results of this study are important for improving the performance and sustainability of swine disease surveillance system in Vietnam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment.

  8. Unconventional natural gas development did not result in detectable changes in water chemistry (within the South Fork Little Red River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bradley J; Scott, Erin; Massey, Leslie; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally; Haggard, Brian E

    2017-05-01

    The Fayetteville Shale within north central Arkansas is an area of extensive unconventional natural gas (UNG) production. Recently, the Scott Henderson Gulf Mountain Wildlife Management Area (GMWMA) was leased from the state of Arkansas for NG exploration, raising concerns about potential impacts on water resources. From November 2010 through November 2014, we monitored four reaches of the South Fork Little Red River (SFLRR), within the GMWMA, establishing baseline physico-chemical characteristics prior to UNG development and assessing trends in parameters during and after UNG development. Water samples were collected monthly during baseflow conditions and analyzed for conductivity, turbidity, ions, total organic carbon (TOC), and metals. All parameters were flow-adjusted and evaluated for monotonic changes over time. The concentrations of all constituents measured in the SFLRR were generally low (e.g., nitrate ranged from <0.005 to 0.268 mg/l across all sites and sample periods), suggesting the SFLRR is of high water quality. Flow-adjusted conductivity measurements and sodium concentrations increased at site 1, while magnesium decreased across all four sites, TOC decreased at sites 1 and 3, and iron decreased at site 1 over the duration of the study. With the exception of conductivity and sodium, the physico-chemical parameters either decreased or did not change over the 4-year duration, indicating that UNG activities within the GMWMA have had minimal or no detectable impact on water quality within the SFLRR. Our study provides essential baseline information that can be used to evaluate water quality within the SFLRR in the future should UNG activity within the GMWMA expand.

  9. Development of Conceptual Designs for the Prevention of Ice Formation in the Proposed Maple River Aqueduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    34 5 HEC - RAS Model...chart ....................................................... 35 20. HEC - RAS geometry at the Maple River Aqueduct...Geographic Information Systems HEC - RAS Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System IDNR Illinois Department of Natural Resources NAVD88 North

  10. Scar formation following excisional and burn injuries in a red Duroc pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N; Kim, Jayne Y; McFarland, Kevin L; Sen, Chandan K; Supp, Dorothy M; Bailey, J Kevin; Powell, Heather M

    2017-07-20

    Scar research is challenging because rodents do not naturally form excessive scars, and burn depth, size, and location cannot be controlled in human longitudinal studies. The female, red Duroc pig model has been shown to form robust scars with biological and anatomical similarities to human hypertrophic scars. To more closely mimic the mode of injury, recreate the complex chemical milieu of the burn wound environment and enhance scar development, an animal model of excessive burn-induced scarring was developed and compared with the more commonly used model, which involves excisional wounds created via dermatome. Standardized, full-thickness thermal wounds were created on the dorsum of female, red Duroc pigs. Wounds for the dermatome model were created using two different total dermatome settings: ∼1.5 mm and ≥ 1.9 mm. Results from analysis over 150 days showed that burn wounds healed at much slower rate and contracted more significantly than dermatome wounds of both settings. The burn scars were hairless, had mixed pigmentation, and displayed fourfold and twofold greater excess erythema values, respectively, compared with ∼1.5 mm and ≥ 1.9 mm deep dermatome injuries. Burn scars were less elastic, less pliable, and weaker than scars resulting from excisional injuries. Decorin and versican gene expression levels were elevated in the burn group at day 150 compared with both dermatome groups. In addition, transforming growth factor-beta 1 was significantly up-regulated in the burn group vs. the ∼1.5 mm deep dermatome group at all time points, and expression remained significantly elevated vs. both dermatome groups at day 150. Compared with scars from dermatome wounds, the burn scar model described here demonstrates greater similarity to human hypertrophic scar. Thus, this burn scar model may provide an improved platform for studying the pathophysiology of burn-related hypertrophic scarring, investigating current anti-scar therapies, and development of

  11. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  12. Minimization of ethylphenol precursors in red wines via the formation of pyranoanthocyanins by selected yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, S; Palomero, F; Morata, A; Uthurry, C; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2009-06-30

    Different strains of Saccharomyces with different hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCDC) activities, estimated by a bioconversion assay, were used for the fermentation of musts enriched with p-coumaric acid and grape anthocyanins, with the aim of favouring the formation of vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins, colour stabilization and (especially) the minimization of 4-ethylphenol. The development of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides (precursors of vinylphenolic adducts), the decarboxylation of p-coumaric acid, and the formation of 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylphenol and vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins were monitored by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. After fermentation, the wines were inoculated with large numbers (10(4) CFU/ml) of Dekkera bruxellensis to establish their potential for ethylphenol production. The HCDC activity of the strains significantly increased the formation of vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins and reduced the final concentration of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol generated by the vinylreductase activity (VPhR) of D. bruxellensis. Early decarboxylation of hydroxycinnamates to vinylphenols, by means of Saccharomyces strains with strong HCDC activity, and their subsequent binding with anthocyanins to form stable pyranoanthocyanins, is a possible way to reduce the likelihood of ethylphenol production by Brettanomyces during in-barrel aging.

  13. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  14. Red River Fisheries Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information on hatcheries and fish populations were recorded via electrofishing and water quality measurements from Eagle Bend Lake and Yates Lake.

  15. Late Miocene?Pliocene development of Asian aridification as recorded in the Red-Earth Formation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengtang; Peng, Shuzhen; Hao, Qingzhen; Biscaye, Pierre E.; An, Zhisheng; Liu, Tungsheng

    2004-07-01

    In northern China, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Hipparion Red-Earth Formation in the eastern Loess Plateau fills a gap of climate records between the well-known loess-soil sequences of the last 2.6 Ma and the Miocene loess-soil sequences from the western Loess Plateau. Earlier studies on type sections indicate that a major part of the Red-Earth Formation is also of wind-blown origin, covering the period from ˜7-8 to ˜2.6 Ma BP. Because the eolian dust deposited in the region originated from the Asian desert lands, the Red-Earth must contain a record of the aridification history of the Asian interior. In this study, the Xifeng type section in the eastern Loess Plateau is studied to assess the development of Asian aridification during Late Miocene-Pliocene time. Eolian dust deposition continued at the central Loess Plateau since ˜6.2 Ma BP, indicating that sizable desert lands in the interior of Asia and the Asian winter monsoon must have been constantly maintained during Late Miocene-Pliocene time, and were able to provide a significant amount of eolian dust. The aridity in the source areas was stronger from ˜6.2 to ˜5 Ma BP and weaker from ˜5 to ˜3.6 Ma BP. Two major aridification steps are observed at ˜3.6 and ˜2.6 Ma BP, respectively. The intensification of eolian deposition at ˜3.6 Ma BP is synchronous with a suggested uplift of portions of the Tibetan Plateau. The general aridification history is also highly consistent with the ongoing high-latitude cooling and the consequent expansion of Arctic sea-ice/ice sheets during this interval. Our results therefore suggest that both Tibetan uplift and ice-building processes in the northern hemisphere were two prominent driving forces behind the long-term desertification in the interior of Asia during Late Miocene and Pliocene time.

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes and budget for an annual cropping system in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Aaron James

    Agriculture contributes significantly to national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories but there is considerable control over management decisions and changes in production methods could lead to a significant reduction and possible mitigation of emissions from the sector. For example, conservation tillage practices have been suggested as a method of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), however, many questions remain unanswered regarding the short-term efficacy of the production method and knowledge gaps exist regarding possible interactions with essential nutrient cycles, and the production of non-CO2 GHGs, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Between autumn 2005 and 2009, a micrometeorological flux system was used to determine net CO2 and (N2O exchange from an annual cropping system situated on clay soil in the Red River Valley of southern Manitoba. Four plots (4-ha each) were independently evaluated and planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007; in 2008, two spring wheat plots were monitored. As well, during the non-growing season in 2006-2007 following corn harvest, a second micrometeorological flux system capable of simultaneously measuring stable C isotopologue (12CO2 and 13CO 2) fluxes was operated at the site. Tillage intensity and crop management practices were examined for their influence on GHG emissions. Significant inter-annual variability in CO2 and (N2O fluxes as a function of crop and related management activities was observed. Tillage intensity did not affect GHG emissions from the site. After accounting for harvest removals, the net ecosystem C budgets were 510 (source), 3140 (source) and -480 (sink) kg C/ha/year for the three respective crop years, summing to a three-year loss of 3170 kg C/ha. Stable C isotope flux measurements during the non-growing season following corn harvest indicated that approximately 70 % and 20 -- 30 % of the total respiration flux originated from crop residue C during the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007

  17. Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (δ18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

  18. A stromatolite exhibiting both biogenic and abiogenic growth phases from the Eocene Green River Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, C. M.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bhartia, R.; Salas, E. C.; Nealson, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The microstructure of microdigitate carbonate stromatolites from the Rife Bed of the Eocene Green River Formation (located near Rock Springs, Wyoming) alternates between calcite fans and micrite. Chemical and petrographic analysis of the stromatolites suggests the different microstructures result from significantly different growth regimes, potentially involving the biogenicity of the microfabrics. The calcite fan fabric is generally considered an abiogenic fabric. The micrite fabric, on the other hand, contains grains trapped at angles well beyond the angle of repose, suggesting the presence of a sticky substance (hypothesized to be microbial mats) during formation. Magnetic susceptibility has been recently developed by Petryshyn et al as a biosignature using the premise that microbial mats can trap very fine grains (including magnetic grains, ubiquitous in terrestrial environments) past the angle of repose while abiogenic structures with the same topography cannot. In these stromatolites, micritic layers have a greater magnetic susceptibility than calcite fan layers, consistent with the petrographic results. In addition, organic material was mapped within the stromatolites using deep-UV native fluorescence spectroscopy, a new technique that highlights π bond-containing organic molecules and avoids problems with mineral fluorescence inherent in other fluorescent techniques. Distinct organic features were present in the micritic layers and absent in the calcite fan layers. Attempts were made to identify the specific organic compounds mapped using organic extractions and traditional Raman spectroscopy. While trace amounts of organic compounds were detected in bulk organic extractions from the stromatolite, specific compounds could not be successfully correlated to deep-UV signatures. Strong calcite fluorescence prevented the detection of organic compounds using visible Raman scattering. Thus, at the time of abstract submission the organic material present had not

  19. Formation and evolution of valley-bottom and channel features, Lower Deschutes River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; O'Conner, Jim E.; O'Conner, Jim E.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2003-01-01

    Primary geologic and geomorphic processes that formed valley-bottom and channel features downstream from the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex are inferred from a canyon-long analysis of feature morphology, composition, location, and spatial distribution. Major controls on valley-bottom morphology are regional tectonics, large landslides, and outsized floods (floods with return periods greater than 1000 yrs), which include the late Holocene Outhouse Flood and several Quaternary landslide dam failures. Floods with a return period on the order of 100 yrs, including historical floods in 1996, 1964, and 1861, contribute to fan building and flood plain formation only within the resistant framework established by the major controls. Key processes in the formation of channel features, in particular the 153 islands and 23 large rapids, include long-term bedrock erosion, outsized floods, and century-scale floods. Historical analysis of channel conditions since 1911 indicates that the largest islands, which are cored by outsized-flood deposits, locally control channel location, although their margins are substantially modified during annual- to century-scale floods. Islands cored by bedrock have changed little. Islands formed by annual- to century-scale floods are more susceptible to dynamic interactions between tributary sediment inputs, mainstem flow hydraulics, and perhaps riparian vegetation. Temporal patterns of island change in response to the sequence of 20th century flooding indicate that many islands accreted sediment during annual- to decadal-scale floods, but eroded during larger century-scale floods. There is, however, no clear trend of long-term changes in patterns of island growth, movement, or erosion either spatially or temporally within the lower Deschutes River.

  20. Braided rivers, lakes and sabkhas of the upper Triassic Cifuncho formation, Atacama region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M.; Bell, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    A 1,000-m-thickness of Upper Triassic (to possibly Hettangian) sediments of the Cifuncho Formation are exposed in the coastal Cordillera of the Atacama Region, Chile. These coarse-grained clastic terrigenous strata are interpreted as the deposits of braided rivers, ephemeral lakes, sabkhas and volcaniclastic alluvial fans. They include conglomerates, pebbly sandstones, fine to medium-grained sandstones and thin, finely-laminated limestones. Halite hopper-casts are abundant in sandstones near the top of the section. Approximately 90% of the clastic detritus was derived from an upper Paleozoic metasedimentary accretionary complex located to the west. Andesitic debris flow and pyroclastic flow deposits occur near the base of the sequence. Isolated tuff intercalations and an ignimbritic lava flow occur higher in the section. The great thickness of coarse-grained and ill-sorted clastic sediments suggests deposition in an actively subsiding basin, probably a graben, adjacent to rising highlands. Overlying Hettangian-Sinemurian marine sediments were deposited by a transgression which occurred during a world-wide lowstand. This suggests that thermal subsidence followed the Triassic rifting.

  1. A reduced-complexity model for river delta formation - Part 1: Modeling deltas with channel dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a reduced-complexity model (RCM) for river delta formation (referred to as DeltaRCM in the following). It is a rule-based cellular morphodynamic model, in contrast to reductionist models based on detailed computational fluid dynamics. The basic framework of this model (DeltaRCM) consists of stochastic parcel-based cellular routing schemes for water and sediment and a set of phenomenological rules for sediment deposition and erosion. The outputs of the model include a depth-averaged flow field, water surface elevation and bed topography that evolve in time. Results show that DeltaRCM is able (1) to resolve a wide range of channel dynamics - including elongation, bifurcation, avulsion and migration - and (2) to produce a variety of deltas such as alluvial fan deltas and deltas with multiple orders of bifurcations. We also demonstrate a simple stratigraphy recording component which tracks the distribution of coarse and fine materials and the age of the deposits. Essential processes that must be included in reduced-complexity delta models include a depth-averaged flow field that guides sediment transport a nontrivial water surface profile that accounts for backwater effects at least in the main channels, both bedload and suspended sediment transport, and topographic steering of sediment transport.

  2. Laminae type and possible mechanisms for the formation of laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26°13.9' N and 35°22.6' E; water depth 1447 m and gravity core GeoB 5836-2 (26°12.61' N, 35°21.56' E; water depth 1475 m. Sediment makeup includes six types: a a laminated structure with alternating light (mainly coccoliths and dark (diatom frustules layers, where the diatom component is indicative of the intra-annual variability between stratification and mixing events; b a pocket-like structure attributed to the sinking of particles within fecal pellets and aggregates; c a matrix of tightly packed diatoms that relates to extended stratification/mixing periods of the water column; d homogenous intervals that result from turbidity deposition; e silt accumulations which origin may lie in agglutinated foraminifers; and f pyrite layers with pyrite formation initiated at the seawater-brine interface.

  3. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction

  4. The Stratigraphy of the Cambrian Lancara Formation between the Luna River and the Esla River in the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1969-01-01

    The Lancara Formation is a unit of carbonate sediments of Lower to Middle Cambrian age in the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain. The formation is divisible into a Dolomite Member, a Limestone Member and a Griotte Member. The Dolomite Member and the Limestone Member consist mainly of very

  5. Modes of rouleaux formation of human red blood cells in polyvinylpyrrolidone and dextran solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewchand, L S; Canham, P B

    1979-11-01

    The mechanics by which normal human erythrocytes join on a plastic cover slip into two cell doublets and larger aggregates of rouleaux were studied microscopically. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-360) or dextran (DX-70 or DX-110) were used as the rouleau agents. The minimum concentration of the rouleau-inducing agents required to form doublets was 1 g/L for PVP-360 and 5 g/L for the DXs. Three modes of interaction were observed in Ringer's solution with PVP or DX, cresting and flipping (involving no intercellular sliding) and a sliding mode of doublet formation (involving less gravitational work and less cellular deformation). The sliding mechanism occurred in suspensions with the lower concentrations of the rouleau agent but was also observed when geometric constraints prevented the nonsliding interaction of larger groups of cells in the higher concentrations of the rouleau agent. The technique provides a sensitive index for studying the combined effect of cellular flexibility and intercellular adhesion. Significant changes were observed for reduced membrane surface charge or reduced ionic calcium.

  6. Red blood cell rouleaux formation in dextran solution: dependence on polymer conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshtein, G; Tamir, I; Yedgar, S

    1998-01-01

    The velocity of rouleaux formation (RF), as previously shown, increases with increasing dextran concentration up to a critical concentration (Ca), beyond which the addition of dextran reduces the RF velocity (RFV). de Gennes' model for polymer solutions suggests that dextrans exist in two conformations: a coil structure at low concentrations, which changes to a network beyond a critical concentration (C*). In the present study we examined the relation between Ca and C* for dextrans of different molecular weight, and found that they coincide. This suggests that the change in dextran behavior, from increasing to decreasing RFV, occurs when their conformation changes from coil to network. In addition, it has been reported that in dilute dextran solutions the intercellular distance (D) between RBC in rouleaux increases with the molecular weight of the dextran. We found that D correlates with Rf, the end-to-end distance of the polymer molecule, and for all dextrans D < or = 1.5 Rf. In accord with de Gennes' Model for polymers between surfaces, this corresponds to intercellular interaction with two overlapping surface-associated polymer layers, which may extend "tails" to interact with the opposing cells.

  7. 17alpha/H/ hopane identified in oil shale of the Green River formation /Eocene/ by carbon-13 NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Christiansen, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    During an investigation of C-13 NMR shifts and the structural correspondence of pentacyclic triterpenes a C-13 NMR study was conducted on one of the most abundant components of the hexane soluble fraction of oil shale bitumen of the Green River formation. A rigorous proof was derived exclusively from C-13 NMR data for the structure of the important triterpenoid fossil molecule. It was established that the structure of the isolated triterpane was 17alpha(H) hopane.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of the simulations of effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two separate studies to simulate the effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, have been completed. In the first study, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. In the second study, the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model was verified for ice-cover conditions. To better understand and apply the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model, the uncertainty associated with simulated constituent concentrations and property values was analyzed and quantified using the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model-Uncertainty Analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation and first-order error analysis methods were used to analyze the uncertainty in simulated values for six constituents and properties at sites 5, 10, and 14 (upstream to downstream order). The constituents and properties analyzed for uncertainty are specific conductance, total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-cover conditions and ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-free conditions, and dissolved oxygen. Results are given in detail for both the ice-cover and ice-free conditions for specific conductance, total ammonia, and dissolved oxygen. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the simulated constituent concentrations and property values to input variables differ substantially between ice-cover and ice-free conditions. During ice-cover conditions, simulated specific-conductance values are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values upstream of site 10 and the point-source specific-conductance values downstream of site 10. These headwater-source and point-source specific-conductance values also are the key sources of uncertainty. Simulated total

  9. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOWER GREEN RIVER FORMATION, SOUTHWEST UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Robert Bereskin

    2003-02-11

    Anastamosing, low gradient distributary channels produce {approx}30 gravity, paraffinic oils from the Middle Member of the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation in the south-central portion of the Uinta Basin. This localized depocenter was situated along the fluctuating southern shoreline of Lake Uinta, where complex deposits of marginal-lacustrine to lower delta plain accumulations are especially characteristic. The Middle Member contains several fining-upward parasequences that can be recognized in outcrop, core, and downhole logs. Each parasequence is about 60 to 120 feet thick and consists of strata deposited during multiple lake level fluctuations that approach 30 to 35 feet in individual thickness. Such parasequences represent 300,000-year cycles based on limited absolute age dating. The subaerial to subaqueous channels commonly possess an erosional base and exhibit a fining upward character. Accordingly, bedding features commonly range from large-scale trough and planar cross bedding or lamination at the base, to a nonreservoir, climbing ripple assemblage near the uppermost reservoir boundary. The best reservoir quality occurs within the laminated to cross-stratified portions, and the climbing ripple phase usually possesses more deleterious micas and/or detrital clays. Diagenesis also exerts a major control on reservoir quality. Certain sandstones were cemented by an early, iron-poor calcite cement, which can be subsequently leached. Secondary intergranular porosity (up to 20%) is largely responsible for the 10 -100 millidarcy rock, which represents petrophysical objectives for both primary and secondary production. Otherwise, intense compaction, silicic and iron-rich carbonate cements, and authigenic clays serve to reduce reservoir quality to marginal economic levels.

  10. Trihalomethane formation during water disinfection in four water supplies in the Somes river basin in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; von Gunten, Urs; Mocan, Aurel; Chira, Romeo; Siegfried, Barbara; Haydee Kovacs, Melinda; Vancea, Sidonia

    2009-08-01

    After the discovery of chloroform in drinking water, an extensive amount of work has been dedicated to the factors influencing the formation of halogenated disinfections by-products (DBPs). The disinfection practice can vary significantly from one country to another. Whereas no disinfectant is added to many water supplies in Switzerland or no disinfectant residual is maintained in the distribution system, high disinfectant doses are applied together with high residual concentrations in the distribution system in other countries such as the USA or some southern European countries and Romania. In the present study, several treatment plants in the Somes river basin in Romania were investigated with regard to chlorine practice and DBP formation (trihalomethanes (THMs)). Laboratory kinetic studies were also performed to investigate whether there is a relationship between raw water dissolved organic matter, residual chlorine, water temperature and THM formation. Drinking water samples were collected from different sampling points in the water treatment plant (WTP) from Gilau and the corresponding distribution system in Cluj-Napoca and also from Beclean, Dej and Jibou WTPs. The water samples were collected once a month from July 2006 to November 2007 and stored in 40-mL vials closed with Teflon lined screw caps. Water samples were preserved at 4 degrees C until analysis after sodium thiosulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(3)) had been added to quench residual chlorine. All samples were analysed for THMs using headspace GC-ECD between 1 and 7 days after sampling. The sample (10 mL) was filled into 20-mL headspace vials and closed with a Teflon-lined screw cap. Thereafter, the samples were equilibrated in an oven at 60 degrees C for 45 min. The headspace (1 mL) was then injected into the GC (Cyanopropylphenyl Polysiloxane column, 30 m x 53 mm, 3 microm film thickness, Thermo Finnigan, USA). The MDLs for THMs were determined from the standard deviation of eight standards at 1 microg/L. The

  11. Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Blome, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Complete penetration of the Otuk Formation in a continuous drill core (diamond-drill hole, DDH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, depositional environment, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwestern Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA), is ~82 meters (m) thick and appears structurally uncomplicated. Bedding dips are generally low and thicknesses recorded are close to true thicknesses. Preliminary synthesis of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic data suggests that the Otuk succession in DDH 927 is a largely complete, albeit condensed, marine Triassic section in conformable contact with marine Permian and Jurassic strata. The Otuk Formation in DDH 927 gradationally overlies gray siliceous mudstone of the Siksikpuk Formation (Permian, based on regional correlations) and underlies black organic-rich mudstone of the Kingak(?) Shale (Jurassic?, based on regional correlations). The informal shale, chert, and limestone members of the Otuk are recognized in DDH 927, but the Jurassic Blankenship Member is absent. The lower (shale) member consists of 28 m of black to light gray, silty shale with as much as 6.9 weight percent total organic carbon (TOC). Thin limy layers near the base of this member contain bivalve fragments (Claraia sp.?) consistent with an Early Triassic (Griesbachian-early Smithian) age. Gray radiolarian chert dominates the middle member (25 m thick) and yields radiolarians of Middle Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian) and Late Triassic (Carnian-late middle Norian) ages. Black to light gray silty shale, like that in the lower member, forms interbeds that range from a few millimeters to 7 centimeters in thickness through much of the middle member. A distinctive, 2.4-m-thick interval of black shale and calcareous radiolarite ~17 m above the base of the member has as much as 9.8 weight percent TOC, and a 1.9-m-thick interval of limy to cherty

  12. River-spring connectivity and hydrogeochemical interactions in a shallow fractured rock formation. The case study of Fuensanta river valley (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.

    2017-04-01

    In upland catchments, the hydrology and hydrochemistry of streams are largely influenced by groundwater inflows, at both regional and local scale. However, reverse conditions (groundwater dynamics conditioned by surface water interferences), although less described, may also occur. In this research, the local river-spring connectivity and induced hydrogeochemical interactions in intensely folded, fractured and layered Cretaceous marls and marly-limestones (Fuensanta river valley, S Spain) are discussed based on field observations, tracer tests and hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data. The differential flow measurements and tracing experiments performed in the Fuensanta river permitted us to quantify the surface water losses and to verify its direct hydraulic connection with the Fuensanta spring. The numerical simulations of tracer breakthrough curves suggest the existence of a groundwater flow system through well-connected master and tributary fractures, with fast and multi-source flow components. Furthermore, the multivariate statistical analysis conducted using chemical data from the sampled waters, the geochemical study of water-rock interactions and the proposed water mixing approach allowed the spatial characterization of the chemistry of the springs and river/stream waters draining low permeable Cretaceous formations. Results corroborated that the mixing of surface waters, as well as calcite dissolution and CO2 dissolution/exsolution, are the main geochemical processes constraining Fuensanta spring hydrochemistry. The estimated contribution of the tributary surface waters to the spring flow during the research period was approximately 26-53% (Fuensanta river) and 47-74% (Convento stream), being predominant the first component during high flow and the second one during the dry season. The identification of secondary geochemical processes (dolomite and gypsum dissolution and dedolomitization) in Fuensanta spring waters evidences the induced hydrogeochemical

  13. Magnetostratigraphy and Tectonic Rotation of the Eocene-Oligocene Makah and Hoko River Formations, Northwest Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Prothero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene-Oligocene Makah Formation and subjacent middle Eocene Hoko River Formation of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, yield mollusks, crustaceans, foraminifera, and early neocete whales; their age has never been precisely established. We sampled several sections; most samples showed a stable single-component remanence held largely in magnetite and passed a Class I reversal test. The upper Refugian (late Eocene and lower Zemorrian (early Oligocene rocks at Baada Point correlate with Chron C13r (33.7–34.7 Ma and Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The Ozette Highway section of the Makah Formation spanned the early Refugian to late Refugian, with a sequence that correlates with Chrons C15r-C13r (33.7–35.3 Ma, and a long reversed early Zemorrian section that correlates with Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The type section of the Hoko River Formation correlates with Chron C18r (40.0–41.2 Ma. The area sampled shows about 45∘ of post-Oligocene counterclockwise tectonic rotation, consistent with results obtained from the Eocene-Oligocene rocks in the region.

  14. Disequilibrium of Flavonol Synthase and Dihydroflavonol-4-Reductase Expression Associated Tightly to White vs. Red Color Flower Formation in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ping; Ning, Guogui; Wang, Zhen; Shen, Yuxiao; Jin, Huanan; Li, Penghui; Huang, Shasha; Zhao, Jian; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is the main character throughout the plant kingdom. Though substantial information exists regarding the structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, little is known that what make a diverse white vs. red color flower in natural species. Here, the contents of pigments in seven species from varied phylogenetic location in plants with red and white flowers were determined. Flavonols could be detected in red and white flowers, but anthocyanins we...

  15. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of the Caloosahatchee River, Florida (2002) in XYZ format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Caloosahatchee River is located in Southwest Florida and drains northern parts of the Florida Everglades. It stretches 110 km (68 miles) inland and empties into...

  16. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  17. Swath Bathymetry Sounding Data of Seven Rivers in Southwest Florida (2004) in XYZ format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During the past century, river and tidal creeks through the coastal wetlands of the Everglades have filled with sediment and vegetation of surrounding landscapes to...

  18. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 21, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  19. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May3, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  20. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Collected in the Neuse River, April 19, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  1. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 23, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  2. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 4, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  3. Swath Bathymetry Sounding Data of Lostmans and Lower Shark Rivers, Florida (2015) in XYZ format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution bathymetry mapping of the coastal rivers and inland lakes along the Southwest coast of Everglades National Park (ENP) is greatly needed from the...

  4. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 22, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  5. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 5, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  6. A New Brachylophosaurin Hadrosaur (Dinosauria: Ornithischia with an Intermediate Nasal Crest from the Campanian Judith River Formation of Northcentral Montana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Freedman Fowler

    Full Text Available Brachylophosaurini is a clade of hadrosaurine dinosaurs currently known from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous of North America. Its members include: Acristavus gagslarsoni, which lacks a nasal crest; Brachylophosaurus canadensis, which possesses a flat paddle-shaped nasal crest projecting posteriorly over the dorsal skull roof; and Maiasaura peeblesorum, which possesses a dorsally-projecting nasofrontal crest. Acristavus, from the lower Two Medicine Formation of Montana (~81-80 Ma, is hypothesized to be the ancestral member of the clade. Brachylophosaurus specimens are from the middle Oldman Formation of Alberta and equivalent beds in the Judith River Formation of Montana; the upper Oldman Formation is dated 77.8 Ma.A new brachylophosaurin hadrosaur, Probrachylophosaurus bergei (gen. et sp. nov. is described and phylogenetically analyzed based on the skull and postcranium of a large individual from the Judith River Formation of northcentral Montana (79.8-79.5 Ma; the horizon is equivalent to the lower Oldman Formation of Alberta. Cranial morphology of Probrachylophosaurus, most notably the nasal crest, is intermediate between Acristavus and Brachylophosaurus. In Brachylophosaurus, the nasal crest lengthens and flattens ontogenetically, covering the supratemporal fenestrae in large adults. The smaller nasal crest of Probrachylophosaurus is strongly triangular in cross section and only minimally overhangs the supratemporal fenestrae, similar to an ontogenetically earlier stage of Brachylophosaurus. Sutural fusion and tibial osteohistology reveal that the holotype of Probrachylophosaurus was relatively more mature than a similarly large Brachylophosaurus specimen; thus, Probrachylophosaurus is not simply an immature Brachylophosaurus.The small triangular posteriorly oriented nasal crest of Probrachylophosaurus is proposed to represent a transitional nasal morphology between that of a non-crested ancestor such as Acristavus and the large flat

  7. Study of heavy metal contamination in river floodplains using the red-edge position in spectroscopic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.; Salas, E.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems resulting from the regular flooding of rivers in Europe is the heavy metal contamination of soils. Various studies have shown that soil contamination may influence plant physiology and, through changes in leaf pigment concentrations, influence reflectance

  8. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  9. The highest red flood of the Niger River ever recorded at Niamey: climate change or land use change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descroix, L.; Genthon, P.; Amogu, O.; Rajot, J.; Sighomnou, D.

    2011-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, the middle Niger River valley suffered from a severe flood. The water reached its highest level ever recorded during a monsoon, inundating an area of about 3.1 sq.km in the city of Niamey where some 5,000 people lost their homes. Data on rainfall, on the runoff of the tributaries of the Niger River near Niamey and on Land Use Changes since the 50s in this region will be shown and analyzed. It is shown that although there was a partial recovery after the severe droughts of the 1970's and 1980's, rainfall was not the main causative factor of this exceptional flood: the annual rainfall amount for 2010 was below that of 20 other rainy seasons in the middle Niger Basin since 1950, and neither the monthly rainfall distribution, nor the rainfall amount distribution of events changed significantly in the last few decades. Rather, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970's, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in an evolution of the Niger River's hydrograph at Niamey during the rainy season. We show that this is due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure and/or of non reversible effects of the drought. Changes in connectivity such as endorheism bursting events caused an increase in catchment area. Policy makers should be aware of the effect of human pressure, mainly cropping and grazing, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian rivers.

  10. [Effects of different pre-oxidants on DBPs formation potential by chlorination and chloramination of Yangtze River raw water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Rong, Rong; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Zhu, He-Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Yangtze River raw water from Yangshupu Water Plant, Shanghai was studied in this paper for reduced formation potential of chlorination and chloramination disinfection by-products (DBPs) after pre-oxidation by three kinds of common pre-oxidants, whiich were potassium permanganate, chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Results of chlorination showed that removal effectiveness of all the selected oxidants on total chlorination DBPs was not significant, and the reduction percentages by ClO2, Cl2 and KMnO4 were 8.4%, 5.7% and 3.9%, respectively. The order of DBPs control effect was ClO2, > Cl2 > KMnO4. As to Yangtze River raw water in case of chlorine disinfection, using ClO2 as pre-oxidation agent showed relatively better effect on removal of DBPs. However, chloramination results demonstrated that impacts of the three preoxidants on DBPs formation potential were quite different, and the reduction percentages by ClO2 and KMnO4 were 18.1% and 4.1%, respectively, while pre-chlorination increased the potential by 12.3%. These results revealed that ClO2 had the highest removal effectiveness, meanwhile pre-chlorination should be avoided due to its notable increase in DBPs formation.

  11. Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt: U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Liu, Junlai; Qi, Yinchuan; Fan, Wenkui; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic tectonic characteristics of the high grade metamorphic massifs along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt are debated. Controversies are on 1) whether the massifs were parts of the Yangtze block to the northeast or 2) parts of the Indochina block to the southwest and 3) the magmatic rocks represent arc magmatism or rifting linked to break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent. This study presents new and precise LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age dating and geochemical and Hf isotopic analyses of granitic intrusions along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt in an attempt to elucidate the Neoproterozoic magmatic evolution of this belt. In general, zircon U-Pb ages of the studied granitic rocks are between 804 and 724Ma, with a weighted mean of ca. 770 Ma, thus confirming Neoproterozoic magmatism. All samples plot into the peraluminous domain, indicating a major crustal resource. In consistency with these conclusions, most of the Neoproterozoic granitoids show negative ɛHf (t) values near the chondrite line. A few samples possess low positiveɛ Hf (t) values, being signatures of mantle sources. It is therefore concluded that the Neoproterozoic magmatism along the ASRR belt originated from mantle sources with important contributions through anatexis of ancient lower crust. Discrimination diagrams of tectonic settings suggest continental arc magmatism. Neoproterozoic magmatism is widely reported along the margins of the Yangtze block, especially in the northern margin. However, there are fewer reports about Neoproterozoic magmatic activity along the southern and southwestern margins. The geochronology spectrum and geochemisty of the studied Neoproterozoic granitic rocks are similar to those along the western margin of the Yangtze block. The present study, combined with previous results, suggests that oceanic subduction contributed to the generation of the arc magmatisms along the western and southwestern margin of the Yangtze plate and along the ASRR belt (as part of the

  12. Timing of fluvial terrace formation and concomitant travertine deposition in the upper Sutlej River (Tirthapuri, southwestern Tibet) and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijun; Meyer, Michael C.; Gliganic, Luke A.; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-08-01

    Travertines are carbonates precipitated from hydrothermal springs and are relatively common on the Tibetan plateau and occur along tectonically active faults. The Karakoram fault system is an active strike-slip fault that extends from the Pamir into southwestern Tibet, where it controls the course of the upper Sutlej River and the occurrence of several hydrothermal springs, including the Tirthapuri hot springs. Multiple fluvial terraces that are partly capped by travertine are preserved in the Tirthapuri area. Four main fluvial terrace levels (labelled as T1 to T4 with increasing height above river) were identified and several meter-thick travertine platforms occur on the current river level as well as the T2 and T3 terraces. Sedimentological and petrographic observations suggest that the travertine platforms were deposited on active floodplains of the paleo- and modern Sutlej River, and preserved from fluvial erosion because travertine precipitation was immediately followed by vertical river-bed incision and thus terrace abandonment. Results of 230Th/U in combination with luminescence dating show that the deposition of travertine platform and river incision that led to the formation of T3 terrace (∼93 m above the Sutlej) took place at ca. 127.5 ka. The development of terrace T2 and overlying travertine platform (∼28 m above the Sutlej) occurred between ca. 10.0 and 8.8 ka. Fluvial incision has arrived at the modern level at least ca. 0.2 ka ago. Both the travertine deposition and major river incision are likely triggered by the intensified Indian summer monsoon and are linked to phases of maximum monsoon strength. During strong monsoon phases, a large quantity of moisture is transported into southwestern Tibet, activating hot springs and thus travertine precipitation, facilitating fluvial incision and stripping off sediments from the regional hill-slopes. At least over the last glacial cycle we suggest that the Tirthapuri travertine and associated fluvial

  13. Depositional conditions for the Kuna Formation, Red Dog Zn-PB-Ag-Barite District, Alaska, inferred from isotopic and chemical proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Slack, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Water column redox conditions, degree of restriction of the depositional basin, and other paleoenvironmental parameters have been determined for the Mississippian Kuna Formation of northwestern Alaska from stratigraphic profiles of Mo, Fe/Al, and S isotopes in pyrite, C isotopes in organic matter, and N isotopes in bulk rock. This unit is important because it hosts the Red Dog and Anarraaq Zn-Pb-Ag ± barite deposits, which together constitute one of the largest zinc resources in the world. The isotopic and chemical proxies record a deep basin environment that became isolated from the open ocean, became increasingly reducing, and ultimately became euxinic. The basin was ventilated briefly and then became isolated again just prior to its demise as a discrete depocenter with the transition to the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. Ventilation corresponded approximately to the initiation of bedded barite deposition in the district, whereas the demise of the basin corresponded approximately to the formation of the massive sulfide deposits. The changes in basin circulation during deposition of the upper Kuna Formation may have had multiple immediate causes, but the underlying driver was probably extensional tectonic activity that also facilitated fluid flow beneath the basin floor. Although the formation of sediment-hosted sulfide deposits is generally favored by highly reducing conditions, the Zn-Pb deposits of the Red Dog district are not found in the major euxinic facies of the Kuna basin, nor did they form during the main period of euxinia. Rather, the deposits occur where strata were permeable to migrating fluids and where excess H2S was available beyond what was produced in situ by decomposition of local sedimentary organic matter. The known deposits formed mainly by replacement of calcareous strata that gained H2S from nearby highly carbonaceous beds (Anarraaq deposit) or by fracturing and vein formation in strata that produced excess H2S by reductive dissolution of

  14. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

  15. Focus on the Future: Water Resource Strategies for the Upper Mississippi and Red River of the North Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Minnesota River near Montevideo , Minnesota, was substantially completed by the Works Progress Administration. The project was transferred from the State of... Montevideo Chippewa New Ulm Brown St. Peter Nicollet Springfield Brown Windom Cottonwood A flood control project to protect the principal commercial...basin also depends on timber and tourism for a share of its economic well-being. The importance of this region to domestic (and foreign)’ food

  16. Formation of a cohesive floodplain in a dynamic experimental meandering river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.M. van; Lageweg, W.I. van de; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Field studies suggest that a cohesive floodplain is a necessary condition for meandering in contrast to braided rivers. However, it is only partly understood how the balance between floodplain construction by overbank deposition and removal by bank erosion and chutes leads to meandering. This is

  17. Impact of Vladivostok’s solid waste landfill for ecological risks formation of nearby rivers pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyanik, I. V.; Zinkov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article analyzes the environmental issues arising from the development and operation of the landfill and the theoretical calculation of the timing and expected output sites with contaminated water into the neighboring valley streams, including Brook Desantny, Brook Rybachy, and River Bolshaya Pionerskaya.

  18. Bank pull or bar push: What drives scroll-bar formation in meandering rivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Baar, A. W.; Rutten, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking features of meandering rivers are quasi-regular ridges of the point bar, evidence of a pulsed lateral migration of meander bends. Scroll bars formed on the inner bend are preserved on the point-bar surface as a series of ridges as meanders migrate, and in the subsurface of

  19. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  20. Rapid formation of large coastal sand bodies after emplacement of Magdalena river jetties, northern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. O.; Pilkey, O. H.; Neal, W. J.

    1990-11-01

    The Magdalena River is noted for its high discharge of river sediment and its importance as the sediment source for a large delta complex and downdrift coastal sand bodies. The emplacement of jetties, completed in 1935 to stabilize the river mouth, contributed to major changes in the downstream coastal sand bodies. The western delta front retreated an average 65 m/yr. Puerto Colombia spit detached and migrated toward Puerto Colombia at rates of 230 430 m/yr, ultimately running into the town's quay and port facility. Galerazamba spit alternately elongated and shortened over the short term, leading to the destruction or damage of coastal town sites. Isla Cascajo acted as a significant sand trap with nearly 12 km2 of accretion over a 47-year period. Sand is now bypassing the tombolo, and the accretion zone continues migrating southwest. The small Punta Canaos spit also has shown significant accretion since 1974. The changes imply high rates of sediment transport; furthermore their growth is probably dependent on jetty-caused alterations of wave patterns, causing remobilization of shelf sands as well as delta-derived sand. Understanding sand body evolution and behavior is important to future development of the northern Colombia coast. Placement of port facilities, recreational beaches, tourist villages, and related support facilities on these sand bodies, as well as utilizing the sand bodies for aggregate, beach nourishment sands for other areas, or heavy mineral resources will require significant planning.

  1. Scienti fi c Approaches and Methods in the Investigation of the Formation and Stability of Hydromorphic Natural Complexes of the Irtysh River Valley System (The Kazakhstan Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Tsaregorodtseva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The current geo-environmental situation of the Irtysh River valley system is connected with the high degree of control of the river drainage, which affects the functioning of its entire ecosystem and determines some morphological features of its channel. In the present work, the methodological approaches in the study of formation of the valley’s hydromorphic natural complexes are discussed, and the results of studies on the channel processes in the middle course of the Irtysh River are given.

  2. Simulation of the effects of Devils Lake outlet alternatives on future lake levels and water quality in the Sheyenne River and Red River of the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1992, Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota has risen nearly 30 feet, destroying hundreds of homes, inundating thousands of acres of productive farmland, and costing more than $1 billion for road raises, levee construction, and other flood mitigation measures. In 2011, the lake level is expected to rise at least another 2 feet above the historical record set in 2010 (1,452.0 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), cresting less than 4 feet from the lake's natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,458.0 feet). In an effort to slow the rising lake and reduce the chance of an uncontrolled spill, the State of North Dakota is considering options to expand a previously constructed outlet from the west end of Devils Lake or construct a second outlet from East Devils Lake. Future outlet discharges from Devils Lake, when combined with downstream receiving waters, need to be in compliance with applicable Clean Water Act requirements. This study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health Division of Water Quality, to evaluate the various outlet alternatives with respect to their effect on downstream water quality and their ability to control future lake levels.

  3. Importance of inorganic geochemical characteristics on assessment of shale gas potential in the Devonian Horn River Formation of western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyung; Shinn, Young Jae; Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyun Suk

    2017-04-01

    The gas generation and storage potentials of shale has mostly been assessed by original TOC (TOCo) and original kerogen type. However, in the Horn River Formation, organic geochemical tools and analysis are barely sufficient for assessing the TOCo and original kerogen type because residual carbon contents represent up to 90% of TOC in shales. Major and trace elements are used as proxies for the bottom water oxygen level, for terrestrial sediment input and for productivity, which is related with variation of kerogen type. By using the inorganic geochemical proxies, we attempt to assess original kerogen type in shale gas formation and suggest its implication for HIo (original Hydrogen Index) estimation. The estimated HIo in this study allows us to calculate a reliable TOCo. These results provide new insights into the accurate estimation of the hydrocarbon potential of shale gas resources. The inorganic geochemical proxies indicate vertical variations of productivity (EX-SiO2 and Baauth), terrestrial sediment input (Al2O3, Zr, Hf, and Nb) and oxygen content in bottom water during deposition (Moauth, Uauth and Th/U), which represent the temporal changes in the mixing ratio between Type II and III kerogens. The Horn River Formation has different HIo values calculated from EX-SiO2 (biogenic origin) and it is ranked by HIo value in descending order: Evie and Muskwa members (500-700 mgHC/gTOC) > middle Otterpark Member (400-500 mgHC/gTOC) > upper Otterpark Member (300-400 mgHC/gTOC) > lower Otterpark Member (200 mgHC/gTOC). Based on the original kerogen type and TOCo, the gas generation and storage potentials of the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members are higher than those of other members. The source rock potential is excellent for the Evie Member with a remarkable difference between TOCo and measured TOC.

  4. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb deposits are hosted in organic-rich mudstone and shale of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. A complex mineralization history is defined by four sphalerite types or stages: (1) early brown sphalerite, (2) yellow-brown sphalerite, (3) red-brown sphalerite, and (4) late tan sphalerite. Stages 2 and 3 constitute the main ore-forming event and are volumetrically the most important. Sulfides in stages 1 and 2 were deposited with barite, whereas stage 3 largely replaces barite. Distinct chemical differences exist among the different stages of sphalerite. From early brown sphalerite to later yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, Fe and Co content generally increase and Mn and Tl content generally decrease. Early brown sphalerite contains no more than 1.9 wt percent Fe and 63 ppm Co, with high Mn (up to 37 ppm) and Tl (126 ppm), whereas yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite contain high Fe (up to 7.3 wt %) and Co (up to 382 ppm), and low Mn (sulfur isotope analyses show a progression from extremely low ??34S values for stage 1 (as low as -37.20???) to much higher values for yellow-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.3???; n = 30) and red-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.4; n = 20). Late tan sphalerite is isotopically light (-16.4 to -27.2???). The textural, chem ical, and isotopic data indicate the following paragenesis: (1) deposition of early brown sphalerite with abundant barite, minor pyrite, and trace galena immediately beneath the sea floor in unconsolidated mud; (2) deposition of yellow-brown sphalerite during subsea-floor hydrothermal recrystallization and coarsening of preexisting barite; (3) open-space deposition of barite, red-brown sphalerite and other sulfides in veins and coeval replacement of barite; and (4) postore sulfide deposition, including the formation of late tan sphalerite breccias. Stage 1 mineralization took place in a low-temperature environment where fluids rich in Ba mixed with pore water or water-column sulfate to

  5. Compiling an Open Database of Dam Inundation Areas on the Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, and Red River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, P. G.; Walcutt, A.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.; Geheb, K.; Troy, A.; Saah, D. S.; Ganz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Dam construction in mainland Southeast Asia has increased substantially in recent years with extensive regional impacts including alterations to water regimes, the loss and degradation of natural forests and biodiversity, and reductions in soil and water quality. The CGIAR Water Land Ecosystem program (WLE) and partners maintain a comprehensive database of locations and other data relating to existing, planned, and proposed dams in the region's major transboundary rivers spanning areas in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, and China. A recent regional needs assessment and specific stakeholder requests revealed the need for a dataset reflecting the inundation areas of these dams for use in measuring impacts to river ecology, analyzing disaster risk, monitoring land cover and land use change, evaluating carbon emissions, and assessing the actual and potential impacts to communities. In conjunction with WLE and other partners, SERVIR-Mekong, a regional hub of the USAID and NASA-supported SERVIR program, formulated an explicit procedure to produce this dataset. The procedure includes leveraging data from OpenStreetMap and other sources, creating polygons based on surface water classification procedures achieved via Google Earth Engine, manual digitizing, and modeling of planned/proposed dams based on a DEM and the location and planned height of dams. A quality assurance step ensures that all polygons conform to spatial data quality standards agreed upon by a wide range of production partners. When complete, the dataset will be made publicly available to encourage greater understanding and more informed decisions related to the actual and potential impacts of dams in the region.

  6. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR.

  7. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat.

  8. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  9. Mass marking of juvenile Schizothorax wangchiachii (Fang with alizarin red S and evaluation of stock enhancement in the Jinping area of the Yalong River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizothorax wangchiachii is a key fish species in the stock enhancement program of the Yalong River hydropower project, China. Alizarin red S (ARS was used to mark large numbers of juvenile S. wangchiachii in the Jinping Hatchery and later used to evaluate stock enhancement in the Jinping area of the Yalong River. In a small-scale pilot study, 7,000 juveniles of the 2014 cohort were successfully marked by immersion in ARS solution, and no mortality was recorded during the marking process. The ARS mark in the fish otoliths remained visible 20 months later. In the large-scale marking study, approximately 600,000 juveniles of the 2015 cohort were successfully marked. Mortalities of both marked and unmarked juveniles were very low and did not differ significantly. Total length, wet mass and condition factor did not differ significantly between unmarked and marked individuals after three months. On 24 July 2015, about 840,000 Jinping Hatchery-produced young S. wangchiachii, including 400,000 marked individuals, were released at two sites in the Jinping area. Recapture surveys showed that (1 marked and unmarked S. wangchiachii did not differ significantly in total length, wet mass and condition factor; (2 stocked individuals became an important part of recruitment of the 2015 cohort; (3 instantaneous growth rate of marked individuals tended to slightly increase; and (4 most stocked individuals were distributed along a 10–15 km stretch near the release sites. These results suggest that the ARS method is a cost-efficient way to mass mark juvenile S. wangchiachii and that releasing juveniles is an effective means of stock recruitment.

  10. Disequilibrium of flavonol synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase expression associated tightly to white versus red color flower formation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower colour is the main character throughout the plant kingdom. Though substantial information exists regarding the structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, little is known that what make a diverse white versus red color flower in natural species. Here, the contents of pigments in seven species from varied phylogenetic location in plants with red and white flowers.were determined. Flavonols could be detected in red and white flowers, but anthocyanins were almost undetectable in the white cultivar. Comparisons of expression patterns of gene related to the flavonoid biosynthesis indicated that disequilibrium expression of flavonol synthase (FLS and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR genes determined the accumulation of flavonols and anothcyanins in both red and white flowers of seven species. To further investigate the role of such common regulatory patterns in determining flower color, FLS genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrFLS1, Prunus persica (PpFLS and Petunia hybrida (PhFLS, and DFR genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrDFR1 and Petunia hybrida (PhDFR. Heterologous expression of the FLS genes within tobacco host plants demonstrated conservation of function, with the transgenes promoting flavonol biosynthesis and inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation, so resulting in white flowers. Conversely, overexpression of DFR genes in tobacco displayed down-regulation of the endogenous NtFLS gene, and the promotion of anthocyanin synthesis. On this basis, we propose a model in which FLS and DFR gene-products compete for common substrates in order to direct the biosynthesis of flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively, thereby determining white versus red coloration of flowers.

  11. Disequilibrium of Flavonol Synthase and Dihydroflavonol-4-Reductase Expression Associated Tightly to White vs. Red Color Flower Formation in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ping; Ning, Guogui; Wang, Zhen; Shen, Yuxiao; Jin, Huanan; Li, Penghui; Huang, Shasha; Zhao, Jian; Bao, Manzhu

    2015-01-01

    Flower color is the main character throughout the plant kingdom. Though substantial information exists regarding the structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, little is known that what make a diverse white vs. red color flower in natural species. Here, the contents of pigments in seven species from varied phylogenetic location in plants with red and white flowers were determined. Flavonols could be detected in red and white flowers, but anthocyanins were almost undetectable in the white cultivar. Comparisons of expression patterns of gene related to the flavonoid biosynthesis indicated that disequilibrium expression of flavonol synthase (FLS) and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) genes determined the accumulation of flavonols and anothcyanins in both red and white flowers of seven species. To further investigate the role of such common regulatory patterns in determining flower color, FLS genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrFLS1), Prunus persica (PpFLS), and Petunia hybrida (PhFLS), and DFR genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrDFR1) and Petunia hybrida (PhDFR). Heterologous expression of the FLS genes within tobacco host plants demonstrated conservation of function, with the transgenes promoting flavonol biosynthesis and inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation, so resulting in white flowers. Conversely, overexpression of DFR genes in tobacco displayed down-regulation of the endogenous NtFLS gene, and the promotion of anthocyanin synthesis. On this basis, we propose a model in which FLS and DFR gene-products compete for common substrates in order to direct the biosynthesis of flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively, thereby determining white vs. red coloration of flowers.

  12. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars.

  13. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Changsheng

    2014-02-01

    Surface drifters released in the central Red Sea during April 2010 detected a well-defined anticyclonic eddy around 23°N. This eddy was ∼45–60 km in radius, with a swirl speed up to ∼0.5 m/s. The eddy feature was also evident in monthly averaged sea surface height fields and in current profiles measured on a cross-isobath, shipboard CTD/ADCP survey around that region. The unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) was configured for the Red Sea and process studies were conducted to establish the conditions necessary for the eddy to form and to establish its robustness. The model was capable of reproducing the observed anticyclonic eddy with the same location and size. Diagnosis of model results suggests that the eddy can be formed in a Red Sea that is subject to seasonally varying buoyancy forcing, with no wind, but that its location and structure are significantly altered by wind forcing, initial distribution of water stratification and southward coastal flow from the upstream area. Momentum analysis indicates that the flow field of the eddy was in geostrophic balance, with the baroclinic pressure gradient forcing about the same order of magnitude as the surface pressure gradient forcing.

  14. XPS and STEM Study of the Interface Formation between Ultra-Thin Ru and Ir OER Catalyst Layers and Perylene Red Support Whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoska, Liliana [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Hester, Amy E [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Industrial Mineral Products

    2013-01-01

    The interface formation between perylene red (PR) and ruthenium or iridium OER catalysts has been studied systematically by XPS and STEM. The OER catalyst over-layers with thicknesses ranging from ~0.1 to ~50 nm were vapor deposited onto PR ex-situ. As seen by STEM, Ru and Ir form into nanoparticles, which agglomerate with increased loading. XPS data show a strong interaction between Ru and PR. Ir also interacts with PR although not to the extent seen for Ru. At low coverages, the entire Ru deposit is in the reacted state while a small portion of the deposited Ir remains metallic. Ru and Ir bonding occur at the PR carbonyl sites as evidenced by the attenuation of carbonyl photoemission and the emergence of new peak assigned to C-O single bond. The curve fitting analysis and the derived stoichiometry indicates the formation of metallo-organic bonds. The co-existence of oxide bonds is also apparent.

  15. Facies and diagenesis of the Devonian Portilla limestone formation between the river Esla and the Embalse de la Luna, Cantabrian Mountains, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, T.J.A.

    1972-01-01

    In the central part of the Cantabrian Mountains, between the artificial lake in the rivei Luna in the west and the river Esla in the east, outcrops of the Portilla Limestone Formation were investigated. A fairly uniform development could be observed in four structurally different areas. Six

  16. Carvacrol-rich oregano oil and thymol-rich thyme red oil inhibit biofilm formation and the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Kim, Y-G; Lee, J

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), and indwelling catheters are usually colonized by UPEC biofilms tolerant to common antibiotics. Hence, UPEC biofilms pose a substantial challenge, and there is an urgent need for effective control strategies. In this study, 79 essential oils were screened for antibiofilm ability against UPEC. Components of active oils were identified, and their antibiofilm activities were also investigated using 96-well plates with crystal violet assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oregano oil and thyme red oil and their major common constituents, carvacrol and thymol, significantly inhibited UPEC biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations (UPEC. Furthermore, carvacrol and thymol markedly decreased the hemagglutinating ability of UPEC, and UPEC was more easily killed by human whole blood in the presence of carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol-rich oregano oil and thymol-rich thyme red oil have high antibiofilm and antivirulence activities against UPEC. In the wake of rising antimicrobial resistance, we envisage that carvacrol and thymol could be used to prevent biofilm formation by UPEC and to reduce its virulence. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Allium discoloration: the precursor and formation of the red pigment in giant onion (Allium giganteum Regel) and some other subgenus Melanocrommyum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerová, Petra; Kubec, Roman; Simek, Petr; Václavík, Lukás; Schraml, Jan

    2011-03-09

    The precursor of the orange-red pigment formed upon wounding the bulbs of Allium giganteum (Allium subg. Melanocrommyum) was isolated and shown to be S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide. In addition, two other pyrrolylsulfinyl derivatives were found in an extract from the bulbs, namely, 3-(2-pyrrolylsulfinyl)lactic acid and S-(3-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide. Contrary to a previous report, the latter compound was shown not to serve as the precursor of the pigment, being in fact only an artifact formed during isolation. The formation of pyrrolyl-containing compounds following disruption of A. giganteum bulbs was studied by a combination of LC-MS, LC-NMR and DART-MS. It was found that S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide is cleaved by a C-S lyase (alliinase) to yield 2-pyrrolesulfenic acid. Two molecules of the latter compound give rise to highly reactive S-(2-pyrrolyl) 2-pyrrolethiosulfinate which in turn converts into red 2,2'-epidithio-3,3'-dipyrrole (dipyrrolo[2,3-d:2',3'-e]-1,2-dithiin). Several other pyrrolyl-containing compounds were detected in A. giganteum for the first time, including S-methyl 2-pyrrolethiosulfinate, S-(2-pyrrolyl) methanethiosulfinate, di(2-pyrrolyl) disulfide, and S-(2-pyrrolyl) 2-pyrrolethiosulfonate. It can be concluded that the formation of the orange-red pigment in Allium subg. Melanocrommyum species, despite sharing several analogous features, is of a different nature than the pink discoloration of onion (A. cepa).

  18. Impacts of thermal circulations induced by urbanization on ozone formation in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Song, Yu; Mao, Zhichun; Liu, Mingxu; Huang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Thermal circulations induced by urbanization could exert important effects on regional ozone (O3) formation through regulating the chemical transformations and transport of O3 and its precursors. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model combined with remote sensing are used to investigate the impacts of urbanization-induced circulations on O3 formation in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. The urban heat island (UHI) effect in PRD significantly enhances turbulent mixing and modifies local circulations, i.e., initiates the UHI circulation and strengthens the sea breeze, which in turn cause a detectable decrease of daytime O3 concentration (-1.3 ppb) and an increase of O3 (+5.2 ppb) around the nocturnal rush-hours. The suppressed O3 titration destruction due to NOx dilution into the deeper urban boundary layer (200-400 m) is the main reason for elevated nocturnal O3 levels. In the daytime, however, the upward transport of O3 precursors weakens near-surface O3 photochemical production and conversely enhances upper-level O3 generation. Furthermore, the surface UHI convergence flow and intensified sea breeze act to effectively trap O3 at the suburban and coastal regions.

  19. Speciated VOC emission inventory and spatial patterns of ozone formation potential in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Shao, Min; Che, Wenwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhong, Liuju; Zhang, Yuanhang; Streets, David

    2009-11-15

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) of China has long suffered from severe ground-level ozone pollution. Knowledge of the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ozone chemistry. In this work, a speciated VOC emission inventory was established on the basis of updated emissions and local VOC source profiles. The top 10 species, in terms of ozone formation potentials (OFPs), consisted of isoprene, mp-xylene, toluene, ethylene, propene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 1-butene, and alpha-pinene. These species contributed only 35.9% to VOCs emissions but accounted for 64.1% of the OFP in the region. The spatial patterns of the VOC source inventory agreed well with city-based source apportionment results, especially for vehicle emissions and industry plus VOC product-related emissions. Mapping of the OFPs and measured ozone concentrations indicated that the formation of higher ozone in the south and southeast of the PRD region differed from that in the Conghua area, a remote area in the north of the PRD. We recommend that the priorities for the control of VOC sources include motorcycles, gasoline vehicles, and solvent use because of their larger OFP contributions.

  20. Soil Formation and Taxonomy in Yeşilırmak River Terraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Durak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the soils of which parent material is alluvial and formed Yeşilırmak river terraces were investigated. For this purposes four different profiles were excavated in the study area. Then twenty-seven soil samples were taken from horizons of four profiles and their physical and chemical analyses were done for soil taxonomy research. Profile of Kumocagi and Cakil were classified in subgroup as Typic Ustipsamments, Havaalanı and Mera profiles were classified Typic Haplustolls and Typic Argiustolls subgroups respectively. The pH values of soils varied between 7.38-8.41. These soils can be classified as low and highly basic. Most of the soil series had an irregular pH distribution in the profile. The range of carbonate content of the soils was 0.8-25.4%. Although carbonate content of soils showed a very wide range, majority of them can be classified as highly calcareous. In most of soils carbonate content was distributed irregulary in the profile. Organic matter content were between 0.14-6.11% in the soils. Although organic matter contents of the soils changed in a wide range most of them had low organic matter content. Organic matter content was over 4% in the surface horizon of only two profiles. Research result showed that, alluvial parent material, particle size, topograpy and time have different effect on investigation soils.

  1. DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of enhanced nonlinear optical responses of methyl-red-doped blue-phase liquid crystals by application of a DC field. We have observed strong multi-order nonlinear grating diffractions characterized by a nonlinear index coefficient n(2)∼0.5  cm(2)/W using unfocused CW laser power of ∼1  mW and a DC field of a few V/μm. The underlying mechanisms are crystalline lattice and director axis reorientations by torques exerted by the DC field and photo-excited dye molecules.

  2. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  3. MECHANISMS OF PHASE FORMATION IN THE VITRIFICATION OF HIGH-FERROUS SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SB2 HLW SLUDGE SURROGATE - 9300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2008-08-27

    Phase formation mechanisms associated with the vitrification of high-ferrous Savannah River Site (SRS) Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) high level waste surrogate were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two mixtures at 50 wt% waste loading with commercially available Frit 320 (Li{sub 2}O - 8 wt %, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 8 wt %, Na{sub 2}O - 12 wt %, SiO{sub 2} - 72 wt %) and batch chemicals (LiOH {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}) to represent the frit formulation were prepared as slurries with a water content of {approx}50 wt%. The mixtures were air-dried at a temperature of 115 C and heat-treated at 500, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300 C for 1 hr at each temperature. Infrared spectra and XRD patterns of the products produced at each temperature were recorded. In both mixtures prepared using frit and batch chemicals to represent the frit, phase formation reactions were completed within the temperature range between 900 and 1000 C. However, residual quartz was still present in glass produced from the mixture with batch chemicals even at 1100 C. Although, the phase composition and structure of the glassy products obtained from both mixtures at temperatures over 1000 C were similar, the products obtained from the mixture using actual frit were more homogeneous than those from the mixture with batch chemicals. Thus, the use of frit rather than batch chemicals reduced the temperature range of phase formation and provided for production of higher quality glass.

  4. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  5. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water

  6. The historical demography and genetic variation of the endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae in the red river region, examined by chloroplast DNA sequences and microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qing Gong

    Full Text Available Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU. In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species.

  7. Weather and Management Effects over Nine Years of Net Ecosystem Direct Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cropping System in the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in weather and crop management practices strongly determines direct greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O) from agricultural crop land. Thus a long-term study was established to relate weather and management variations to direct emissions in the Northern Great Plains of Canada. Continuously emission determinations of CO2 and N2O were established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba, using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012, 2013 and 2014 all four plots were planted with corn, soybean and spring wheat, respectively. Management decisions increased emissions such as fertilizer N addition, and hay, straw and silage crop removal greatly increased emissions while choosing legume grain and perennial crops reduced emissions. Weather variation affecting seasonal and daily soil moisture, length of spring freeze-thaw period, and crop yield served to increase or decrease emissions. The variation in management and weather will be discussed in regards to impact on net emissions over the nine year study and answer if development of greenhouse gas neutral cropping systems is possible.

  8. Changes in streamflow and summary of major-ion chemistry and loads in the North Fork Red River basin upstream from Lake Altus, northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma, 1945-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Wahl, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Upstream from Lake Altus, the North Fork Red River drains an area of 2,515 square miles. The quantity and quality of surface water are major concerns at Lake Altus, and water-resource managers and consumers need historical information to make informed decisions about future development. The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District relies on withdrawals from the lake to sustain nearly 46,000 acres of agricultural land. Kendall's tau tests of precipitation data indicated no statistically significant trend over the entire 100 years of available record. However, a significant increase in precipitation occurred in the last 51 years. Four streamflow-gaging stations with more than 10 years of record were maintained in the basin. These stations recorded no significant trends in annual streamflow volume. Two stations, however, had significant increasing trends in the base-flow index, and three had significant decreasing trends in annual peak flows. Major-ion chemistry in the North Fork Red River is closely related to the chemical composition of the underlying bedrock. Two main lithologies are represented in the basin upstream from Lake Altus. In the upper reaches, young and poorly consolidated sediments include a range of sizes from coarse gravel to silt and clay. Nearsurface horizons commonly are cemented as calcium carbonate caliche. Finer-grained gypsiferous sandstones and shales dominate the lower reaches of the basin. A distinct increase in dissolved solids, specifically sodium, chloride, calcium, and sulfate, occurs as the river flows over rocks that contain substantial quantities of gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. These natural salts are the major dissolved constituents in the North Fork Red River.

  9. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of secondary uranium ore formation. Final Report - Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States); Bennett, D.G.; Read, D. [W.S. Atkins Science and Technology, Epsom Surrey, (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of the present study was to establish how the uranyl phosphate zone at the Koongarra site was formed. The overall approach taken in the present study employed theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations and models that permit investigation and reconstruction of the kinds of waters that could produce the uranyl phosphate zone. These calculations have used the geological and mineralogical data for the Koongarra weathered zone (Volumes 2, 8, and 9 of this series), to constrain the initial compositions and reactions undergone by groundwater during the formation of the uranyl phosphate zone. In carrying out these calculations the present-day analyses of Koongarra waters are used only as a guide to the possible initial composition of the fluids associated with the formation of the phosphate zone. Aqueous speciation, saturation state and chemical mass transfer calculations were carried out using the computer programs EQ3NR and EQ6 (Wolery, 1983; Wolery et al., 1984) and a thermodynamic database generated at The Johns Hopkins University over the last eight years which is tabulated in the Appendix 1 to Volume 12 of this series. Despite uncertainties in the thermodynamic characterisation of species, all the above calculations suggest that the uranyl phosphate zone at Koongarra has not formed from present-day groundwaters (Volume 12 of this series). The present-day groundwaters in the weathered zone (eg. at 13 m depth) appear to be undersaturated with respect to saleeite. Furthermore, as present-day groundwaters descend below the water table they rapidly lose their atmospheric oxygen imprint, as is typical of most groundwaters, and become even more reducing in character. Under these circumstances, the groundwaters become more undersaturated with respect to saleeite than the shallow groundwaters. Because much of the phosphate zone is currently below the water table, under saturated zone conditions, it is suggested in the present study that the uranyl phosphate

  10. THE ROAD TO THE RED SEQUENCE: A DETAILED VIEW OF THE FORMATION OF A MASSIVE GALAXY AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreras, Ignacio [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Pasquali, Anna [Astronomisches Rechen Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Theoretical Modelling of Cosmic Structures Group, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pirzkal, Nor [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Windhorst, Rogier; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ryan, Russell E. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Yan Haojing, E-mail: ferreras@star.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Over half of the census of massive galaxies at z {approx} 2 are dominated by quiescent stellar populations. The formation mechanism for these galaxies is still under debate, with models relying either on massive and early mergers or cold accretion. It is therefore imperative to understand in detail the properties of these galaxies. We present here a detailed analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of FW4871, a massive galaxy at z = 1.893 {+-} 0.002. We compare rest-frame optical and NUV slitless grism spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope with a large set of composite stellar populations to constrain the underlying SFH. Even though the morphology features prominent tidal tails, indicative of a recent merger, there is no sign of ongoing star formation within an aperture encircling one effective radius, which corresponds to a physical extent of 2.6 kpc. A model assuming truncation of an otherwise constant SFH gives a formation epoch z{sub F} {approx} 10 with a truncation after 2.7 Gyr, giving a mass-weighted age of 1.5 Gyr and a stellar mass of (0.8-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} (the intervals representing the output from different population synthesis models), implying star formation rates of 30-110 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. A more complex model including a recent burst of star formation places the age of the youngest component at 145{sup +450}{sub -70} Myr, with a mass contribution lower than 20%, and a maximum amount of dust reddening of E(B - V) < 0.4 mag (95% confidence levels). This low level of dust reddening is consistent with the low emission observed at 24 {mu}m, corresponding to rest-frame 8 {mu}m, where polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission should contribute significantly if a strong formation episode were present. The color profile of FW4871 does not suggest a significant radial trend in the properties of the stellar populations out to 3 R{sub e}. We suggest that the recent merger that formed FW4871 is responsible for the quenching

  11. Far-red fluorescence : A direct spectroscopic marker for LHCII oligomer formation in non-photochemical quenching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miloslavina, Yuliya; Wehner, Antje; Lambrev, Petar H.; Wientjes, Emilie; Reus, Michael; Garab, Gyozo; Croce, Roberta; Holzwarth, Alfred R.; Garab, Győző

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence on oligomers of the main light-harvesting complex from higher plants indicate that in vitro oligomerization leads to the formation of a weakly coupled inter-trimer chlorophyll-chlorophyll (Chl) exciton state which converts in tens of ps into a state which is spectrally

  12. Role of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and heavy metals in a river-sea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng [Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chon-Lin, E-mail: linnohc@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Different types of DOC polymers forming microgel were compared. • The assembly effectiveness of marine DOC was much higher than riverine DOC. • Types and sources of DOC polymers may control the aquatic microgel abundance. • An alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal is presented. • Ecological risk and fate assessments of pollutants may consider the microgel phase. - Abstract: We use riverine and marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) polymers to examine their aggregation behavior, and to evaluate the roles of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and heavy metals in a river-sea system. Our results indicate that riverine and marine microgels did not exhibit very much difference in size and self-assembly curve; however, the assembly effectiveness ([microgel]/DOC) of marine samples was much higher than riverine. Instead of concentration of DOC, other factors such as types and sources of DOC polymers may control the microgel abundance in aquatic environments. After filtering water samples (microgels removed), the CDOM and selected metals (Cu, Ni, Mn) in the filtrate were quantified. CDOM and metals were concurrently removed to an extent via DOC polymer re-aggregation, which also suggested that the microgels had sequestering capability in CDOM and metals. This finding provides an alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal from the water column. As such the process of re-aggregation into microgels should then be considered besides traditional phase partitioning in the assessment of the ecological risk and fate of hazardous materials.

  13. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report. [October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US); Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc., Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US); Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J. [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day.

  14. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  15. Outcrop descriptions and fossils from the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation, Wind River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming: Chapter 11 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Wind River Basin of central Wyoming trends west-northwest from near the community of Alcova to near the town of Dubois (fig. 1). On the perimeter of the basin, outcrops of the Frontier Formation were examined and described during the years 1972-1975. Invertebrate fossils were collected from those outcrops during the years 1972-1996, in places with the assistance of other earth scientists

  16. Recovery of alumina and alkali in Bayer red mud by the formation of andradite-grossular hydrogarnet in hydrothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zheng, Shili; Ma, Shuhua; Zhang, Yi

    2011-05-30

    Bayer red mud (RM) is an alumina refinery waste product rich in aluminum oxides and alkalis which are present primarily in the form of sodium hydro-aluminosilicate desilication product (DSP). A hydrothermal process was employed to recover alumina and alkali from "Fe-rich" and "Fe-lean" RM, the two representative species of RM produced in China. The hydrothermal process objective phase is andradite-grossular hydrogarnet characterized by the isomorphic substitution of Al and Fe. Batch experiments were used to evaluate the main factors influencing the recovery process, namely reaction temperature, caustic ratio (molar ratio of Na(2)O to Al(2)O(3) in sodium solution), sodium concentration and residence time. The results revealed that the Na(2)O content of 0.5 wt% and A/S of 0.3 (mass ratio of Al(2)O(3) to SiO(2)) in leached residue could be achieved with Fe-rich RM under optimal conditions. However, the hydrothermal treatment of Fe-lean RM proved less successful unless the reaction system was enriched with iron. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of the ferric compound's content and type on the substitution ratio. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  18. Fluvial terrace formation in the lower Awhea and Pahaoa River valleys, New Zealand: implications for tectonic and sea-level controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Nicola J.; Clark, Kate J.

    2015-02-01

    Altitudes and ages of fluvial terraces along the lower Awhea and Pahaoa River valleys are compared with the altitudes and ages of Holocene marine deposits and terraces in the actively uplifting southern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. From these, we infer fluvial terrace formation processes and examine implications for controls on river behaviour and the likely mechanism of uplift. Both river valleys contain a prominent fill terrace (PgT) radiocarbon dated at 10,000-8000 cal. y BP, which formed in response to the rapid estuary infilling during the late stage of post-glacial sea-level rise. Older and younger terraces are primarily degradation terraces, with the exception of the oldest terraces mapped, which are fill terraces inferred to date from the Last Glacial Coldest Period. These results show the Awhea and Pahaoa Rivers respond to a number of competing controls including climate, tectonics, sea-level and anthropogenic (land use) changes, gradient and valley width. The influence of tectonic uplift can be isolated and Holocene marine terraces, estuarine deposits and the PgT tread altitudes are used to constrain the single-event displacement and slip rate of the submarine Palliser-Kaiwhata Fault, of 2-5 m and 2.5 ± 1 mm/y, respectively. The results also provide insight into likely future response of rivers such as the Awhea and Pahaoa to sea-level rise and tectonic uplift.

  19. Colemanus keeleyorum (Braconidae, Ichneutinae s. l.: a new genus and species of Eocene wasp from the Green River Formation of western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Ichneutinae s. l., Colemanus keeleyorum Fisher, is described from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, USA. Colemanus was placed on a phylogenetic hypothesis using morphological data. Using a parsimony criterion, Colemanus is placed within Proteropini (Ichneutinae s. l.. Reconstructions of well-preserved regions (mesosomal dorsum and wings are included. A previously described species from lower Oligocene Baltic amber is transferred to Colemanus, resulting in the new combination C. contortus (Brues, 1933.

  20. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Allahbakhsh Javid; Aliakbar Roudbari; Ahmad Reza Yari

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV) is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sampl...

  1. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-09-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22-21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12-9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  2. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into "Yuanjiang-Nanhun" basin and "Ejia-Jiepai" basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation

  3. Hydrochemical assessment of freshening saline groundwater using multiple end-members mixing modeling: A study of Red River delta aquifer, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Thao, Nguyen Thi; Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the water quality status (especially, salinity problems) and hydrogeochemical processes of an alluvial aquifer in a floodplain of the Red River delta, Vietnam, based on the hydrochemical and isotopic data of groundwater samples (n = 23) from the Kien Xuong district of the Thai Binh province. Following the historical inundation by paleo-seawater during coastal progradation, the aquifer has been undergone progressive freshening and land reclamation to enable settlements and farming. The hydrochemical data of water samples showed a broad hydrochemical change, from Na-Cl through Na-HCO3 to Ca-HCO3 types, suggesting that groundwater was overall evolved through the freshening process accompanying cation exchange. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the hydrochemical data indicates the occurrence of three major hydrogeochemical processes occurring in an aquifer, namely: 1) progressive freshening of remaining paleo-seawater, 2) water-rock interaction (i.e., dissolution of silicates), and 3) redox process including sulfate reduction, as indicated by heavy sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions of sulfate. To quantitatively assess the hydrogeochemical processes, the end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) and the forward mixing modeling using PHREEQC code were conducted. The EMMA results show that the hydrochemical model with the two-dimensional mixing space composed of PC 1 and PC 2 best explains the mixing in the study area; therefore, we consider that the groundwater chemistry mainly evolved by mixing among three end-members (i.e., paleo-seawater, infiltrating rain, and the K-rich groundwater). The distinct depletion of sulfate in groundwater, likely due to bacterial sulfate reduction, can also be explained by EMMA. The evaluation of mass balances using geochemical modeling supports the explanation that the freshening process accompanying direct cation exchange occurs through mixing among three end-members involving the K-rich groundwater. This

  4. A model for the evolution in water chemistry of an arsenic contaminated aquifer over the last 6000 years, Red River floodplain, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Dieke; Pham, Thi Kim Trang; Sø, Helle Ugilt; Hoang, Van Hoan; , Mai Lan, Vi; Nguyen, Thi Thai; Larsen, Flemming; Pham, Hung Viet; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-12-01

    Aquifers on the Red River flood plain with burial ages ranging from 500 to 6000 years show, with increasing age, the following changes in solute concentrations; a decrease in arsenic, increase in Fe(II) and decreases in both pH, Ca and bicarbonate. These changes were interpreted in terms of a reaction network comprising the kinetics of organic carbon degradation, the reduction kinetics of As containing Fe-oxides, the sorption of arsenic, the kinetics of siderite precipitation and dissolution, as well as of the dissolution of CaCO3. The arsenic released from the Fe-oxide is preferentially partitioned into the water phase, and partially sorbed, while the released Fe(II) is precipitated as siderite. The reaction network involved in arsenic mobilization was analyzed by 1-D reactive transport modeling. The results reveal complex interactions between the kinetics of organic matter degradation and the kinetics and thermodynamic energy released by Fe-oxide reduction. The energy released by Fe-oxide reduction is strongly pH dependent and both methanogenesis and carbonate precipitation and dissolution have important influences on the pH. Overall it is the rate of organic carbon degradation that determines the total electron flow. However, the kinetics of Fe-oxide reduction determines the distribution of this flow of electrons between methanogenesis, which is by far the main pathway, and Fe-oxide reduction. Modeling the groundwater arsenic content over a 6000 year period in a 20 m thick aquifer shows an increase in As during the first 1200 years where it reaches a maximum of about 600 μg/L. During this initial period the release of arsenic from Fe-oxides actually decreases but the adsorption of arsenic onto the sediment delays the build-up in the groundwater arsenic concentration. After 1200 years the groundwater arsenic content slowly decreases controlled both by desorption and continued further, but diminishing, release from Fe-oxide being reduced. After 6000 years the

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase Following the Termination of a Perennial Legume Phase of an Annual Crop Rotation within the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis, K. L.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Glenn, A. J.; Maas, S.; Gervais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial legume forages may have the potential to increase soil carbon sequestration and decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere when introduced into annual cropping systems. However, little is known about what short-term effect the return to annual cropping following termination of perennial legume forage would have on carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O emissions. Furthermore, there are few quantitative measurements about this impact on the Canadian Prairies. A long-term field experiment to continuously measure CO2 and N2O fluxes was established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012 all four plots were planted with corn. Termination of the grass-alfalfa forage resulted in greater fall CO2 emissions in 2011, greater spring melt CO2 emissions and net annual N2O emissions in 2012 from the annual-perennial plots when compared to the annual plots. Over seven crop years (2006-2012), the annual - perennial system increased carbon uptake by 3.4 Mg C ha-1 and reduced N2O emissions by 3.0 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 compared to the annual system. However after accounting for harvest removals both the annual and annual-perennial systems were net carbon sources of 5.7 and 2.5 Mg C ha-1 and net GHG sources of 38 and 24 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 respectively. We are currently following the long-term impacts of inclusion of perennial forages in an annual

  6. A new ankylosaurine dinosaur from the Judith River Formation of Montana, USA, based on an exceptional skeleton with soft tissue preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Evans, David C.

    2017-05-01

    The terrestrial Judith River Formation of northern Montana was deposited over an approximately 4 Myr interval during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous). Despite having been prospected and collected continuously by palaeontologists for over a century, few relatively complete dinosaur skeletons have been recovered from this unit to date. Here we describe a new genus and species of ankylosaurine dinosaur, Zuul crurivastator, from the Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation, based on an exceptionally complete and well-preserved skeleton (ROM 75860). This is the first ankylosaurin skeleton known with a complete skull and tail club, and it is the most complete ankylosaurid ever found in North America. The presence of abundant soft tissue preservation across the skeleton, including in situ osteoderms, skin impressions and dark films that probably represent preserved keratin, make this exceptional skeleton an important reference for understanding the evolution of dermal and epidermal structures in this clade. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Zuul as an ankylosaurin ankylosaurid within a clade of Dyoplosaurus and Scolosaurus, with Euoplocephalus being more distantly related within Ankylosaurini. The occurrence of Z. crurivastator from the upper Judith River Formation fills a gap in the ankylosaurine stratigraphic and geographical record in North America, and further highlights that Campanian ankylosaurines were undergoing rapid evolution and stratigraphic succession of taxa as observed for Laramidian ceratopsids, hadrosaurids, pachycephalosaurids and tyrannosaurids.

  7. XPS and STEM study of the interface formation between ultra-thin Ru and Ir OER catalyst layers and perylene red support whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasoska Ljiljana L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interface formation between nano-structured perylene red (PR whiskers and oxygen evolution reaction (OER catalysts ruthenium and iridium has been studied systematically by XPS and STEM. The OER catalyst over-layers with thicknesses ranging from ~0.1 to ~50 nm were vapor deposited onto PR ex-situ. STEM images demonstrate that, with increasing thickness, Ru and Ir transform from amorphous clusters to crystalline nanoparticles, which agglomerate with increased over-layer thickness. XPS data show a strong interaction between Ru and PR. Ir also interacts with PR although not to the extent seen for Ru. At low coverages, the entire Ru deposit is in the reacted state while a small portion of the deposited Ir remains metallic. Ru and Ir bonding occur at the PR carbonyl sites as evidenced by the attenuation of carbonyl photoemission and the emergence of new peak assigned to C-O single bond. The curve fitting analysis and the derived stoichiometry indicates the formation of metallo-organic bonds. The co-existence of oxide bonds is also apparent.

  8. Sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions in the Red River of the North and selected tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, during the 2011 spring high-flow event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Blanchard, Robert A.; Ellison, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    To provide accurate and reliable information on sediment near the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a study in the spring (March-May) of 2010 and the spring of 2011 to examine sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions at nine selected sites in the Red River and its tributaries. Samples of suspended sediment, bed material, and bedload were collected at the nine sites at various time intervals during the high-flow events.

  9. River terraces as a response to climatic forcing: formation processes, sedimentary characteristics and sites for human occupation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate impact on the fluvial processes led to morphological and sedimentological differentiation of a terrace. This diversity in the fluvial environment determined how people could adapt to the river. Although the climatic impact on development and initiation of river terraces seems to be well

  10. Removal of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Heavy Metals in a River-Sea System: Role of Aquatic Microgel Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, R. F.; Lee, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) polymers are complex and poorly understood mixture of organic macromolecules in environment system. Portions of these polymers spontaneously form microgels that play key roles in many biogeochemical reactions, including mediating aggregation processes, element cycling, and pollutant mobility. However, the detailed interaction of microgels-heterogeneous materials in aquatic systems is still lacking. Insight into the interaction between surrounding materials and microgels from different types of aquatic DOC polymers are extremely important, as it is crucial in determining the fate and transport of these materials. Here, we use riverine and marine DOC polymers to examine their aggregation behavior, and to evaluate the roles of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and heavy metals in a river-sea system. Our results indicate that riverine and marine microgels did not exhibit too much difference in size ( 3-5 μm) and self-assembly curve; however, the assembly effectiveness ([microgel]/DOC) of marine samples was much higher than riverine. Instead of concentration of DOC, other factors such as types and sources of DOC polymers may control the microgel abundance in aquatic environments. After filtering water samples (microgels removed), the CDOM and selected metals (Cu, Ni, Mn) in the filtrate were quantified. CDOM and metals were concurrently removed to an extent via DOC polymer re-aggregation, which also suggested that the microgels had the sequestering capability in CDOM and metals. This finding provides an alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal from the water column. As such the process of re-aggregation into microgels should then be considered besides traditional phase partitioning in the assessment of the ecological risk and fate of pollutant.

  11. Observation of aerosol size distribution and new particle formation at a coastal city in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Honglei; Lü, Sheng; Li, Li; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohan; Tian, Xudong; Tang, Qian

    2016-09-15

    Aerosol number size distribution in the range of 10nm-10μm, trace gases (O3, CO, SO2 and NO2), particular matter (PM: PM2.5 and PM10) and meteorological elements were measured from the 1st to the 31st of May, 2015, in the coastal city of Jiaxing in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The average number concentration and surface area concentration were 19,639cm(-3) and 427μm(2)cm(-3) during the observation period. The different mode particle concentrations ranked in the order of Aitken mode (12,361cm(-3))>nucleation (4926.7cm(-3))>accumulation (2349.3cm(-3))>coarse mode (1.7cm(-3)). The average concentrations of CO, SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were 0.545mgm(-3), 14.7, 35.1, 89.8, 43.5 and 64.6μgm(-3), respectively. Eight precipitation processes and 15 new particle formation (NPF) events (3 NPF events occurred on a rainy day) were observed. Results show that the precipitation process had greater scavenging effects on particles smaller than 120nm and larger than 2μm. The spectral distributions of number concentrations were unimodal at different weather conditions, with peaks at 20nm, 40-60nm, 50-80nm on NPF days, rainy days and normal days. During the NPF events, the formation rate (FR), growth rate (GR), condensational sink (CS), vapor source rate (Q) and condensing vapor concentration (C) were in the range of 4.0-17.0cm(-3)s(-1), 2.2-15.7nmh(-1), 1.5-5.8×10(-2)s(-1), 0.5-7.7×10(6)cm(-3)s(-1) and 3.0-21.5×10(7)cm(-3), with mean values of 9.6cm(-3)s(-1), 6.8nmh(-1), 3.4×10(-2)s(-1), 3.3×10(6)cm(-3)s(-1) and 9.4×10(7)cm(-3), respectively. NPF events normally occurred under clean atmospheric conditions with low PM concentrations but high levels of trace gases. It was also found that SO2 plays an important role in NPF and growth in Jiaxing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineralogical Mapping of the Banded Iron Formations using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy and micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeeby, B. E.; Schoonen, M. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Ohmoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) consist of thin alternating layers of iron-poor silica and iron-bearing phylosilicates, iron oxides, and carbonates and/or sulfides. BIFs are common in the Precambrian. Although BIFs have been the subject of numerous studies, the mechanism and environments of formation remains poorly understood. It has been hotly debated whether BIFs formed by microbes in Fe2+-rich oceans under a reducing atmosphere, or by reactions between locally discharged submarine hydrothermal fluids and O2-rich deep ocean water. The debates have continued mostly because of the lack of detailed studies on the paragenesis of minerals in BIFs to determine which minerals are primary precipitates, and which are diagenetic and metamorphic products. The purpose of this study is to explore the applications of FTIR spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy in micro-scale paragenetic studies of BIF samples. FTIR and Raman are vibrational spectroscopy techniques that provide insight into the chemical bonding within a compound. With these techniques it is possible to resolve the iron oxide, carbonate, and clay mineralogy within BIFs, which is difficult with techniques that rely on elemental analysis, such as TEM-EDAX. Samples used in this study are thin sections of the 2.7 Ga BIFs from Temagami in the Abitibi green stone belt, Ontario, Canada. FTIR analyses were conducted using a Nicolet iN10MX Micro-Imaging FTIR Spectrometer. This instrument is capable of collecting hyperspectral infrared images with a pixel size of 25 microns covering the range from 7000 to 715 cm-1. In addition, we collected point spectra measuring 50X50 microns over a spectral range from 4000 to 400 cm-1. These point spectra were used to distinguish among different iron minerals in the thin sections. Using the hyperspectral data, we created composite false color Images to show mineral variation across the samples. The spectra were modeled using a digital spectral library. After modeling and examination

  13. [Formation and changes of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in raw water of Yangtze River, Huangpu River and different treatment processes and pipelines network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Yin-hao; Zheng, Wei-wei; Wu, Yu-xin; Wei, Xiao; Tian, Da-jun; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuai; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the pollutant levels of regulated disinfection by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in raw water from the Huangpu River, the Yangtze River and different treatment processes and finished water, and to explore the changes tendency in transmission and distribution pipeline network. A total of 65 ml water samples with two replicates were collected from different raw water, corresponding treatment processes, finished water and six national surveillance points in main network of transmission and distribution, water source for A water plant and B, C water plant was the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River, respectively. Regulated THMs and HAAs above water samples were detected by gas chromatography. The total trihalomethanes (THM(4)) concentration in different treatment processes of A water plant was ND-9.64 µg/L, dichlorobromomethane was the highest (6.43 µg/L). The THM(4) concentration in B and C water plant was ND to 38.06 µg/L, dibromochloromethane (12.24 µg/L) and bromoform (14.07 µg/L) were the highest in the B and the C water plant respectively. In addition to trichloroacetic acid in A water plant from the raw water, the other HAAs came from different treatment processes. The total haloacetic acids (HAA(6)) concentration of different treated processes in A water plant was 3.21 - 22.97 µg/L, mobromoacetic acid (10.40 µg/L) was the highest. Dibromoacetic acid was the highest both in B (8.25 µg/L) and C (8.84 µg/L) water plant, HAA(6) concentration was ND to 27.18 µg/L. The highest and the lowest concentration of THM(4) were found from the main distribution network of C and A water plant respectively, but the concentration of HAA(6) in the main water pipes network of A water plant was the highest, and the lowest in C water plant. The THMs concentration was 21.11 - 31.18 µg/L in C water plant and 6.72 - 8.51 µg/L in A water plant. The concentration of HAA(6) was 25.02 - 37.31 µg/L in A water plant and 18.69 - 23

  14. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Loxahatcheee and St. Lucie Rivers, Florida (2003) in XYZ format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Loxahatchee River and estuary is a small (544 square miles), shallow, water body located in Southeastern Florida that empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Jupiter...

  15. Acquistion Log in PDF Format Maintained on USGS Cruise 07005 in the Corsica River Estuary (FA07005_LOGBOOK.PDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  16. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Shark River and Trout Creek, Florida (2004) in XYZ file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During the past century, river and tidal creeks through the coastal wetlands of the Everglades have filled with sediment and vegetation of surrounding landscapes to...

  17. Swath derived bathymetric grids of Lostmans and Lower Shark Rivers, Florida (2015) in Esri ASCII grid format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution bathymetry mapping of the coastal rivers and inland lakes along the Southwest coast of Everglades National Park (ENP) is greatly needed from the...

  18. Effects of organic wastes on water quality from processing of oil shale from the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted during a 6-year research project to determine the nature and effects of organic wastes from processing of Green River Formation oil shale on water quality. Fifty percent of the organic compounds in two retort wastewaters were identified as various aromatic amines, mono- and dicarboxylic acids phenols, amides, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and hydroxypyridines. Spent shales with carbonaceous coatings were found to have good sorbent properties for organic constituents of retort wastewaters. However, soils sampled adjacent to an in situ retort had only fair sorbent properties for organic constituents or retort wastewater, and application of retort wastewater caused disruption of soil structure characteristics and extracted soil organic matter constituents. Microbiological degradation of organic solutes in retort wastewaters was found to occur preferentially in hydrocarbons and fatty acid groups of compounds. Aromatic amines did not degrade and they inhibited bacterial growth where their concentrations were significant. Ammonia, aromatic amines, and thiocyanate persisted in groundwater contaminated by in situ oil shale retorting, but thiosulfate was quantitatively degraded one year after the burn. Thiocyanate was found to be the best conservative tracer for retort water discharged into groundwater. Natural organic solutes, isolated from groundwater in contact with Green River Formation oil shale and from the White River near Rangely, Colorado, were readily distinguished from organic constituents in retort wastewaters by molecular weight and chemical characteristic differences. (USGS)

  19. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  20. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Meridional Secondary Circulation of 3D Vortices in Rotating, Stratified, Shear and its Role in Astrophysical Flows: from a Newly Pale Great Red Spot to Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P. S.; Hassanzadeh, P.

    2012-12-01

    The interest in understanding the physics of 3D, compact baroclinic vortices in rotating, stratified shear is growing. This is partly due to the fact that vortices in protoplanetary disks attract dust and may be key in planetesimal formation. The interest is also fueled by the unanswered questions about vortices of Jupiter and Saturn and the recent changes of the Jovian vortices. Examples are the appearance of the Red Oval BA in 2005, and the very recent color-change of the Great Red Spot to pale orange, which was observed in July 2012. While the dynamics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified flows, even without shear, is poorly understood, the presence of horizontal shear strongly influences their dynamics and further complicates the problem. Studying the physics of planetary vortices and their interaction with the environment requires high-resolution 3D simulations. Ignoring the vertical direction, neglecting the vertical motion (as has been done in almost all published numerical simulations of Jovian vortices because most studies have assumed vertical hydrostatic equilibrium), or the lack of enough resolution eliminates or changes important physical processes such as the secondary circulation. This secondary, ageostrophic flow within the vortices is essential in dust accumulation and agglomeration in vortices in protoplanetary disks. The secondary circulation has been shown to be important in determining the color and cloud patterns in Jovian vortices. For example, the recent color change of the Great Red Spot can be explained by changes in its secondary circulation. It has also been suggested that the persistent rings around the Jovian anticyclones are produces by this secondary circulation. We show that the lifetimes of Jovian vortices depend upon their ability to merge with and absorb smaller vortices and also on the secondary circulations within vortices. The main dissipation mechanism for most astrophysical vortices is thermal radiation rather

  2. Data on the relationship between bromide content and the formation potential of THMs, HAAs, and HANs upon chlorination and monochloramination of Karoon River water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the relationship between of the bromide ion concentration and the formation potential of disinfectant byproducts (DBPs including, trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetic acids (HAAs, and haloacetonitriles (HANs upon chlorination and monochloramination of the raw water of Karoon River water in Iran. Water samples were collected at an intake of a drinking water treatment plant during July 2014. All tests were performed in triplicate (n=3 and the mean of three measurements reported herein. The data of the formation potential of DBPs was determined under different bromide ions content. The data show the relationship between bromide concentration and DBPs formation that will be useful in the future management, operation and design of water treatment plants.

  3. Trends in Streamflow and Nutrient and Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Great Lakes River Basins, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, David L.; Robertson, Dale M.; Hall, David W.; Saad, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Many actions have been taken to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and the amount of nutrients and sediment transported in streams as a result of the Clean Water Act and subsequent regulations. This report assesses how nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in selected streams have changed during recent years to determine if these actions have been successful. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in concentrations and trends in loads from 1993 to 2004 were computed for total nitrogen, dissolved ammonia, total organic nitrogen plus ammonia, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total suspended material (total suspended solids or suspended sediment), and total suspended sediment for 49 sites in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Great Lakes Basins. Changes in total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended-material loads were examined from 1975 to 2003 at six sites to provide a longer term context for the data examined from 1993 to 2004. Flow-adjusted trends in total nitrogen concentrations at 19 of 24 sites showed tendency toward increasing concentrations, and overall trends in total nitrogen concentrations at 16 of the 24 sites showed a general tendency toward increasing concentrations. The trends in these flow-adjusted total nitrogen concentrations are related to the changes in fertilizer nitrogen applications. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved ammonia concentrations from 1993 to 2004 showed a widespread tendency toward decreasing concentrations. The widespread, downward trends in dissolved ammonia concentrations indicate that some of the ammonia reduction goals of the Clean Water Act are being met. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in total organic plus ammonia nitrogen concentrations from 1993 to 2004 did not show a distinct spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations from 1993 to 2004 also did not show a distinct spatial pattern

  4. Lowering histamine formation in a red Ribera del Duero wine (Spain) by using an indigenous O. oeni strain as a malolactic starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, Carmen; Benavent-Gil, Yaiza; Navascués, Eva; Calvo, Almudena; Albors, Clara; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrates for the first time that a non-commercial selected autochthonous O. oeni strain has been used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) while lowering histamine formation in the same winery. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 vats before and after spontaneous MLF at the Pago de Carraovejas winery from the Ribera del Duero region (Spain). Only O. oeni were present, typed and characterized, and both histamine producer and non-producers existed. From the non-producers, one strain was selected to become a starter according to its genetic profile, prevalence in the different wines in the winery, resistance to alcoholic degree, resistance to high polyphenolic content, inability to synthesise histamine, growth kinetics and malolactic activity. This starter was produced at semi-industrial levels to inoculate 20,000L of Tempranillo red wine. The inoculated vat showed 5-fold less histamine than the non-inoculated control vat. After 1year, the barrel-ageing histamine concentrations were 3-fold lower in the inoculated vat than in the non-inoculated vat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Taxol(®)-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and microvesicle formation in red blood cells is mediated by its vehicle Cremophor(®) EL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Pieter; Fens, Marcel Ham; Sachini, Nikoleta; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; Andringa, Grietje; Egberts, Antoine Cg; Gaillard, Carlo Ajm; Rasmussen, Jan T; van Wijk, Richard; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2013-07-01

    The conventional clinical formulation of paclitaxel (PTX), Taxol®, consists of Cremophor® EL (CrEL) and ethanol. CrEL-formulated PTX is associated with acute hypersensitivity reactions, anemia and cardiovascular events. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of CrEL-PTX on red blood cells (RBCs) and compared these with the effects observed after exposure to the novel nanoparticle albumin-bound PTX, marketed as Abraxane®. The authors demonstrate that CrEL is primarily responsible for RBC lysis and induction of phosphatidylserine exposure. Phosphatidylserine-exposing RBCs showed increased association with endothelial cells in culture. The authors also identified CrEL as being responsible for vesiculation of RBCs. This is the first time that excipients have been shown to be involved in microvesicle formation. Microvesicles were taken up by endothelial cells. These results offer new insights into the side effect profile of Taxol, which is likely to have implications for patients with erythrocyte disorders. Abraxane did not induce any of these effects on RBCs, indicating that the choice of excipients can have a pronounced influence on the efficacy and side effects of drug molecules.

  6. The effect of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid on red pigment formation in mechanically wounded scales of Hippeastrum x hybr. hort. and on the growth and development of Phoma narcissi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various organs of Hippeastrum infected by Phoma narcissi, infested with mite, Steneotarsonemus laticeps or mechanically wounded, produce red pigment on the surface of injured tissues. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of salicylic (SA and acetylsalicylic acids (ASA (inhibitors of biosynthesis of jasmonates and ethylene on red pigment formation in wounded scales of bulbs of Hippeastrum and on the mycelium growth of P. narcissi in vivo and in vitro. SA and ASA at a concentration of 1 and 2 mM partially inhibited the formation of red pigment in wounded scales, first of all in first 2 days after treatment. The growth and development of P. narcissi on basal plate and scales of longitudinally cut Hippeastrum bulb treated with SA and ASA (1 and 2 mM was similar as in control. SA (50 µg·cm-3 and ASA (250 µg·cm-3 inhibited the mycelium growth of P. narcissi on PDA medium, and concentration of 1000 µg·cm-3 of both almost totally inhibited the mycelium growth of the pathogen. Inhibitory effect of SA and ASA on the formation of red pigment in wounded scales of Hippeastrum may be caused by lowered biosynthesis and accumulation of jasmonates.

  7. Use of multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of halonitromethane via chlorination/chloramination of water from Tai Lake and the Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Qian, Lingya; Xiong, Yujing; Xiao, Zhuoqun; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of water quality, especially organic pollution in Tai Lake and the Qiantang River, have recently received attention in China. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of halonitromethanes (HNMs) using multiple regression models for chlorination and chloramination and to identify the key factors that influence the formation of HNMs in Tai Lake and the Qiantang River. The results showed that the total formation of HNMs (T-HNMs) during chlorination and chloramination could be described using the following models: (1) [Formula: see text] =(10)(5.267)(DON)(6.645)(Br(-))(0.737)(DOC)(-)(5.537)(Cl2)(0.333)(t)(0.165) (R(2)=0.974, p<0.01, n=33), and (2) T-HNMNH2Cl=(10)(-)(2.481)(Cl2)(0.451)(NO2(-))(0.382)(Br(-))(0.630)(t)(0.640)(Temp)(0.581) (R(2)=0.961, p<0.05, n=33), respectively. The key factors that influenced the T-HNM yields during chlorination were dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), bromide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The nitrite and bromide concentrations and the reaction time mainly affected the T-HNM yields during chloramination. Additional analysis indicated that the bromine incorporation factors (BIFs) for trihalogenated HNMs generally decreased as the chlorine/chloramine dose, temperature and reaction time decreased and increased as the bromide concentration increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spiclypeus shipporum gen. et sp. nov., a Boldly Audacious New Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia from the Judith River Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Campanian of Montana, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available This study reports on a new ceratopsid, Spiclypeus shipporum gen et sp. nov., from the lower Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation in Montana, USA, which dates to ~76 Ma (upper Campanian. The species is distinguished by rugose dorsal contacts on the premaxillae for the nasals, laterally projecting postorbital horncores, fully fused and anteriorly curled P1 and P2 epiparietals, and a posterodorsally projecting P3 epiparietal. The holotype specimen is also notable for its pathological left squamosal and humerus, which show varied signs of osteomyelitis and osteoarthritis. Although the postorbital horncores of Spiclypeus closely resemble those of the contemporaneous 'Ceratops', the horncores of both genera are nevertheless indistinguishable from those of some other horned dinosaurs, including Albertaceratops and Kosmoceratops; 'Ceratops' is therefore maintained as a nomen dubium. Cladistic analysis recovers Spiclypeus as the sister taxon to the clade Vagaceratops + Kosmoceratops, and appears transitional in the morphology of its epiparietals. The discovery of Spiclypeus adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of the Judith River Formation, and suggests faunal turnover within the formation.

  9. Spiclypeus shipporum gen. et sp. nov., a Boldly Audacious New Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Judith River Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Campanian) of Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Ott, Christopher J; Larson, Peter L; Iuliano, Edward M; Evans, David C

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a new ceratopsid, Spiclypeus shipporum gen et sp. nov., from the lower Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation in Montana, USA, which dates to ~76 Ma (upper Campanian). The species is distinguished by rugose dorsal contacts on the premaxillae for the nasals, laterally projecting postorbital horncores, fully fused and anteriorly curled P1 and P2 epiparietals, and a posterodorsally projecting P3 epiparietal. The holotype specimen is also notable for its pathological left squamosal and humerus, which show varied signs of osteomyelitis and osteoarthritis. Although the postorbital horncores of Spiclypeus closely resemble those of the contemporaneous 'Ceratops', the horncores of both genera are nevertheless indistinguishable from those of some other horned dinosaurs, including Albertaceratops and Kosmoceratops; 'Ceratops' is therefore maintained as a nomen dubium. Cladistic analysis recovers Spiclypeus as the sister taxon to the clade Vagaceratops + Kosmoceratops, and appears transitional in the morphology of its epiparietals. The discovery of Spiclypeus adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of the Judith River Formation, and suggests faunal turnover within the formation.

  10. The influence of delta formation mechanism on geotechnical property sequence of the late Pleistocene–Holocene sediments in the Mekong River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Minh Hoang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterize a variety of microstructure development-levels and geotechnical property sequences of the late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits in the Mekong River delta (MRD, and the paper furthermore discusses the influences of delta formation mechanisms on them. The survey associated the geotechnical engineering and the sedimentary geology of the late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits at five sites and also undifferentiated Pleistocene sediments. A cross-section which was rebuilt in the delta progradation-direction and between the Mekong and Bassac rivers represents the stratigraphy. Each sedimentary unit was formed under a different delta formation mechanism and revealed a typical geotechnical property sequence. The mechanical behaviors of the sediment succession in the tide-dominated delta with significant fluvial-activity and material source tend to be more cohesionless soils and strengths than those in the tide- and wave-dominated delta and even the coast. The particular tendency of the mechanical behavior of the deposit succession can be reasonably estimated from the delta formation mechanism. The characteristics of the clay minerals from the Mekong River produced the argillaceous soil which does not have extremely high plasticity. The microstructure development-levels are low to very high indicating how to choose hydraulic conductivity value, k, for estimating overconsolidation ratio, OCR, by the piezocone penetration tests (CPTU. The OCR of sediments in the delta types strangely change with depth but none less than 1. The post-depositional processes significantly influenced the microstructure development, particularly the dehydrating and oxidizing processes.

  11. Controlled synthesis, formation mechanism, and great enhancement of red upconversion luminescence of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals/submicroplates at low doping level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Sun, Y.; Kong, X.; Tian, L.; Wang, Y.; Tu, L.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    Strong red upconversion luminescence of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals is desirable for the biological/biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe the great enhancement of red upconversion emission (F-4(9/2) -> I-4(15/2) transition of Er3+ ion) in NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals at low

  12. Molecular size distribution of dissolved organic matter in water of the Pearl River and trihalomethane formation characteristics with chlorine and chlorine dioxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Ye; Gu, Ji-Dong; Fan, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hai-Bo

    2006-06-30

    River water sample was collected from Guangzhou section of the Pearl River to investigate soluble organic fractions and formation of trihalomethane (THMs) after chlorine and chlorine dioxide treatments. The water sample was passed through Amicon YC-05, YM-1, YM-3, YM-10, YM-30, YM-100 and ZM-500 series membranes after a pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and the specific ultra-violet absorbance (SUVA(254)) of each fraction obtained from membrane were analyzed, and these fractions were further disinfected with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The results showed that reverse osmosis (RO) fraction contained mainly dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the water sample, suggesting that the water has been highly contaminated by anthropogenic activities. Meanwhile, the THMs concentration and SUVA(254) increased gradually as the molecular weight of the obtained fractions reduced, indicating that the low molecular weight DOM was the major THMs precursor in the disinfection process with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The results suggest that THMs in source water of Pearl River could be effectively reduced when pollution of human activity is greatly controlled. Between the two disinfection processes tested, chlorine dioxide produced less THMs than chlorine in this study.

  13. Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

    2009-04-01

    The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture

  14. Investigation of Facies Types and Associations of Kuhlan Red Bed Formation in NW Yemen: A New Hypothesis for Origin and Depositional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Wosabi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of thirteen facies types were recognized in the Kuhlan Formation represented by red bed siliciclastic sequences of argillaceous sediments. Examination of the Kuhlan stratigraphic column included sequence relationships, lithology, sedimentary characters, structures and petrography of the dominant rock types. These facies types are grouped in three distinct associations of facies. The lower unit A comprises association of facies (Distal turbidites represented by alternates of turbidity sequences including sandstone, siltstone and thick shale beds. These facies types confirm a regressive depositional environment in deep marine shelf conditions. There are three facies types which are identified as massive sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone and pebbly sandstone facies. The middle unit B association of facies (Proximal turbedites represents glaciomarine sequences displaying high lateral and vertical facies changes of glacioturbidite sediment alternates with diamictites and tillite beds. The sequences are affected by eustatic and eustatism of the glacial advance and retreat. This unit B includes eight types of facies. These are identified as; tillite, massive diamictites, stratified diamictites, laminated siltstone/shale, deformed siltstone/mudstone, graded rhythmic siltstone, massive conglomerate and cross-stratified sandy conglomerate facies. The upper unit C association of facies is represented by shallow marine shelf sequences displaying very thick massive and locally cross-bedded sand bar sandstone overlying the laminated siltstone/shale interbeds. The upward gradual changes in mineralogical composition and color confirms the start of marine transgression and later deposited platform Amran Group. Mineralogical composition of Kuhlan sandstone displays impure dirty rocks consisting of more than 30% of argillaceous matrix, 50% of cristobalite and quartz grains, more than 10% of ferruginous cement and 10% of detrital iron oxide grains, potash

  15. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  16. Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Red Clover Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about red clover—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  17. Integrating global satellite-derived data products as a pre-analysis for hydrological modelling studies: a case study for the Red River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    With changes in weather patterns and intensifying anthropogenic water use, there is an increasing need for spatio-temporal information on water fluxes and stocks in river basins. The assortment of satellite-derived open-access information sources on rainfall (P) and land use / land cover (LULC) is c...

  18. Rice-planted area extraction by time series analysis of ENVISAT ASAR WS data using a phenology-based classification approach: A case study for Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D.; Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Cao, S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) for mapping of rice fields and some other vegetation types. For rice field classification, conventional classification techniques have been mostly used including manual threshold-based and supervised classification approaches. The challenge of the threshold-based approach is to find acceptable thresholds to be used for each individual SAR scene. Furthermore, the influence of local incidence angle on backscatter hinders using a single threshold for the entire scene. Similarly, the supervised classification approach requires different training samples for different output classes. In case of rice crop, supervised classification using temporal data requires different training datasets to perform classification procedure which might lead to inconsistent mapping results. In this study we present an automatic method to identify rice crop areas by extracting phonological parameters after performing an empirical regression-based normalization of the backscatter to a reference incidence angle. The method is evaluated in the Red River Delta (RRD), Vietnam using the time series of ENVISAT Advanced SAR (ASAR) Wide Swath (WS) mode data. The results of rice mapping algorithm compared to the reference data indicate the Completeness (User accuracy), Correctness (Producer accuracy) and Quality (Overall accuracies) of 88.8%, 92.5 % and 83.9 % respectively. The total area of the classified rice fields corresponds to the total rice cultivation areas given by the official statistics in Vietnam (R2  0.96). The results indicates that applying a phenology-based classification approach using backscatter time series in optimal incidence angle normalization can achieve high classification accuracies. In addition, the method is not only useful for large scale early mapping of rice fields in the Red River Delta using the current and future C-band Sentinal-1A&B backscatter data but also might be applied for other rice

  19. Archaeological and Historical Resources Investigations for the Red River of the North Ring Levee Project, Pembina and Walsh Counties, North Dakota, (Phase 1),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Onychosys leucogaster Northern grasshopper mouse Clethrionosys gapperi Gapper’s red-backed mouse Hicrotus pennsylvanicus Meadow vole Hicrotus ochrogaster...Sparrow Spizella pusilla Field Sparrow Spizella palhida Clay-colored Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Grasshopper Sparrow Spiza americana Dickcissel...1! I %U %U %I - -152- Table 18 Pembina County Soil Types and Site Frequencies Soil Type Soil Impediments Site Number. DnA P1

  20. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  1. Radioactivity of rocks from the geological formations belonging to the Tibagi River hydrographic basin; Radioatividade de rochas provenientes das formacoes geologicas pertencentes a bacia hidrografica do Rio Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    This work is a study of the {sup 40}K and the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series radioactivity in rocks measured with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The rocks were taken from the geologic formations in the region of the Tibagi river hydrographic basin. The course of this river cuts through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences of the Parana sedimentary basin. In order to take into account the background radiation attenuation by the samples, a technique was developed that eliminated the need to measure a blank sample. The effects of the radiation's self-attenuation in the sample matrix were taken into account by using a gamma ray direct transmission method. The results for 87 rock samples, taken from 14 distinct formations, and their corresponding radioactivity variations are presented and discussed according to the possible geological processes from which they originated. Among the most discussed results are: an outcrop that profiles shale, limestone and rhythmite in the Irati Formation; a sandstone and siltstone sequence from the Rio do Rasto Formation; and a profile sampled in a coal mine located in the Rio Bonito Formation. The calculations of the rocks' contributions to the outdoor gamma radiation dose rate agree with the values presented by other authors for similar rocks. The highest dose values were obtained from felsic rocks (rhyolite of the Castro group, 129.8 {+-} 3.7 nGy.h{sup -1}, and Cunhaporanga granite, 167 {+-} 37 nGy.h{sup -1}). The other highest values correspond to the shale rocks from the Irati Formation (109 {+-} 16 nGy.h{sup -1}) and the siltic shale rocks from the Ponta Grossa Formation (107.9 {+-} 0.7 nGy.h{sup -1}). The most recent geological formations presented the lowest dose values (e.g. the Botucatu sandstone, 3.3 {+-} 0.6 nGy.h{sup -1}). The average value for sedimentary rocks from seven other formations is equal to 59 {+-} 26 nGy.h{sup -1}. The Rio Bonito Formation presented the highest dose value (334

  2. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  3. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of ‘river dolphins’ in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Pyenson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called ‘river dolphins’ are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry. In South America, the two endemic ‘river dolphin’ lineages form a clade (Inioidea, with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1–5.8 million years ago (Messinian, pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs.

  4. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs.

  5. Discovery of Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene brown coal deposits (Kosh-Agach formation) in the Dzhazator River valley (Southeastern Russian Altai): Neotectonic and paleogeographical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatova, A. R.; Nepop, R. K.; Rudaya, N. A.; Khazina, I. V.; Zhdanova, A. N.; Bronnikova, M. A.; Uspenskaya, O. N.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Ovchinnikov, I. Y.; Panov, V. S.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    Results of complex paleontological and geochemical analysis are reported for a new locality of the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene Kosh-Agach carbonaceous formation in the Dzhazator River valley. This find specifies the scales of lacustrine-marsh sedimentation at the end of the Paleogene and beginning of the Neogene, as well as the character and amplitude of post-Neogene neotectonic movements in the southeastern highest mountain part of Russian Altai. Systematic rejuvenation of the radiocarbon age of the sequences studied, which has been established for the first time in Altai, is related to influx of young carbon during the subsequent complex geological history. This fact is of great importance for deciphering the chronology of Pleistocene glacial-dammed lakes in the intermontane basins of Altai and Tuva, the erosion zone of which spanned exhumed Tertiary deposits.

  6. Late Neogene deformation of the Chocolate Mountains Anticlinorium: Implications for deposition of the Bouse Formation and early evolution of the Lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Sue; Haxel, Gordon B.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Jacobsen, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Deformation related to late Neogene dextral shear can explain a shift from an estuarine to lacustrine depositional environment in the southern Bouse Formation north of Yuma, Arizona. We infer that late Neogene deformation in the Chocolate Mountain Anticlinorium (CMA) created a barrier that blocked an estuary inlet, and that pre-existing and possibly active structures subsequently controlled the local course of the lower Colorado River. Structural patterns summarized below suggest that the CMA absorbed transpressional strain caused by left-stepping segments of dextral faults of the San Andreas fault system and/or the eastern California shear zone and Gulf of California shear zone. For this hypothesis to be correct, about 200-250 m of post-6 Ma, pre- ~5.3 Ma uplift along the CMA crest would be required to cut off a marine inlet. The 220-km-long CMA, cored by the early Paleogene Orocopia Schist subduction complex, extends from the Orocopia Mountains (Calif.) southeastward through the Chocolate Mountains (parallel to the southern San Andreas fault). Where Highway 78 crosses the Chocolate Mountains (Fig. 1), the CMA turns eastward through the Black Mountain-Picacho area (Calif.) and Trigo Mountains (Ariz.) into southwest Arizona. It separates southernmost Bouse Formation outcrops of the Blythe basin from subsurface Bouse outcrops to the south in the Yuma area. South of Blythe basin the CMA is transected by the lower Colorado River along a circuitous path. Here we focus on the geology of an area between the central Chocolate Mountains and the Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona. Specific landmarks include the southeast Chocolate Mountains, Midway Mountains, Peter Kane Mountain, Black Mountain, Picacho Peak, and Gavilan Hills. For simplicity, we refer to this as the eastern Chocolate Mountains.

  7. Influence of composition and rate heating on formation of black core in bodies obtained with red ceramic; Influencia da composicao e da taxa de aquecimento na formacao do coracao negro em pecas obtidas com massas da ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, L.N.L.; Goncalves, W.P.; Silva, B.J. da; Macedo, R.S.; Santos, R.C.; Lisboa, D., E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the heating of pieces of red pottery can the defect known as black core, this may deteriorate the technical and aesthetic characteristics of the final product. This study evaluated the influence of chemical composition and heating rate on the formation of black core in bodies red ceramic. The masses were treated and samples were extruded, dried, sintered at 900 °C, with heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 °C / min. and determined the following properties: water absorption, linear shrinkage and flexural strength. The pieces made with the mass containing lower content of iron oxide showed better resistance to bending when subjected to rapid heating. The presence of the black core was identified through visual analysis of the pieces after the break, being more apparent in parts subject to rates above 5 °C / min. (author)

  8. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunlei; Li, Mei; Chan, Chak K.; Tong, Haijie; Chen, Changhong; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Dui; Li, Lei; Wu, Cheng; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhijuan; Fu, Zhong; Bi, Yanru; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-08-01

    The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), biomass burning (BB), heavy metal (HM), secondary (Sec), sodium-potassium (NaK), and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  9. Identification and characterization of RED120: A conserved PWI domain protein with links to splicing and 3′-end formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fortes, Puri; Longman, Dasa; McCracken, Susan; Ip, Joanna Y; Poot, Raymond; Mattaj, Iain W; Cáceres, Javier F; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    ... (for human Arg/Glu/Asp‐rich protein of 120 kDa). hRED120 contains a conventional RNA recognition motif and, like SRm160, a PWI nucleic acid binding domain, suggesting that it has the potential to bridge different RNP complexes...

  10. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of organs within the coelomic cavity of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta), Coastal plain cooters (Pseudemys concinna floridana), and hieroglyphic river cooters (Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Karina A; Schnack, Marcus; Rohn, Karl; Fehr, Michael

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI. ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica]). PROCEDURES MRI and necropsy were performed on the 3 turtle cadavers. Physical examination, hematologic evaluation, and whole-body radiography were performed on the 63 live turtles. Turtles were sedated, and MRI in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes was used to measure organ dimensions, position within the coelomic cavity, and SIs. Body positioning after sedation was standardized with the head, neck, limbs, and tail positioned in maximum extension. RESULTS Measurements of the heart, liver, gallbladder, and kidneys in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes; relative position of those organs within the coelom; and SIs of the kidneys and liver were obtained with MRI and provided anatomic data for these 4 turtle species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MRI was a valuable tool for determining the position, dimensions, and SIs of selected organs. Measurement of organs in freshwater chelonians was achievable with MRI. Further studies are needed to establish reference values for anatomic structures in turtles. Results reported here may serve as guidelines and aid in clinical interpretation of MRI images for these 4 species.

  13. Formation of particulate sulfate and nitrate over the Pearl River Delta in the fall: Diagnostic analysis using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Momei; Wang, Xuesong; Hu, Yongtao; Huang, Xiaofeng; He, Lingyan; Zhong, Liuju; Song, Yu; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, fine particulate matter (PM) pollution and visibility degradation have become severe air quality issues in China. In this study, PM2.5 pollution over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during January, April, August, and November 2009 was simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. An in-depth diagnostic analysis, focused on November 2009, was also conducted to reveal the patterns of sulfate and nitrate distribution, and to identify the main factors that influence the formation of sulfate and nitrate under typical meteorological conditions. The CMAQ model reasonably reproduced the observed concentrations, but showed better performance for January and November than it did for April and August, for which there was light-moderate underestimation of SO2, NOx, O3, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations, and slight overestimation of daily 8-h maximum concentrations of O3. Utilizing a sulfate tracking technique, it was found that on nearly 20 days in November 2009, characterized by northeasterly winds, cross-boundary transport contributed to >75% of the total sulfate budget, while local gas phase oxidation and primary emissions averaged 10% and 8%, respectively. Aqueous sulfate typically contributed less than 1% of the total sulfate budget, except when the winds were directed from the sea and high humidity favored aqueous oxidation, and the percentage contribution reached up to 46%. NH3 was generally sufficient to fully neutralize H2SO4; however, the formation of nitrate over the PRD was limited by the availability of NH3.

  14. Using regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetonitriles via chlorination of source water with low SUVA values in the Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Song, Qianyun; Mazumder, Asit; Luo, Qian; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying; Shen, Liguo; Liang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination of source water with low specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) in Yangtze River Delta, China. The results showed that the regression models of THMs exhibited good accuracy and precision, and 86-97 % of the calculated values fell within ±25 % of the measured values. While the HANs models showed relatively weak evaluation ability, as only 75-83 % of the calculated values were within ±25 % of the measured values. The organic matter [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or UV absorbance at 254 nm] and bromide exerted the most important influence on the formation of HANs. While for THMs, besides the organic matter and bromide, reaction time was also a key factor. Comparing the models for total THMs (T-THMs) in this study with others revealed that the regression models from the low SUVA waters may have low DOC coefficients, but high bromide coefficients as compared with those from the high SUVA waters.

  15. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  16. Wadsleyite and ringwoodite formation from melt induced by a shock event in Peace River L6 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M.; Goresy, A. E.; Ohtani, E.; Ferroir, T.; Gillet, P.; Nagase, T.; Nishijima, M.; Vashaei, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The assemblages of wadsleyite and ringwoodite transformed from individual olivine contained in a deformed chondrule were identified in the shock melt veins of Peace River L6 chondrite. The assemblages of wadsleyite and ringwoodite were extracted by using a FIB system, and analyzed by TEM/STEM-EDS. There was obvious enrichment or depletion in Mg and Fe ratios between ringwoodite (Fo = 66) and wadsleyite (Fo = 89). Using the interdiffusion coefficients in order to check if the contrasting compositions of ringwoodite and wadsleyite, respectively could have resulted from solid-state interdiffusion alone leads to unrealistically long duration of the shock event. Few stacking faults were observed both in ringwoodite and wadsleyite thus suggesting that both minerals didn't form by a shear mechanism. The deformed chondrules are squeezed and flattened implying strong plastic deformation and partial melting. There is no evidence of mixing of melts of olivine and clinopyroxene, the latter not melted. It is considered that wadsleyite and ringwoodite successively crystallized from individual melts of the former olivine crystals alone. Wadsleyite, low in Fe, crystallized first from melt in the interior of the former olivine crystals followed by Fe-rich ringwoodite nucleating on wadsleyite thus separating it from the residual melt enriched in Fe.

  17. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  18. Coastal dunes with high content of rhodolith (coralline red algae) bioclasts: Pleistocene formations on Maio and São Nicolau in the Cape Verde archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Baarli, B. Gudveig; da Silva, Carlos M.; Cachão, Mário; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayoral, Eduardo J.; Santos, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Rhodoliths are spherical growths (coralline red algae) that contribute bioclasts to coastal dunes in the Gulf of California (Mexico) and the Canary Islands (North Atlantic). Pleistocene dunes on Maio and São Nicolau islands in the Cape Verde archipelago were studied to quantify rhodolith contribution relative to other sources. Near Pilão Cão on Maio, a transverse dune at Lomba Greija covers 0.3 km2, exposing stoss slopes that dip 8°-10° NE and leeward slip faces that dip 28°-32° SW and SE. Point counts on thin-section samples show that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 5%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided space (dissolved grains) account for 67%. Among remaining identifiable bioclasts (coralline red algae, mollusks, corals, foraminifera, and echinoderms), rhodolith grains with an average diameter of 0.5 mm account for 74%. Near Carriçal at Covoadinha de Chacina on the SE coast of São Nicolau, the stoss slope dips 8° SE for 70-80 m on narrow longitudinal dunes. Point counts on a thin-section sample taken 2.5 m above basement rock, reveal that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 10%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided spaces account for 60%. Among identifiable bioclasts from the remainder (coralline red algae, mollusks, echinoderms, and bryozoa), rhodolith grains ranging in size from 0.5 to 1 mm account for 96%. Potential enrichment from coralline red algae may be overlooked in coastal dunes, because content normally is described as dominated by mollusk shells, the tests from abundant foraminifera, and/or ooids.

  19. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA: record of mid-Miocene rhyolitic explosive eruptions and associated crustal subsidence along the Yellowstone hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.; Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Storey, Michael; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions, emplacing extensive ashfall and rheomorphic ignimbrite sheets. Yet, each member has subtly distinct field, chemical and palaeomagnetic characteristics. New regional correlations reveal that the Brown's View ignimbrite covers ≥3300 km2, and the Wooden Shoe ignimbrite covers ≥4400 km2 and extends into Nevada. Between 11.9 and ˜8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed by initiation of the Shoshone Fault and an E-sloping half-graben (˜10.3-10.1 Ma). The graben asymmetry then reversed with initiation of the Brown's Bench Fault (≥8 Ma), which remained intermittently active until the Pliocene.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Occurrence Modeling of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1: A Case Study in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh C. Tran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI subtype H5N1 poses severe threats to both animals and humans. Investigating where, when and why the disease occurs is important to help animal health authorities develop effective control policies. This study takes into account spatial and temporal occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A two-stage procedure was used: (1 logistic regression modeling to identify and quantify factors influencing the occurrence of HPAI H5N1; and (2 a geostatistical approach to develop monthly predictive maps. The results demonstrated that higher average monthly temperatures and poultry density in combination with lower average monthly precipitation, humidity in low elevation areas, roughly from November to January and April to June, contribute to the higher occurrence of HPAI H5N1. Provinces near the Gulf of Tonkin, including Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh and Ninh Binh are areas with higher probability of occurrence of HPAI H5N1.

  1. Red Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AskMayoExpert. Conjunctivitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/red-eye/basics/definition/SYM-20050748 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  2. Red Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  3. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...... for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono...

  4. Taxol®-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and microvesicle formation in red blood cells is mediated by its vehicle Cremophor® EL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vader, Pieter; Fens, Marcel HAM; Sachini, Nikoleta

    2013-01-01

    The conventional clinical formulation of paclitaxel (PTX), Taxol®, consists of Cremophor® EL (CrEL) and ethanol. CrEL-formulated PTX is associated with acute hypersensitivity reactions, anemia and cardiovascular events. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of CrEL-PTX on red blood......: These results offer new insights into the side effect profile of Taxol, which is likely to have implications for patients with erythrocyte disorders. Abraxane did not induce any of these effects on RBCs, indicating that the choice of excipients can have a pronounced influence on the efficacy and side effects...

  5. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  7. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  8. Tectonic control of complex slope failures in the Ameka River Valley (Lower Gibe Area, central Ethiopia): Implications for landslide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kycl, Petr; Rapprich, Vladislav; Verner, Kryštof; Novotný, Jan; Hroch, Tomáš; Mišurec, Jan; Eshetu, Habtamu; Tadesse Haile, Ezra; Alemayehu, Leta; Goslar, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    Even though major faults represent important landslide controlling factors, the role the tectonic setting in actively spreading rifts plays in the development of large complex landslides is seldom discussed. The Ameka complex landslide area is located on the eastern scarp of the Gibe Gorge, approximately 45 km to the west of the Main Ethiopian Rift and 175 km to the southwest of Addis Ababa. Investigation of the complex landslide failures required a combination of satellite and airborne data-based geomorphology, geological field survey complemented with structural analysis, radiocarbon geochronology and vertical electric sounding. The obtained observations confirmed the multiphase evolution of the landslide area. We have documented that, apart from climatic and lithological conditions, the main triggering factor of the Ameka complex landslide is the tectonic development of this area. The E-W extension along the NNE-SSW trending Main Ethiopian Rift is associated with the formation of numerous parallel normal faults, such as the Gibe Gorge fault and the almost perpendicular scissor faults. The geometry of the slid blocks of coherent lithology have inherited the original tectonic framework, which suggests the crucial role tectonics play in the fragmentation of the compact rock-masses, and the origin and development of the Ameka complex landslide area. Similarly, the main scarps were also parallel to the principal tectonic features. The local tectonic framework is dominated by faults of the same orientation as the regional structures of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Such parallel tectonic frameworks display clear links between the extension of the Main Ethiopian Rift and the tectonic development of the landslide area. The Ameka complex landslide developed in several episodes over thousands of years. According to the radiocarbon data, the last of the larger displaced blocks (representing only 2% of the total area) most likely slid down in the seventh century AD. The main

  9. "The Tower in Red and Yellow": Using Children's Drawings in Formative Research for "Alam Simsim," an Educational Television Series for Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Alyaa; Cole, Charlotte; Fuld, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples from a study of six test segments of the television series "Alam Simsim," the Egyptian "Sesame Street," to illustrate how a systematic analysis of children's artwork can be used with other research tools to gain feedback from children. Shows how formative research is used to bring children into the production…

  10. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  11. Involvement of old crustal materials during formation of the Sakhalin Island (Russian Far East) and its paleogeographic implication: Constraints from detrital zircon ages of modern river sand and Miocene sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Li, Jia-jin; Alexandrov, Igor; Ivin, Vitaly; Jahn, Bor-ming

    2017-09-01

    In order to decipher crustal nature of the Sakhalin Island in Russian Far East, we carried out detrital zircon U-Pb age analyses on Miocene sandstone and river sand from the longest river (Poronay River) of the Sakhalin Island. The detrital zircon data from two river sand samples display similar age distribution patterns with a dominant Mesozoic age group, subordinate age peaks at 1.8 Ga and 2.5 Ga, and a few Paleozoic and Neoproterozoic grains. The Miocene sandstone shows age peaks at 22, 84, 260 and 497 Ma, respectively, and a few Paleo-proterozoic grains. These age groups indicate that abundant old crustal materials have been involved in the crustal formation of the Sakhalin Island. Detrital zircon result reveals two episodes of post-accretion magmatism from the Sakhalin Island in ages of 37 Ma and 22-21 Ma. They can be correlated with coeval post-accretion magmatic events in the Hokkaido Island, supporting the geological correlation between the Sakhalin Island and the Hokkaido Island. Comparison of detrital zircon dating result from the Sakhalin Island with those from surrounding blocks and cratons in eastern Asia allows us to propose two possible sources in eastern Asia: the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka block with the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt to its west and the South China Craton. The detrital zircon result indicates that the formation of the Sakhalin Island should be close to the East Asia continent, rather than as an independent intro-oceanic island arc within the Pacific Ocean. Similar to formation of the Japanese islands, the South China Craton may have played an important role during formation of the Sakhalin Island.

  12. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  13. Preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and to obtain a broad overview of the physical and economic factors which would have an effect on the suitability of the oil shale formations for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. These physical and economic factors are discussed in sections on magnitude of the oil shales, waste disposal relations with oil mining, cavities requirements, hydrological aspects, and study requirements. (JRD)

  14. The role of radiogenic heat in maturation of organic matter within oil shales of Duwi formation in Quseir-Safaga District, Red Sea coastal area, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Kassas, I. A. [ابراهيم علي القصاص; Khaled, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    The oil shale beds of Duwi Formation at Quseir-Safaga district in Egypt show a high content of organic matter (kerogen) and a fair pyrolysis oil yield. Kerogens of these rocks are composed mainly of marine amorphous and structured sapropelic liptinitic phytoclasts of algae with minor contribution of the humic materials. Also , these kerogens belong to the immature types I and II which are buried in the diagenesis stage of maturation. Although these kerogens are immature they show high vitrini...

  15. Large-scale mud diapirism as a record of late-stage Laramide tectonism within the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Samuel M.; Klimek, Jason N.

    2017-08-01

    The Gruene and Verde mud diapirs, which range in size from 70 to 95 m in diameter, are exposed within the Wilkins Peak Member of the Eocene Green River Formation near Flaming Gorge Reservoir, southwest Wyoming. These diapirs are sourced from the lower unit of the Wilkins Peak Member (lower, middle, and upper units can be defined based on dominant lithology), and were emplaced into the upper unit of the Wilkins Peak Member, cross-cutting hundreds of meters of strata. The structures contain brecciated dolomicritic and lime mudstones with minor amounts of siliciclastic clays. Pervasive quartz veining is present throughout both diapirs. Though heavily disturbed, original bedding can be seen in both localities, either dipping radially outward towards the margins of the diapir as is dominant at the Gruene diapir or tilted but near horizontal as is the dominant expression at the smaller Verde diapir. The Gruene diapir can be seen in contact with several fluvial sandstone bodies within the upper Wilkins Peak strata in outcrop, and these fluvial sandstones transition from regional, near-horizontal dips to steeply dipping beds and bedsets within 50 m of the diapir. These sands show no signs of brittle deformation, and dip ranges from 20 to 50° radially away from the center of the diapir to the north, west, and east where sands are observed. These are interpreted here to have been deformed pre-lithification, at or near the surface, by the rising mud diapir, offering an important control on the timing of diapirism near the end of the early Eocene. Deformation structures such as clastic dikes, brecciation, and convoluted bedding have been documented by others at or near this stratigraphic interval in Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and these smaller structures have been interpreted as seismites. We suggest that these mud diapirs are a larger-scale expression of this same seismic activity.

  16. Esri Format Binary Grid of the Merged Bathymetry and Elevation Data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland For Use with USGS Cruise 07005 (COMBELEV)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  17. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  18. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  19. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  20. RES2DINV Format for Modified Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15 and May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  1. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Buffalo River Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    undifferentiated igneous and metamorphic rock underlying the entire subbasin. In the northwest and southwest sections, small areas of cretaceous Dakota shells and...to assimilate wastes and meet minimum streamflow requirements for recreational -.1 -and environmental uses; and (2) pollution from municipal and...bluegills, pumpkinseed, crappies, rock baos largemouth bess, and/or sallunuth bass. These lakes frequently have good populations of northern pike. Some

  2. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Ottertail River Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    igneous and metamorphic rock overlain by Cretaceour sediments of the Dakota Group composed of sandstone and interbedded shale. The Colorado Group is...periods of the year create problems with regard to waste assimilation and minimum streamflow requirements * for recreational usage (e.g. fishing). The...in the late summer, fall, and winter months. Their condition results in a lowering of the assimilative capacity of the stream. With regard to

  3. River Rats: A History of the Red River Valley Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    political science from the University of Connecticut and a master of science degree in public administration from Troy State University. He also...items were "VSTOL in the Future Navy" and the "USAF Tactical Air Command, Past, Present, and Future." Senator Jake Garn (R-Utah) was the featured

  4. Seeing Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is an invasion, of sorts: a legion of vases, each about five feet high, made of porcelain. Floridly patterned and scarlet red, they are placed throughout the Yale Center for British Art (YCBA, on every floor, in the galleries, in the library court, on the stairs. The installation, Made in China, is by the artist Clare Twomey. Its effect is most improbable, with a surreal, larger-than-life quality. It is as if caterers were about to deliver a banquet for thousands of people; or a factory floor had been teleported into the galleries; or as if ceramics were finally being recognized as a dominant genre in British art.

  5. Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) from the Sava River basin: New insights into strain formation, mtDNA-like sequences and dynamics of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Valić, Damir; Kapetanović, Damir; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Gjurčević, Emil; Teskeredžić, Emin

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the genetic variability and presence of mtDNA-like sequences of Pomphorhynchus laevis from the chub, Squalius cephalus, caught at the sampling sites along the Sava River and its tributary the Sutla River in Croatia. Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene of the recovered P. laevis specimens were used for haplotype network construction and phylogenetic analysis. These analyses showed that some specimens contained mitochondrial-like sequences, and they uncovered the existence of a Sava River basin strain different from known strains of P. laevis. This is the first time that P. laevis has been shown to contain mtDNA-like sequences, suggesting the need to exercise caution during COI analyses of P. laevis using universal primers. Highly conserved sequences of two nuclear markers, the ITS region and 18S rRNA, were not helpful for understanding genetic variability or differentiating strains. Furthermore, analysis of the dynamics of P. laevis infections in S. cephalus from the Sava and Sutla Rivers showed decreased prevalence and abundance at sites with inferior water quality, positive association of parasite abundance with fish size, and no clear association of parasite abundance with fish condition index or sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Gang; Gang, Wenzhe; Zhang, Gongcheng; He, Wenjun; Cui, Xin; Shen, Huailei; Miao, Shunde

    2015-01-01

    To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted an...

  7. Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, S.N.; King, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater table, and ponding of upstream timber. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the composition of floodplain vegetation communities along the degraded river reach, (2) to isolate relationships among these communities, geomorphic features, and environmental variables and (3) evaluate successional changes based on current stand conditions. Vegetation communities were not specifically associated with predefined geomorphic features; nevertheless, hydrologic and geomorphic processes as a result of channelization have clearly affected vegetation communities. The presence of valley plugs and continued degradation of upstream reaches and tributaries on the impacted study reach has arrested recovery of floodplain plant communities. Historically common species like Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Quercus spp. L. were not important, with importance values (IV) less than 1, and occurred in less than 20% of forested plots, while Acer rubrum L., a disturbance-tolerant species, was the most important species on the site (IV = 78.1) and occurred in 87% of forested plots. The results of this study also indicate that channelization impacts on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River are more temporally and spatially complex than previously described for other river systems. Rehabilitation of this system necessitates a long-term, landscape-scale solution that addresses watershed rehabilitation in a spatially and temporally hierarchical manner. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Souris-Red-Rainy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Harold O.

    1978-01-01

    A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  9. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  10. Modeling formation and distribution of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) after spillage of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) into a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Thomas

    2013-05-15

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a large volume chemical used for the production of polyurethanes. It is sparingly soluble in water, but hydrolyses instantaneously liberating toluene diamine (TDA), which is highly reactive to TDI. The ecotoxicity of TDI is dominated by TDA. The hydrolysis of TDI under static and dynamic conditions was investigated previously. Previously published data on TDI hydrolysis were re-visited, and based on these data a model was developed that allows a conservative and quick estimation of TDA concentrations in rivers following a major incident with TDI. As earlier published model experiments indicate, the maximum achievable TDA concentration is about 30 mg/L. Model simulations based on these experiments indicate that the TDA concentrations in a river after TDI discharge may be up to three orders of magnitude lower. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  12. Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell storage lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Donadee (Chenell); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); T. Kanias (Tamir); J. Tejero (Jesús); J.S. Lee (Janet); E.E. Kelley (Eric); X. Zhao (Xuejun); C. Liu (Chen); H. Reynolds (Hannah); I. Azarov (Ivan); S. Frizzell (Sheila); E.M. Meyer (Michael); A.D. Donnenberg (Albert); L. Qu (Lirong); D. Triulzi (Darrel); D.B. Kim-Shapiro (Daniel); M.T. Gladwin (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBacground-: Intravascular red cell hemolysis impairs nitric oxide (NO)-redox homeostasis, producing endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and vasculopathy. Red blood cell storage under standard conditions results in reduced integrity of the erythrocyte membrane, with formation of

  13. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  14. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  15. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  16. The role of neotectonics and glaciation on terrace formation along the Nysa Kłodzka River in the Sudeten Mountains (southwestern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyszkowski, Dariusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Badura, Janusz

    2000-06-01

    The Nysa Kłodzka river drainage basin in the Sudeten Mts., SW Poland, preserves a complex late Cainozoic succession that includes eight fluvial series or terraces and deposits from two glacial episodes as well as local volcanic rocks, slope deposits and loess. Fluvial sedimentation took place during the Late Pliocene and from the early Middle Pleistocene (Cromerian), with a long erosion phase (gap) during the Early Pleistocene. Fluvial series are dated to the Late Pliocene, Cromerian, Holsteinian, late Saalian/Eemian, Weichselian, and the Holocene. Glacial deposits represent the early Elsterian and early Saalian stages. Almost all these stratigraphic units have been observed in all geomorphic zones of the river: the mountainous Kłodzko Basin, the Bardo Mts. (Bardo gorge) and in the mountain foreland. The main phase of tectonic uplift and strong erosion was during the Early Pleistocene. Minor uplift is documented also during the post-early Saalian and probably the post-Elsterian. The post-early Saalian and post-Elstrian uplift phases are probably due to glacio-isostatic rebound. The Quaternary terrace sequence was formed due to base-level changes, epigenetic erosion after glaciations and neotectonic movements. The Cromerian fluvial deposits/terraces do not indicate tectonic influence at all. All other Quaternary terraces indicate clear divergence, and the post-early Saalian terraces also show fault scarps. The fluvial pattern remained stable, once formed during the Pliocene, with only minor changes along the uplifted block along the Bardo gorge, inferring an antecedent origin for the Bardo gorge. Only during the post-glacial times, have epigenetic incisions slightly modified the valley.

  17. Process analysis and sensitivity study of regional ozone formation over the Pearl River Delta, China, during the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system is used to simulate the ozone (O3 episodes during the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, China, in October 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004. The simulation suggests that O3 pollution is a regional phenomenon in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Elevated O3 levels often occurred in the southwestern inland PRD, Pearl River estuary (PRE, and southern coastal areas during the 1-month field campaign. Three evolution patterns of simulated surface O3 are summarized based on different near-ground flow conditions. More than 75% of days featured interactions between weak synoptic forcing and local sea-land circulation. Integrated process rate (IPR analysis shows that photochemical production is a dominant contributor to O3 enhancement from 09:00 to 15:00 local standard time in the atmospheric boundary layer over most areas with elevated O3 occurrence in the mid-afternoon. The simulated ozone production efficiency is 2–8 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized in areas with high O3 chemical production. Precursors of O3 originating from different source regions in the central PRD are mixed during the course of transport to downwind rural areas during nighttime and early morning, where they then contribute to the daytime O3 photochemical production. The sea-land circulation plays an important role on the regional O3 formation and distribution over PRD. Sensitivity studies suggest that O3 formation is volatile-organic-compound-limited in the central inland PRD, PRE, and surrounding coastal areas with less chemical aging (NOx/NOy>0.6, but is NOx-limited in the rural southwestern PRD with aged air (NOx/NOy<0.3.

  18. Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic constraints on fluid sources, temperatures and biogeochemical processes during the formation of seep carbonates - Secchia River site, Northern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Irene; Capozzi, Rossella; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Rickli, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Understanding authigenic seep carbonate formation provides clues for hydrocarbon exploration and insights into contributions to gas budgets of marine environments and the atmosphere. Seep carbonates discovered in the outcropping succession along the Secchia riverbanks (near Modena, Italy) belong to the Argille Azzurre Formation of Early Pleistocene age deposited in an upper shelf environment overlying the Miocene foredeep successions, which include hydrocarbon fields. The fluid migration from the hydrocarbon fields, up to the surface, is presently active on land and started in the marine succession during the Late Miocene. Authigenic globular carbonate concretions and carbonate chimneys are interspersed along the strata throughout the section. A comprehensive geochemical characterisation of the carbonates has been carried out to understand the processes leading to their formation. The carbonate concretions are the record of past hydrocarbon vents linked to the Miocene petroleum system of the Northern Apennines. The samples are composed of > 50% microcrystalline dolomite. The δ13C signatures identify two groups in the samples according to different type of formation processes. Globular concretions have positive values that suggest an influence of CO2 associated to secondary methanogenesis due to microbial degradation of higher hydrocarbons. The analysed chimney, with negative δ13C values, is interpreted as former conduit where carbonate precipitation is promoted by Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane coupled with Sulfate Reduction. The δ18O range, coupled with 87/86Sr signatures, indicate that the contribution of deep connate water from the Miocene reservoirs is up to 23% during the formation of the globular concretions. The connate water occurrence is also documented by higher ambient temperatures. The different isotope signatures in seep carbonates result from the relative contribution of the recognised gas and water components, linked to different plumbing systems

  19. Stream catalog of the Wood River Lake System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information on the red salmon runs to all the major spawning tributaries in the Wood River lake system, Bristol Bay, Alaska from 1946 to 1962 is cataloged in this...

  20. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...

  1. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  2. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  3. Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  4. Chemical and stable isotopic composition of water and gas in the Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for water/rock interaction and the biogenic origin of coalbed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia A.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36 million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, δDH2O and δ18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and δDCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na–HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation–reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270–3310 mg/L) and low SO4 (median water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  5. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  6. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  7. Correlates of red throat coloration in female stickleback and their potential evolutionary significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Lengxob; Guo, Ruqing; Wright, Daniel S.; Mears, Samantha A.; Pierotti, Michele; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    Background: In two stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), females often exhibit male-typical red throat coloration. These fish inhabit the Little Campbell River (British Columbia) and Matadero Creek (California). An anadromous population that lacks such

  8. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  9. Digital landscapes and Late Pleistocene environments of deglaciation: The use of LiDAR data to test outburst flood hypotheses of lowland river gorge formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl; Cripps, Jonathan; Passmore, Dave; Oldknow, Christopher; Eades, Gwilym

    2013-04-01

    features are present in the River Till gorge, previously thought to be the outflow of Glacial Lake Milfield in northern England but here interpreted as a new drainage pathway resulting from an outburst event. Our reconstruction of the Till flood shows complex initial flow hydraulics with water flooding over undulating drumlin terrain. However once the gorge has incised we quantify palaeodischarges of between 2000-4000 m3/s, based on hydraulic modelling using the DEM-derived topography, with floodwater elevations delimited by terrace levels associated with incision phases (caused by the sudden failure of downstream blockages). This suggests that the 1.27 km3 lake took less than one week to drain, during this time eroding approximately 0.04 km3 of material from the gorge. We also briefly report on results from another UK site, the River Derwent outflow gorge of Glacial Lake Pickering.

  10. Characteristics of inorganic aerosol formation over ammonia-poor and ammonia-rich areas in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shasha; Huang, Zhijiong; Zheng, Junyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Duohong; Tan, Haobo

    2018-03-01

    A well-evaluated Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during two separate months (April and October) in 2013. An indicator of adjusted gas ratio (AdjGR) was used to characterize PM chemistry under both NH3-poor (NP) and NH3-rich (NR) conditions as well as to identify their respective spatiotemporal patterns at different PM2.5 levels. The results were as follows: (1) Based on both observed molar ratio of [NH4+]/[SO42-] and modeled AdjGR, NR and NP conditions exhibited diurnal, daily, and seasonal variations. (2) A larger area in PRD had NP conditions over the two months when pollution was apparent; this NP region tended to occur downwind of PRD in October and the central region of PRD in April, with high PM2.5 concentrations in both. (3) This wider NP distribution could be related to higher nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR), with more NOx converting to nitrate. Under conditions of higher pollution, there were relative lower degree of sulfate neutralization (DSN) and particle neutralization ratio (PNR). This supports the claim that NH3 may not be fully neutralized by SO42-. (4) Modeled AdjGR displayed clear hourly variations, with the lowest levels occurring in the afternoon. Reducing NH3 emission is not as efficient as NOx at increasing evening nitrate concentrations. (5) To mitigate PM2.5 pollution even further, a greater reduction of NH3 should be suggested in chemical regions transiting to NR condition when there are lower SO2 and NOx emissions.

  11. A river runs through it

    OpenAIRE

    F P J G Lafeber

    2010-01-01

    A river runs through it is een waar gebeurd verhaal over twee jongens, Norman en Paul, die in het begin van de 20ste eeuw opgroeiden in landelijk Montana (Amerika). Norman is in zijn jeugd een gereserveerde persoonlijkheid, terwijl Paul een rebelse ondeugd is. Beiden hebben echter een grote liefde voor vliegvissen. Het verhaal, gedeeltelijk autobiografisch, is geschreven in 1976 door Norman Maclean1. Er is geen Nederlandse vertaling. Wel is het boek in 1992 verfilmd onder regie van Robert Red...

  12. A Wide-Field Study of the z ~ 0.8 Cluster RX J0152.7-1357: The Role of Environment in the Formation of the Red Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Ford, Holland

    2009-04-01

    We present the first results from the largest spectroscopic survey to date of an intermediate redshift galaxy cluster, the z = 0.834 cluster RX J0152.7-1357. We use the colors of galaxies, assembled from a D ~ 12 Mpc region centered on the cluster, to investigate the properties of the red sequence as a function of density and clustercentric radius. Our wide-field multislit survey with a low-dispersion prism in the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph at the 6.5 m Baade telescope allowed us to identify 475 new members of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure with a redshift accuracy of σ z /(1 + z) ≈ 1% and a contamination rate of ~2% for galaxies with i' 4 × 1010 M sun (log M/M sun>10.6). We find that the red galaxy fraction is 93 ± 3% in the two merging cores of the cluster and declines to a level of 64 ± 3% at projected clustercentric radii R gsim 3 Mpc. At these large projected distances, the correlation between clustercentric radius and local density is nonexistent. This allows an assessment of the influence of the local environment on galaxy evolution, as opposed to mechanisms that operate on cluster scales (e.g., harassment, ram-pressure stripping). Even beyond R>3 Mpc we find an increasing fraction of red galaxies with increasing local density. The red galaxy fraction at the highest local densities in two large groups at R>3 Mpc matches the red galaxy fraction found in the two cores. Strikingly, galaxies at intermediate densities at R>3 Mpc, that are not obvious members of groups, also show signs of an enhanced red galaxy fraction. Our results point to such intermediate-density regions and the groups in the outskirts of the cluster, as sites where the local environment influences the transition of galaxies onto the red sequence. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California

  13. The Lower and Middle Cambrian Leithsville Formation within the Wallkill River Valley, Sussex County, New Jersey: Its stratigraphy and archaeological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, M.C. (Hunter College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-03-01

    The Leithsville Formation occurs as series of northeast-southwest trending outcrops within the Hamburg and Unionville Quadrangles of northwestern New Jersey. The lower Califon Member, approximately 30 feet thick, is best developed in structural sags and topographic lows on the Precambrian surface and where the Hardyston Formation (Lower Cambrian) is thin or absent. It occurs as dark gray, coarsely crystalline, stylolitic dolomite. Vugs bearing quartz, orange calcite, and clots of sphalerite are common. Archaeocyathus is present near the base of the section, which is greater than 30 feet thick in the Vernon Valley. Approximately 120 feet of the Hamburg Member occurs in the study area. The lower unit is a series of finely laminated, thinly bedded alternating phyllitic shales and dolomites that grade upward to thicker cycles of dense, dark gray dolomite with intermittent olive green sandstone units. At several locales, this unit is followed by a series of greenish-gray to reddish-brown alternating shales and dolomites, which bear mud cracks and ripple marks. A distinct rubble zone and unconformity-bounded chert sequence occurs near the top of this member. Measured sections of the poorly exposed upper Wallkill Member have revealed 70 feet of coarse grained, medium gray, stylolitic dolomite with abundant algal stromatolites. Several chert-bounded unconformities occur midway in the section, which is internally brecciated and sulfide-rich. Chert occurring as pods within this member has been the focus of prehistoric mining activity within the axis of the valley.

  14. Chemical and Microbiological Studies on River Nile Crayfish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... Key words: Red swamp crayfish, chemical composition, physical properties, microbiological aspects and quality attributes .... Table 3. Chemical composition of tested red crayfish of the River Nile waters (on wet weight basis). Ingredient. Fresh raw crayfish. Boiled crayfish ..... Health Education in Food Safety.

  15. The crazy hollow formation (Eocene) of central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.P.; Warner, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    The Late Eocene Crazy Hollow Formation is a fluviatile and lacustrine unit that was deposited locally in the southwest arm of Lake Uinta during and after the last stages of the lake the deposited the Green River Formation. Most exposures of the Crazy Hollow are located in Sanpete and Sevier Counties. The unit is characterized by a large variety of rock types, rapid facies changes within fairly short distances, and different lithofacies in the several areas where outcrops of the remnants of the formation are concentrated. Mudstone is dominant, volumetrically, but siltstone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate and several varieties of limestone are also present. The fine-grained rocks are mostly highly colored, especially in shades of yellow, orange and red. Sand grains, pebbles and small cobbles of well-rounded black chert are widespread, and "salt-and-pepper sandstone" is the conspicuous characteristic of the Crazy Hollow. The salt-and-pepper sandstone consists of grains of black chert, white chert, quartz and minor feldspar. The limestone beds and lenses are paludal and lacustrine in origin; some are fossiliferous, and contain the same fauna found in the Green River Formation. With trivial exceptions, the Crazy Hollow Formation lies on the upper, limestone member of the Green River Formation, and the beds of the two units are always accordant in attitude. The nature of the contact differs locally: at some sites there is gradation from the Green River to the Crazy Hollow; at others, rocks typical of the two units intertongue; elsewhere there is a disconformity between the two. A variety of bedrock units overlie the Crazy Hollow at different sites. In the southeasternmost districts it is overlain by the late Eocene formation of Aurora; in western Sevier County it is overlain by the Miocene-Pliocene Sevier River Formation; in northernmost Sanpete County it is overlain by the Oligocene volcanics of the Moroni Formation. At many sites bordering Sanpete and Sevier Valleys

  16. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Asiatic Soc. o/Bengal., 55:322-343.1886. C F Oldham. The Saraswati and the lost river of the Indian desertJ. R. Asiatic. Soc., 34:49-76. 1893. S C Sharma. The description of rivers in the Rigveda, The Geographical. Observer, 10:79-85. 1974.

  17. Water resources of the Roseau River Watershed, Northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.; Maclay, R.W.; Pike, G.M.

    1967-01-01

    The drainage area of the Roseau River consists of 2,060 square miles above its confluence with the Red River of the North. About 1,150 square miles lie in the United States and 910 square miles in Canada. This report deals only with that portion within the United States, except for a detailed analysis of low flow characteristics of tributary streams.

  18. Effects of hydrologic modifications on salinity and formation of hypoxia in the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and adjacent waterways, southeastern Louisiana, 2008 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) was constructed between 1958 and 1968 to provide a safer and shorter route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Port of New Orleans for ocean-going vessels. In 2006, the U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to develop and implement a plan to deauthorize a portion of the MRGO ship channel from its confluence with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to the Gulf of Mexico. In 2009, in accordance with plans submitted to Congress, the USACE built a rock barrier across the MRGO near Hopedale, Louisiana. Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress also authorized the USACE to implement the Hurricane Storm Damage Risk Reduction System (HSDRRS) by building structures in the MRGO and adjacent surface waters, to reduce vulnerability of this area to storm surge. The HSDRRS includes the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway-Lake Borgne Surge Barrier and Gate Complex near mile 58 of the deauthorized portion of the MRGO and the Seabrook Gate Complex on the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC). By blocking or limiting tidal exchange in the MRGO, these barriers could affect water quality in the MRGO and nearby waters including Lake Pontchartrain, the IHNC, and Lake Borgne. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, began a study to document the effects of the construction activities on salinity and dissolved oxygen in these surface waters. Data were collected from August 2008 through October 2012. Completion of the rock barrier in the vicinity of mile 35 in July 2009 reduced hydrologic circulation and separated the MRGO into two distinct salinity regimes, with substantially fresher conditions prevailing upstream from the rock barrier. The rock barrier also contributed to a zone of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 milligrams per liter) that formed along the channel bottom during the warmer summer months in each year of this monitoring; the zone was much more developed downstream from the rock barrier. The most

  19. Process analysis of regional ozone formation over the Yangtze River Delta, China using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A high O3 episode was detected in urban Shanghai, a typical city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in August 2010. The CMAQ integrated process rate method is applied to account for the contribution of different atmospheric processes during the high pollution episode. The analysis shows that the maximum concentration of ozone occurs due to transport phenomena, including vertical diffusion and horizontal advective transport. Gas-phase chemistry producing O3 mainly occurs at the height of 300–1500 m, causing a strong vertical O3 transport from upper levels to the surface layer. The gas-phase chemistry is an important sink for O3 in the surface layer, coupled with dry deposition. Cloud processes may contribute slightly to the increase of O3 due to convective clouds or to the decrease of O3 due to scavenging. The horizontal diffusion and heterogeneous chemistry contributions are negligible during the whole episode. Modeling results show that the O3 pollution characteristics among the different cities in the YRD region have both similarities and differences. During the buildup period, the O3 starts to appear in the city regions of the YRD and is then transported to the surrounding areas under the prevailing wind conditions. The O3 production from photochemical reaction in Shanghai and the surrounding area is most significant, due to the high emission intensity in the large city; this ozone is then transported out to sea by the westerly wind flow, and later diffuses to rural areas like Chongming island, Wuxi and even to Nanjing. The O3 concentrations start to decrease in the cities after sunset, due to titration of the NO emissions, but ozone can still be transported and maintain a significant concentration in rural areas and even regions outside the YRD region, where the NO emissions are very small.

  20. Nile-Red-nanoclay hybrids: red emissive optical probes for use in aqueous dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbeck, Tom; Behnke, Thomas; Hoffmann, Katrin; Grabolle, Markus; Lezhnina, Marina M; Kynast, Ulrich H; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2013-09-10

    Water-dispersible and (bio)functionalizable nanoclays have a considerable potential as inexpensive carriers for organic molecules like drugs and fluorophores. Aiming at simple design strategies for red-emissive optical probes for the life sciences from commercial precursors with minimum synthetic effort, we systematically studied the dye loading behavior and stability of differently functionalized laponites. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the absorption and emission properties of the red emissive hydrophobic and neutral dye Nile Red, a well-known polarity probe, which is almost insoluble and nonemissive in water. Adsorption of this probe onto disk-shaped nanoclays was studied in aqueous dispersion as function of dye concentration, in the absence and presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisting dye loading, and as a function of pH. This laponite loading strategy yields strongly fluorescent nanoclay suspensions with a fluorescence quantum yield of 0.34 at low dye loading concentration. The dye concentration-, CTAB-, and pH-dependent absorption, fluorescence emission, and fluorescence excitation spectra of the Nile-Red-nanoclay suspensions suggest the formation of several Nile Red species including emissive Nile Red monomers facing a polar environment, nonemissive H-type dimers, and protonated Nile Red molecules that are also nonfluorescent. Formation of all nonemissive Nile Red species could be suppressed by modification of the laponite with CTAB. This underlines the great potential of properly modified and functionalized laponite nanodisks as platform for optical probes with drug delivery capacities, for example, for tumor and therapy imaging. Moreover, comparison of the Nile Red dimer absorption spectra with absorption spectra of previously studied Nile Red aggregates in dendrimer systems and micelles and other literature systems reveals a considerable dependence of the dimer absorption band on microenvironment

  1. Red blood cells in thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, James R; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2017-10-19

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have historically been considered passive bystanders in thrombosis. However, clinical and epidemiological studies have associated quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in RBCs, including altered hematocrit, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, and malaria, with both arterial and venous thrombosis. A growing body of mechanistic studies suggests that RBCs can promote thrombus formation and enhance thrombus stability. These findings suggest that RBCs may contribute to thrombosis pathophysiology and reveal potential strategies for therapeutically targeting RBCs to reduce thrombosis. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Frost-resistance of red ceramic products

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, M. V. V.; Madruga, T. P.; Bergman, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is a study about degradation occurring with red ceramics whenever they are exposed to the environmental conditions of a cold and humid climate. Four different types of clay from Rio Grande do Sul were studied: two of them from the Serra Geral formation, and the other two from the formation of Strada Nova, which are commonly used to make roof tiles. The clay was characterised to identify its chemical and mineralogical composition. Also the physical properties were researched. ...

  3. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  4. Effect of Divalent Cations on RED Performance and Cation Exchange Membrane Selection to Enhance Power Densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Huerta, Elisa; van Baak, Willem; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-based renewable energy technology that can harvest energy from salinity gradients. The anticipated feed streams are natural river and seawater, both of which contain not only monovalent ions but also divalent ions. However, RED using feed streams

  5. Additive Effects of Rhizophora Racemose (Red Mangrove) On Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt to determine the additive effect of pulverized Rhizophora racemosa (Red Mangrove) leaves on the hematology and bursa of Fabricus of broilers. Sixty (60) day-old, Anak broiler chicks ...

  6. Nest height of the red bishop ( Eupiectes orix ) | Woodall | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heights of nests and reeds in a colony of red bishops (Euplectes orix) in Phragmites mauritianus reeds on the Makabusi River, Zimbabwe were measured in two breeding seasons. Nests were placed high in the reeds with fewer above the mean and more below the mean than in a normal distribution. During the course of a ...

  7. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  8. The formation conditions of the burial site of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs and plants in the Kakanaut River basin (Koryak Highlands, Northeastern Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shczepetov, S. V.; Herman, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    The stratigraphic position of layers containing plant and animal remains in the Koryak Highlands (Northeast Asia) is under discussion. Their age is defined as late Campanian-early Maastrichtian. Plant-bearing and bone-bearing rocks represent cemented basaltic tephra. The former contain a small amount of xenogenic material and slightly rounded volcaniclastic material, which indicates its insignificant transportation. Ash particles in bone-bearing rocks are even less rounded. Among them, there are no rock fragments of other composition. Large bones and their fragments, as xenoliths, are chaotically distributed in the rock matrix as if floating in mass of ash material. This burial site was probably formed in a continental environment as a result of the gravitational and eolian transportation of the terrigenous material. The burial of small dinosaur bones and teeth occurred during the deposition of a small stream of a semiliquid water-ash mixture. This work presents a possible mechanism of the formation of burial sites, taking into consideration proposed conditions of the life and reproduction of dinosaurs in the Late Mesozoic Arctic.

  9. Origin and diagenesis of clay minerals in relation to sandstone paragenesis: An example in eolian dune reservoirs and associated rocks, Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Eolian dune sandstones are the principal reservoir rocks in the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming. These sandstones formed as shorelines retreated and dunes migrated across siliciclastic sabkhas. Sandstones are mainly quartzarenites; on average, clay minerals constitute about 5 wt.% the whole rock. Although present in minor amounts, clay minerals play an important role in the diagenetic evolution of these sandstones. Allogenic clay minerals are present in shaly rock fragments and laminae. Early infiltration of clays into porous sabkha sands commonly form characteristic menisei or bridges between framework grains or, when more extensive, form coatings or rims on grain surfaces. Authigenic clays include nearly pure smectite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), and late diagenetic illite and corrensite; these clay minerals are present as pore-lining cements. In addition to the deposition and neoformation of clay minerals throughout sandstone paragenesis, the conversion of smectite to illite occurred as temperatures increased with progressive burial. A temperature of 103C is calculated at a present depth of 3,200 m using a geothermal gradient of 30C/km and a mean annual surface temperature of 7C. After correction for uplift and erosion (250 m), the maximum calculated temperature for the conversion of all random I/S to ordered I/S is 100C. This calculated temperature is in excellent agreement with temperatures of 100-110C implied from I/S geothermometry.

  10. Una arquitectura y mapa de ruta para un método de detección de debris flows y fenómenos similares en ríos, mediante una red de sensores inalámbricos An architecture and a roadmap for a detection method for debris flows and similar phenomena in rivers, using a wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vargas Fallas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los debris flows y flujos hiperconcentrados, conocidos popularmente como cabezas de agua, aluviones o avenidas de lodo, son fenómenos muy destructivos que afectan a poblaciones ubicadas en márgenes de ríos. Los sistemas utilizados para detectar este tipo de eventos se basan en instrumentación fija en puntos determinados del río o a través de mediciones remotas e indirectas, por lo cual los datos que suministran son limitados: no brindan información en tiempo real sobre la posición o velocidad del evento más allá de los puntos de monitoreo. En este artículo se propone una arquitectura para la detección de debris flows y flujos hiperconcentrados en cuencas de ríos, por medio de una red inalámbrica de sensores móviles. La arquitectura propuesta es distribuida y descentralizada, pues no depende de un ente coordinador central para decidir sobre la presencia o ausencia del fenómeno. También se plantea un mapa de ruta de los problemas que deben superarse, con el fin de hacer posible la implementación de esta arquitectura en un sistema de detección concreto para los ríos.Debris flows and hiperconcentrated flows are very destructive phenomena that cause damage, injures and deaths to property and persons that live near rivers. Existing warning systems for these phenomena are based on fixed instrumentation on certain points of the river, or on remote, indirect measurements. As a result, the information that they provide is limited, neither real-time data about the advance of the flow trough the river, nor its velocity outside the fixed monitoring points is available. In this article, an architecture for a debris flows and hiperconcentrated flows detection method based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. This architecture is distributed and decentralized, since it does not depend on a central coordinator to decide on the presence or absence of the phenomenon. A roadmap for further research is also proposed, in order to solve

  11. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  12. [The red eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, A; Gérard, P; Bremer, F

    2014-09-01

    The red eye is a frequent symptom in emergency consultation. The general practitioner should be aware about the sample of possible etiologies. The diseases causing redness are various, sometimes benign but sometimes threatening vision. The most frequent diagnostic hypotheses will be summarized here, as well as the practical methodological elements allowing gross differential diagnosis in the absence of specific instrumentation.

  13. The pediatric red eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asteroseismology of Red Giants and Galactic Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekker, Saskia

    From the oscillations in red-giant stars measured in time-series data it is possible to derive more accurate stellar parameters (e.g., mass, radius and age) as can be done using only single-epoch spectroscopy or photometry. These stellar parameters combined with chemical composition and the position, distance and velocity of the stars play an important role in studying the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. In this chapter we discuss some key physical phenomena that are at play in (red-giant) stars as well as some important phases in red-giant evolution. Subsequently, oscillation characteristics that are of importance for the determination of stellar parameters (as indicated above) of red-giant stars are introduced followed by a description of the main components of the Milky Way. Finally, the role red giants can play in creating a detailed observational picture of the Milky Way and deciphering the formation and evolution of the Milky Way is discussed.

  15. Rol' reki Rejn v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury jekonomiki stran Evropy (I vek do nashej jery — XIX vek [The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  16. An Integrated Sedimentological and Geochemical Analysis through a Triassic Lacustrine Cycle and Lagerstätte in the Cow Branch Formation of the Dan River Basin, Virginia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzer, S.; Gill, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Triassic Cow Branch Formation of the Dan River Basin is host to a world-class lagerstätte deposit of exceptionally preserved, soft-bodied insects, among other organisms. The lagerstätte occurs as a thin shale layer within a cyclic, lacustrine sedimentary succession, hypothesized to have been driven by Milankovitch climate forcing. The integrated sedimentological and geochemical investigation presented here suggests that the lagerstätte was deposited at the onset of a lake transgression, under intermittently anoxic and ferruginous conditions. Sedimentological evidence suggests a deepening of the lake followed by shoaling through a broad fining and subsequent coarsening of the grain sizes in the sedimentary units through the sequence. Despite relatively quartz-rich sediments sourced to the basin, silica content in the studied cycle is exceptionally low. The replacement of silica by the zeolite mineral analcime, coupled with evidence for primary dolomite precipitation suggests the paleolake was, at least periodically, alkaline. Geochemical evidence, including total organic carbon (TOC), pyrite sulfur and iron speciation data point to the presence of anoxic, ferruginous waters. At the lagerstätte interval, TOC content increases significantly, coinciding with the presence of darker, more laminated sedimentary lithofacies. At the interval of the highest TOC content, a spike in pyrite sulfur content occurs; likely the result of slowed sedimentation at lake high-stand. Overall pyrite sulfur content as well as organic carbon to pyrite sulfur ratios suggest however, that the lake water was consistently low in sulfur and the deep waters never became euxinic (anoxic, H2S-containing). The iron speciation data indicate that an active iron cycle was present and that the studied portion of the Cow Branch Formation was deposited under intermittent to persistent anoxic conditions, preserving the signal throughout the cycle. The integrated sedimentological and geochemical

  17. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  18. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  19. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E S; Mücher, Herman J

    2012-02-07

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60-40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200-250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record).

  20. Phenol red-silk tyrosine cross-linked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarakrishnan, Aswin; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Coburn, Jeannine; Chwalek, Karolina; Partlow, Benjamin; Kaplan, David L

    2016-09-15

    Phenol red is a cytocompatible pH sensing dye that is commonly added to cell culture media, but removed from some media formulations due to its structural mimicry of estrogen. Phenol red free media is also used during live cell imaging, to avoid absorbance and fluorescence quenching of fluorophores. To overcome these complications, we developed cytocompatible and degradable phenol red-silk tyrosine cross-linked hydrogels using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Phenol red added to silk during tyrosine crosslinking accelerated di-tyrosine formation in a concentration-dependent reaction. Phenol red diffusion studies and UV-Vis spectra of phenol red-silk tyrosine hydrogels at different pHs showed altered absorption bands, confirming entrapment of dye within the hydrogel network. LC-MS of HRP-reacted phenol red and N-acetyl-l-tyrosine reaction products confirmed covalent bonds between the phenolic hydroxyl group of phenol red and tyrosine on the silk. At lower phenol red concentrations, leak-proof hydrogels which did not release phenol red were fabricated and found to be cytocompatible based on live-dead staining and alamar blue assessments of encapsulated fibroblasts. Due to the spectral overlap between phenol red absorbance at 415nm and di-tyrosine fluorescence at 417nm, phenol red-silk hydrogels provide both absorbance and fluorescence-based pH sensing. With an average pKa of 6.8 and good cytocompatibiltiy, phenol red-silk hydrogels are useful for pH sensing in phenol red free systems, cellular microenvironments and bioreactors. Phenol red entrapped within hydrogels facilitates pH sensing in phenol red free environments. Leak-proof phenol red based pH sensors require covalent binding techniques, but are complicated due to the lack of amino or carboxyl groups on phenol red. Currently, there is no simple, reliable technique to covalently link phenol red to hydrogel matrices, for real-time pH sensing in cell culture environments. Herein

  1. Inteligencia de red

    OpenAIRE

    Barba Martí, Antonio; Hesselbach Serra, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Bibliografia Actualmente existe una necesidad cada vez mayor de ofrecer servicios de red avanzados, que proporcionen un alto valor añadido al cliente. Eso es ya posible gracias a las nuevas capacidades de computación añadidas a los nodos de red, que proporcionan inteligencia y facilitan la gestión de red a los operadores y proveedores de servicios. En este texto, se presentan las nuevas redes inteligentes basadas en señalización número 7, los nuevos servicios sobre Internet (voz sobre IP, ...

  2. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    tested on small-scale networks thus far and when applied on large-scale networks of popular PPI databases, the executions require unreasonable amounts of time, or may even crash without producing any output for some instances even after several months of execution. We provide an algorithm, Red...... better with RedNemo than with the alternatives under most of the experimented removal/rewiring ratios. Furthermore, through extensive tests on databases of varying sizes, we show that RedNemo achieves these results with much better running time performances. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Supplementary...

  3. Ocular Emergencies: Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarff, Andreina; Behrens, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    "Red eye" is used as a general term to describe irritated or bloodshot eyes. It is a recognizable sign of an acute/chronic, localized/systemic underlying inflammatory condition. Conjunctival injection is most commonly caused by dryness, allergy, visual fatigue, contact lens overwear, and local infections. In some instances, red eye can represent a true ocular emergency that should be treated by an ophthalmologist. A comprehensive assessment of red eye conditions is required to preserve the patients visual function. Severe ocular pain, significant photophobia, decreased vision, and history of ocular trauma are warning signs demanding immediate ophthalmological consultation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  5. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... and natural scientists and Chinese hydropower companies (to name a few). The paper maps different actors’ framing of the issue to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of hydropower policymaking in China, as well as map the local consequences of global policymaking about large hydropower...

  6. Red Hill Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  7. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-07

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Whence the red panda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  9. Brachyceratops, a ceratopsian dinosaur from the Two Medicine formation of Montana, with notes on associated fossil reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Charles W.

    1917-01-01

    The fossils on which this paper is based were collected by me and my assistant, Mr. J. F. Strayrer, during the summer of 1913, while working under the auspices of the United States Geological Survey on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, in northwestern Montana. The specimens were obtained from exposures of the Two Medicine formation along Milk River near the Canadian boundary, in T. 37 N., R. 8 W., about 30 miles northwest of the town of Cut Bank, Mont., and along Two Medicine River in T. 31 N., R. 7 W., about 15 miles southwest of Cut Bank. Vertebrate remains were found at these places in, 1911 and 1912 by Eugene Stebinger, while he was engaged in Geological Survey work, and he was the first to note that the localities are good fields for finding specimens of fossil vertebrates.2 Although the present collection is small, it is of considerable scientific interest because it supplements the collections made in neighboring areas by other investigators, and because it contains a new genus of Ceratopsia in addition to other recognizable specimens which afford evidence that considerably extends the geologic and geographic ranges of forms heretofore described.The beds from which the collection was made constitute the upper part of the Two Medicine formation, which includes the equivalent of the Judith River formation and some older beds. The fossiliferous beds are also the equivalent of the upper part of the Belly River formation as found in neighboring areas of Canada.The fauna of the American Judith River formation, although diversified, is very inadequately known. Many of the genera and species have been founded on specimens so scant and fragmentary that it is almost impossible to refer to them subsequently discovered and more perfect materials. Recent collections made by L. M. Lambe, of the Canada Geological Survey, and by Barnum Brown, of the American Museum of Natural History, from the Belly River formation along Red Deer River in Canada, however, have placed this

  10. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    surface of Mars. This could be in the form of underground rivers, pools, permafrost, or aquifers (subsurface rock formations concealing water). During its one Martian year (687 Earth days) of operations, Mars Express will view the entire surface of the Red Planet with a range of instruments. Before it goes into orbit around Mars, the spacecraft's first task is to eject the Beagle 2 lander onto the surface, where it will carry out detailed rock and soil analysis. In addition to Beagle 2, Mars Express will carry seven scientific instruments, designed specifically to gather new information on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. Mars Express will set off from the Baikonur launch pad in Kazakhstan, on a Russian Soyuz-Fregat launcher, arriving at Mars by Christmas 2003.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Geotechnical Properties of Red Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-09

    Dec 9, 2017 ... by chemical weathering and may be found on rock level surfaces where action of elements has produced a soil with little tendency to move i.e. it holds the position of their formation without transporting, just above the parent rock. An essential feature for the formation of red tropical soil is the repetition of wet.

  12. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  13. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  14. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  15. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  16. Chirp seismic-reflection profile data in JPEG image format Collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  17. SEG-Y formatted chirp seismic-reflection profile data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  18. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  19. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  20. Constrained by available raptor hosts and islands : density-dependent reproductive success in red-breasted geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Quinn, JL

    In this paper we aim to explain the distribution of red-breasted geese Branta ruficollis over different nesting habitats. To be safe from land predators red-breasted goose colonies were restricted to i) islands on rivers, ii) cliffs with peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus, and iii) the close

  1. Success of intensive management of a critically imperiled population of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1997-01-01

    By late 1985, the population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoider borealis) at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, had declined to a low of four individuals. Because of extensive timber harvesting prior to thr 1950s,the older live pine trees that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers require for cavity construction were limited. We monitored the response of the population to...

  2. [Red eye in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Arnaud; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Bourcier, Tristan

    2008-02-29

    Red eye in children is a common consultation purpose. Mostly benign, this sign may also cause visual impairment. We differentiate three kinds of red eye: localised, diffused and perikeratic injection. The last one must be recognized because of its association with severe ocular diseases. Diagnosis must be sure and treatment has to be efficient to not pertubate childrens visual development. Unfortunately, physical examination on children is not always easy. Consultation with an ophthalmologist is justified if a doubt remains, in case of chronic pathology or resistance to first intention treatment.

  3. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  4. RED versus REDD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, Peter; Meijl, van Hans; Rimmer, Maureen; Shutes, Lindsay; Tabeau, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    We examine the interplay between Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations Programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global computable general equilibrium model. A methodological issue addressed

  5. RedDots Replayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sahidullah, Md; Falcone, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    the protection of text-dependent ASV systems from replay attacks in the face of variable recording and playback conditions. Derived from the re-recording of the original RedDots database, the effort is aligned with that in text-dependent ASV and thus well positioned for future assessments of replay spoofing...

  6. Factors governing the deep ventilation of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.

    2015-11-19

    A variety of data based on hydrographic measurements, satellite observations, reanalysis databases, and meteorological observations are used to explore the interannual variability and factors governing the deep water formation in the northern Red Sea. Historical and recent hydrographic data consistently indicate that the ventilation of the near-bottom layer in the Red Sea is a robust feature of the thermohaline circulation. Dense water capable to reach the bottom layers of the Red Sea can be regularly produced mostly inside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Occasionally, during colder than usual winters, deep water formation may also take place over coastal areas in the northernmost end of the open Red Sea just outside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. However, the origin as well as the amount of deep waters exhibit considerable interannual variability depending not only on atmospheric forcing but also on the water circulation over the northern Red Sea. Analysis of several recent winters shows that the strength of the cyclonic gyre prevailing in the northernmost part of the basin can effectively influence the sea surface temperature (SST) and intensify or moderate the winter surface cooling. Upwelling associated with periods of persistent gyre circulation lowers the SST over the northernmost part of the Red Sea and can produce colder than normal winter SST even without extreme heat loss by the sea surface. In addition, the occasional persistence of the cyclonic gyre feeds the surface layers of the northern Red Sea with nutrients, considerably increasing the phytoplankton biomass.

  7. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  8. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  9. Red River of the North, Reconnaissance Report: Main Stem Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Arabia holboellii var. retrofacta Kittson Upland plains, dry hills 1, 3 Arenaria stricta sap dawsonensis Kittson Rocky outcrops 1, 3 Carex conoides...areas 1, 3 Carex cappillaris var. Marshall Moist grounds around lakes major Astrilazus lotiflorus Norman Upland plains Eleocharis pauciflora var

  10. Boundaries - 1997 Red River of the North Flood

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital outline of the 1997 flood event. 1997 flooded outline extends from Emerson, Manitoba to Wahpeton, North Dakota. Delineations exist for the entire main stem...

  11. Red River Waterway Thermal Studies. Report 2. Thermal Stress Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Hammons, Smith, and Neeley (1990). A matrix of 15 concrete mixtures was developed to cover the range of possible combinations of water - cement ratios (w...lb Material A8 All A13 Type II Portland Cement 250.0 232.0 171.0 Class C Fly Ash 66.9 124.2 137.4 Fine Aggregate 1,293.9 1,200.2 1,285.5 Coarse...Parameters A8 A13 All Elastic modulus at 3 days (106 psi) 2.55 1.88 3.12 Poisson’s ratio 0.15 0.15 0.15 Compressive strength at 3 days (psi) 795.00 600.00

  12. Groundwater arsenic in the Red River delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren

    Afhandlingen omhandler problemerne med høje koncentrationer af arsen i grundvandet i Den Røde Flod deltaet (Vietnam), der bebos af omkring 11 millioner mennesker. Forgiftning med arsen fra grundvand brugt til drikkevand kan give alvorlige og ultimativt dødelige sygdomme. Afhandlingen beskriver...... hvorledes koncentrationen af arsen i grundvandet er styret af den geologiske dannelseshistorie. Denne viden er væsentlig i forbindelse med planlægningen af den indsats, der er nødvendig for at afhjælpe arsenproblemet i Den Røde Flod deltaet. I afhandlingen beskrives desuden de hydrogeologiske og geokemiske...... processer, der medfører forhøjede koncentrationer af arsen i grundvandet. Blandt forskere er der generelt udbredt enighed om, at kilden til arsen i grundvandet er naturlig, og at arsen sidder bundet til oxider af jern (rust-partikler) på sedimenter af ler og sand, der transporteres fra Himalaya og aflejres...

  13. The Road Inventory of Red River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the relative needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was asked to inventory all public access and...

  14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FROM THE DNIESTER RIVER TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gladchi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained in the framework of the project 09.832.08.06A. The role of the tributaries on formation of the Dniester river water and the study of the waters quality of sources / fountains in the catchment area of the Dniester river as sources of water supply and for irrigation in the State Program, Scientific Researches and of the management of waters quality.

  15. Effect of the Irrigation Canal Network on Surface and Groundwater Interactions in the Lower Valley of the Cachapoal River, Chile Efecto de la Red de Canales de Riego en las Interacciones de Agua Superficial y Subterránea en la Parte Baja del Valle Del Río Cachapoal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Arumí

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production of high value crops in Chile's Central Valley is highly dependent on surface and groundwater resources. They are connected and together form an integrated hydrological system, the individual components of which have to be studied. This research is addressed to answering two questions: 1 to what extent do irrigation and canal seepage contribute to groundwater recharge and 2 what is the influence of the interactions between the Cachapoal River and ground water. The study was carried out from 2003 to 2007 in Peumo Valley (34.3° S, 71.3° W. In winter, the irrigation canal network intercepts and diverts surface runoff, which flows to flat areas and recharges groundwater. In summer, infiltration from the canals recharges the aquifer directly and partially compensates for water uptake from plants and evaporation. The effects of both interactions keep groundwater at a relatively constant level over the whole year. The water balance of the valley is strongly affected by agricultural practices, groundwater recharge mainly originating from irrigation loss (22% and canal seepage (52%. It is important to know how management decisions, such as change in irrigation practices or canal lining, can affect the hydrological system and agricultural production within the valley.La producción agrícola de exportación en la Zona Central de Chile es altamente dependiente de los recursos hídricos superficiales y subterráneos, los que a su vez están conectados formando un solo sistema hidrológico a través de procesos que no están bien estudiados. Esta investigación apunta a responder dos preguntas de trabajo: 1 Entender el efecto de las filtraciones de los canales de riego en la recarga de los sistemas de aguas subterráneas; y 2 Identificar los patrones de interacción entre las aguas subterráneas y superficiales en el valle de Peumo. Este estudio se ejecutó entre los años 2003 y 2007 en el valle de Peumo, localizado en a Tercera

  16. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell

  17. Red Lake Forestry Greenhouse Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2002-01-01

    In 1916, The Red Lake Indian Forest Act was created. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa in Minnesota stood alone and refused to consent to allotment. Consequently, The Red Lake Band is the only tribe in Minnesota for which a congressional act was passed to secure a permanent economic foundation for the band and its future.

  18. Réformes, croissance, et augmentation des inégalités dans le delta du fleuve Rouge – Việt Nam (1980-2000 Reform, Growth and Increase of Inequalities in the Red River delta - Vietnam (1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Gironde

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est une analyse de l’évolution des inégalités dans les campagnes vietnamiennes, basée sur une recherche de terrain dans le delta du fleuve Rouge. Les transformations respectives des systêmes d’activités productives des foyers étudiées dans la province de Hưng Yên remettent en cause l’idée dominante selon laquelle l’augmentation des inégalités serait faible et récent. L’accumulation réalisée par un quart des exploitations et la prolétarisation partielle d’une majorité de la population rurale révèlent, quelques années après la distribution des terres de 1994, une différenciation significative en termes de richesses et d’accès aux ressources. Les mécanismes de cette différenciation se sont mis en place dès les premières mesures de la décollectivisation de l’agriculture au tournant des années 1970-1980, contrairement à une autre idée courante selon laquelle les réformes n’auraient pas eu d’effet sur les inégalités à l’intérieur des campagnes. Les inégalités de départ augmentent avec la croissance, et sont aggravées par les orientations du gouvernement, et notamment l’action des pouvoirs locaux.Based on a field research in the Red River delta, this article analyses the augmentation and accentuation of inequalities within rural Vietnam. The various changes of livelihood systems in Hung Yen province challenge the mainstream idea whereby inequalities have increased only slightly and are of recent date. In the second half of the 1990s, the widening gap between wealth accumulation among one fourth of households, and the gradual proletarianization of a majority of the rural population is already significant. Contrary to another common idea whereby institutional reforms have been associated with almost no change in inequality within rural areas, I argue that the mechanisms inciting this differentiation were set in motion during the implementation of the first decollectivisation

  19. MOLLUSC SPECIES PROTECTED IN POLAND AND THREATENED IN EUROPE RECORDED IN STEPNICA RIVER (NW POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Raczyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the study two bivalve species protected in Poland were found in the river Stepnica: Sphaerium solidum and Sphaerium rivicola. Moreover, the study material collected from the river contained gastropod and bivalve specimens representing the following species from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Theodoxus fluviatilis, Pisidium henslowanum, Pisidium casertanum and Pisidium pseudosphaerium.

  20. red - an R package to facilitate species red list assessments according to the IUCN criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red – IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO, Area of Occupancy (AOO, mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.

  1. Automated Cyber Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Technology Organisation DSTO-TN-1420 ABSTRACT Cyber Red Teaming (CRT) is an important exercise to conduct for Defence agencies built on large...and Electronic Warfare Division DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation PO Box 1500 Edinburgh South Australia 5111 Australia...referred to as the World Model [4] [5]. This naming captures the idea that cyber systems are large, complex digital ecosystems with many intelligent

  2. Red Nacional de Laboratorios

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos Zelada, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    En el Perú, el Instituto Nacional de Salud, dirige Ia Red Nacional de Laboratorios en Salud Pública a través del Centro Nacional de Salud Pública (CNSP), está a cargo de promover el fortalecimiento y capacidad de respuesta del Sistema de Nacional de Laboratorios en Salud Pública y actuar como Centro de Referencia de los laboratorios del país en la vigilancia de las enfermedades de interés en salud pública.

  3. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  4. Seasonal variability of Crvena river water mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization of water and its content in Crvena River so far have not been studied. Water sampling was conducted from April 2008 - May 2009. Total mineralization is relatively low, which is consistent with the dominant lithological structure (Permian red sandstone. Dry residue contains Ca2+ ion, with the increased participation of SiO2. During the observational period it is clearly expressed seasonal effect. It is reflected not in the direct but the indirect impact. Based on the ratio of individual ions a model is determined for estimation of water flow at the confluence of the Crvena River in Nisava River. It could be applied to other drainage basins that have not been studied so far.

  5. Protective effect of lactofermented red beetroot juice against aberrant crypt foci formation, genotoxicity of fecal water and oxidative stress induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Nowak, Adriana; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2012-11-01

    , supplementation of the diet with lactofermented beetroot juice may provide protection against precancerous aberrant crypt formation and reduce the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of fecal water and improve the oxidative status of the organism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area consist...channel and tributary wash deposits. The older Quaternary alluvium also includes the usually thin spotty veneer of residual soil and slope wash found on...that post magmatic hydrothermal alteration may have been caused by residual aqueous-gaseous fluids rising through the intergranular pore spaces in the

  7. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  8. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  9. A detrital record of the Nile River and its catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Laura; Najman, Yani; Millar, Ian; Butterworth, Peter; Ando, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Barfod, Dan; Kneller, Ben

    2017-04-01

    This research uses analyses from Nile catchment rivers, wadis, dunes and bedrocks to constrain the geological history of NE Africa and document influences on the composition of sediment reaching the Nile delta. Methods used include single grain analyses (U-Pb and Hf analyses of zircon, U-Pb dating of rutile, Ar-Ar dating of white mica and plagioclase), and bulk analyses (petrography, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic analyses, and trace element concentrations). Our data show evolution of the North African crust, highlighting phases in the development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic times. The Saharan Metacraton and Congo Craton in Uganda have a common history of crustal growth, with new crust formation at 3.0 - 3.5 Ga, and crustal melting at c. 2.7 Ga. The Hammamat Formation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is locally derived and has a maximum depositional age of 635 Ma. By contrast, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks are derived from more distant sources. In the modern Nile drainage, there is considerable evolution downstream, controlled predominantly by changes in local geology and geomorphology. The provenance signature of the White Nile is dramatically different upstream and downstream of the Sudd marshes as a result of sediment trapping. South of the Sudd, White Nile sediments are craton-derived. North of the Sudd, at Kosti, the signature of the White Nile is dominated by material derived from Phanerozoic sandstones supplied via alluvial fans to the west of the river. Further north, south of Khartoum, White Nile sediment composition is affected by its proximity to the Pleistocene Blue Nile sourced Gezira Fan. The Blue Nile's and Atbara's signatures are influenced predominantly by input from the Ethiopian flood basalts in terms of their bulk-rock signature, and by proximity to the Arabian-Nubian Shield in terms of zircon characteristics. A further shift in sediment signature in terms of zircon characteristics is seen by the time the Nile

  10. The Red Mist? Red Shirts, Success and Team Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Piatti; Savage, David A.; Benno Torgler

    2010-01-01

    Baron von Richthofen (the Red Baron) arguably the most famous fighter pilot of all time painted his plane the vividest of red hues, making it visible and identifiable at great distance, showing an aggressive pronouncement of dominance to other pilots. Can colour affect aggression and performance and if so is it observable within team sports? This study explores the effect of red on sporting performances within a team sports arena, through empirical analysis of match results from the Australia...

  11. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  12. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  13. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false White River, Arkansas Post Canal... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.; Arkansas...

  14. Geophysical investigation of the source of river Ethiope in Ukwuani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out at the Source of river Ethiope in Ukwuani LGA of Delta State using schlumberger array of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and horizontal profile of Seismic Refraction methods to delineate the formations within and around the river. A total of twelve VES locations were sounded while nine ...

  15. Comparative study of microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in human feces after intake of gin, red wine, and dealcoholized red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Boto-Ordóñez, Maria; Muñoz-González, Irene; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Monagas, Maria; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Murri, Mora; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2013-04-24

    The analysis of microbial phenolic metabolites in fecal samples from in vivo studies is crucial to understanding the potential modulatory effects derived from polyphenol consumption and its overall health effects, particularly at the gut level. In this study, the composition of microbial phenolic metabolites in human feces collected after regular consumption of either red wine, dealcoholized red wine, or gin was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Red wine interventions produce a change in the content of eight phenolic acids, which are probably derived from the catabolism of flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, the main flavonoids in red wine. Moreover, alcohol seemed not to influence the formation of phenolic metabolites by the gut microbiota. A principal component analysis revealed large interindividual differences in the formation of microbial metabolites after each red wine polyphenol intervention, but not after the gin intervention, indicating differences in the gut microbial composition among subjects.

  16. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  17. Behaviour of Red-necked Spurfowl Pternistis afer in the Boknes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social behaviour of marked Red-necked Spurfowls Pternistis afer was studied at Boknes and Cannon Rock coastal resorts near Alexandria in the Eastern Cape province between January 2001 and June 2008. Red-necked Spurfowls form breeding pairs. Courtship displays contribute to pair formation, but are also ...

  18. Red light activated "caged" reagents for microRNA research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, M; Starkuviene, V; Mokhir, A

    2016-08-31

    "Caged" reagents for miRNA research (siRNA targeting EGFR, involved in miRNA maturation, and mimics of miR-20a, playing a key role in tumor formation and metastasis) were prepared. It was demonstrated that these reagents can be activated by non-toxic to cells red light both in cells and in cell free settings.

  19. Palaeoweathering characteristics of an intrabasaltic red bole of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... observations reveal that the post-formational weathering processes have least affected the original palaeoweathering characters of the red bole horizon and hence the intrabasaltic palaeosols (weathering horizons) can effectively be used to constrain the palaeoweathering and palaeoclimates during the continental flood ...

  20. Genetic population structuring and demographic history of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Biol. Evol. 18: 144-154. Tamaki K, Honza E (1991). Global tectonics and formation of marginal basins: role of the western Pacific. Episodes 14: 224-230. Tanaka H, Hirose K, Nogami K, Nogami K, Hattori K, Ishibashi N (1990). Sexual maturation and sex reversal in red-spotted grouper,. Epinephelus akaara.

  1. Food-Induced Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgin, Susan G

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the etiology of red eyes and a novel case of food-induced red eye. An 82-year-old white male patient reported 50 years of episodes of severe unilateral bulbar injection in either eye following ingestion of certain foods. Thinned scleras in this particular patient made the injection in his eyes more observable. Photodocumentation of this reaction after he ingested these foods is shown. It is hypothesized that this is a new explanation for an intermittent, unilateral, self-limited red eye-a food-induced red eye.

  2. Man-made Islands in the Mackenzie river : Numerical modelling of ice jam development and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loman, G.J.A.; De Jong, J.J.A.; Moir, J.R.; Burgers, A.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Man-made islands in the Mackenzie river (Canada) for oil exploitation may obstruct the free flow of ice during spring break up. These ice dams may cause considerable rise of the water level in the rivers, resulting in floods. A numerical model is presented to simulate ice dam formation an river

  3. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  4. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  5. Red Alert: diagnosis and management of the acute red eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, J F; Dickie, A K

    2014-01-01

    The acute red eye represents a broad spectrum of disease encompassing benign self-limiting conditions to potentially vision-threatening ophthalmic or system disease. This article will review clinical principles essential for the diagnosis and treatment of red eye relevant to all Armed Forces primary care and emergency medicine practitioners.

  6. PUBATHG - ArcInfo GRID format of the 2001 multibeam echo-sounder data collected in the Puyallup River delta, Puget Sound (Tacoma), Washington from Field Activity: R-1-01-WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ArcInfo GRID format bathymetry data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey the major deltas of southern Puget Sound (Tacoma), WA., including Nisqually,...

  7. Middle Jurassic incised valley fill (eolian/estuarine) and nearshore marine petroleum reservoirs, Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Fox, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Paleovalleys incised into the Triassic Spearfish Formation (Chugwater equivalent) are filled with a vertical sequence of eolian, estuarine, and marine sandstones of the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian age) Canyon Springs Sandstone Member of the Sundance Formation. An outcrop exemplifying this is located at Red Canyon in the southern Black Hills, Fall River County, South Dakota. These paleovalleys locally have more than 300 ft of relief and are as much as several miles wide. Because they slope in a westerly direction, and Jurassic seas transgressed into the area from the west there was greater marine-influence and more stratigraphic complexity in the subsurface, to the west, as compared to the Black Hills outcrops. In the subsurface two distinctive reservoir sandstone beds within the Canyon Springs Sandstone Member fill the paleovalleys. These are the eolian lower Canyon Springs unit (LCS) and the estuarine upper Canyon Springs unit (UCS), separated by the marine "Limestone Marker" and estuarine "Brown Shale". The LCS and UCS contain significant proven hydrocarbon reservoirs in Wyoming (about 500 MMBO in-place in 9 fields, 188 MMBO produced through 1993) and are prospective in western South Dakota, western Nebraska and northern Colorado. Also prospective is the Callovian-age Hulett Sandstone Member which consists of multiple prograding shoreface to foreshore parasequences, as interpreted from the Red Canyon locality. Petrographic, outcrop and subsurface studies demonstrate the viability of both the Canyon Springs Sandstone and Hulett Sandstone members as superior hydrocarbon reservoirs in both stratigraphic and structural traps. Examples of fields with hydrocarbon production from the Canyon Springs in paleovalleys include Lance Creek field (56 MMBO produced) and the more recently discovered Red Bird field (300 MBO produced), both in Niobrara County, Wyoming. At Red Bird field the primary exploration target was the Pennsylvanian "Leo sands" of the Minnelusa Formation, and

  8. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  9. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studying the Relationship between the Ability of Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical and Environmental Isolates in Tehran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faegheh Teymori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acinetobacters are aerobic gram-negative bacteria which are distributed widespread in soil and water. The bacteria are isolated from cultured skin, mucous membranes, secretions and hospital environment. Acinetobacter baumannii, is a strain that more frequently isolated. Acinetobacter strains are often resistant against antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The method of this study was based on field, observation and test. On August and October 2015, samples were isolated from the soil and water of the Sadeghieh Square river in Tehran, respectively, and were transferred to the laboratory in the ice pack. 50 baumannii samples were isolated by biochemical methods (TSI, SIM, OF and gram test. November 1394, 100 clinical samples were isolated from Imam Khomeini hospital by biochemical method, and in the culture media Mueller Hinton agar plates were transferred to the laboratory. Antibiogram test for 150 baumannii samples was performed. Biofilms formation of Acinetobacter baumannii environmental and clinical samples was investigated by Congo red agar and culture plate methods. Results: In all samples (clinical and soil, most of antibiotic resistance was 92% for imipenem and the resistance of water samples to imipenem was 99.9%. Biofilm formation by Congo red agar in water, soil, and clinical samles was resprctively 44%, 40% and 1%. All isolates were negative biofilm culture plate. Conclusion: Considering Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to antibiotics and the lack of biofilm formation of in clinical and environmental isolates, it was concluded that there wasn’t any relationship between antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation.

  11. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma, a distinctive morphologic variant of basal cell carcinoma that presents as a small red macule (dot) or papule, is described on a woman’s thigh. A high index of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis since the tumor mimics a telangiectasia or an angioma. PMID:28670359

  12. Floquet theory of river ecomorphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagni, Matteo; Perona, Paolo; Camporeale, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Most of world population lives close and depends on freshwaters and related ecosystems. As dramatic consequence, 48% of all rivers worldwide are hydrologically altered. Although mankind lives by and controls river systems since millennia, a complete physically-based understanding of the links among the various processes involved still remains elusive. Three fundamental aspects control the physical state of natural rivers: flow stochasticity, sediment transport and vegetation dynamics. The present work tries to shed light on the bonds among these processes, following a temporal flow for the river dynamics. During a particularly extreme flood event any previous ecomorphological pattern is erased by the flow. However, sediment transport triggers the formation of migrating bedforms, called free bars. Through a nonlinear analysis, with center manifold projection, a long analytical expression is obtained for the bars amplitude, thus completely defining bars geometry in the parameters space. Once the formative event is extinguished, the flow rate decreases and the recently formed bars can partially emerge from water. At this point vegetation develops over the bare bars depending on flow stochasticity. As a realistic model for the flow stochasticity the compound Poisson process is considered. However, in order to make the computation analytically feasible, the stochastic time series for the discharge is replaced with an equivalent periodic one, obtained as a sequence of a typical average event of the stochastic series. In this manner, the new periodic streamflow signal, preserves the same statistical properties of its stochastic correspondent. The periodic equation for the vegetation dynamics can thus be spatially solved through Floquet theory, gaining which portion of the bar is asymptotically colonised by vegetation. In conclusion, this is the first theoretical work linking the trend of the vegetated area with the flow parameters, and confirming that high flow

  13. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  14. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, t...

  15. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  16. Vancomycin induced Red Man Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drisyamol K.A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycoprotein antibiotic that has been associated with an anaphylactoid reaction termed the Red-man syndrome. It usually consists of erythema, flushing and pruritis of the face and upper torso and occasionally progresses to include dyspnoea, chest pain and hypotension. Red man syndrome (RMS is also known as “red neck syndrome. Discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion and administration of diphenhydramine can abort most of the reactions. Slow intravenous administration of vancomycin should minimize the risk of infusion-related adverse effects. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B, rifampcin and teicoplanin can potentially cause red man syndrome. The effects of red man syndrome can be relieved by antihistamines.

  17. River pollution control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiff, M.J

    1980-01-01

    Readers will gain an insight into the problems of other countries, particularly those with trans-frontier rivers, the measures adopted to improve river quality, and how the World Health Organization...

  18. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  19. Illinois River NWFR HMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges Complex stretches along 124 miles of the Illinois River in west central Illinois. The Complex includes three...

  20. Iowa's Sovereign Meandered Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This data set depicts Iowa's Meandered Rivers. These rivers are deemed sovereign land & therefore require any person wishing to conduct construction activities...

  1. Tectonics of the Red Sea region reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai

    1998-11-01

    The brittle upper level of the continental crust had been rifted with or without ocean opening many times in many places during the geological past and the process is still happening. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory in the early 1960s, the formation of such rifts has been viewed in the context of plate tectonic processes that caused the repeated dispersal of supercontinents. Several researchers focused on the mechanisms of formation of continental rifts because some rifts, like the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, are precursors to ocean basins and many hydrocarbons yet to be located which are either directly or indirectly related to rift structures. The East African Rift System and the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden young oceans have been considered as prime examples of the early stage of continental separation that has long been a testing ground for classical hypotheses of continental drift. The Red Sea separates the once contiguous Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shields and started opening about 25 Ma ago. Geophysics and geochronology of dredged basaltic rocks indicate that sea-floor spreading began at only about 4-5 Ma. Numerous multidisciplinary investigations have been carried out in this region. However, several questions remain unresolved. Examples pertain to the nature of the crust that underlies the shelves, the extent of the ocean floor, the interplay between sea-floor spreading, crustal extension and plutonic activity and mechanisms of rifting. Several mechanisms of rifting have been proposed for the formation of the Red Sea. Examples include extension by prolonged steep normal faulting (horst-graben terrain), early diffuse ductile extension followed by brittle deformation, low-angle lithospheric simple shear, low-angle shear and magmatic expansion, lithospheric thinning by faulting and dike injection, northeastward migration of asymmetric rifting over a fixed mantle plume and the formation of pull-apart basin(s) by transtension. The major differences between

  2. Flow structure through pool-riffle sequences and a conceptual model for their sustainability in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Caamano; P. Goodwin; J. M. Buffington

    2010-01-01

    Detailed field measurements and simulations of three-dimensional flow structure were used to develop a conceptual model to explain the sustainability of self-formed pool-riffle sequences in gravel-bed rivers. The analysis was conducted at the Red River Wildlife Management Area in Idaho, USA, and enabled characterization of the flow structure through two consecutive...

  3. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Sand Hill River Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Damages to residences, businesses ( comercial and industrial) and public facilities (streets, utilities, sewers, etc.) are reported as urban damages...farm laborers. There was also a lack of employment opportunities in other sectors , and many people left the subbasin to move to urban areas that...is included in the Mahnomen County sector of the subbasin; however, this is a sparsely populated area of the reservation. 18 Ii.. I F All of the towns

  4. Signatures of ESR signals and TL observed in quartz of Kizu river sediments and in host rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosohara, Y.; Toyoda, S.; Takada, M.; Shimada, A.; Masanori, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Paramagnetic lattice defects in quartz have recently been used as tracers to study the transportation of sediments on the surface of the earth especially for the origin of aeolian dust (e.g. Toyoda and Naruse, 2002), as isotopes have been used. Studies on aeolian dust have used only the E1' center while impurity centers were shown to be other useful signatures in the studies of river sediments (Shimada, 2008). Then the ESR signals of the E1' center in quartz was used to investigate the origin of the loess in MIS 1 and 2 (Toyoda and Naruse, 2002) and these diments in the Sea of Japan (Nagashima et al., 2007), Shimada (2008) showed that TLCI (thermiluminescence color image) may be useful for similar qualitative study on river sediments. In the present study, the wavelength-temperature two demensional thermoluminescence measurement was employed, together with the ESR measurements, to investigate the origin of the river sediments quantitatively. We collected 36 river sediments and 5 granites which are possible sources of the river sediments. The samples were crushed and sieved to 1000-500, 500-250, and 250-75 micrometers. Quartz grains were extracted from each size fraction by chemical treatment and density separation. The quartz grains were heated at 400°C for 1 h to erase the inherited ESR signals before gamma ray irradiation. ESR measurements were performed at room temperature and at 81 K to observe E1' and Ge, and Al and Ti centers, respectively. The impurity centers were enhanced by gamma ray irradiation. The formation efficiencies of the signals at the origin were obtained, which probably correspond to impurity concentrations in quartz. The E1' center was observed after heating the sample irradiated to 2.5kGy at 300°C for 15 min. The formation efficiencies of impurity centers and the intensity of the E1' center showed constant values in 10 samples of sediments of Muro river with standard deviations of (7-12%). It was also found that these values characterize

  5. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  6. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  7. Red Yeast Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  8. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  11. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  12. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  13. In vitro red blood cell assay for oxidant toxicity of petroleum oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    Petroleum oil has caused hemolytic anemia in birds and mammals. In birds, an oxidant damage on circulating red cells has been identified as the primary toxic effect of ingested petroleum oils. An in vitro red blood cell assay was developed to discriminate among the oxidant activities of different petroleum oils. The assay used rabbit red blood cells with a rat liver enzyme system and formation of methemoglobin was measured as an indicator of oxidant damage to the red cells. The assay was applied to five different petroleum oils and to naphthalene, a petroleum hydrocarbon known to cause hemolytic anemia. Different petroleum oils differed in their capacity to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin levels varied from 2.9% with Arabian light crude oil to 6.2% with South Louisiana crude oil. Naphthalene induced formation of up to 37% methemoglobin. Naphthalene and the five petroleum oils generated methemoglobin only in the presence of liver enzymes.

  14. Biological and biochemical characterization of a red-eye mutant in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hua; Yao, Jing; Yao, Hong-Wei; Jiang, Peng-Ling; Yang, Bao-Jun; Tang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    A red-eye colony was established in our laboratory in brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a major rice pest in Asia. Except for the red-eye phenotype, no other differences were observed between the wild-type (brown eye) and the mutant-type (red eye) in external characters. Genetic analysis revealed that the red-eye phenotype was controlled by a single autosomal recessive allele. Biological studies found that egg production and egg viability in the red-eye mutant colony were not significantly different from those in the wild-type BPH. Biochemical analysis and electronic microscopy examination revealed that the red-eye mutants contained decreased levels of both xanthommatin (brown) and pteridine (red) and reduced number of pigment granules. Thus, the changes of amount and ratio of the two pigments is the biochemical basis of this red-eye mutation. Our results indicate that the red-eye mutant gene (red) might be involved in one common gene locus shared by the two pigments in pigment transportation, pigment granule formation or some other processes. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mg twice daily) in patients with previous statin intolerance . American Journal of Cardiology . 2010;105:198–204. ... to Avoid Red Yeast Rice Products Promoted on Internet as Treatments for High Cholesterol: Products Found to ...

  16. Red - take a closer look

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buechner, Vanessa L; Maier, Markus A; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    ... (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations...

  17. Pensar la ciudad en red

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Duarte

    2015-01-01

    El paradigma de la sociedad contemporánea es la red, como afirma Manuel Castells (1999) cuándo propone este concepto para que se piense el mundo frente a las tecnologías de información y comunicación. ¿Más como pensar la ciudad en red?  Cuando vemos una imagen aérea de una ciudad, con sus rutas que articulan puntos y regiones, tenemos una imagen perfecta de una red. Pero la evidencia absoluta entre la forma geométrica de una red no puede nos dejar iludirnos: esto no presupone el entendimie...

  18. Disorders of red cell membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies during the last three decades have enabled the development of detailed molecular insights into the structural basis of altered function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders...

  19. Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River

  20. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  1. Quantification of Depletion-Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, P.; Verdier, C.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. The formation of rouleaux can also be induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC suspension. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly originate from indirect measurements such as flow chamber experiments, but data is lacking at the single cell level. Here, we present measurements on the dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy. The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs were determined. The results on adhesion energy are in excellent agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and previous experimental studies. Furthermore, our method allowed to determine the adhesion force, a quantity that is needed in theoretical investigations on blood flow.

  2. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association...

  4. Interoperability challenges in river discharge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schlummer, Manuela; Andres, Volker; Jirka, Simon; Looser, Ulrich; Mladek, Richard; Pappenberger, Florian; Strauch, Adrian; Utech, Michael; Zsoter, Ervin

    2014-05-01

    River discharge is a critical water cycle variable, as it integrates all the processes (e.g. runoff and evapotranspiration) occurring within a river basin and provides a hydrological output variable that can be readily measured. Its prediction is of invaluable help for many water-related areas such as water resources assessment and management, as well as flood protection and disaster mitigation. Observations of river discharge are very important for the calibration and validation of hydrological or coupled land, atmosphere and ocean models . This requires the use of data from different scientific domains (Water, Weather, etc.). Typically, such data are provided using different technological solutions and formats. This complicates the integration of new hydrological data sources into application systems. Therefore, a considerable effort is often spent on data access issues instead of the actual scientific question. In the context of the FP7 funded project GEOWOW (GEOSS Interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water), the "River Discharge" use scenario was developed in order to combine river discharge observations data from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) database and model outputs produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) predicting river discharge based on weather forecast information. In this presentation we describe interoperability solutions which were adopted in order to address the technological challenges of the "River Discharge" use scenario: 1) Development of a Hydrology Profile for the OGC SOS 2.0 standard; 2) Enhancement of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) to support the use scenario: 2.1) Develop new interoperability arrangements for GRDC and ECMWF capacities; 2.2) Select multiple time series for comparison. The development of the above functionalities and tools aims to respond to the need of Water and Weather scientists to assess river discharge forecasting models.

  5. Responses and structural recovery of periphytic diatom communities after short-term disturbance in some rivers (Hanoi, Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, T. T.; Feurtet-Mezel, A.; Coste, M.; Dang Dinh, K.

    2009-07-01

    Field transfer experiments of periphytic diatom assemblages developed on artificial substrates were set up to assess responses of periphytic diatom communities to environmental disturbances. Glass substrates were positioned for colonization in comparatively un polluted site (Red, in Red River) and heavily polluted site (TL. in Tolich River) at the beginning of the experiment. After a period of two weeks colonized glass substrates were transferred from Red site to TL site and to a moderate site (NT{sub 2} in Nhue River) and conversely, from TL site to Red site, and to NT{sub 2} site. Responses and capacity of periphytic diatom communities to adapt environmental changes were assessed by using cells density, diversity index, species richness, taxonomic composition and diatom indices after 2 and 4 weeks transfer periods and varied for each site. (Author)

  6. Induction of red pigment in white petals of Hippeastrum x Hybr. Hort. during infection by Phoma Narcissi (Aderh. Boerema, De Gruyter et Noordel., Comb. Nov. and by mechanical injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Red colouration of tissues occurs as a result of mechanical injuries to petals of Hippeastrum hybr. hort. cv. Winter Carnival or their infection by Phoma narcissi. Microscopic study recorded red pigment formation following mechanical injuries or pathogenic infection of white petals. For comparison, localization of anthocyanins in natural red petals of cv. Red Lion was determined. Red pigment, formed in white petals mechanically injured or infected by Phoma narcissi, is different than anthocyanins.

  7. Defining the Far-red Limit of Photosystem I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokvist, Fredrik; Mamedov, Fikret; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The far-red limit of photosystem I (PS I) photochemistry was studied by EPR spectroscopy using laser flashes between 730 and 850 nm. In manganese-depleted spinach thylakoid membranes, the primary donor in PS I, P700, was oxidized simultaneously with tyrosine Z, the secondary donor in PS II. It was found that at 295 K PS I photochemistry, observed as P700+ formation, was functional up to 840 nm. This is 30 nm further to the red region than was reported for PS II photochemistry (Thapper, A., Mamedov, F., Mokvist, F., Hammarström, L., and Styring, S. (2009) Plant Cell 21, 2391–2401). The same far-red limit for the P700+ formation was observed in a PS I reaction center core preparation from Nostoc punctiforme. The reduction of the acceptor side of PS I, observed as reduction of the iron-sulfur centers FA and FB by low temperature EPR measurements, was also functional at 15 K with light up to >830 nm. Taken together, these results, obtained from both plants and cyanobacteria, most likely rule out involvement of the red-absorbing antenna chlorophylls in this reaction. Instead we propose the existence of weak charge transfer bands absorbing in the far-red region in the ensemble of excitonically coupled chlorophyll a molecules around P700 similar to what has been found in the reaction center of PS II. These charge transfer bands could be responsible for the far-red light absorption leading to PS I photochemistry at wavelengths up to 840 nm. PMID:25023284

  8. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  9. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  10. The regional structure of the Red Sea Rift revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Nico; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Devey, Colin W.; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís

    2017-04-01

    The Red Sea Rift has, for decades, been considered a text book example of how young ocean basins form and mature. Nevertheless, most studies of submarine processes in the Red Sea were previously based on sparse data (mostly obtained between the late 1960's and 1980's) collected at very low resolution. This low resolution, combined with large gaps between individual datasets, required large interpolations when developing geological models. Thus, these models generally considered the Red Sea Rift a special case of young ocean basement formation, dividing it from North to South into three zones: a continental thinning zone, a "transition zone" and a fully developed spreading zone. All these zones are imagined, in most of the models, to be separated by large transform faults, potentially starting and ending on the African and Arabian continental shields. However, no consensus between models e.g. about the locations (or even the existence) of major faults, the nature of the transition zone or the extent of oceanic crust in the Red Sea Rift has been reached. Recently, high resolution bathymetry revealed detailed seafloor morphology as never seen before from the Red Sea, very comparable to other (ultra)slow spreading mid-ocean ridges such as the Gakkel Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and SW-Indian Ridge, changing the overall picture of the Red Sea significantly. New discoveries about the extent, movement and physical properties of submarine salt deposits led to the Red Sea Rift being linked to the young Aptian-age South Atlantic. Extensive crosscutting transform faults are not evident in the modern bathymetry data, neither in teleseismic nor vertical gravity gradient data and comparisons to Gakkel Ridge and the SW-Indian Ridge suggest that the Red Sea is much simpler in terms of structural geology than was previously thought. Complicated tectonic models do not appear necessary and there appears to be large areas of oceanic crust under the Red Sea salt blankets. Based on

  11. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  12. Rivers: Nature's Wondrous Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David L.

    Rivers play a vital role in the life of the planet. They provide water for wildlife, plant life, and people, and they help to fertilize fields where corn and other crops grow. But how were these rivers made? This children's book takes readers/students on a journey down a river from its source at the top of a mountain to its mouth where it meets…

  13. Evolution of river dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, H.; Caballero, S.; Collins, A. G.; Brownell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeog...

  14. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... to illustrate hydropolitics in praxis, because the political future of this particular area in many respects affects the sustainable future of the Jordan River Basin and the entire Levant....

  15. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  16. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  17. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward-blowing summer daily wind jet originating from the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese Red Sea coast, and (2) wintertime westward-blowing wind-jet bands along the northwestern Saudi Arabian coast, which occur every 10-20 days and can last for several days when occurring. Both wind jets can attain wind speeds over 15 m s-1 and contribute significantly to monthly mean surface wind stress, especially in the cross-axis components, which could be of importance to ocean eddy formation in the Red Sea. The wintertime wind jets can cause significant evaporation and ocean heat loss along the northeastern Red Sea coast and may potentially drive deep convection in that region. An initial characterization of these wind jets is presented. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Pensar la ciudad en red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El paradigma de la sociedad contemporánea es la red, como afirma Manuel Castells (1999 cuándo propone este concepto para que se piense el mundo frente a las tecnologías de información y comunicación. ¿Más como pensar la ciudad en red? Cuándo vemos una imagen aérea de una ciudad, con sus rutas que articulan puntos y regiones, tenemos una imagen perfecta de una red. Pero la evidencia absoluta entre la forma geométrica de una red no puede nos dejar iludirnos: esto no presupone el entendimiento de la sociedad urbana como red. El matemático Nikos Salingaros (2003 argumentó que “las fuerzas que hacen que la ciudad funcione son generadas por la diversidad y necesidad de cambio de información entre diferentes tipos de nodos”, y Gabriel Dupuy (1985 escribió que “si buscamos localizar partes de un sistema, debemos hacerlo en espacios abstractos, espacios topológicos, espacios de n dimensiones, inhabituales en el planeamiento y que no corresponden a la percepción inmediata de la ‘redes clásicas’. Así, las redes son, más que nada, una manera de pensar. Una manera de leer el mundo, una manera de actuar en el mundo.

  19. Just Dishes? Red Glazed Pottery from the Iberian Deposit of Zacatín (Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Sánchez Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have taken, as a subject of our study, a homogeneous set of red indigenous glazed plates with a very particular profile and without a parallel known for the present time. The above mentioned set was part of the ritual deposit found in Zacatín, a very typical street from Granada. This deposit is a pit close to the River Darro which was filled with the waste of a sacred banquet, possibly related to this same river. In this work we consider the fact that these plates were made ex profeso for the ritual that took place out of Iliberri's walls, around 370 B.C.

  20. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...