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Sample records for red marrow dosimetry

  1. Comparison of non-invasive approaches to red marrow dosimetry for radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaizier, M.A.B.D. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Roos, J.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Teule, G.J.J. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Dieren, E.B. van (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Hollander, W. den (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Haisma, H.J. (Dept. of Medical Oncology, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); DeJager, R.L. (Organon Teknika Corp., Biotechnology Research Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)); Lingen, A. van (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-03-01

    We compared four approaches to analyse the differences in calculated red marrow doses. The data were obtained from immunoscintigraphy of two antibodies with different red marrow kinetics [iodine-131-16.88 IgM and indium-111-OV-TL-3 F(ab')[sub 2

  2. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in 131I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Pasquino, M.; Miranti, A.; Cutaia, C.; Brusasco, G.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher 131I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from 131I activity in the blood and the dose from 131I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher 131I activities to be

  3. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in (131)I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giostra, A; Richetta, E; Pasquino, M; Miranti, A; Cutaia, C; Brusasco, G; Pellerito, R E; Stasi, M

    2016-06-07

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher (131)I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from (131)I activity in the blood and the dose from (131)I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher (131)I

  4. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M., E-mail: goodsitt@umich.edu; Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Shen, Jincheng [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Schipper, Matthew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wilderman, Scott [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chun, Se Young [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (∼17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2–1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3–1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6–1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3–2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results

  5. Bone marrow dosimetry using blood-based models for {sup 131}i-anti-cd20 rituximab radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Choi, T. H. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Accurate estimations of radiation absorbed dose are essential part of evaluating the risks and benefits associated with radiotherapy. Determination of red marrow dose is important because myelotoxicity is often dose limiting in radioimmunotherapy. The aim of this study is to set up the procedures of dosimetry with activities in the blood and whole-body and to estimate the dose of patients according to MIRD schema. Therapy activities of 131I (136, 185, 200 mCi) were administrated to patients (n=3). Blood activity concentrations and whole-body images by gamma camera were collected from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (5min, 6h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 2week). Two kinds of patient specific approaches based on Sgouros bone marrow dosimetry methodology were considered to estimate bone marrow dose. The mean effective half-life in blood and whole-body were 25.2h and 27.1h respectively and the mean absorbed dose to bone marrow was 0.48Gy (0.22{approx}0.93Gy). The dominant contribution of dose was found to be from bone marrow self-dose (over 60%). The procedures of dosimetry with blood and gamma camera image were established. These enable to estimate the radioimmunotherapy patient's dose retrospectively. Some parts of the procedures need to be elaborated to obtain more accurate dose in the near future.

  6. Bone marrow dosimetry via microCT imaging and stem cell spatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Kayla N.

    In order to make predictions of radiation dose in patients undergoing targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer, an accurate model of skeletal tissues is necessary. Concerning these tissues, the dose-limiting factor in these therapies is the toxicity of the hematopoietically active bone marrow. In addition to acute effects, one must be concerned as well with long-term stochastic effects such as radiation-induced leukemia. Particular cells of interest for both toxicity and cancer risk are the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), found within the active marrow regions of the skeleton. At present, cellular-level dosimetry models are complex, and thus we cannot model individual stem cells in an anatomic model of the patient. As a result, one reverts to looking at larger tissue regions where these cell populations may reside. To provide a more accurate marrow dose assessment, the skeletal dosimetry model must also be patient-specific. That is, it should be designed to match as closely as possible to the patient undergoing treatment. Absorbed dose estimates then can be tailored based on the skeletal size and trabecular microstructure of an individual for an accurate prediction of marrow toxicity. Thus, not only is it important to accurately model the target tissues of interest in a normal patient, it is important to do so for differing levels of marrow health. A skeletal dosimetry model for the adult female was provided for better predictions of marrow toxicity in patients undergoing radionuclide therapy. This work is the first fully established gender specific model for these applications, and supersedes previous models in scalability of the skeleton and radiation transport methods. Furthermore, the applicability of using bone marrow biopsies was deemed sufficient in prediction of bone marrow health, specifically for the hematopoietic stem cell population. The location and concentration of the HSC in bone marrow was found to follow a spatial gradient from the bone trabeculae

  7. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    Service de dosimétrie individuelle

    2000-01-01

    From the distribution Novembre/Decembre 2000 (film colour green), the people who worked in LEP experiments and who have not announced their participation to LEP dismantling or new activities in another experiment or group will be taken out from the regular distribution list of the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact Individual Dosimetry Service, tel. 72155 or e-mail to Jeannine.Fraisse@cern.ch We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER will be available from their usual dispatchers on the 1st of September 2000. Please have your films changed before the 12th of September. The colour of the dosimeter valid in SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER is RED. The service will be closed exceptionally on Friday 8 September.

  8. Dosimetry and toxicity of Quadramet for bone marrow ablation in multiple myeloma and other haematological malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Marissa L.; Webb, Myles; Macfarlane, David J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Q4209 (Australia); Durrant, Simon; Morton, James A.; Allison, Roger [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2002-11-01

    Standard treatment regimens for haematological malignancies include myeloablative chemoradiotherapy and subsequent rescue by stem cell transplantation. However, these treatment regimens have significant associated mortality and morbidity, and disease recurrence remains a problem. One alternative approach is the targeted delivery of radiotherapy to the marrow using a bone-seeking agent labelled with an appropriate radioisotope, with the aim of delivering a potentially ablative radiation dose to marrow while minimising non-haematological toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry for a commercial preparation of samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP; Quadramet) were evaluated in 43 tracer (average dose 740 MBq) studies of 42 patients with haematological malignancies. Measurements of 24-h retention were also available following infusion of 18-48 GBq in 15 patients. Quadramet cleared rapidly from the tissue, with a median biological half-life of 1.4 h. Activity taken up by the skeleton was firmly bound, with activity decreasing according to physical half-life at 24 h in 29 of the 43 cases. The percentage activity retained in the skeleton at 24 h with tracer doses was high (62%{+-}13%), although this decreased to approximately 30% with therapy infusions. Because of this decrease in retention, the maximum feasible therapy activity for this formulation of Quadramet is 35 GBq. Median absorbed marrow radiation dose was 0.78 Gy/GBq in tracer studies: the decreased retention at high activities means that this corresponds to a median dose of 12 Gy for 35 GBq administered activity. It is possible to use 24-h retention as a rough guide to marrow dose in individual patients. In tracer studies, median bladder radiation dose was 0.22 Gy/GBq and radiation dose to the liver was very conservatively estimated at 0.2 Gy/GBq. After therapy infusions of up to 50 GBq in 37 patients, non-haematopoietic toxicity was not seen in any patient. In addition

  9. Dosimetry and toxicity of Quadramet for bone marrow ablation in multiple myeloma and other haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Marissa L; Webb, Myles; Durrant, Simon; Morton, A James; Allison, Roger; Macfarlane, David J

    2002-11-01

    Standard treatment regimens for haematological malignancies include myeloablative chemoradiotherapy and subsequent rescue by stem cell transplantation. However, these treatment regimens have significant associated mortality and morbidity, and disease recurrence remains a problem. One alternative approach is the targeted delivery of radiotherapy to the marrow using a bone-seeking agent labelled with an appropriate radioisotope, with the aim of delivering a potentially ablative radiation dose to marrow while minimising non-haematological toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry for a commercial preparation of samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP; Quadramet) were evaluated in 43 tracer (average dose 740 MBq) studies of 42 patients with haematological malignancies. Measurements of 24-h retention were also available following infusion of 18-48 GBq in 15 patients. Quadramet cleared rapidly from the tissue, with a median biological half-life of 1.4 h. Activity taken up by the skeleton was firmly bound, with activity decreasing according to physical half-life at 24 h in 29 of the 43 cases. The percentage activity retained in the skeleton at 24 h with tracer doses was high (62%+/-13%), although this decreased to approximately 30% with therapy infusions. Because of this decrease in retention, the maximum feasible therapy activity for this formulation of Quadramet is 35 GBq. Median absorbed marrow radiation dose was 0.78 Gy/GBq in tracer studies: the decreased retention at high activities means that this corresponds to a median dose of 12 Gy for 35 GBq administered activity. It is possible to use 24-h retention as a rough guide to marrow dose in individual patients. In tracer studies, median bladder radiation dose was 0.22 Gy/GBq and radiation dose to the liver was very conservatively estimated at 0.2 Gy/GBq. After therapy infusions of up to 50 GBq in 37 patients, non-haematopoietic toxicity was not seen in any patient. In addition

  10. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the month of May on, the neutron dosimeter will be worn in an extra package distinct from the usual film-badge. We will give you more ample information in Weekly Bulletin No. 18/2001 of April 30, 2001. In the week following Easter (17 - 20. 4. 2001) the Individual Dosimetry Service will be opened in the mornings from 8:30 to 11:30 h only. The Service will be closed on April 30.

  11. SU-E-T-600: In Vivo Dosimetry for Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations with Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedbala, M; Save, C [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Ctr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cygler, J [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Ctr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa (Canada); Carleton University (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for in-vivo dosimetry of patients undergoing Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations (TBI and TMI). Methods: TBI treatments of 12 Gy were delivered in 6 BID fractions with the patient on a moving couch under a static 10 MV beam (Synergy, Elekta). TMI treatments of 18 Gy in 9 BID fractions were planned and delivered using a 6 MV TomoTherapy unit (Accuray). To provide a uniform dose to the entire patient length, the treatment was split into 2 adjacent fields junctioned in the thigh region. Our standard clinical practice involves in vivo dosimetry with MOSFETs for each TBI fraction and TLDs for at least one fraction of the TMI treatment for dose verification. In this study we also used OSLDs. Individual calibration coefficients were obtained for the OSLDs based on irradiations in a solid water phantom to the dose of 50 cGy from Elekta Synergy 10 MV (TBI) and 6 MV (TMI) beams. Calibration coefficients were calculated based on the OSLDs readings taken 2 hrs post-irradiation. For in vivo dosimetry OSLDs were placed alongside MOSFETs for TBI patients and in approximately the same locations as the TLDs for TMI patients. OSLDs were read 2 hours post treatment and compared to the MOSFET and TLD results. Results: OSLD measured doses agreed within 5% with MOSFET and TLD results, with the exception of the junction region in the TMI patient due to very high dose gradient and difficulty of precise and reproducible detector placement. Conclusion: OSLDs are useful for in vivo dosimetry of TBI and TMI patients. The quick post-treatment readout is an advantage over TLDs, allowing the results to be obtained between BID fractions, while wireless detectors are advantageous over MOSFETs for treatments involving a moving couch.

  12. Radioluminescence of red-emitting Eu-doped phosphors for fiberoptic dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, P.; Santiago, M.; Marcazzo, J.; Caselli, E. [Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Spano, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Henniger, J. [Institut fur Kern-und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Cravero, W., E-mail: pmolina@exa.unicen.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Colon 80, 8000FTN Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-10-15

    The fiberoptic dosimetry technique (FOD) has become an attractive method for in-vivo real-time dosimetry in radiotherapy. It is based on the use of a tiny piece of scintillator coupled to the end of an optical fiber, which collects the light emitted by the scintillator during irradiation (radioluminescence). Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) is one of the most radioluminescence materials for FOD due to its high efficiency but it presents the drawback of emitting in the spectral region, where spurious luminescence is also important. Spurious luminescence from optical fiber, termed stem effect, is the main problem afflicting FOD. Several techniques have been applied to remove the stem effect. Optical filtering, which consists in using long-pass filters, is the simplest one. This technique is useful when red-emitting scintillators are employed. In this work, the feasibility of using red-emitting Eu-doped phosphors as FOD scintillators has been investigated. (Author)

  13. Bone marrow transplantation for CVID-like humoral immune deficiency associated with red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayour, Elias J; Mousallem, Talal; Van Mater, David; Wang, Endi; Martin, Paul; Buckley, Rebecca H; Barfield, Raymond C

    2016-10-01

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have a higher incidence of autoimmune disease, which may mark the disease onset; however, anemia secondary to pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon presenting feature. Here, we describe a case of CVID-like humoral immune deficiency in a child who initially presented with red cell aplasia and ultimately developed progressive bone marrow failure. Although bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been associated with high mortality in CVID, our patient was successfully treated with a matched sibling BMT and engrafted with >98% donor chimerism and the development of normal antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bone marrow dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrer, Flavio; Krenning, Eric P.; Kooij, Peter P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Bakker, Willem H.; Teunissen, Jaap J.M.; Jong, Marion de; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Konijnenberg, Mark [Mallinckrodt Medical BV, Research and Development, Petten (Netherlands); Lom, Kirsten van [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Haematology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the accumulated activity in the bone marrow is calculated from the accumulated radioactivity of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood. This may underestimate the absorbed dose since stem cells express somatostatin receptors. We verified the blood-based method by comparing the activity in the blood with the radioactivity in bone marrow aspirates. Also, we evaluated the absorbed cross-dose from the source organs (liver, spleen, kidneys and blood), tumours and the so-called ''remainder of the body'' to the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn in 15 patients after treatment with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Radioactivity in the bone marrow was compared with radioactivity in the blood drawn simultaneously. The nucleated cell fraction was isolated from the bone marrow aspirate and radioactivity was measured. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow was calculated. The results were correlated to the change in platelet counts 6 weeks after treatment. A strong linear correlation and high agreement between the measured radioactivities in the bone marrow aspirates and in the blood was found (r=0.914, p<0.001). No correlation between the calculated absorbed dose in the bone marrow and the change in platelets was found. There was a considerable contribution from other organs and the remainder of the body to the bone marrow absorbed dose. (1) After PRRT with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate, the radioactivity concentration in the bone marrow is identical to that in the blood; (2) There is no significant binding of the radiopharmaceutical to bone marrow precursor stem cells; (3) The contribution of the cross dose from source organs and tumours to the bone

  15. Comparison of mathematical models for red marrow and blood absorbed dose estimation in the radioiodine treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranti, A; Giostra, A; Richetta, E; Gino, E; Pellerito, R E; Stasi, M

    2015-02-07

    Metastatic and recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma is preferably treated with (131)I, whose administered activity is limited by red marrow (RM) toxicity, originally correlated by Benua to a blood absorbed dose higher than 2 Gy. Afterward a variety of dosimetric approaches has been proposed. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the Benua formula with the ones of other three blood and RM absorbed dose formulae. Materials and methods have been borrowed by the dosimetric protocol of the Italian Internal Dosimetry group and adapted to the routine of our centre. Wilcoxon t-tests and percentage differences have been applied for comparison purposes. Results are significantly different (p formula applied to determine blood or RM absorbed dose may contribute significantly to increase heterogeneity in absorbed dose and dose-response results. Standardization should be a major objective.

  16. Characterization of radiochromic films EBT3 by means of the scanner Vidar dosimetry Pro Red and Epson 10000-XL use; Caracterizacion de films radiocromicos EBT3 mediante el uso de scanner Vidar dosimetry Pro Red y Epson 10000-XL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, L.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D.; Adrada, A.; Filipuzzi, M., E-mail: fisicamedina11@gmail.com [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    The Radiochromic film have become an attractive tool for verification of dose distributions in IMRT because these have high spatial resolution film, are near water equivalent and not require revealed, A critical aspect of the use of these film is used for digitizing scanner The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner. Were employed The Radiochromic film EBT3, was used photon beam 6 MV generated by a linear accelerator Siemens Primus, he films were irradiated at a dose range between 0 Gy a 9 Gy. The stabilization time after irradiation was 24 hours. The films were digitized with a scanner Epson 10000-XL y el VIDAR Dosimetry Pro Red. We used the software for construction of the calibration curve. The resolution of each dosimetry system was analyzed through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. The Epson scanner is most sensitive to the red channel. This is less than that obtained with the Vidar. The Vidar scanner spatial response profiles disturbs not opposed to Epson analyzed. The calibration curves for both dosimetry systems can be employed. However, the sensitivity and repeatability of the system is better than Red Vidar Epson 10000-XL. (author)

  17. Hematological dosimetry. Dosimetrie hematologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluery-Herard, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (FR). Direction des Sciences du Vivant)

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues.

  18. Dose to red bone marrow of infants, children and adults from radiation of natural origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G M [Childhood Cancer Research Group, University of Oxford, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HJ (United Kingdom); Fell, T P; Harrison, J D [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gerald.Kendall@ccrg.ox.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Natural radiation sources contribute much the largest part of the radiation exposure of the average person. This paper examines doses from natural radiation to the red bone marrow, the tissue in which leukaemia is considered to originate, with particular emphasis on doses to children. The most significant contributions are from x-rays and gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhalation of isotopes of radon and their decay products. External radiation sources and radionuclides other than radon dominate marrow doses at all ages. The variation with age of the various components of marrow dose is considered, including doses received in utero and in each year up to the age of 15. Doses in utero include contributions resulting from the ingestion of radionuclides by the mother and placental transfer to the foetus. Postnatal doses include those from radionuclides in breast-milk and from radionuclides ingested in other foods. Doses are somewhat higher in the first year of life and there is a general slow decline from the second year of life onwards. The low linear energy transfer (LET) component of absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is much larger than the high LET component. However, because of the higher radiation weighting factor for the latter it contributes about 40% of the equivalent dose incurred up to the age of 15.

  19. [Deep fascia composite autologous red bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of fracture nonunion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hui-Min; Wu, Heng-Xuan; Huang, Cui-Ye; Ma, Shi-Qian

    2009-11-01

    According to bone regeneration under the membrane and the bone regeneration deep fascia composite autologous red bone marrow transplantation applied in the treatment of fracture nonunion, in order to find a simple and effective clinical treatment of nonunion. Since March 2006 to March 2009,17 patients of fracture nonunion were treated by the deep fascia composite autologous bone marrow transplantation,included 10 males and 7 females, aged from 7 to 52 years old (means 32 years). There were 10 cases of tibia, 5 cases of radius, 2 cases of clavicle. Injured to admission time was from 7 to 36 months (means 12 months). Ten cases underwent operation for 1 time,5 cases for twice and 2 cases for 3 times. The position of nonunion were all at bone shaft and the condition of the skin and soft tissue was good. X-ray film showed 11 cases of hyperplasia nonunion, 6 cases of shrinking. The original fixation were removed and the intramedullary nail or plate fixation were re-used, and fracture ends were sutured closed by autogenous deep fascia and implanted with autologous red bone marrow. Seventeen patients were followed-up for from 5 months to 2 years with an average of 1 year. Fracture healing time was from 12 to 20 weeks (means 16 weeks). According to the criteria of fracture healing to assess efficacy, the results were excellent in 14 cases, good in 2 cases and poor in 1 case. Deep fascia composite autologous autologous red bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of fracture nonunion is suitable at the bone shaft and good condition of skin and soft tissue. The method has been observed that the fracture healing time is short.

  20. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianchao Li; Wensheng Hou; Xiaoying Wu; Wei Jiang; Haiyan Chen; Nong Xiao; Ping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hy-poxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efifciencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migra-tion and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2, an increasing number of green lfuorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2 for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental ifndings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypox-ic-ischemic brain damage.

  1. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2), an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2) for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  2. Electron absorbed fractions in skeletal soft tissues based on red bone marrow segmentation at runtime in muCT images of human trabecular bone;Fracoes absorvidas de eletrons em tecidos moles do esqueleto avaliadas com base na segmentacao em tempo de execucao da medula ossea vermelha contida em imagens muCT do osso trabecular humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, J.W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Khoury, H.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Robson-Brown, K. [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeology and Anthropology

    2009-07-01

    Skeletal dosimetry determines equivalent dose or absorbed fractions in the red bone marrow (RBM) and the osteogenic cells on bone surfaces (BSC). Following a method used earlier for the BSC, RBM and yellow bone marrow (YBM) have been segmented in the marrow cavities of muCT images of human spongiosa at runtime, i.e. during the execution of the Monte Carlo calculation, which avoids the necessity to segment RBM and YBM externally in muCT images for many different cellularities and to store the data. Using this internal RBM/YBM segmentation, this study presents electron absorbed fractions for the RBM and the BSC as a function of the voxel resolution and also compares the results with data from other investigations. (author)

  3. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom

  4. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  5. Doses to the red bone marrow of young people and adults from radiation of natural origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G M [Childhood Cancer Research Group, University of Oxford, Richards Building, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LG (United Kingdom); Fell, T P, E-mail: Gerald.Kendall@ccrg.ox.ac.uk [Health Protection Agency, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-01

    Natural radiation sources comprise cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhaled isotopes of radon with their decay products. These deliver doses to all organs and tissues including red bone marrow (RBM), the tissue in which leukaemia is thought to originate. In this paper we calculate the age-dependent annual RBM doses from natural radiation sources to young people and to adults at average levels of exposure in the UK. The contributions to dose are generally less complex than in the case of doses to foetuses and young children where it is necessary to take into account transfer of radionuclides across the placenta, intakes in mother's milk and changes in gut uptake in young infants. However, there is high uptake of alkaline earths and of similar elements in the developing skeleton and this significantly affects the doses from radioisotopes of these elements, not just in the teens and twenties but through into the fifth decade of life. The total equivalent dose to the RBM from all natural sources of radiation at age 15 years is calculated to be about 1200 {mu}Sv a year at average UK levels, falling to rather less than 1100 {mu}Sv per year in later life; the gentle fall from the late teens onwards reflects the diminishing effect of the high uptakes of radioisotopes of the alkaline earths and of lead in this period. About 60% of the equivalent dose is contributed by the low linear energy transfer (LET) component. Radionuclides in food make the largest contribution to equivalent doses to RBM and much the largest contribution to the absorbed dose from high LET radiation (mainly alpha particles).

  6. Differentiation between focal malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of the spine with T2{sup *}-corrected fat-signal fraction map using a three -echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo dixon sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sung Jun; Chung, Tae Sub; Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kanneengiesser, Stephan [MR Applications Development, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Paek, Moon Young [Siemens Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Taek; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the feasibility of T2{sup *}-corrected fat-signal fraction (FF) map by using the three-echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo (VIBE) Dixon sequence to differentiate between malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of vertebrae. We assessed 32 lesions from 32 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging after being referred for assessment of a known or possible vertebral marrow abnormality. The lesions were divided into 21 malignant marrow-replacing lesions and 11 benign red marrow depositions. Three sequences for the parameter measurements were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR imaging scanner as follows: three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence for FF; conventional T1-weighted imaging for the lesion-disc ratio (LDR); pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images for the contrast-enhancement ratio (CER). A region of interest was drawn for each lesion for parameter measurements. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the parameters and their sensitivities and specificities at the most ideal cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were obtained. AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were respectively compared between FF and CER. The AUCs of FF, LDR, and CER were 0.96, 0.80, and 0.72, respectively. In the comparison of diagnostic performance between the FF and CER, the FF showed a significantly larger AUC as compared to the CER (p = 0.030), although the difference of sensitivity (p = 0.157) and specificity (p = 0.157) were not significant. Fat-signal fraction measurement using T2{sup *}-corrected three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence is feasible and has a more accurate diagnostic performance, than the CER, in distinguishing benign red marrow deposition from malignant bone marrow-replacing lesions.

  7. Persistent anemia in a patient with diffuse large B cell lymphoma: pure red cell aplasia associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hwa Jung; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Ji Hye; Lee, Goeun; Lee, Kyung A; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Jun Suk

    2007-09-01

    We report a case of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), which was initially suspected as a result of bone marrow involvement of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Persistent anemia without an obvious cause was observed in a 47-yr-old man diagnosed with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The bone marrow study showed only erythroid hypoplasia without the evidence of bone marrow involvement with lymphoma cells, thus PRCA was suggested. However, parvovirus infection was excluded as a potential cause of PRCA because of negative IgM anti-parvovirus B19 antibody and negative parvovirus PCR in the serum. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of bone marrow was suggested by in situ hybridization with EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) that showed a strong positive expression in bone marrow cells. Thus, PRCA was thought to be associated with latent EBV infection in bone marrow cells. Although the finding of unexplained anemia is a possible predictor of bone marrow involvement with lymphoma cells, PRCA as a result of a viral infection including EBV should be considered in lymphoma patients. This is the first report of the occurrence of PRCA associated with latent EBV infection in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Bone marrow pathology in dogs and cats with non-regenerative immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D J

    2008-01-01

    Many dogs and cats with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) lack a bone marrow erythroid regenerative response. To better understand the failure of the bone marrow to respond to the anaemia, bone marrow pathology associated with non-regenerative IMHA and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was reviewed. Eighty-two affected dogs and 57 affected cats were identified from a population presenting to a referral hospital over a 10-year period. Fifty-five dogs had non-regenerative IMHA (38 had bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia and 17 had erythroid maturation arrest) and 27 had pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Twenty-eight cats had non-regenerative IMHA (24 had erythroid hyperplasia and 4 had erythroid maturation arrest) and 29 had PRCA. A variety of pathological changes were observed in bone marrow aspirates and core biopsy specimens taken from these animals. These changes included dysmyelopoiesis, myelonecrosis, myelofibrosis, interstitial oedema, haemorrhage, acute inflammation, haemophagocytic syndrome, lymphocyte aggregation, and lymphocyte or plasma cell hyperplasia. In both dogs and cats, dysmyelopoiesis, myelonecrosis, myelofibrosis, interstitial oedema, haemorrhage, acute inflammation and haemophagocytic syndrome were primarily noted in bone marrow specimens where there was evidence of erythroid hyperplasia. These animals were also more often neutropenic and thrombocytopenic, and had decreased 60 day survival when compared with dogs or cats with non-regenerative anaemia associated with erythroid maturation arrest or PRCA. Therefore, the pathogenesis of the non-regenerative anaemia in non-regenerative IMHA may involve both antibody-mediated destruction of bone marrow precursor cells and pathological events within the bone marrow that result in ineffective erythropoiesis.

  9. Feasibility of bremsstrahlung dosimetry for direct dose estimation in patients undergoing treatment with {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrichiello, C.; Aloj, L.; Mormile, M.; D' Ambrosio, L.; Caraco, C.; De Martinis, F. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Nuclear Medicine Department, Napoli (Italy); Frigeri, F.; Arcamone, M.; Pinto, A. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Hematology-Oncology, Napoli (Italy); Stem Cells Transplantation Unit, Department of Hematology, Napoli (Italy); Lastoria, S. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Nuclear Medicine Department, Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , IRCCS, Napoli (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan has been used successfully used in the treatment of CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Pretherapy imaging with {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan has been used in provisional dosimetry studies. Posttherapy imaging of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan for clinical use is appealing as it would simplify the data acquisition process and allow measurements of actual doses absorbed during treatment. The study included 29 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, of whom 16 (group I) received a pretherapy {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan diagnostic study and {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan treatment 1 week later, and 13 (group II) received only {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan treatment. Planar imaging and blood sampling were performed in all patients. The doses absorbed by organs at risk were calculated using a whole-body average attenuation correction factor (relative dosimetry approach) and, in the case of the {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan image sets, also using organ-specific attenuation correction factors (absolute dosimetry method). Red marrow absorbed doses were based on gamma counting of blood samples. The estimated red marrow absorbed doses from {sup 111}In and {sup 90}Y data were equivalent. In all cases, the doses absorbed by organs at risk were found to be within prescribed limits. The relative dosimetry approach applied to both the {sup 90}Y and {sup 111}In data significantly underestimated the doses relative to those obtained with the {sup 111}In absolute dosimetry method which is generally accepted as the reference method (MIRD 16). In the case of {sup 111}In, the relative dosimetry approach values were highly correlated (R {sup 2} = 0.61) with the reference method values. Relative dosimetry estimates may be adjusted multiplying by a correction factor of 2.8. The {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan relative dosimetry data correlated poorly with the reference method values (R {sup 2} = 0.02). Based

  10. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  11. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  12. SU-E-T-121: Dosimetric Characterization of Gafchromic Film EBT3 Using Vidar DosimetryPro Advantage RED and EPSON Expression 10000XL Scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, L; Adrada, A; Filipuzzi, M; Garrigo, E; Venencia, C [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia - Fundacion Marie Curie, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner, analyzing the factors of influence of each dosimetry system. Methods: The film used in this study was GAFCHROMIC EBT3, the films were exposed at a dose range between 0Gy a 9Gy in a solid water phantom, SSD=100cm, 5cm depth and perpendicularly to the 6MV photon beam generated by a Novalis TX linear accelerator equipped with an HDMLC. A Farmer type ion chamber TN30013 (PTW) was used to determine the dose delivered to the film. The films were digitized with a scanner EPSON expression 10000XL and the VIDAR DosimetryPro Adventage RED. Software RIT113v6.1 was used for construction of the calibration curve and analysis. The film characteristics investigated were: response at different dose levels, sensitivity to orientation and side and resolution through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. Additionally, 20 IMRT treatment fields were measured with both scanner and compared with calculated dose using gamma index analysis (3%-3mm). Results: The OD obtained for dose level 2Gy in the orientation portrait of the film on the scanner EPSON is (0,222±0,19) and for Vidar RED (0,252±0,10) and landscape is for EPSON (0,211±0,25) and for Vidar RED (0,250±0,11) . The orientation dependence with respect to film side is about 0,09% for EPSON and about 0.03% for VIDAR. The spatial response function increase in response to the Gaussian function FWHM EPSON scanner (0.18mm) compared with VIDAR scanner function (less than 0.06mm) was observed. We analyzed 20 total plan dose distributions the number of pixels with gamma>1 (3%-3mm) was 0.7%±1.2 [0.1%; 2.82%] for EBT3-VIDAR y 2%±2.9 [0.2%; 3.5%] for EBT3-EPSON. Conclusion: VIDAR scanner shows better sensitivity. EBT3 film shows a different response between portrait and landscape orientation. Step pattern is better reproduce by VIDAR scanner.

  13. Dual-channel red/blue fluorescence dosimetry with broadband reflectance spectroscopic correction measures protoporphyrin IX production during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C.; Zhao, Yan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.; Pogue, Brian W.; Chapman, M. Shane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Dosimetry for aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis was examined with an optimized fluorescence dosimeter to measure PpIX during treatment. While insufficient PpIX generation may be an indicator of incomplete response, there exists no standardized method to quantitate PpIX production at depths in the skin during clinical treatments. In this study, a spectrometer-based point probe dosimeter system was used to sample PpIX fluorescence from superficial (blue wavelength excitation) and deeper (red wavelength excitation) tissue layers. Broadband white light spectroscopy (WLS) was used to monitor aspects of vascular physiology and inform a correction of fluorescence for the background optical properties. Measurements in tissue phantoms showed accurate recovery of blood volume fraction and reduced scattering coefficient from WLS, and a linear response of PpIX fluorescence versus concentration down to 1.95 and 250 nM for blue and red excitations, respectively. A pilot clinical study of 19 patients receiving 1-h ALA incubation before treatment showed high intrinsic variance in PpIX fluorescence with a standard deviation/mean ratio of >0.9. PpIX fluorescence was significantly higher in patients reporting higher pain levels on a visual analog scale. These pilot data suggest that patient-specific PpIX quantitation may predict outcome response. PMID:24996661

  14. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTION OF THYMALINUM AND SUSPENSION OF RED BONE MARROW IN TREATING EXPERIMENTAL TOXIC HEPATITIS OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Kulbekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic decompensation problems make it timely to search for the methods of its treatment. Stem cells usage in attempt to restore structures of organs and tissues is a promising direction of researches. However the problem of possible blast-cell transformation slows down studies in this direction. Attempt of thymalinum use as an antitumoral immune system's modulator may be successful and may widen the possibilities of stem cells use in hepatology. On the basis of toxical affection of rats' lever by tetrachloromethane and paracetamol we have studied hepatoprotective activity of thymalinum and suspension of rats' red bone marrow (RBM and a thymalinum + suspension of RBM complex. Hepatoprotective action was estimated by the volume of discharged bile of control group rats which received paracetamol comparing with intact animals. This confirms the absence of reliable hepatotoxical action of paracetamol following the methodology applied. Significant reduction of discharged bile volume of control group rats which received tetrachloromethane comparing with intact animals confirms the successfulness of the formation method of hepatitis model in animals which received tetrachloromethane. The animals which were given tetrachloromethane and thymalinum + suspension of RBM combination had bigger volume of bile discharged than control group animals. Hepatoprotective action tendency of thymalinum + suspension of RBM combination shown before on mice is also true for rats. 

  15. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  16. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Willegaignon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff and residence time of 131I in the body. Results: The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801, residence time (p = 0.801, dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708, and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811, even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914. Conclusion: There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution.

  17. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araújo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff) and residence time of 131I in the body. Results The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. PMID:27403014

  18. Estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Pelissoni, Rogerio Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araujo, E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and methods: fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (T{sub eff}) and residence time of {sup 131}I in the body. Results: the mean values for T{sub eff} and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the T{sub eff} (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion: there is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is ineffective in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of {sup 131}I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. (author)

  19. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  20. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once every month. A regular read-out is indispensable to ensure periodic monitoring of your personal dose. You must read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Film badges are no longer valid at CERN and holders of film badges are no longer allowed to enter the controlled radiation areas or work with a source. Dosimetry Service Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  1. Epid Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  2. [Clinical assessment of CD4/8 ratio of bone marrow lymphocytes in acquired pure red cell aplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takahiro; Hirano, Taichi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    We have reviewed 6 patients with acquired PRCA and investigated CD4/8 ratio in the bone marrow lymphocytes prior to treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA). CsA, as a remission induction therapy, produced CR in 3/6 patients, and PR+NR in 3/6 patients. CD4/8 ratio in CR group was high compared to PR+NR group. Moreover, the number of reticulocyte and hemoglobin concentration in CR group was high in comparison with PR+NR group. In acquired PRCA, CD4/8 ratio in the bone marrow lymphocytes may correlate with the disease status and the outcome of CsA treatment.

  3. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  4. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-20

    Oct 20, 2005 ... abo area of the city has the least radiation dose rate while Obantoku area has the upper limit. aking this as ... 'n Abeokuta. eywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor ... Both 238U and 232Th have long decay series with ... effects of radiation exposure (Hanson and.

  5. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-20

    Oct 20, 2005 ... abo area of the city has the least radiation dose rate while Obantoku area has the upper limit. aking this as ... “n Abeokuta. eywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor ... Both 238U and 232Th have long decay series with ... effects of radiation exposure (Hanson and.

  6. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  7. Uptake of the {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA complex by cervical carcinoma cells in nude mice: pharmacokinetics and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Salinas, Laura; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina E-mail: gff@nuclear.inin.mxtendilla@acnet.net; Arteaga-Murphy, Consuelo; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Salomon; Azorin-Nieto, Juan

    2001-03-01

    The uptake of the rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA) complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid by cervical carcinoma cells in nude mice was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics and dosimetry calculations in normal rats were also evaluated. The images obtained in mice did not show significant accumulation in metabolic organs and the biodistribution studies showed that 3.52{+-}0.76% of the injected activity per gram (n=4) was taken up by the tumor. This percentage produces a cumulated activity of 35.63{+-}8.40 MBq h and an equivalent dose per injected activity of 260{+-}8.91 mSv/MBq. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of the {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA complex indicate that this radiopharmaceutical could be evaluated in patients with soft tissue tumors, since the risk of radiation damage to the kidney or red bone marrow could not be an obstacle for its application in therapeutic nuclear medicine.

  8. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter every month at least once and preferably during the first week. A regular read-out is indispensable in order to ensure a periodic monitoring of the personal dose. You should read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. If you still have the old dosimeter (film badge), please send it immediately for evaluation to us (Bdg 24 E-011). After January 2005 there will be no developing process for the old film system. Information for Contractors: Please remember also to bring the form ‘Confirm Reception of a CERN Dosimeter' signed with ‘Feuille d'enregistrement du CERN'. Without these forms the dosimeter cannot be assigned. Thank you for your cooperation. Dosimetry Service Tel 767 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  9. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  10. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Kanellis, George; Pouliou, Evi; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Scarfò, Lydia; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Doglioni, Claudio; Bikos, Vasilis; Dagklis, Antonis; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Papadaki, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    Primary splenic small B-cell lymphomas mostly comprise the distinct entity of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) and the provisional category of splenic lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable, mainly represented by the hairy cell leukemia variant and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRL). Until recently, histopathologic examination of splenectomy specimens was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of SMZL. However, nowadays, mainly because of advances in chemoimmunotherapy, splenectomy is performed much less frequently. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histopathology in the diagnostic approach toward SMZL and SDRL and tested whether it may serve as a substitute for spleen histopathology in the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities. To this end, we conducted a paired assessment of BMB and spleen diagnostic samples from 46 cases with a diagnosis of SMZL (n=32) or SDRL (n=14) based on spleen histopathology. We demonstrate that detailed immunohistopathologic BMB evaluation offers adequate evidence for the confirmation of these entities and their differential diagnosis from other small B-cell lymphoma histotypes. Notably, the immunophenotypical profile of SMZL and SDRL was identical in both BMB and spleen specimens for 21 evaluated markers. Paired assessment of BMB and spleen specimens did not identify discriminating patterns of BMB infiltration, cytology, and/or immunohistology between SMZL and SDRL. Accordingly, bone marrow histopathology contributes significantly in confirming the diagnosis of SMZL and SDRL. However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach.

  11. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-07-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure.

  12. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  13. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  14. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  16. Aplasia pura de serie roja post-trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyeticas ABO incompatible Pure red cell aplasia after ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bulliorsky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH con incompatibilidad ABO entre el donante y el receptor puede en ocasiones asociarse a trastornos en la progenie eritroide desarrollada a partir de la médula ósea trasplantada, caracterizado por un funcionamiento tardío, inadecuado e incompleto de la misma. En este contexto, la aplasia pura de serie roja es la complicación más severa. Se han intentado tratamientos para la aplasia pura de serie roja post-TCPH con eritropoyetina o plasmaféresis, con relativo éxito. Algunos autores han informado también la utilización de globulina antilinfocitaria, asumiendo que dicha aplasia selectiva de la serie roja en la médula ósea trasplantada es mediada por un mecanismo inmune. En este trabajo se describe un paciente portador de una leucemia aguda en quien se realizó un TCPH alogeneico (ABO incompatible con su donante. Teniendo niveles bajos de aglutininas contra el grupo sanguíneo de la donante, desarrolló una aplasia pura de serie roja post - TCPH. La misma no mejoró con tratamiento con eritropoyetina o con un refuerzo de progenitores hematopoyéticos de sangre periférica de la misma donante (boost, resolviéndose totalmente luego de un tratamiento exitoso con globulina antilinfocitaria de origen equino.ABO incompatibility in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be associated with incomplete or delayed erythroid engraftment, being pure red cell aplasia (PRCA the most severe complication in this setting. Attempts for the treatment of PRCA have been made with erythropoietin or with plasmapheresis with relative success, and some authors have reported the reversibility of PRCA with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG or ATG, based on the assumption that PRCA might be immunologically mediated. We report herewith a patient with acute leukemia who developed post - BMT pure red cell aplasia. His sibling donor (sister was HLA identical and ABO incompatible, having low agglutinin

  17. Extension of the biological effective dose to the MIRD schema and possible implications in radionuclide therapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Sébastien; Hobbs, Robert F; Prideaux, Andrew R; Wahl, Richard L; Sgouros, George

    2008-03-01

    In dosimetry-based treatment planning protocols, patients with rapid clearance of the radiopharmaceutical require a larger amount of initial activity than those with slow clearance to match the absorbed dose to the critical organ. As a result, the dose-rate to the critical organ is higher in patients with rapid clearance and may cause unexpected toxicity compared to patients with slow clearance. In order to account for the biological impact of different dose-rates, radiobiological modeling is beginning to be applied to the analysis of radionuclide therapy patient data. To date, the formalism used for these analyses is based on kinetics derived from activity in a single organ, the target. This does not include the influence of other source organs to the dose and dose-rate to the target organ. As a result, only self-dose irradiation in the target organ contributes to the dose-rate. In this work, the biological effective dose (BED) formalism has been extended to include the effect of multiple source organ contributions to the net dose-rate in a target organ. The generalized BED derivation has been based on the Medical Internal Radionuclide Dose Committee (MIRD) schema assuming multiple source organs following exponential effective clearance of the radionuclide. A BED-based approach to determine the largest safe dose to critical organs has also been developed. The extended BED formalism is applied to red marrow dosimetry, as well as kidney dosimetry considering the cortex and the medulla separately, since both those organs are commonly dose limiting in radionuclide therapy. The analysis shows that because the red marrow is an early responding tissue (high alpha/beta), it is less susceptible to unexpected toxicity arising from rapid clearance of high levels of administered activity in the marrow or in the remainder of the body. In kidney dosimetry, the study demonstrates a complex interplay between clearance of activity in the cortex and the medulla, as well as the

  18. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  19. A SIMPLIFIED IN VIVO DOSLMETRY FOR TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION PRIOR TO BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泽久

    1994-01-01

    For TBI (total body irradiation) prior to BMT (bone marrow transplantation) and in order to guarantee exact treatment, it is necessary to perfect is vivo dosimetry to detect any deviation of the treatment and to verify the dose dis-tribution. A simplified and convenient transmission type in vivo dosimetry and problems are introduced and discussed.

  20. 自体红骨髓构建非细胞型组织工程化骨修复骨缺损%Repairing bone defects by non-cell based tissue engineered complex constructed by autologous red bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文良; 邓江; 贾东林; 阮世强; 苑成

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell based tissue engineered bone is successful in the repair of bone defects, but it is a complex operation,easy to be contaminated and takes a long time, and not conducive to clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of repairing large-segment bone defects by non-cell based tissue engineered complexconstructed by autologous red bone marrow.METHODS: Twenty-seven rabbits were used to prepare 2 cm unilateral radial large-segment bone defect models, and thenrandomly divided into group A, group B and group C. Group A was implanted with autologous red bone marrow to constructtissue engineered bone (autologous red bone marrow+recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1/coralline hydroxyapatite);group B was implanted with autologous red bone marrow/coralline hydroxyapatite artificial bone material; group C was implantedwith coralline hydroxyapatite/recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 artificial bone material.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Group A was superior to the other two group in terms of osteogenic potential and materialdegradation by comparison of degree of bone formation, bone trabecular number, the structure formation of mature bone andimplant degradation at 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). Non-cell based tissue engineered bone constructed byautologous red bone marrow has better osteogenic activity, and effective to repair large-segment bone defects.%背景:细胞型组织工程化骨修复骨缺损的效果良好,但存在操作复杂,容易污染及花费时间长等不足,不利于临床应用.目的:观察自体红骨髓构建的非细胞型组织工程化骨修复大段骨缺损的成骨效果.方法:在27只家兔一侧桡骨制作2 cm大段骨缺损模型后,随机分3组,分别植入自体红骨髓+重组人胰岛素样生长因子1/珊瑚羟基磷灰石非细胞型组织工程化骨、自体红骨髓/珊瑚羟基磷灰石复合人工骨材料、珊瑚羟基磷灰石/重组人胰岛素样生长因子1复

  1. Dosimetry service removal

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    Dear personal dosimeter user, Please note that the Dosimetry service has moved in building 55, the service is now located in the main floor: 55-R-004. Main floor instead of second floor. On your right hand when accessing in the building. Thank you Dosimetry Service

  2. Deerhorn Coral Bone and the Certainly Clinician Practice of Aspect Compound Aspect of Red Marrow%鹿角珊瑚骨与自体红骨髓复合体的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄鑫刚; 王少卿; 于强; 毛庆福

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To inquire use the natural material , and to combine from the aspect the red marrow transplanting substitute human body bone organisation damaged to the four limbs bones reaches the repair action that the bone does not link . Methods: To uses the red marrow of natural deerhorn coral of ocean and from aspect to mix to plant to cure four limbs the bones damaged and wounds bone and does not link , and uses X's thread piece the art after and the light looking glass and electricity looking glass observation killing . Results: 31 example patients' soliciting contributions 30 example bones heals , and 1 example because of infects after the art is modified other method and is cured , and time 8-14's moon is healed by the bone . We followed up a case by regular visits to 10 months- 7 years .Conclusion: Deerhorn coral bone physics and chemistry quality is stable , and very small structure and the human body bone is roughly the same , and possesses good living things each other the dissolving natures with falling Xie Xing , and is the good carrier and frame healing of red marrow . The very small structure with the coral bone itself for the carrier sticking is only organisation containing rich directionals nature and guiding nature bone grandfather's cell from the red marrow of aspect , and that to guide into the bone active is the strongest a cell between marrow , and to plant into the thing is one kind of human body bone alternation material of ideal to two combinations%  目的:探讨采用天然材料结合自体红骨髓移植代替人体骨组织对四肢骨缺损及骨不连的修复作用。方法:采用海洋天然鹿角珊瑚与自体红骨髓混合植入治疗四肢骨缺损及创伤性骨不连接,术后采用X线片、光镜、电镜观察结果。结果:本组稿31例患者中30例骨性愈合,1例因术后感染改用其它方法治疗,骨愈合时间8~14个月。随访10个月~7年。结论:鹿角珊瑚骨理化性质稳定,

  3. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  4. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  5. 蒙特卡罗方法计算外照射所致红骨髓剂量方法的研究%Monte Carlo simulation methods of determining red bone marrow dose from external radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佚名; 刘海宽; 顾乃谷; 吴锦海; 黄卫琴; 王凤仙; 王力; 苏旭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide evidence for a more reasonable method of determining red bone marrow dose by analyzing and comparing existing simulation methods.Methods By utilizing Monte Carlo simulation software MCNPX,the absorbed doses of red hone marrow of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)adult female voxel phantom were calculated throush 4 different methods:direct energy deposition.dose response function(DRF),King-Spiers factor method and mass-energy absorption coefficient (MEAC).The radiation sources were defined as infinite plate.sources with the energy ranging from 20 keV to 10 MeV.and 23 sources with different energies were simulated in total.The source was placed right next to the front of the RPI model to achieve a homogeneous anteroposterior radiation scenario.The results of different simulated photon energy sources through different methods were compared.Results When the photon energy was lower than 100 key,the direct energy deposition method gave the highest result while the MEAC and King-Spiers factor methods showed more reasonable results.When the photon energy was higher than 150 keV taking into account of the higher absorption ability of red bone marrow at highcr photon energy,the result of the King-Spiers factor method was larger than those of other methods.Conclusions The King-Spiers factor method might be the most reasonable method to estimate the red bone marrow dose from external radiation.%目的 对现有的红骨髓剂量模拟计算方法进行比较和分析.为确定更为合理的计算方法提供依据.方法 借助MCNPX蒙特卡罗模拟软件,模拟了能量20 keV~10 MeV的γ光子源,对Rensselaer理工学院(RPI)体素人体模型进行前后(AP)全身均匀照射,分别采用直接能量沉积法、剂量响应函数法(DRF)、King-Spiers因子法和质能吸收系数法(MEAC),进行红骨髓剂量的模拟计算.结果 在入射γ光子能量低于100 keV时,直接能量沉积法的结果最大,而质能吸收系数法和King

  6. Bone Marrow Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalayer, Emilie; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Ninet, Jacques; Durupt, Stephane; Tebib, Jacques; Asli, Bouchra; Lambotte, Olivier; Ffrench, Martine; Vasselon, Christian; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-05-19

    Besides peripheral cytopenias, bone marrow abnormalities, such as fibrosis, pure red cell aplasia, and aplastic anemia have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting that bone marrow may be a target organ in SLE. Our objective was to describe this bone marrow involvement. This registry is a nationwide retrospective study. Centers provided data concerning medical history, SLE manifestations, type of hematologic disorder, treatments and outcome. Bone marrow aspirations and/or biopsies were transferred for centralized review. Thirty patients from 19 centers were included. Central hematologic manifestations comprised bone marrow fibrosis (n=17; 57%), pure red cell aplasia (n=8; 27%), myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3; 10%), aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis (n=1; 3% each). Bone marrow involvement was diagnosed concomitantly with SLE in 12 patients. Bone marrow biopsies showed fibrosis in 19 cases, including one case of pure red cell aplasia and one case of agranulocytosis and variable global marrow cellularity. Treatments included corticosteroids (90%), hydroxychloroquine (87%), rituximab (33%), intravenous immunoglobulins (30%), mycophenolate mofetil (20%) and ciclosporine (20%). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 1-142), 24 patients manifested complete improvement. No patient died. This registry comprises the largest series of SLE patients with bone marrow involvement. It demonstrates the strong link between SLE and bone marrow fibrosis. Patients with atypical or refractory cytopenia associated with SLE should undergo bone marrow examination to enable appropriate, and often effective, treatment. Long-term prognosis is good. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Brian J. [Imaging Technology Group, GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, Amersham, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom); Wall, Anders; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Silvia [Uppsala University, Section of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry in humans of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine, a synthetic L-leucine analogue being investigated as a potential diagnostic biomarker for neoplasia. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 6 healthy volunteers were acquired at up to 16 time points up to about 5 h after a bolus administration of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine (153.8 {+-} 2.2 MBq). Venous blood samples were taken up to about 4 h post-injection from which {sup 18}F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma were measured. Urine was collected as voided up to 4 h post-injection, from which the excreted {sup 18}F activity was measured. Absolute values of the {sup 18}F activity contained in up to 11 source regions (brain, salivary glands, lung, heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, red bone marrow, kidneys, uterus and urinary bladder contents) were determined directly from quantitative analysis of the images. For each source region, the {sup 18}F activity decay-corrected and normalised to that injected, as a function of time, was fit by an analytical function which was subsequently integrated to yield the cumulated activity normalised to the injected activity. These normalised cumulated activities were then used as input to the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modelling (OLINDA/EXM) package to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry of each subject following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. An effective dose was then estimated for each subject. [{sup 18}F]Fluciclovine was clinically well tolerated in this study. Very little {sup 18}F was excreted with only a mean value of 3.3 % present in the urine at about 4 h post-injection; no activity within the intestinal contents was noted. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (13.8 %), red bone marrow (11.1 %) and lung (7.1 %). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses per unit administered activity were received by the pancreas (102.2 {mu

  8. Evaluation of detectors for blood bioanalysis in Lu-177 and I-131 therapies for bone marrow dosimetry; Avaliacao de detectores para bioanalise de sangue em terapias com Lu-177 and I-131 para dosimetria de medula ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, Amilie Louize

    2016-10-01

    The measures traceability is mandatory for minimizing uncertainties in internal dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals clinical studies and ensures the quality of the standard. Equipment should have resolution and efficiency compatible with radionuclides energies and, additionally, be able to quantify variations in human bodies' activities samples since the initial administration near the minimum residual activities. For testing three equipment (ionization chamber Capintec 25R, sodium iodine scintillator LTI Genesys Gamma-1 and high hyperpure germanium detector Canberra), they were prepared Lu-177 and I-131 radiation sources simulating patient's blood samples activities by adopting the following hypothesis: (1) initial activities according the Brazilian protocols; (2) blood volume in the whole body (5.3 L for adult men and 1.4 L for 5 years-old children); (3) effective half-lives (1.61 h and 42.9 h for Lu-177 bi-exponential adjustment and 15.7 h for I-131 mono-exponential adjustment); (4) sampling between 30 min and 168 h; (v) blood density adjustments. The standard sources were measured in the secondary standard ionization chamber Centronics IG11 at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes. The Capintec ionization chamber efficiencies ranged, respectively for I-131 and Lu-177, between (111.58±0.02)% and (102.27±0.01)% and HPGe semiconductor detector efficiencies ranged, respectively, between (89.40±0.03)% and (87.80±0.04)%. For the NaI detector, when the Lu-177 sources were positioned inside the detector the efficiencies ranged between (12.66±0.01)% and (11.54± 0.07)% and when the sources were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector the efficiencies decreased to less than 5%. For I-131 sources positioned inside the detector, the efficiencies ranged between (29.76±0.21)% and (30.20±0.04)% and they decreased to less than 5% when they were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector (deviation greater than 95

  9. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  10. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  11. Dosimetry for SIRT; Dosimetrie bei der SIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.P. [Universitatesklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-09-15

    Dosimetry is only one aspect of treatment planning for 'Selective internal radiotherapy' (SIRT) or 'transarterial radioembolization' (TARE) with Yttrium-90 Microspheres is an emerging palliative therapy for malignant hepatoma. Dosimetric considerations, together with interventional, oncological and hepatological aspects need to be considered for optimal treatment stratification. The product-specific dosimetric calculations for 2 commercially available microsphere products are compared and set in relation to the average doses to liver and tumor. Ostensible discrepancies between the dose-response of Y-90-microspheres and external beam radiation therapy are discussed in the context of radiobiological concepts. (orig.)

  12. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been...... or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification...

  13. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  14. Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetry control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY-AUGUST 2004 are available from their usual dispatchers. Please have your films changed before the 15 JULY 2004. The color of the dosimeter valid in July-August 2004 is PINK.

  15. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp Registered-Sign . The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  16. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  17. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  18. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  19. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  20. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  1. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  2. Chronic persistent parvovirus B19 bone marrow infection resulting in transfusion-dependent pure red cell aplasia in multiple myeloma after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and severe graft versus host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrasch, Matthias; Schmidt, Volker; Hammer, Andreas; Hochhaus, Andreas; Rosée, Paul La; Petersen, Iver; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Baier, Michael; Sayer, Herbert G; Hermann, Beate

    2017-03-01

    We report a chronic persistent Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection despite long-term immunoglobulin substitution intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and tapering of immune-suppressive therapy in a 41-year-old patient after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and long-term immune-suppressive therapy due to a steroid-refractory graft versus host disease (GvHD). More than 18 month after alloHSCT the patient acquired a de novo transfusion-dependent pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) due to a PVB19 infection. Despite prompt tapering of GvHD-directed therapy and application of various IVIG regimens, transfusion-dependent anaemia (fourerythrocyte concentrates a month) persisted, and a high PVB19 replication is still evident for more than 3.5 years. Virological analysis at different time points showed a very high PVB19 load in the blood (range: 6.79E9-1.56E11), as well as highly elevated PVB19-IgG (range: 1.95-3.34) and -IgM (range: 1.97-9.74) levels in serology testing. Other virological parameters were not significantly elevated. After 30 months, a bone marrow (BM) examination still revealed a highly dysplastic erythropoiesis without any cellular maturation, and a high-grade expression of PVB19 within the dysplastic erythropoietic progenitor cells, consistent with a PRCA due to a PVB19 infection of the BM. We suggest that PRCA was most probably caused by a primary PVB19 infection of unknown source following alloHSCT with a PVB19-negative donor. PRCA due a PVB19 infection of the BM may persist over a long-time, despite prolonged administration of various IVIG regimen and tapering of GvHD-directed therapy. The case emphasizes the importance of PVB19 monitoring in heavily pre-treated haematological patients. Currently, PVB19-directed treatment options are extremely limited and optimized therapeutic strategies are urgently needed.

  3. Radioembolization dosimetry : the road ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, JFW; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-01-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the o

  4. The pathology of bone marrow failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguit, Roos J; van den Tweel, Jan G

    2010-11-01

    An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerably between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure, but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children and adults. We classified the causes of bone marrow failure according to the main presenting haematological abnormality, i.e. anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia. The following red cell disorders are discussed: red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anaemia, congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, iron deficiency anaemia, anaemia of chronic disease and megaloblastic anaemia. The neutropenias occur in the context of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), severe congenital neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia, immune-related neutropenia and non-immune neutropenia. In addition, the following causes of thrombocytopenia are discussed: congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenia with absent radii, immune-related thrombocytopenia and non-immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, we pay attention to the following pancytopenic disorders: Fanconi anaemia, dyskeratosis congenita, aplastic anaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  5. MRI marrow observations in thalassemia: the effects of the primary disease, transfusional therapy, and chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Sheth, S.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital, 3959 Broadway, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Abramson, S. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Piomelli, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital, 3959 Broadway, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The magnetic resonance bone marrow patterns in thalassemia were evaluated to determine changes produced by transfusion and chelation therapy. Thirteen patients had T1- and T2-weighted images of the spine, pelvis and femurs. Three received no therapy (age range 2.5-3 years). Three were ``hypertransfused`` (transfused to maintain a hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dl) and not chelated because of age (age range 6 months-8 years). Seven were ``hypertransfused`` and chelated (age range 12-35 years). Signal characteristics of marrow were compared with those of surrounding muscle and fat. Fatty marrow (isointense with subcutaneous fat) was compared with red marrow (hypointense to fat and slightly hyperintense to muscle). Marrow hypointense to muscle was identified as iron deposition within red marrow. The untreated group demonstrated signal consistent with red marrow throughout the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused but not chelated patients demonstrated marked iron deposition in the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused and chelated patients demonstrated iron deposition in the central skeleton and a mixed appearance of marrow in the peripheral skeleton. The MR appearance of marrow in thalassemia is a reflection of the patient`s transfusion and chelation therapy. Iron deposition occurs despite chelation therapy in sites of active red marrow. As red marrow retreats centrally with age, so does the pattern of iron deposition. The long-term biological effects of this iron deposition are unknown. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Relocation of Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, March 30. From Monday, April 2 onwards you will find us in building 55/1-001. Please note that during that day we might still have some problems with the internet connections and cannot fully guarantee normal service procedures. The service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move 8.30 - 12.00, afternoons closed Tel. 72155

  7. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  8. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  9. Bone marrow aplasia in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: successful treatment with antithymocyte globulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Singal, R; Winfield, D A; Greaves, M.

    1991-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is a rare but well known association of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Pancytopenia due to bone marrow aplasia has not been previously described in CLL. A 42 year old man with B cell CLL became severely pancytopenic with bone marrow aplasia. Bone marrow culture resulted in a greatly reduced colony formation. High dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were unsuccessful. Prompt and complete marrow recovery ensued after administration of antith...

  10. Dosimetry with phantom for total body irradiation (TBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Takako; Sakakura, Noriyuki; Obata, Yasunori; Tabushi, Katuyoshi; Kondou, Satoru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Koyama, Syuuji; Aoyama, Yuuichi; Shimohira, Akiyo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is being used as a method of preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In TBI, the dose calculation is based on dosimetry using a phantom. We measured the basic dose with a phantom using a 10 MV X-rays. We confirmed the accuracy of the dose calculation performed in our facilities and investigated a method of more accurate dosimetry. We measured the variation in dose according to the size of the phantom and the depth using a tough water phantom, and examined the difference in TMR according to SCD, field size, and size of the phantom. Consequently, the dose has been changed regardless of the size of the phantom at larger than 80 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3}, and it is about 1% larger than 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3}. Also TMR has changed according to various conditions, including the size of the phantom, field size, and SCD. Therefore, it was found that dosimetry using the 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3} phantom leads to underestimation in dose calculation, and there is no difference in dose between the field size of 151.5 x 160 cm{sup 2} and 151.5 x 80 cm{sup 2}. It is also necessary to consider the effect of the vertical size of the phantom. (author)

  11. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  12. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Maarten L. J., E-mail: m.l.j.smits-3@umcutrecht.nl; Elschot, Mattijs [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Sze, Daniel Y. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kao, Yung H. [Austin Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Australia); Nijsen, Johannes F. W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Iagaru, Andre H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States); Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  13. Radioembolization dosimetry: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-04-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  14. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  15. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R Y; Ekeh, S; Basmadjian, G

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of 131I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96 +/- 0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for 123I, 125I and 131I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 7 mu Gray, 5 mu Gray and 29 mu Gray per MBq of 123I, 125I, and 131I administered respectively.

  16. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  17. Strahlungsmessung und Dosimetrie

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    „Strahlungsquellen und Dosimetrie“ ist Teil einer Lehrbuchreihe zur Strahlungsphysik und zum Strahlenschutz. Der erste Teil befasst sich mit den physikalischen Grundlagen der Strahlungsdetektoren und der Strahlungsmessung. Im zweiten Teil werden die Konzepte und Verfahren der klinischen Dosimetrie dargestellt. Der dritte Abschnitt erläutert ausführlich die Dosisverteilungen der klinisch angewendeten Strahlungsarten. Im vierten Teil werden weitere Messaufgaben der Strahlungsphysik einschließlich der Messsysteme für die Bildgebung mit Röntgenstrahlung dargestellt. Neben den grundlegenden Ausführungen enthält dieser Band im laufenden Text zahlreiche Tabellen und Grafiken zur technischen und medizinischen Radiologie, die bei der praktischen Arbeit sehr hilfreich sein können und 199 Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen zur Vertiefung der Inhalte. Für die zweite Auflage wurden die Darstellungen der Elektronen- und der Protonendosimetrie sowie der bildgebenden Verfahren mit Computertomografen deutlich erweit...

  18. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  19. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  20. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  1. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult female—internal electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Shannon E.; DeWeese, Lindsay S.; Maynard, Matthew R.; Rajon, Didier A.; Wayson, Michael B.; Marshall, Emily L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-12-01

    An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for internal electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined reference adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used internal dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida reference adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated

  2. Optimizing the dynamic range extension of a radiochromic film dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Soares, Christopher G; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2009-02-01

    The authors present a radiochromic film dosimetry protocol for a multicolor channel radiochromic film dosimetry system consisting of the external beam therapy (EBT) model GAFCHROMIC film and the Epson Expression 1680 flat-bed document scanner. Instead of extracting only the red color channel, the authors are using all three color channels in the absorption spectrum of the EBT film to extend the dynamic dose range of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. By optimizing the dose range for each color channel, they obtained a system that has both precision and accuracy below 1.5%, and the optimized ranges are 0-4 Gy for the red channel, 4-50 Gy for the green channel, and above 50 Gy for the blue channel.

  3. Optimizing the dynamic range extension of a radiochromic film dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Soares, Christopher G.; Podgorsak, Ervin B. [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The authors present a radiochromic film dosimetry protocol for a multicolor channel radiochromic film dosimetry system consisting of the external beam therapy (EBT) model GAFCHROMIC film and the Epson Expression 1680 flat-bed document scanner. Instead of extracting only the red color channel, the authors are using all three color channels in the absorption spectrum of the EBT film to extend the dynamic dose range of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. By optimizing the dose range for each color channel, they obtained a system that has both precision and accuracy below 1.5%, and the optimized ranges are 0-4 Gy for the red channel, 4-50 Gy for the green channel, and above 50 Gy for the blue channel.

  4. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  5. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time.

  6. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  7. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Ekeh, S. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (USA)); Basmadjian, G. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1989-12-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of {sup 131}I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96+-0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for {sup 123}I, {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 0.7 {mu}Gray, 0.5 {mu}Gray and 2.9 {mu}Gray per MBq of {sup 123}I, {sup 123}I, and {sup 131}I administered respectively. (orig.).

  8. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  9. For information: Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The service has noticed that there are dosimeter holders who have changed their activities and thus have no longer need of dosimeter as a permanent basis in their work (persons who go rarely to the controlled areas). The reduction of persons in the regular distribution list of dosimeters will lighten the work of the service (distribution, evaluation and consolidation of doses) as well as the work of the distributors, needless to say the economical input this would have for CERN. For the persons who only need a dosimeter temporarily we would like to remind that there is a quick and simple procedure to have one immediately from the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact the service (dosimetry.service@cern.ch) if you do not need a dosimeter regularly. Thank you for your cooperation. http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  10. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  11. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  12. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  13. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  14. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  15. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  16. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendling, M.; McDermott, L.N.; Mans, A.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; Sonke, J.J.; Stroom, J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute--Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because t

  17. In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Beddar, Sam; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been used in brachytherapy (BT) for decades with a number of different detectors and measurement technologies. However, IVD in BT has been subject to certain difficulties and complexities, in particular due to challenges of the high-gradient BT dose distribution and th...

  18. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the s

  19. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  20. ESR dosimetry: achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffa, O., E-mail: baffa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and more recently as Electron Magnetic Resonance (Emr), is a spectroscopy technique able to detect unpaired electrons such as those created by the interaction ionizing radiation with matter. When the unpaired electrons created by ionizing radiation are stable over some reasonable time, ESR can be used to measure the radiation dose deposited in the material under study. In principle, any insulating material that satisfies this requisite can be used as a dosimeter. ESR has been used in retrospective dosimetry in case of radiological accidents using natural constituents of human body such as teeth, bones and nails as well as fortuitous materials as sugar, sweeteners and plastics. When using teeth the typical detected dose is 0.5 Gy for, for X-Band spectrometers (9 GHz) and even lower doses if higher frequency spectrometers are used. Clinical dosimetry is another area of potential use of this dosimetric modality. In this application the amino acid alanine has been proposed and being used. Alanine dosimeters are very easy to prepare and require no complicated treatments for use. Alanine/ESR dosimetry satisfies many of the required properties for clinical applications such as water equivalent composition, independence of response for the energy range used in therapy and high precision. Other organic materials such as ammonium tartrate are being investigated to increase the sensitivity of ESR for clinical applications. Finally, industrial applications can also benefit from this dosimetry. The challenges to expand applications, the number of users and research groups of ESR dosimetry will be discussed. (Author)

  1. MR marrow signs of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Sheth, S.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, 3959 Broadway, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Hurlet, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, 3959 Broadway, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Comerci, S.C. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Piomelli, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, 3959 Broadway, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Babies and Children`s Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) marrow signal in the axial and appendicular skeleton of 13 transfusion-dependent and chelated pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia (SSD) was compared with marrow signal in six non-transfusion-dependent patients with SSD. Hepatic, pancreatic, and renal MR signal were also evaluated. Indication for hypertransfusion therapy was primarily prior history of stroke. Transfusion-dependent patients had evidence of iron deposition throughout the imaged marrow and the liver, despite deferoxamine chelation therapy. Non-transfusion-dependent patients did not demonstrate grossly apparent signs of iron overload. Red marrow restoration was present in the spine, pelvis, and long bones and, in some patients, within the epiphyses. Marrow edema secondary to vaso-occlusive crises was evident in the metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones in areas of both red and fatty marrow and was best seen using fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging techniques. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  3. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  4. Dosimetry by means of external dose rate measurements in patients undergoing 131I thyroid cancer theraphy; Dosimetria de pacientes con cancer diferenciado de tiroides en tratamiento de terapia metabolica con 131I a partir de medidas de tasa de dosis externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.A.; Ferrer, N.; Cordoba, D.; Alonso, L.; Sastre, J.M.; Arranz, L.

    2010-07-01

    Dosimetry in patients treated with radiopharmaceuticals needs to be carried out for each individual treatment. No standardized procedure is currently available. In our study, the dosimetry for each individual treatment has been calculated using the dose protocol of the Sociedad Espanola de Fisica Medica for the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131I. This protocol is currently under review, since it proposes a procedure which only uses the daily external dose rate measurements during the patient hospital stay and an external dose rate measurement performed 7-9 days after the activity administration. The results obtained seem to be consistent with those found by other authors following different procedures. Moreover, this protocol has proved to be very useful to verify the values of doses established for red marrow are not exceeded. The maximum activity that can be administered in later treatments could also be assessed with this procedure. Additionally, the activity in urine, which cannot be measured directly, was determined. The potential dose which any patients relative or any person staying close to the patient might receive during the treatment was determined as well. These results make it possible to establish more realistic criteria regarding radiation protection. (Author).

  5. MISTI Shielding and Dosimetry Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable on-orbit dosimetry is necessary for understanding effects of space radiation environments on spacecraft microelectronics performance and comparison of...

  6. Fifth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, C.S.

    1980-02-01

    The fifth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (PDIS) was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility on March 20-22, 1979. This study is the latest PDIS in the continuing series started at the DOSAR facility in 1974. The PDIS is a three day study, typically in March, where personnel dosimeters are mailed to the DOSAR facility, exposed to a range of low-level neutron radiation doses (1 to 15 mSv or equivalently, 100 to 1500 mrem) and neutron-to-gamma ratios (1:1-10:1) using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as the radiation source, and returned to the participants for evaluation. This report is a summary and analysis of the results reported by the various participants. The participants are able to intercompare their results with those of others who made dose measurements under identical experimental conditions.

  7. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)]. e-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  8. NOTE FROM THE DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During March, the Dosimetry Service will be opened from 8h30 to 12h in the morning and closed every afternoon.   We have established that many people, who are provided regularly with a personal dosimeter (film badge), have changed their activity and do not need it anymore, because they do not, or only exceptionally, enter controlled areas. If you are one of these persons, please contact the Personal Dosimeter Service (tel: 72155). There is a simplified procedure for obtaining a dosimeter if you have an immediate need for short-term visits in controlled areas. A reduction of the number of persons on the regular distribution list of dosimeters would decrease our and the distributors workload. It would also contribute to significant savings in the dosimetry, and thus CERN, budget. We thank you in advance for your understanding and for your collaboration.

  9. Dosimetry for the external radiation therapy. Dosimetry with alanine; Dosimetrie fuer die externe Strahlentherapie. Dosimetrie mit Alanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Mathias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Alanin-Dosimetrie'

    2013-06-15

    The alanine-ESR dosimetry in the PTB is described. The response power of alanine related to the water energy dose for X-rays with average energy of 10-1000 keV is presented. Furthermore the application of alanine for the quality assurance in the radiation therapy is described by means of the prostate irradiation and the therapy of a tumor in the neck region as examples. (HSI)

  10. Differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Tao Zhan; Yu Wang; Lai Wei; Bin Liu; Hong-Song Chen; Xu Cong; Ran Fei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy.METHODS: Bone marrow cells were collected from the tibia of rat with partial hepatectomy, the medial and left hepatic lobes were excised. The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) were enriched from the bone marrow cells by depleting red cells and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The sorted bone marrow stem cells were labeled by PKH26-GL in vitro and autotransplanted by portal vein injection. After 2wk, the transplanted bone marrow stem cells in liver were examined by the immunohistochemistry of albumin (hepatocyte-specific marker).RESULTS: The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) accounted for 2.8% of bone marrow cells without red cells. The labeling rate of 10μM PKH26-GL on sorted bone marrow stem cells was about 95%.There were sporadic PKH26-GL-labeled cells among hepatocytes in liver tissue section, and some of the cells expressed albumin.CONCLUSION: Rat bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in regenerative environment and may participate in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

  11. Skeletal dosimetry for external exposures to photons based on {mu}CT images of spongiosa: Consideration of voxel resolution, cluster size, and medullary bone surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Brown, K. A. Robson [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 1000, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 500, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil and Escola Politecnica, UPE, Rua Benfica 455, CEP 50751-460, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, 43 Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Skeletal dosimetry based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone has recently been introduced to calculate the red bone marrow (RBM) and the bone surface cell (BSC) equivalent doses in human phantoms for external exposure to photons. In order to use the {mu}CT images for skeletal dosimetry, spongiosa voxels in the skeletons were replaced at run time by so-called micromatrices, which have exactly the size of a spongiosa voxel and contain segmented trabecular bone and marrow microvoxels. A cluster (=parallelepiped) of 2x2x2=8 micromatrices was used systematically and periodically throughout the spongiosa volume during the radiation transport calculation. Systematic means that when a particle leaves a spongiosa voxel to enter into a neighboring spongiosa voxel, then the next micromatrix in the cluster will be used. Periodical means that if the particle travels through more than two spongiosa voxels in a row, then the cluster will be repeated. Based on the bone samples available at the time, clusters of up to 3x3x3=27 micromatrices were studied. While for a given trabecular bone volume fraction the whole-body RBM equivalent dose showed converging results for cluster sizes between 8 and 27 micromatrices, this was not the case for the BSC equivalent dose. The BSC equivalent dose seemed to be very sensitive to the number, form, and thickness of the trabeculae. In addition, the cluster size and/or the microvoxel resolution were considered to be possible causes for the differences observed. In order to resolve this problem, this study used a bone sample large enough to extract clusters containing up to 8x8x8=512 micromatrices and which was scanned with two different voxel resolutions. Taking into account a recent proposal, this investigation also calculated the BSC equivalent dose on medullary surfaces of cortical bone in the arm and leg bones. The results showed (1) that different voxel resolutions have no effect on the RBM equivalent dose but do influence the BSC equivalent

  12. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  13. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Kuker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  14. Dosimetry studies in Zaborie village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Stepanenko, V F; Kondrashov, A E; Petin, D; Skvortsov, V; Ivannikov, A; Tikounov, D; Gavrilin, Y; Snykov, V P

    2000-05-01

    Dosimetry studies in Zaborie, a territory in Russia highly contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, were carried out in July, 1997. Studies on dosimetry for people are important not only for epidemiology but also for recovery of local social activity. The local contamination of the soil was measured to be 1.5-6.3 MBq/m2 of Cs-137 with 0.7-4 microSv/h of dose rate. A case study for a villager presently 40 years old indicates estimations of 72 and 269 mSv as the expected internal and external doses during 50 years starting in 1997 based on data of a whole-body measurement of Cs-137 and environmental dose rates. Mean values of accumulated external and internal doses for the period from the year 1986 till 1996 are also estimated to be 130 mSv and 16 mSv for Zaborie. The estimation of the 1986-1996 accumulated dose on the basis of large scale ESR teeth enamel dosimetry provides for this village, the value of 180 mSv. For a short term visitor from Japan to this area, external and internal dose are estimated to be 0.13 mSv/9d (during visit in 1997) and 0.024 mSv/50y (during 50 years starting from 1997), respectively.

  15. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  16. Bone marrow MR imaging as predictors of outcome in hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jun; Cheng, Li-Na; Duan, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Bi-Ling [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Griffith, James F. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xu, Hong-Gui [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Pediatrics, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of femoral marrow MR imaging as predictor of outcome for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in beta-thalassemia major. MR imaging of the proximal femur, including T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery and in-phase and out-of-phase fast field echo images, was prospectively performed in 27 thalassemia major patients being prepared for HSCT. The area of red marrow and its percentage of the proximal femur were measured, and the presence of marrow hemosiderosis was assessed. Age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between red marrow area percentage and marrow hemosiderosis and HSCT outcome. Red area percentage were less in patients with successful (90.25{+-}4.14%) compared to unsuccessful transplants (94.54% {+-}2.93%; p=0.01). Red marrow area percentage correlated positively with duration of symptoms(r=0.428, p=0.026) and serum ferritin (r=0.511, p=0.006). In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, red marrow area percentage was significantly inversely associated with successful HSCT (OR=1.383, 95% CI: 1.059-1.805, p=0.005). Marrow hemosidersosis and duration of sympotms and serum ferritin were not associated with HSCT outcome(p=0.174, 0.974, 0.762, respectively). Red marrow area percentage of proximal femur on MR imaging is a useful predictor of HSCT outcome. (orig.)

  17. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  18. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards, the uncer...

  19. Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and scouting of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy in patients with relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, Saiyada N.F.; Lingen, Arthur van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Otto J.; Zijlstra, Josee M.; Huijgens, Peter C. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Haematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lubberink, Mark [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uppsala University, and Medical Physics, Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan can be used to monitor biodistribution of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan as shown in mice. The aim of this study was to assess biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in humans on the basis of {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan imaging, to evaluate whether co-injection of a therapeutic amount of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan influences biodistribution of {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan and whether pre-therapy scout scans with {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan can be used to predict biodistribution of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and the dose-limiting organ during therapy. Seven patients with relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma scheduled for autologous stem cell transplantation underwent PET scans at 1, 72 and 144 h after injection of {proportional_to}70 MBq {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan and again 2 weeks later after co-injection of 15 MBq/kg or 30 MBq/kg {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Volumes of interest were drawn over liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen and tumours. Ibritumomab tiuxetan organ absorbed doses were calculated using OLINDA. Red marrow dosimetry was based on blood samples. Absorbed doses to tumours were calculated using exponential fits to the measured data. The highest {sup 90}Y absorbed dose was observed in liver (3.2 {+-} 1.8 mGy/MBq) and spleen (2.9 {+-} 0.7 mGy/MBq) followed by kidneys and lungs. The red marrow dose was 0.52 {+-} 0.04 mGy/MBq, and the effective dose was 0.87 {+-} 0.14 mSv/MBq. Tumour absorbed doses ranged from 8.6 to 28.6 mGy/MBq. Correlation between predicted pre-therapy and therapy organ absorbed doses as based on {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan images was high (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.97). No significant difference between pre-therapy and therapy tumour absorbed doses was found, but correlation was lower (r = 0.75). Biodistribution of {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan is not influenced by simultaneous

  20. National Marrow Donor Program. HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Transplantation FINAL REPORT December 1, 2012 – November 30, 2014 Acronym List 3 BBMT Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation BCP Business Continuity...N00014-13-1-0039 HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation FINAL REPORT December 1, 2012 – November 30, 2014 Acronym List 9 OCR /ICR Optical...manuscript submitted and accepted for publication to the Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. National Marrow Donor Program® N00014-13-1-0039

  1. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  2. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2010-04-07

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  3. The evolving management of Burkitt's lymphoma at Red Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone marrow involvement is rare (7%) but central nervous system involvement is ... Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and University of Cape Town. Alan Davidson, MB ChB, .... bowel infarction and peritonitis following surgery for ...

  4. ESR dosimetry using eggshells and tooth enamel for accidental dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Toshihide; Yamanaka, Chihiro; Ikeya, Motoji [Department of Earth and Space Science, Faculty of Science, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The CO{sub 2}{sup -} signal of eggshells showed a good dose linearity and was appropriate in the wide dose range from 1 to 10 kGy, while ESR signal of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in sea and fresh water shells were saturated at a dose od below 10 kGy. The minimum detectable dose and G-value of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in eggshells were estimated 0.3 Gy and 0.28, respectively. The lifetime of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in eggshells could not be determined exactly because of overlapping organic signals, however it is still sufficiently long for practical use as ESR dosimeter materials. Various bird`s or reptile`s eggshells would be available as natural retrospective ESR dosimeter materials after nuclear accidents. Eggshells will be useful for the food irradiation dosimetry in the dose range of about a few kGy. Tooth enamel is one of the most useful dosimeter materials in public at a accident because of its high sensitivity. ESR dosimetry will replace TLD in near future if the cost of an ESR reader is further reduced . (author)

  5. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Pandya; S G Vaijapurkar; P K Bhatnagar

    2000-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of exposure. The annealed feldspar shows a glow peak at 120°C after gamma exposure. This peak can be used to measure gamma doses beyond 25 cGy when the TL is measured after 24 h from termination of exposure.

  6. Relocation of the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, 30 March. From Monday, 2 April onwards you will find us in Building 55/1-001. Please note that we cannot exclude problems with Internet connections on that day and are therefore unable to guarantee normal service. The Service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move: Open from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. Tel. 7 2155

  7. Extended helical tomo-therapy and concomitant chemotherapy for an uterine cervix carcinoma: dosimetry parameters and hematological toxicity; Tomotherapie helicoidale etendue et chimiotherapie concomitante pour un cancer du col de l'uterus: parametres dosimetriques et toxicite hematologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Thomas, L.; Belhomme, S.; Chemin, A.; Caron, J.; Dejean, C.; Kantor, G.; Richaud, P. [Institut Bergonie, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Floquet, A.; Guyon, F. [Institut Bergonie, Dept. de Chirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2009-10-15

    the extended tomo-therapy associated to concomitant chemotherapy is feasible and allows a dose escalation at the ganglions level. It is necessary to continue to study the dosimetry parameters at the hematopoietic marrow level that are predictive for a hematological toxicity. (N.C.)

  8. National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Collection and Apheresis Centers Closed 7 IIC. Immunogenetic Studies 8 IIC.1 Objective 1 – Influence of HLA Mismatches 8 Task 1 – Donor Recipient... Apheresis Centers – This task is closed. National Marrow Donor Program® N000014-11-1-0339 QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT Development of Medical Technology

  9. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  10. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  11. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank Herbert

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward presentation of the broad concepts underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level student. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged particles with matter, radiotherapy dosimetry, as well as photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Includes many new derivations, such as Kramers X-ray spectrum, as well as topics that have not been thoroughly analyzed in other texts, such as broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem

  12. Age-related Marrow Conversion and Developing Epiphysis in the Proximal Femur: Evaluation with STIR MR Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jinliang; FENG Gansheng; KONG Xiangquan; WANG Jun; HAN Ping

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe the feature of age-related marrow conversion and maturation of epi-physeal cartilage and analyze the distribution of red and yellow marrow in the proximal femur at STIR MR imaging, STIR and T1 weighted MR imaging of the proximal femur in 52 subjects, aged 4 months to 25 years old, were retrospectively analyzed for the distribution and appearance of red and yellow marrow. The subjects with no known bone marrow abnormalities were divided into 6 age groups. The signal intensity of the marrow in the proximal epiphysis, proximal metaphysis, proximal diaphysis, distal diaphysis and greater trochanter was compared with the signal intensity and homo- geneity of surrounding muscle and fat and graded by two observers. The results showed that the con- version of hematopoietic marrow in the proximal femur followed a well-defined sequence, occurring first in the proximal epiphysis, followed by the distal diaphysis, and then greater trochanter and metaphysis. STIR in combination with T1-weighted imaging could display clearly the origin of ossi-fication center and the course of conversion from red to yellow marrow in proximal epiphysis and greater trochanter. STIR imaging showed that the marrow conversion in proximal metaphysic began below epiphyseal plate and intertrochanter. The site of red yellow was distributed in weight-bearing axis by 20 years of age. The marrow conversion of diaphysis was from distal end to proximal end, and the consequence of conversion was that distal diaphysis contained yellow marrow but proximal diaphysis partly red marrow connected with the red marrow of metaphysic. The epiphyseal cartilage had different characters of signal-intensity with age in STIR sequence. The distribution of red marrow in STIR imaging was more close to that of anatomy than T1-weighted imaging. It was concluded that STIR could dynamically display the feature of morrow conversion and the development of epiphyseal cartilage and accurately reveal the age

  13. Antibody formation by bone marrow cells in irradiated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfair, J. H. L.; Purves, Elizabeth C.

    1971-01-01

    Bone marrow-thymus cooperation experiments were carried out in lethally irradiated mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen and direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) as the end point. Various parameters were altered, with the following results: (1) Above 800 rad, the response by marrow cells alone, as well as the increase due to added thymus cells, was independent of irradiation dose. (2) The response of marrow cells was greatest at high SRBC concentrations, but the co-operative effect of thymus cells was most evident at lower SRBC levels, and completely absent at high levels. (3) Increasing the number of marrow cells, without thymus, gave increasing numbers of PFC, but the dose-response curve did not suggest cell synergism. (4) Thymectomy and antithymocyte serum treatment of host or donor did not prevent the response by marrow cells alone. It was concluded that this was a true IgM response by antibody-forming precursors from the marrow, unaided by thymus-derived cells. PMID:4934135

  14. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Caused by Acute Hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Heon; Oh, Suk Joong; Hong, Soojung; Lee, Kyu Bek; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is characterized as a normocytic anemia associated with reticulocytopenia and the absence of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Pure red cell aplasia can be induced by various causes such as thymoma, connective tissue disease, viral infection, lymphoma, and adverse drug reactions. There have been only a few reports of pure red cell aplasia associated with acute viral hepatitis A. In Korea, no case of pure red cell aplasia caused by acute hepatitis A has yet been reported....

  15. Experimental dosimetry of Ho-166 bioglass seed polymer-protected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to develop experimental dosimetry of Ho-166 bio glass seed for brachytherapy studies using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 radio chromium films. The methodology consists of placement of radio chromium films in a compressed breast phantom, along with bio glass polymer-protected seeds of [Si: Ca: Ho] and [Si: Ca: Ho: Zr]. The bio glass seeds were encapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol, before being activated and used in the study. The bio glass seeds were introduced into the breast phantom, along with radio chromium films for a period of 2 hours. After the exposure time, radio chromium films were removed from phantom and digitized for analysis in ImageDIG 2.0 program, which quantifies the intensity of RGB (Red, Green, Blue). The dose calculation was evaluated by Monte Carlo technique. Experimental and theoretical data were used to calibrate the dose distribution. The results were plotted on graphs and dose iso curves were obtained. As conclusion it is possible to perform dosimetry in Ho-166 seed brachytherapy using radio chromium films, limited to a short exposure time and small activity. (author)

  16. Ectopic osteogenetic ability of heterogenous composite fully deproteinized bone compounded by autologous red marrow in vivo%异种完全脱蛋白骨复合自体红骨髓体内的异位成骨能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红星; 郭红先; 杨红彬

    2005-01-01

    背景:骨组织工程发展很快,但目前缺乏理想的支架材料,体外构建的组织工程化活性骨在体内的成骨能力各家报道不一.目的:探讨异种完全脱蛋白骨支架材料复合自体红骨髓体内植入的成骨作用.设计:随机对照的实验研究.单位:解放军济南军区第一五二医院骨科,平顶山市第一人民医院老干部病房,平顶山煤业集团朝川矿医院骨科.材料:实验在济南军区第一五二医院动物实验室完成.4月龄日本大耳白兔40只,体质量2.0~2 5 kg,雌雄不限(平顶山市第一五二医院动物实验室提供).干预:将经物理、化学方法处理制得的小牛完全脱蛋白骨(CFDB)支架材料与免自体红骨髓复合后植入免大腿肌肉内(40只)进行实验,术后4,8周分别进行检测.主要观察指标:①常规组织学检查.②碱性磷酸酶活性测定.③植入物成骨的定量判断.结果:实验组4周和8周移植物组织块ALP活性分别为(63.48±0.873)和(69.527±0.635)IU/L,移植物组织块成骨含量分析分别为(2.50±0.38)和(4.70±0.67)分,对照组4周和8周移植物组织块ALP活性分别为(2.50±0.38)和(4.70±0.67)IU/L,移植物组织块成骨含量分析分别为(1.90±0.54)和(3.40±0.54)分,表明,实验组在同时间点的成骨能力显著高于对照组,并随植入时间的延长,新骨形成增多.结论:异种完全脱蛋白骨支架材料可作为骨组织工程支架材料,复合自体红骨髓后植入体内,其成骨能力明显增加.%BACKGROUND: Although bone tissue engineering has been developed rapidly, ideal scaffold materials are deficient and the ability of tissue engineered bone constructed in vitro was reported inconsistently.OBJECTIVE: To study the ectopic osteogenesis of the implantation in vitro with composite fully deproteinized bone(CFDB) compounded by autologous red marrow.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, the 152 Hospital of Jinan Military Area

  17. Concentrated red bone marrow/platelet-rich fibrin compound with an autologous periosteum debris scaffold for repair of mandibular defects%浓缩红骨髓/富血小板纤维蛋白复合载自体骨膜碎片修复下颌骨缺损★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭灵雨; 刘凯; 刘树发

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The platelet-rich fibrin scaffold structure is conducive to the growth of red bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s and various growth factors, promoting final osteogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of the concentrated red bone marrow/platelet-rich fibrin compound with the autologous periosteum debris scaffold for repair of rabbit mandibular defects. METHODS: Bilateral mandibular bone defect models were prepared in New Zealand white rabbits using self-control method. The left side was the experimental side, and implanted with the concentrated red bone marrow/platelet-rich fibrin compound with the autologous periosteum debris scaffolds; the right side was the control side, and implanted with periosteum fragments and nano-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds. Al experimental animals were sacrificed after 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks to prepare tissue samples for general observation, imaging analysis, hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscope detection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The imaging examination and histological staining showed that the experimental side was superior to the control side in the aspects of bone healing, osteogenesis speed and quality. Under the scanning electron microscope, the experimental side had better compatibility with surrounding tissues and no inflammation reaction. The data of the tooth CT and evidence of new bone formation showed the bone density and new bone area of the experimental side were significantly higher than that of the control side (P < 0.05). These data indicate that concentrated red bone marrow/platelet-rich fibrin compound with the autologous periosteum debris scaffolds has an obvious osteoinductive role, which is expected to be a new-type material for clinical repair of mandibular defects.%  背景:富血小板纤维蛋白支架结构有利于红骨髓中间充质干细胞及各种生长因子的生长,促进最终成骨。目的:探讨浓缩红骨髓/富血小板纤维蛋白复合

  18. Pure red cell aplasia and associated thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rosu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia is a rare cause of anemia, caused by an absence of red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. It is usually a paraneoplastic syndrome, associated most commonly with large-cell granular lymphocyte leukemia but also thymoma. For patients who present both pure red cell aplasia and thymoma, thymectomy leads to an initial remission of the aplasia in 30% of cases. However, sustained remission may require the addition of medications such as corticosteroids, cyclospo­rine, or cyclophosphamide. We present a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with a thymoma in an otherwise healthy 80 year-old woman.

  19. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    OpenAIRE

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L.; Calas, C.; Romanyukha, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Mitchell, C. A.; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail...

  20. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  1. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  2. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  3. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  4. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome with Red Cell Aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, K R; Bisht, Supriya; Tamaria, K C

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of abnormal lymphocyte apoptosis, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation. It presents as lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by normochromic normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absence of erythroblasts from a normal bone marrow. Only few lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with erythroid aplasia. The authors are reporting a case of ALPS associated with red cell aplasia in a 7-y-old girl.

  5. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  6. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by

  7. National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    this quarter. for Selected Donors er P iod 4 Activity: IIB 1 Task 6: Maintain a Quality Control Program – This task is closed. National Marrow...interpret incoming SBT typings and process version 3 nomenclature on incoming typings. • Code moved to production on March 30th, 2011. IIB. Rapid...as DRB3/4/5 typing intent is known. • Calculated 6-locus A~C~B~DRB3/4/5~DRB1~DQB1 haplotype frequencies for HapLogic III evaluation. In contrast

  8. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  9. Dosimetry at a 400 keV accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes.......Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes....

  10. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  11. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  12. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2006-08-01

    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  13. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  14. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E. [University of Ioannina, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  15. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  16. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  17. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to...

  18. Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, T O

    1985-01-01

    The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

  19. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  20. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  1. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  2. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  3. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  4. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  5. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  6. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this progr......Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes...

  8. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  9. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  10. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  11. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...

  13. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  14. Computational Techniques of Electromagnetic Dosimetry for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper reviews the rationale of international safety guidelines for human protection against electromagnetic fields. Then, this paper also presents computational techniques to conduct dosimetry in anatomically-based human body models. Computational examples and remaining problems are also described briefly.

  15. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range...

  16. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  17. Intra-Operative Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    CT-based post-implant dosimetry. Figure 1: System concept for TRUS and C-arm fusion B BODY B.1 Brief System Concept The system concept for...C-arm calibration - is it really necessary?,” MICCAI, pp. 639–646, 2005. 10. Brainlab, Inc., Heimstetten, Germany, Vector Vision. 11. Medtronic

  18. Advances in reference and transfer dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, M.F. [Ionizing Radiation Division, Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    1999-07-01

    All prerequisites are now in place to create a fundamentally and radically different type of calibration service for the radiation processing industry. Advancements in dosimetry and information technology can be combined to provide industry with on-line calibrations, on demand at a low cost. The remote calibration service will serve as a basis for other areas of metrology. (Author)

  19. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  20. Effects of the interruption of the irradiation process on PMMA Harwell Industry Dosimetry Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, the use of dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimetry systems in measurements at industrial irradiations has been broadly, despite the use of alanine dosimeters. Accurate dosimetry measurements are essential for the sterilization applications of medical products as well as the preservation of food by ionizing radiation. Regulations in many countries require in-plant dosimetry to ensure that the specified radiation dose has been delivered to the product. Harwell commercial dosimeters commonly are built to work with measurements between 1 kGy to 50 kGy, this means that a same dosimeter could be used until reach these values. Radiation processing demands partial measurements of the absorbed dose to guarantee the final desired applied absorbed dose depending to the dose rate. In this sense, the total absorbed dose corresponds to the cumulative partial values. In this study, several dosimeters were irradiated at the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility at IPEN - CNEN/SP to evaluate the response to the interruption of the irradiation process in the total cumulative absorbed dose values considering statistical changes and some processing parameters. When studied the Harwell dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters Red 4034 and Amber 3042, applying processing interruptions, results shown a coefficient of variation under 7% for industrial irradiation conditions to the total cumulative absorbed dose. (author)

  1. Film dosimetry in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danciu, C.; Proimos, B.S. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1995-12-01

    Dosimetry, through a film sandwiched in a transverse cross-section of a solid phantom, is a method of choice in Conformal Radiotherapy because: (a) the blackness (density) of the film at each point offers a measure of the total dose received at that point, and (b) the film is easily calibrated by exposing a film strip in the same cross-section, through a stationary field. The film must therefore have the following properties: (a) it must be slow, in order not to be overexposed, even at a therapeutic dose of 200 cGy, and (b) the response of the film (density versus dose curve) must be independent of the photon energy spectrum. A few slow films were compared. It was found that the Kodak X-Omat V for therapy verification was the best choice. To investigate whether the film response was independent of the photon energy, response curves for six depths, starting from the depth of maximum dose to the depth of 25 cm, in solid phantom were derived. The vertical beam was perpendicular to the anterior surface of the phantom, which was at the distance of 100 cm from the source and the field was 15x15 cm at that distance. This procedure was repeated for photon beams emitted by a Cobalt-60 unit, two 6 MV and 15 MV Linear Accelerators, as well as a 45 MV Betatron. For each of those four different beams the film response was the same for all six depths. The results, as shown in the diagrams, are very satisfactory. The response curve under a geometry similar to that actually applied, when the film is irradiated in a transverse cross-section of the phantom, was derived. The horizontal beam was almost parallel (angle of 85) to the plane of the film. The same was repeated with the central ray parallel to the film (angle 90) and at a distance of 1.5 cm from the horizontal film. The field size was again 15x15 at the lateral entrance surface of the beam. The response curves remained the same, as when the beam was perpendicular to the films.

  2. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  3. [Atrophy of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziecioł, J; Kemona, A; Sulik, M; Sulkowski, S; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Ostapiuk, H

    1990-01-01

    The authors made a quantitative analysis of the active hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow with particular consideration of its atrophy in the course of various diseases. The material consisted of 407 non-selected autopsy cases. For a morphometric analysis the bone marrow was sampled from the sternum, ala ossis illi and spine. In the quantitative analysis of the active hematopoietic tissue we took into account age groups as quantitative changes appear with age. Atrophy of the bone marrow was in 19.4% of the studied cases. The presence of bone marrow atrophy was found in the course of various diseases, most frequently neoplastic, particularly in patients aged from 50 to 59 years.

  4. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  5. Pure Red Cell Aplasia After Chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: In Vitro Evidence for T Cell Mediated Suppression of Erythropoiesis and Response to Sequential Cyclosporin and Erythropoietin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Oris R. Fillet G: Circulating erythropoietin 19. Totterman TH. Bengtsson M: Treatment of pure red cell aplasia with levels after bone marrow ...bilateral hilar and massive retroperi- with T cell mediated suppression of erythropoiesis. toneal and pelvic adenopathy. An initial bone marrow The response...Erythropoi- were discontinued. A bone marrow aspirate and biopsy etin was continued for 10 months and then discontinued revealed a cellular marrow with normal

  6. Patient-specific dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkia, M T; Stefanoyiannis, A P; Chatziioannou, S N; Round, W H; Efstathopoulos, E P; Nikiforidis, G C

    2015-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) belong to a relatively rare class of neoplasms. Nonetheless, their prevalence has increased significantly during the last decades. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment approach for inoperable or metastasised NETs. The therapeutic effect is based on the binding of radiolabelled somatostatin analogue peptides with NETs' somatostatin receptors, resulting in internal irradiation of tumours. Pre-therapeutic patient-specific dosimetry is essential to ensure that a treatment course has high levels of safety and efficacy. This paper reviews the methods applied for PRRT dosimetry, as well as the dosimetric results presented in the literature. Focus is given on data concerning the therapeutic somatostatin analogue radiopeptides (111)In-[DTPA(0),D-Phe(1)]-octreotide ((111)In-DTPA-octreotide), (90)Y-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide ((90)Y-DOTATOC) and (177)Lu-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3),Thr(8)]-octreotide ((177)Lu-DOTATATE). Following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee formalism, dosimetric analysis demonstrates large interpatient variability in tumour and organ uptake, with kidneys and bone marrow being the critical organs. The results are dependent on the image acquisition and processing protocol, as well as the dosimetric imaging radiopharmaceutical.

  7. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry; Termoluminiscencia en dosimetria medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  8. TU-F-201-00: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  10. Birthmarks - red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are 2 main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  11. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  12. Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Lo, Anthony T., E-mail: tonyho22003@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

  13. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  14. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  15. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Errico, F. [DCMN, Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled criticality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30% in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses. (Author).

  16. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  17. Report: dosimetry of diagnostic exams in nuclear medicine; Rapport: dosimetrie des explorations diagnostiques en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzery, C. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer de Bourgogne, Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Aubert, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Caselles, O. [Centre Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Gardin, I. [Centre Henri Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Guilhem, M.Th. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Source, 45 - Orleans (France); Laffont, S. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2002-07-01

    A compilation about dosimetry of diagnosis explorations in nuclear medicine is presented in this issue. Dosimetry tables of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine give indications on absorbed and efficient doses according the patients age from one year to adult age. The doses received by a fetus during a lung scintigraphy realized for the pregnant woman susceptible to suffer of pulmonary emboli is presented. A table of efficient doses for the infants until the age of six months for the principal scintigraphy explorations realized in nuclear medicine are given. A chapter of theoretical headlines is devoted to dosimetry and the calculations methods of absorbed and efficient doses in function of patients age. A short chapter concerns the recommendations to explore nursing mothers by scintigraphy. A last chapter treats the efficient doses received during explorations using ionizing radiations in radiology and their place in annual natural irradiation scale. (N.C.)

  18. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  19. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry using synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwon; Kim, Hwi Young; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, Hiroshi [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The victims exposed doses under 3.5-4.0 Gy have chance to survive if treated urgently. To determine the priority of treatment among a large number of victims, the triage – distinguishing patients who need an urgent treatment from who may not be urgent – is necessary based on radiation biodosimetry. A current gold standard for radiation biodosimetry is the chromosomal assay using human lymphocytes. But this method requires too much time and skilled labors to cover the mass victims in radiation emergencies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been known for its capability of quantifying radicals in matters. EPR dosimetry is based on the measurement of stable radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) contained in tooth enamel is a major probe for radiation dose reconstruction. This HAP dosimetry study was performed using a novel EPR spectrometer in Hokkaido University, Japan. The EPR dose-response curve was made using HAP samples. The blind test using 250 cGy samples showed the feasibility of EPR dosimetry for the triage purpose.

  1. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C M A; Lima, A R; Degenhardt, Ä L; Valverde, N J; Silva, F C A da

    2015-10-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  2. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  3. Software tool for portal dosimetry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects.

  4. Diagnostic radiology dosimetry: status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiation is by far the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Since 1970 the expression of protection standards shifted from a dose- to a risk-based approach, with dose limits established to yield risks to radiation workers comparable with those for workers in other safe industries. Another hand, worldwide interest in patient dose measurement was stimulated by the publication of Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, there has been a general trend to effect control of patient doses by applying the principles of optimization coupled with an increase in regulatory enforcement. In this sense, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) has been actively proposed in the last 3 decades thanks to their successful applications in diagnostic radiology. At the same time, it is emerged as the best radiation dosimetry method. The present work presents advantages of thermoluminescent dosimetry for X-ray beams measurements and its optimization. (Author)

  5. Methodological aspects of EPR dosimetry with teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is known today as one of the most reliable and accurate methods of retrospective dosimetry. In the present study a comprehensive analysis of influence of the major confounding factors (solar UV exposure and dental X-ray diagnostic procedures) on the accuracy of accidental dose reconstruction is given. In this analysis, the facts known from literature as well as own authors' results were considered. Among the latter it is worth to mention study of doses in enamel caused by X-ray diagnostic procedures as well as investigation of dose profiles in front teeth, which are most affected to solar radiation. As a main result, the variant of dosimetric technique is proposed. It comprises the optimal combination of strongest sides of existing techniques which allows to conduct routine reconstruction of accidental doses as low as few tens of mGy with errors of the same order of magnitude. The proposed technique is primarily destined for dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators, but could be used for reconstruction of doses of other over-exposed categories. (orig.)

  6. In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnheer, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Izewska, Joanna [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Reft, Chester [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is in use in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to detect major errors, to assess clinically relevant differences between planned and delivered dose, to record dose received by individual patients, and to fulfill legal requirements. After discussing briefly the main characteristics of the most commonly applied IVD systems, the clinical experience of IVD during EBRT will be summarized. Advancement of the traditional aspects of in vivo dosimetry as well as the development of currently available and newly emerging noninterventional technologies are required for large-scale implementation of IVD in EBRT. These new technologies include the development of electronic portal imaging devices for 2D and 3D patient dosimetry during advanced treatment techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, and the use of IVD in proton and ion radiotherapy by measuring the decay of radiation-induced radionuclides. In the final analysis, we will show in this Vision 20/20 paper that in addition to regulatory compliance and reimbursement issues, the rationale for in vivo measurements is to provide an accurate and independent verification of the overall treatment procedure. It will enable the identification of potential errors in dose calculation, data transfer, dose delivery, patient setup, and changes in patient anatomy. It is the authors' opinion that all treatments with curative intent should be verified through in vivo dose measurements in combination with pretreatment checks.

  7. Sensitivity studies associated with dosimetry experiment interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourganel, S.; Soldevila, M. [CEA/DANS/DM2S/SERMA, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ferrer, A.; Gregoire, G.; Destouches, C.; Beretz, D. [CEA/DEN-CAD/DER/SPEX, CEA Cadarache, F13108, Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: Interpretation of reactor dosimetry experiments with C/E comparison requires precise knowledge of parameters involved in modeling. Some parameters have more weight than others on the calculated values. So, sensitivity studies should be conducted to verify the importance of these parameters. The conclusions of these studies are used to refine the experiment modeling, or to correct uncertainty calculations. The results of these sensitivity studies allow a post-irradiation analysis, which can justify the discarding of some atypical C/M values. Derived uncertainties may be improved by the sensitivity analyses. Beyond classical parameters as geometry or composition, this paper describes some specific sensitivity studies conducted for dosimetry irradiation in reactor, and presents conclusions. These studies are based on dosimeters irradiated in the EOLE reactor facility at Cadarache CEA center. Conclusions drawn from these studies are generic and can be applied to any dosimetry study. Calculations performed for these studies were realized using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code. (authors)

  8. Patient dosimetry in classical radiology;Dosimetrie patient en radiologie classique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Chateil, J.F. [CHU Bordeaux, 33 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective is to give to the participants the means to determine, by simple methods, the dose delivered to skin during a radiological examination (conventional or numerical). The message to remember is: the use of a numerical detector does not lead systematically to reduce the dose at the patient. The dose.length product is a risk indicator. It is important to compare our practices to the procedures written in the guide of procedures and to note and to send to I.R.S.N. the dosimetry data relative to the dosimetry reference levels. (N.C.)

  9. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel A; Moran, Jean M; Dempsey, James F; Dong, Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  10. Bone Marrow Transplants: "Another Possibility at Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants “Another Possibility at Life” Past Issues / Summer 2011 ... for 16,000 of them, a bone marrow transplant is the best treatment option, notes Susan F. ...

  11. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement Therapy (GRT) In Sickle Cell Anemia. ... manifesting clinical disease, while the heterozygoste(AS) are clinically ... medicine, we argue here the case for Bone marrow transplantation

  12. Hemophagocytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology: Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes, clinical correlation and associated features on bone marrow ... on bone marrow examination between HLH and non HLH cases showing hemophagocytosis. Materials and .... hematopoietic cell transplantation HLH.[6] It should be.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum OF BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine, 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the leaf sheath and marrow, are virtually absent in the seed. Marrow and leaf sheath extracts (1 g/50 mL showed a concentration of anthocyanins (147 mg/L and 213.5 mg/L similar to that of rosy wine and red wine with short maceration. The grain of sorghum is four times, respectively two times less rich in phenolic compounds than the leaf sheath and the marrow of stem.

  14. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  15. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  16. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono......) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three...

  17. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  19. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  20. Use of the GATE Monte Carlo package for dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F 29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Bardies, M. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F 44093 Nantes (France); Chiavassa, S. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F 44093 Nantes (France); Danford, C. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York (United States); Kirov, A. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York (United States); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F 29609 Brest (France); Maigne, L. [Departement de Curietherapie-Radiotherapie, Centre Jean Perrin, F 63000 Clemont-Ferrand (France); Staelens, S. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium); Taschereau, R. [CRUMP Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

    2006-12-20

    One of the roles for Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies is in the area of dosimetry. A number of different codes dedicated to dosimetry applications are available and widely used today, such as MCNP, EGSnrc and PTRAN. However, such codes do not easily facilitate the description of complicated 3D sources or emission tomography systems and associated data flow, which may be useful in different dosimetry application domains. Such problems can be overcome by the use of specific MC codes such as GATE (GEANT4 Application to Tomographic Emission), which is based on Geant4 libraries, providing a scripting interface with a number of advantages for the simulation of SPECT and PET systems. Despite this potential, its major disadvantage is in terms of efficiency involving long execution times for applications such as dosimetry. The strong points and disadvantages of GATE in comparison to other dosimetry specific codes are discussed and illustrated in terms of accuracy, efficiency and flexibility. A number of features, such as the use of voxelised and moving sources, as well as developments such as advanced visualization tools and the development of dose estimation maps allowing GATE to be used for dosimetry applications are presented. In addition, different examples from dosimetry applications with GATE are given. Finally, future directions with respect to the use of GATE for dosimetry applications are outlined.

  1. Evaluation of the uncertainty in an EBT3 film dosimetry system utilizing net optical density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Marroquin, Elsa Y; Herrera González, José A; Camacho López, Miguel A; Villarreal Barajas, José E; García-Garduño, Olivia A

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film has become an important tool to verify dose distributions for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and quality assurance (QA) procedures. A new radiochromic film model, EBT3, has recently become available, whose composition and thickness of the sensitive layer are the same as those of previous EBT2 films. However, a matte polyester layer was added to EBT3 to prevent the formation of Newton's rings. Furthermore, the symmetrical design of EBT3 allows the user to eliminate side-orientation dependence. This film and the flatbed scanner, Epson Perfection V750, form a dosimetry system whose intrinsic characteristics were studied in this work. In addition, uncertainties associated with these intrinsic characteristics and the total uncertainty of the dosimetry system were determined. The analysis of the response of the radiochromic film (net optical density) and the fitting of the experimental data to a potential function yielded an uncertainty of 2.6%, 4.3%, and 4.1% for the red, green, and blue channels, respectively. In this work, the dosimetry system presents an uncertainty in resolving the dose of 1.8% for doses greater than 0.8 Gy and less than 6 Gy for red channel. The films irradiated between 0 and 120 Gy show differences in the response when scanned in portrait or landscape mode; less uncertainty was found when using the portrait mode. The response of the film depended on the position on the bed of the scanner, contributing an uncertainty of 2% for the red, 3% for the green, and 4.5% for the blue when placing the film around the center of the bed of scanner. Furthermore, the uniformity and reproducibility radiochromic film and reproducibility of the response of the scanner contribute less than 1% to the overall uncertainty in dose. Finally, the total dose uncertainty was 3.2%, 4.9%, and 5.2% for red, green, and blue channels, respectively. The above uncertainty values were obtained by mini-mizing the contribution to the total dose uncertainty

  2. Research progress on the red cell diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Lan-zhu; SHAO Zong-hong

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,there have been lots of progresses in the studies on red cell diseases in China,especially bone marrow failure diseases including immune-related pancytopenia,aplastic anemia,myelodysplastic syndrome,and paroxymal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.Numerous laboratory experiments as well as clinical researches have been carried out by Chinese hematologists,which brought about much clearer pathogenesis,more rational diagnosis methods and more effective therapies for red cell diseases.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  4. [Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemona, A; Dziecioł, J; Sulik, M; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and histopathologic picture of gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow were analysed in non-selected autopsy material. It was found that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow occurred in terminal stages of various diseases (malignant neoplasms, chronic inflammation). Histological studies showed that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow led to atrophy of the hematopoietic and adipose tissues of the bone marrow and accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharides. The patients with gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow exhibit hematologic disorders, most frequently anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  5. Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  6. Dosimetry applications in GATE Monte Carlo toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis

    2017-02-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are a well-established method for studying physical processes in medical physics. The purpose of this review is to present GATE dosimetry applications on diagnostic and therapeutic simulated protocols. There is a significant need for accurate quantification of the absorbed dose in several specific applications such as preclinical and pediatric studies. GATE is an open-source MC toolkit for simulating imaging, radiotherapy (RT) and dosimetry applications in a user-friendly environment, which is well validated and widely accepted by the scientific community. In RT applications, during treatment planning, it is essential to accurately assess the deposited energy and the absorbed dose per tissue/organ of interest, as well as the local statistical uncertainty. Several types of realistic dosimetric applications are described including: molecular imaging, radio-immunotherapy, radiotherapy and brachytherapy. GATE has been efficiently used in several applications, such as Dose Point Kernels, S-values, Brachytherapy parameters, and has been compared against various MC codes which are considered as standard tools for decades. Furthermore, the presented studies show reliable modeling of particle beams when comparing experimental with simulated data. Examples of different dosimetric protocols are reported for individualized dosimetry and simulations combining imaging and therapy dose monitoring, with the use of modern computational phantoms. Personalization of medical protocols can be achieved by combining GATE MC simulations with anthropomorphic computational models and clinical anatomical data. This is a review study, covering several dosimetric applications of GATE, and the different tools used for modeling realistic clinical acquisitions with accurate dose assessment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  8. In vivo light dosimetry for pleural PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Culligan, Melissa; Edmonds, Christine E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2009-02-01

    In-vivo light Dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the important dosimetry quantities critical for predicting PDT outcome. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to patients undergoing pleural PDT as a function of treatment time, treatment volume and surface area, and its accuracy as a function of the calibration accuracies of each isotropic detector and the calibration integrating sphere. The patients studied here were enrolled in Phase II clinical trial of Photofrin-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. The ages of the patients studied varied from 34 to 69 year old. All patients were administered 2mg per kg body weight Photoprin 24 hours before the surgery. Patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) are treated with laser light with a light fluence of 60 J/cm^2 at 630nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm^2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm^2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. The anisotropy of each isotropic detector was found to be within 30%. The mean fluence rate delivery varied from 37.84 to 94.05 mW/cm^2 and treatment time varied from 1762 to 5232s. We have established a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume. The results are discussed using an integrating sphere theory and the measured tissue optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  9. A method to establish a mouse model of bone marrow microenvironment injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wenzhe; Ge, Quanhu; Wan, Longfei; Wang, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xueling; Wu, Xiangwei

    2017-06-13

    A normal bone marrow microenvironment plays a very important role in the normal functioning of hematopoietic stem cells. Once disturbed, this microenvironment can become favorable for the occurrence of blood disorders, cancers, and other diseases. Therefore, further studies on the bone marrow microenvironment should be performed to reveal regulatory and stem cell fate determination mechanisms and promote the development of bone marrow transplantation, tissue repair and regenerative medicine, and other fields. A small animal model for further research is also urgently needed. In this study, an electric shock device was designed to elicit a femur bone marrow microenvironment injury in mice. A wire was inserted into the distal femur but not into the proximal femur, and the bone marrow microenvironment was evidently damaged by application of 100 ± 10 V for 1.5 ± 0.5 min; mortality, however, was low in the mice. Gross observation, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, bright-field microscopy, and micro-CT scanning were also conducted. A large number of new blood capillaries and sinusoids appeared in the injured distal femur after 2 weeks. The capillaries in the injured femur disappeared after 4 weeks, and mature blood vessels were scattered throughout the injured area. Red blood cells disappeared, and the cellular structure and trabecular bone were better than those observed 2 weeks previously. Thus, we developed a simply operated, accurate, reliable, and easily controlled small animal model as a good technical platform to examine angiogenesis and segmentation damage in the bone marrow microenvironment.

  10. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with ANNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Artificial neural networks technology has been applied to unfold the neutron spectra and to calculate the effective dose, the ambient equivalent dose, and the personal dose equivalent for {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}AmBe neutron sources. A Bonner sphere spectrometry with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator was utilized to measure the count rates of the spheres that were utilized as input in two artificial neural networks, one for spectrometry and another for dosimetry. Spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were also obtained with BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. With both procedures spectra and ambient dose equivalent agrees in less than 10%. (author)

  11. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  12. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered....... This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From...

  13. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y., E-mail: prezado@imnc.in2p3.fr [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France); Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N. [Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 101, Orsay 91898 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  14. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao/SE (Brazil); Melo, A.P.; Gazano, V.S.O.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: dnsouza@fisca.ufs.br

    2006-07-01

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO{sub 3}), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  15. RED HOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> 在Jimi Hendrix的这首《Red House》中,我们可以领略到非常多紧密、连贯、经典的吉他乐句,尤其是乐曲中众多给人以胁迫感的乐句更是另人回味无常。 在我们学习这首《Red House》的时候,就像学习Jimi Hendrix的其他曲目一样,最有效的办法就是先用心聆听几遍这首歌曲,然后再拿起吉他跟随着原曲一起反复弹奏。无论何时学习Jimi的歌曲,我们一定要意识到

  16. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  17. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  18. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  19. Course of training in Specific internal dosimetry for the patient; Curso de capacitacion en dosimetria interna especifica para el paciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, A.M.; Michelin, S.C. [Dosimetria Interna, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 CP (429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez P, I.M. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, Av. del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: arojo@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this work the experience obtained in a course organized in Argentina to qualify professionals in the radiopharmaceutical dosimetry using the methodology MIRD and the patient's images is presented. The motivation to carry out it was based on the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals with therapeutic purposes that makes necessary the knowledge of the distribution of the absorbed dose to be able to establish the dose-response relationship. The main objective was the study of the biokinetic model and those techniques available that starting from images can contribute information of specific parameters of the patient to calculate with more accuracy the doses in the tumor and in different organs. In the design of the program of this course it was considered to approach the different focuses for the calculation of specific dose of the patient and includes the following topics: the patient's radiological protection, new concepts in damages by radiations (bystander effect), methodology for the internal dosimetry by radiopharmaceuticals, dosimetric systems (MIRD/ICRP), revision of the physical phantoms, design of kinetic studies, compartmental models, calculation tools and the demonstration of the programs SAAM and OLINDA; calculation of activity starting from the patient's images (planar and SPECT). Principles of the gamma camera: the dispersed radiation, calculation of the activity with planar images, the attenuation, correction of the dispersed radiation, collimation problems. SPECT: the common method of reconstruction, basic principles, method of filtered over head projection and iterative methods (MLEM/OSEM), measurement of the attenuation maps, problems of the penetration in the collimator (I-131, I-123), effects of partial volume, incorporation of corrections in an iterative reconstruction. Dosimetry in bone marrow, discussion of study cases of new radiopharmaceuticals. Internal dosimetry in small scale for electrons and photons

  20. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, O.

    2006-07-26

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)

  1. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D. [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  4. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  5. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  6. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  7. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  8. Dosimetry of Auger emitters: Physical and phenomenological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectrum; localized energy deposition; cellular geometry; chemical form of the carrier; cellular localization, concentration, and subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate in that these considerations are ignored. Our results provide the basis for biophysical approaches toward subcellular dosimetry of Auger emitters in vitro and in vivo. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Dosimetry in clinical static magnetic fields using plastic scintillation detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanowicz, S.; Latzel, H.; Lindvold, Lars René

    2013-01-01

    , however, not clear yet how dosimetry will be conducted as standard methods and might not be easily transferred to systems with clinical magnetic fields. For dosimetry in MRI accelerators, we have tested plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) coupled to optical fibers. They are suitable for real-time and in......-vivo dosimetry in radiation treatments and diagnostics and could be, being all-optical, promising candidates for this application. To study the basic feasibility of using PSDs with organic scintillators in magnetic fields, we measured the response of these dosimeters in presence of magnetic fields up to 1 T...

  10. Evaluation of tissue-equivalent materials to be used as human brain tissue substitute in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.C., E-mail: cassio.c.ferreira@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Ximenes Filho, R.E.M., E-mail: raimundoximenes@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Vieira, J.W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 500 Curado, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Rua Benfica, 455, Madalena, CEP 50720-001, Recife (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: alessandratomal@pg.ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Garcia, C.A.B., E-mail: cgarcia@ufs.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Maia, A.F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Tissue-equivalent materials to be used as substitutes for human brain tissue in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology have been investigated in terms of calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), calculated mass energy-absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and absorbed dose. Measured linear attenuation coefficients ({mu}) have been used for benchmarking the calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}). The materials examined were bolus, nylon (registered) , orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), bees wax, paraffin I, paraffin II, pitch and water. The results show that water is the best substitute for brain among the materials investigated. The average percentage differences between the calculated {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} coefficients for water and those for brain were 1.0% and 2.5%, respectively. Absorbed doses determined by Monte Carlo methods confirm water as being the best brain substitute to be used in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology, showing maximum difference of 0.01%. Additionally this study showed that PMMA, a material often used for the manufacturing of head phantoms for computed tomography, cannot be considered to be a suitable substitute for human brain tissue in dosimetry.

  11. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  12. Fetal dosimetry from natural alpha emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, S.J

    1999-09-01

    The size of marrow cavities in fetal vertebra, rib and sternum was investigated using an image analysis system. The average chord lengths through marrow spaces in the vertebrae were found to increase approximately linearly with gestational age from 140 {mu}m at 20 weeks to 300 {mu}m at 40 weeks. Average chord lengths through marrow spaces in fetal rib and sternum were 330 {mu}m at 35 weeks in both cases. These results can be compared with an average chord length across marrow spaces in adult vertebra of 1172 {mu}m. At natural background UK exposure, activity concentrations of supported {sup 210}Po in fetal bone of 0.075 Bq kg{sup -1} and 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1} at mid- and late gestation respectively were calculated. Monte Carlo simulations modelling the paths of alpha-particles in fetal vertebra gave a total alpha-radiation dose to marrow over the second and third trimesters of 32.0 {+-} 0.8 {mu}Sv with the {sup 210}Po in bone contributing 8.9 {+-} 0.9 {mu}Sv. The dose to primitive haemopoietic stem cells, the target cells for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and the survival of these stem cells following a hit by an alpha-particle was investigated, also using Monte Carlo simulations. Alpha-particles emitted from bone and marrow contributed an average dose of 1.9 Gy to stem cells with a nuclear diameter of 3.8 {mu}m. This study has estimated that 1% of babies born each year are born with a mutated primitive haemopoietic stem cell due to in utero irradiation from high LET radiation. That is 7,320 babies compared to an estimated 300 incidences of cALL each year initiated in utero. The probability that a mutated cell will go on to give rise to leukaemia is unknown but it would seem not unlikely that irradiation in utero plays a substantial part in the induction of childhood leukaemia. (author)

  13. Inhomogeneity in optical properties of rat brain: a study for LLLT dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Magalhães, Ana C.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last few years, low-level light therapy (LLLT) has shown an incredible suitability for a wide range of applications for central nervous system (CNS) related diseases. In this therapeutic modality light dosimetry is extremely critical so the study of light propagation through the CNS organs is of great importance. To better understand how light intensity is delivered to the most relevant neural sites we evaluated optical transmission through slices of rat brain point by point. We experimented red (λ = 660 nm) and near infrared (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light analyzing the light penetration and distribution in the whole brain. A fresh Wistar rat (Rattus novergicus) brain was cut in sagittal slices and illuminated with a broad light beam. A high-resolution digital camera was employed to acquire data of transmitted light. Spatial profiles of the light transmitted through the sample were obtained from the images. Peaks and valleys in the profiles show sites where light was less or more attenuated. The peak intensities provide information about total attenuation and the peak widths are correlated to the scattering coefficient at that individual portion of the sample. The outcomes of this study provide remarkable information for LLLT dose-dependent studies involving CNS and highlight the importance of LLLT dosimetry in CNS organs for large range of applications in animal and human diseases.

  14. Last marrow standing: bone marrow transplantation for acquired bone marrow failure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerds, Aaron T; Scott, Bart L

    2012-12-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome are a spectrum of acquired marrow failure, having a common pathologic thread of both immune dysregulation and the development of abnormal hematopoiesis. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation plays a critical role in the treatment of these disorders and, for many patients, is the only treatment modality with demonstrated curative potential. In recent years, there have been many breakthroughs in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these uncommon disorders. The subsequent advances in non-transplant therapies, along with concurrent improvement in outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation, necessitate continual appraisal of the indications, timing, and approaches to transplantation for acquired marrow failure syndromes. We review here contemporary and critical new findings driving current treatment decisions.

  15. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A de [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Oncologia Centro Medico Siglo XXI, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the {sup 99-}mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38{+-}1.68, 0.59{+-}0.08, 2.07{+-}0.60, 0.58{+-}0.1, 0.75{+-}0.09 and 0.43{+-}0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64{+-}0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  16. Prospective dosimetry with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in metabolic radiotherapy of bone metastases with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L.; Marzoli, L. [Azienda Ospedaliera ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Fisica Sanitaria, Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy); Baroli, A. [A.O. ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Medicina Nucleare, Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy); Verusio, C. [A.O. ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Oncologia Medica, Saronno, Varese (Italy); Chiesa, C. [Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Tumori Milano, Struttura Complessa di Medicina Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Pozzi, L. [Azienda Ospedaliera ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Fisica Sanitaria, Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy)]|[Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione di Fisica Sanitaria, Milan (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    On the basis of the encouraging results achieved in several clinical trials and its proven therapeutic efficacy, {sup 153}Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) has become widely used to palliate pain from bone metastases. The results reported in the literature have led the product suppliers (QUADRAMET registered, Schering) to suggest administering a fixed activity per kilogram (37 MBq/kg). However, considering the observed extreme inter-patient variability of skeletal uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, a real therapy optimization would require the individualization of the activity to be administered on a dosimetric basis. This should be planned taking into account the generally accepted 2-Gy dose constraint to the haematopoietic red marrow, the critical organ in palliative treatments with beta-emitting, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Seven to 14 days before treatment with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, 44 patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) total-body bone scan with two scans (the first within 10 min of injection, the second after 6 h). The percentage bone uptake (Tc{sub %}) was evaluated as the ratio between total counts at 6 h, adjusted for decay, and total counts at the first scan. Tc{sub %} was then compared to Sm{sub %} similarly derived from 10-min and 24-h whole-body scans. Tc{sub %} and Sm{sub %} were compared both with and without Brenner's method for soft tissue uptake. The correlation between Tc{sub %} and Sm{sub %} was R {sup 2} = 0.81 and R {sup 2} = 0.88 with and without soft tissue correction, respectively. The difference between their average values was statistically significant (Sm{sub %} = 64.3 {+-} 15.2, Tc{sub %} = 56.2 {+-} 16.0; p = 0.017) with soft tissue correction, while was not statistically significant (Sm{sub %} = 68.2 {+-} 15.5, Tc{sub %} = 66.9 {+-} 14.0; p = 0.670) without soft tissue correction. The rate of retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in bone provides a reliable estimate of the {sup 153}Sm

  17. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications.

  18. Bone composite with autologous red bone marrow and wrapped by a pedicle fascial flap for treatment of bone defects after limb wound with low toxicity infection%带蒂筋膜瓣包裹自体红骨髓复合体修复骨缺损的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新明; 王海波; 孟宪勇; 张瑛; 王耀一; 胡振顺; 阴彦林; 张军威; 张培楠; 赵御森

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of implantation of bone composite with autologous red bone marrow (ARBM) and wrapped by a pedicle fascial flap following debridement of infection focus in the treatment of bone defect after limb wound with low toxicity infection in comparison with implantation of bone composite only with ARBM. Methods From January of 2006 to April of 2011,42 patients with limb wound with low toxicity infection were randomized into Group A and Group B.In Group A (20 cases),ARBM bone composite containing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and osteoinductive absorbing material (OAM) was implanted after debridenent of infection focus; in Group B (22 cases),a pedicle fascial flap was prepared close to the bone defect to wrap the same bone composite as used in Group A before it was implanted.The 2 groups were comparable in general clinical data ( P ≥ 0.05). Histological and bacteriological tests were conducted for necessary cases. Blood routine,blood sedimentation,C-reactive protein,X-ray evaluation and fracture healing time were compared between the 2 groups at the 3rd,6th,12th and 18th months postoperation. Results The 42 patients were followed up for 14.3 months on average. Inflammatory sinus tract and inflammatory secretion,occurring in 5 cases in Group A and one case in Group B,were treated secondarily 10 months postoperation by infection focus debridement before implantation of ARBM bone composite wrapped by a pedicle fascial flap.The follow-up at 12 months showed fine outcomes.The wounds healed well and there was no sinus tract in the other cases in the 2 groups.The histological examinations showed 5 cases in Group A had still fibrous connective tissue between the previous broken bone ends,an obstructed medullary canal and inflammatory cell infiltration while 6 cases in Group B had periosteum-like tissue forming from the previous pedicle fascial flap,a little cartilage scattered in the new bone,an unobstructed medullary cavity,no inflammatory cell

  19. Comparison of vidar dosimetry advantage pro and epson perfection V700 scanner in densitometry of radiochomic EBT2 film in measurement of high dose gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, W.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Damrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays the radiochromic film is widely used to obtain dose distribution in two dimensions with high spatial resolution, less energy dependence and near tissue equivalent. It can be a commissioning tool to verify high dose gradient of dose distribution for IMRT and VMAT techniques. However, the film scanner could affect the accuracy of dose distribution if lack of precaution. In this study, the comparison between Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage (RED) is evaluated in terms of the capability to verify the 2D dose distribution for conventional and VMAT techniques. The Gafchromic® EBT2 films were read from two types of scanners (Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage) for volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) dosimetry. The software for analyzing the results of Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage are SNC Patient software and Omnipro’ IMRT software, respectively. Comparisons between measured and calculated dose distributions are reported as %passing rate and the gamma index for tolerance parameters of 3% and 3mm. The study found that the %passing rate obtained from Vidar scanner and Epson V700 scanner compared with Eclipse treatment planning system is more than 98% with the criteria of (3%/3mm).

  20. One click film (OCF) dosimetry system for routine QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Young; Yi, Byong Yong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang Wook; Choi, Eun Kyoung [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwan Sik [MyongJi University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To develop a practical film dosimetry system for routine Quality Assurance (QA). An One Click Film (OCF) Dosimetry system was designed to perform swift routine QA with functions including automatic fog value elimination, angle adjustment, automatic symmetry calculation, and realtime profile generation with the ability to display realtime three-dimensional dose distributions. The most frequently used functions for routine QA, such as the elimination of the fog value, conversion into an H and D curve, symmetry, and isodose distribution, can be achieved with only one click. Reliable results were achieved with the OCF dosimetry with simpler steps than other commercially available film dosimetry systems for routine QA. More research on the refined user interface will make this system be clinically useful.

  1. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty.

  2. Retrospective dosimetry analyses of reactor vessel cladding samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L. R.; Soderquist, C. Z. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Fero, A. H. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessel cladding samples for Ringhals Units 3 and 4 in Sweden were analyzed using retrospective reactor dosimetry techniques. The objective was to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluence for comparison with neutron transport calculations. A total of 51 stainless steel samples consisting of chips weighing approximately 100 to 200 mg were removed from selected locations around the pressure vessel and were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for analysis. The samples were fully characterized and analyzed for radioactive isotopes, with special interest in the presence of Nb-93m. The RPV cladding retrospective dosimetry results will be combined with a re-evaluation of the surveillance capsule dosimetry and with ex-vessel neutron dosimetry results to form a comprehensive 3D comparison of measurements to calculations performed with 3D deterministic transport code. (authors)

  3. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  4. Practical IMRT QA dosimetry using Gafchromic film: a quick start guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Nick; Metcalfe, Peter

    2016-06-01

    This work outlines a method for using Gafchromic film for dosimetry purposes, by scanning it with currently available commercial scanners. The scanners used were: Epson V800, Epson V700, Epson V37 series, specifically a V370 and a Canon multi-function office printer/scanner. The Epson scanners have 16 bit RGB resolution, the Canon has 8 bit RGB (Red Green Blue) resolution, and the V800 and V700 allow scanning in transmission mode. The V700 uses an Epson White Cold Cathode Florescent Lamp; the recently released V800 uses an Epson light emitting diode (LED) light source, while the V37 series uses a reflective mode and the Epson LED light source. The Epson V37 series scanners are designed for non-professional use so the cost has been kept at a low "entry level" point, so they would be a suitable option for a department wanting to use Gafchromic film or with limited needs that did not justify a more sophisticated and expensive unit. Note that the V800 or V700 scanners are not expensive in context, costing approximately the same as a 25 sheet box of Gafchromic film. The Canon was included to demonstrate that a scanner with 8 bit RGB resolution can be used for dosimetry. These general multi-function units are available in most departments, and they would allow Gafchromic film to be evaluated as a dosimetry tool without a significant investment. Furthermore, they are generally capable of scanning large format film (425 × 350 mm) in one part. Although this is not necessary for dosimetry, it is often useful for machine QA, where dividing the film into two parts to ensure accurate measurements is not practical. Moreover, this analytical method uses software that is freely or commonly available, particularly the image processing package ImageJ. Note ImageJ v1.48 was the version used. The results demonstrate that this method used with the scanners evaluated is a practical method of using Gafchromic film as a dosimeter for IMRT QA.

  5. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Tom; Joyal, John [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, James B. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems RDS, Inc., Apharetta, GA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [Division Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John W. [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Cornell University, Division of Radiopharmacy, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[{sup 124}I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of {sup 124}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or

  6. Development of a New Positron Emission Tomography Tracer for Targeting Tumor Angiogenesis: Synthesis, Small Animal Imaging, and Radiation Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Lalush

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays a key role in cancer progression and correlates with disease aggressiveness and poor clinical outcomes. Affinity ligands discovered by screening phage display random peptide libraries can be engineered to molecularly target tumor blood vessels for noninvasive imaging and early detection of tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we tested the ability of a phage-display-selected peptide sequence recognizing specifically bone marrow- derived pro-angiogenic tumor-homing cells, the QFP-peptide, radiolabeled with 64Cu radioisotope to selectively image tumor vasculature in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET. To prepare the targeted PET tracer we modified QFP-phage with the DOTA chelator and radiolabeled the purified QFP-phage-DOTA intermediate with 64Cu to obtain QFP-targeted radioconjugate with high radiopharmaceutical yield and specific activity. We evaluated the new PET tracer in vivo in a subcutaneous (s.c. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC mouse model and conducted tissue distribution, small animal PET/CT imaging study, autoradiography, histology, fluorescence imaging, and dosimetry assessments. The results from this study show that, in the context of the s.c. LLC immunocompetent mouse model, the QFP-tracer can target tumor blood vessels selectively. However, further optimization of the biodistribution and dosimetry profile of the tracer is necessary to ensure efficient radiopharmaceutical applications enabled by the biological specificity of the QFP-peptide.

  7. Dosimetry in Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at BMRR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) has been performed since 1959 at Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the three-megawatt light-water cooled Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). In the early 1990s when more effective drug carriers were developed for NCT, in which the eye melanoma and brain tumors in rats were irradiated in situ, extensive clinical trials of small animals began using a focused thermal neutron beam. To improve the dosimetry at irradiation f...

  8. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry. [Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of ..gamma.. and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control.

  9. EPID dosimetry for pretreatment quality assurance with two commercial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Malhotra, Harish K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2012-07-05

    This study compares the EPID dosimetry algorithms of two commercial systems for pretreatment QA, and analyzes dosimetric measurements made with each system alongside the results obtained with a standard diode array. 126 IMRT fields are examined with both EPID dosimetry systems (EPIDose by Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL, and Portal Dosimetry by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto CA) and the diode array, MapCHECK (also by Sun Nuclear Corporation). Twenty-six VMAT arcs of varying modulation complexity are examined with the EPIDose and MapCHECK systems. Optimization and commissioning testing of the EPIDose physics model is detailed. Each EPID IMRT QA system is tested for sensitivity to critical TPS beam model errors. Absolute dose gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm, 10% threshold, global normalization to the maximum measured dose) yields similar results (within 1%-2%) for all three dosimetry modalities, except in the case of off-axis breast tangents. For these off-axis fields, the Portal Dosimetry system does not adequately model EPID response, though a previously-published correction algorithm improves performance. Both MapCHECK and EPIDose are found to yield good results for VMAT QA, though limitations are discussed. Both the Portal Dosimetry and EPIDose algorithms, though distinctly different, yield similar results for the majority of clinical IMRT cases, in close agreement with a standard diode array. Portal dose image prediction may overlook errors in beam modeling beyond the calculation of the actual fluence, while MapCHECK and EPIDose include verification of the dose calculation algorithm, albeit in simplified phantom conditions (and with limited data density in the case of the MapCHECK detector). Unlike the commercial Portal Dosimetry package, the EPIDose algorithm (when sufficiently optimized) allows accurate analysis of EPID response for off-axis, asymmetric fields, and for orthogonal VMAT QA. Other forms of QA are necessary to supplement the limitations of the

  10. Basic principles in the radiation dosimetry of nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabin, Michael; Xu, Xie George

    2014-05-01

    The basic principles of the use of radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine are reviewed. The basic structure of the main mathematical equations are given and formal dosimetry systems are discussed. An extensive overview of the history and current status of anthropomorphic models (phantoms) is given. The sources and magnitudes of uncertainties in calculated internal dose estimates are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE™) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS™). PRESAGE™ is a transparent material with com...

  12. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  13. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bečková, Věra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zdeněk; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  14. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  15. Dosimetry for radiocolloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngiomas

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, E L; Lallena, A M; Bodineau, C; Galan, P; Al-Dweri, Feras M.O.; Lallena, Antonio M.; Bodineau, Coral; Galan, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetry for radiocolloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngiomas is investigated. Analytical calculations based on the Loevinger and the Berger formulae for electrons and photons, respectively, are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The role of the material of which the colloid introduced inside the craniopharyngioma is made of as well as that forming the cyst wall is analyzed. It is found that the analytical approaches provide a very good description of the simulated data in the conditions where they can be applied (i.e., in the case of a uniform and infinite homogeneous medium). However, the consideration of the different materials and interfaces produces a strong reduction of the dose delivered to the cyst wall in relation to that predicted by the Loevinger and the Berger formulae.

  16. EPR-dosimetry with carious teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S.V. E-mail: sholom@leed1.kiev.ua; Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Chumak, V.V.; Kenner, G.H

    2000-12-15

    The effect of caries in EPR dosimetry of tooth enamel (in the dose range of 0-1 Gy) was investigated. The enamel of each tooth was divided into carious, non-carious and intermediate portions. The EPR signals of enamel at g=2.0018 (dosimetric) and g=2.0045 (native) were examined. The intensity of the dosimetric signal was the same for all three portions, while that of the native signal was higher for carious portions than for non-carious and intermediate portions. Reconstruction of the laboratory applied doses was done using all portions. Reasonable correlation between nominal and reconstructed doses was found in most cases. The effect of alkali treatment on the native and dosimetric signals of enamel was also tested. Reduction of the native signal intensity, particularly in the carious portions, was found to be the only significant effect. This resulted in a slight improvement in the accuracy of the reconstructed doses.

  17. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the proliferation of bone marrow CD34~+ cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on the marrow CD34+ cells by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC),VarioMACS was used to sort bone marrow CD34+ cells,and then the purity of CD34+ cell was tested by FCM. Marrow mononuclear cells from abortion fetal bone marrow were isolated,and BMMSC were

  18. In vivo dosimetry during tangential breast treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H.; Tienhoven, G. van; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) dose distribution as calculated in clinical practice for tangential breast treatment was verified through in vivo dosimetry. Clinical practice at Netherlands Cancer Institute implies use of 8MV X-ray beams, 2-D treatment planning system, collimator rotation and a limited set of patient data for dose calculations. By positioning diodes at the central beam axes as well as in the periphery of the breast the magnitude of dose values at the isocentre and in points situated in high-dose regions behind the lung could be assessed. The position of diodes was verified by means of an on-line portal imaging device. Reproducibility of these in vivo dose measurements was better than 2% (1SD). This study shows that on the average dose delivery at the isocentre is 2% less at the points behind the lung, 5.7% higher with respect to the calculated dose values. Detailed analysis of these in vivo dosimetry results, based on dose measurements performed with a breast shaped phantom, yielded the magnitudes of errors in predicted dose due to several limitations in dose calculation algorithms and dose calculation procedure. These limitations are each introducing an error of several percent but are compensating each other for the dose calculation at the isocentre. It is concluded that dose distribution in patient for this treatment technique and dose calculation procedure can be predicted with a 2-D treatment planning system in an acceptable way. A more accurate prediction of dose distribution can be performed but requires an estimation of the lack of scatter due to missing tissue, the change in the dose distribution due to oblique incident beams and incorporation of the actual output of the treatment machine in the assessment of the number of monitor units. (author). 28 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  19. Fast neutron activation dosimetry with TLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.W.; Moran, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    Fast neutron activation using threshold reactions is the only neutron dosimetry method which offers complete discrimination against gamma-rays and preserves some information about the neutron energy. Conventional activation foil technique requires sensitive radiation detectors to count the decay of the neutron induced activity. For extensive measurements at low neutron fluences, vast outlays of counting equipment are required. TL dosimeters are inexpensive, extremely sensitive radiation detectors. The work of Mayhugh et al. (Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Luminescence Dosimetry, Riso Report 249, 1040, (1971)) showed that CaSO/sub 4/: DyTLDs could be used to measure the integrated dose from the decay of the radioactivity produced in the dosimeters by exposure to thermal neutrons. This neatly combines the activation detector and counter functions in one solid state device. This work has been expanded to fast neutron exposures and other TL phosphors. The reactions /sup 19/F(n, 2n)/sup 18/F, /sup 32/S(n,p)/sup 32/P, /sup 24/Mg(n,p)/sup 24/, and /sup 64/Zn(n,p)/sup 64/Cu were found useful for fast neutron activation in commercial TLDs. As each TLD is its own integrating decay particle counter, many activation measurements can be made at the same time. The subsequent readings of the TL signals can be done serially after the induced radioactivity has decayed, using only one TL reader. The neutron detection sensitivity is limited mainly by the number statistics of the neutron activations. The precision of the neutron measurement is within a factor of two of conventional foil activation for comparable mass detectors. Commercially available TLDs can measure neutron fluences of 10/sup 9/n/cm/sup 2/ with 10 percent precision.

  20. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  1. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  2. Latest developments in silica fibre luminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. A.; Abdul S, S. F.; Jafari, S. M.; Alanazi, A. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, GU2 7XH Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Amouzad M, G. [University of Malaya, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Lightwave Research Group, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Addul R, H. A.; Mizanur R, A. K. M.; Zubair, H. T.; Begum, M.; Yusoff, Z.; Omar, N. Y. M. [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, 2010 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Maah, M. J. [University of Malaya, Department of Chemistry, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Collin, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 OLW Middlesex (United Kingdom); Mat-Sharif, K. A.; Muhd-Yassin, S. Z.; Zulkifli, M. I., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Telekom Malaysia Research and Development Sdn Bhd., 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Using tailor made sub-mm diameter doped-silica fibres, we are carrying out luminescence dosimetry studies for a range of situations, including thermoluminescence (Tl)investigations on a liquid alpha source formed of {sup 223}RaCl (the basis of the Bayer Health care product Xofigo), the Tl response to a 62 MeV proton source and Tl response to irradiation from an {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. In regard to the former, in accord with the intrinsic high linear energy transfer (Let) and short path length (<100 um) of the α-particles in calcified tissue, the product is in part intended as a bone-seeking radionuclide for treatment of metastatic cancer, offering high specificity and efficacy. The Tl yield of Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibres has been investigated including for photonic crystal fibre un collapsed, flat fibres and single mode fibres, these systems offering many advantages over conventional passive dosimetry types. In particular, one can mention comparable and even superior sensitivity, an effective atomic number Z{sub eff} of the silica dosimetric material close to that of bone, and the glassy nature of the fibres offering the additional advantage of being able to place such dosimeters directly into liquid environments. Finally we review the use of our tailor made fibres for on-line radioluminescence measurements of radiotherapy beams. The outcome from these various lines of research is expected to inform development of doped fiber radiation dosimeters of versatile utility, ranging from clinical applications through to industrial studies and environmental evaluations. (Author)

  3. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  4. Review of the near-earth space radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Shiyou

    2016-07-01

    The near-earth space radiation environment has a great effect to the spacecraft and maybe do harm to the astronaut's health. Thus, how to measure the radiation has become a serious challenge. In order to provide sufficient protection both for astronauts and for instruments on-board, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer should be measured instead of merely measuring total radiation dose. This paper reviews the methods of radiation measurement and presents a brief introduction of dosimetry instruments. The method can be divided into two different kinds, i.e., positive dosimetry and passive dosimetry. The former usually includes electronic devices which can be used for data storage and can offer simultaneous monitoring on space radiation. The passive dosimetry has a much simple structure, and need extra operation after on-orbit missions for measuring. To get more reliable data of radiation dosimetry, various instruments and methods had been applied in the spacecrafts and the manned spacecrafts in particular. The outlook of the development in the space radiation dosimetry measurement is also presented.

  5. The Red Capitalist's Red Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROGER CHEUNG

    2008-01-01

    @@ A disastrous derivatives investment has seen Citic Pacific chairman Rong Zhijian lose hundreds of millions of dollars - not to mention his reputation Rong Zhijian may well go down in the history books as the last of China's "Red Capitalists," a group of pre-revolutionary tycoons who stayed on post-1949. His family owned one of China's largest private enterprises before 1949 and his father, Rong Yiren, who served as China's vice-president from 1993 to 1998, was hand-picked by Deng Xiaoping to oversee China's economic opening and reform during the 1980s.

  6. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand, {sup 18}F-SP203, to image metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Simeon, Fabrice G.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro [National Institute of Mental Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hatazawa, Jun [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Kinetics, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mozley, P.D. [Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A new PET ligand, 3-fluoro-5-(2-(2-{sup 18}F-(fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile ({sup 18}F-SP203), is a positron emission tomographic radioligand selective for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of {sup 18}F-SP203 in humans and to determine from the distribution of radioactivity in bone structures with various proportions of bone and red marrow whether {sup 18}F-SP203 undergoes defluorination. Whole-body images were acquired for 5 h after injecting {sup 18}F-SP203 in seven healthy humans. Urine was collected at various time points. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. After injecting {sup 18}F-SP203, the two organs with highest radiation exposure were urinary bladder wall and gallbladder wall, consistent with both urinary and fecal excretion. In the skeleton, most of the radioactivity was in bone structures that contain red marrow and not in those without red marrow. Although the dose to red marrow (30.9 {mu}Sv/MBq) was unusually high, the effective dose (17.8 {mu}Sv/MBq) of {sup 18}F-SP203 was typical of that of other {sup 18}F radiotracers. {sup 18}F-SP203 causes an effective dose in humans typical of several other {sup 18}F radioligands and undergoes little defluorination. (orig.)

  7. The Use of Novel Therapies to Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance, using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance, using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Adrianna Vlachos, M.D...Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance, using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0177 5c...is a rare inherited red cell aplasia . Mutations have been described in ribosomal protein genes. Currently standard therapy includes corticosteroids

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a severe disorder that usually begins ...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  10. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-label

  11. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  12. SIXTH ERDA WORKSHOP ON PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E. J.; Hankins, D. E.; Bramson, P. E.

    1977-07-11

    This workshop was the sixth of a series and was held on July 11 and 12, 1977, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Those presenting papers at the Sixth Workshop prepared summary reports of their recent work for inclusion in this document. The reports are reproduced here as submitted by the participants, with only minor editing. This year's Workshop took a decidedly international flavor, with participants from seven countries in addition to the United States. The significance of this group's contributions has raised the possibility that the next Neutron Dosimetry Workshop may be held in Europe. Of particular interest at the Workshop was the keynote address by Dr. Harald Rossi. He commented that there is evidence that 1) accepted values of RBE for low absorbed doses of neutrons may be low by an order of magnitude or more and 2) the risk of leukemia is significant at 0.5 rad to the bone narrow. A reduction of the limit for permissible neutron exposure, which could result from consideration of this information, would necessitate major improvements in our "middle ages" neutron dosimetry. A number of participants reported conversions to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) systems. This move has not been unanimous, however, as there were several reports of apparently satisfactory fission fragment, activation foil, and NTA film dosimeters. While thementionof NTA film resulted in the usual discussion of energy cut off and humidity effects, it seems the use of NTA in accelerator environments still has some merit. Discussion of fission fragment dosimeters centered around track etching techniques, which have shown some improvement. Of particular interest was Tommasino's report on the use of polycarbonate centrifuge tubes as the sensitive element. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE), never very popular for personnel dosimetry, has lost additional ground with the report that the neutron/gamma response ratio is much less than

  13. Cooling rate effects in thermoluminescence dosimetry grade lithium flouride. Implications for practical dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E W; McKinlay, A F; Clark, I

    1976-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the effects of cooling rates in the range of 10(-1) to 2 X 10(5) degrees C min-1 applied to TLD-700, LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters has shown that the 'transfer sensitivity' effect observed by Booth, Johnson and Attix (1972) is only of importance for cooling rates greater than 10(3) degrees C min-1. Although it is concluded that for practical dosimetry purposes the effect may be ignored it is not clear why Booth et al. observed such large changes and until this discrepancy is explained it is recommended that a low temperature pre-irradiation anneal should be used.

  14. Dosimetry and verification of Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Geraily, Ghazale; Esfehani, Mahbod; Sharafi, Aliakbar; Haddad, Peyman; Shirazi, Alireza

    2007-10-01

    Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a (60)Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 × 30 × 30 cm(3)), using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW) and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW). Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW). The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013). The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  15. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the neutrophils are activated and tuned for the subsequent interaction with microbes. Once in tissues, neutrophils kill......Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow from stem cells that proliferate and differentiate to mature neutrophils fully equipped with an armory of granules. These contain proteins that enable the neutrophil to deliver lethal hits against microorganisms, but also to cause great tissue damage...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  16. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  17. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  18. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  19. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor

  20. Bone marrow examination in pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, M; Prabhu; Nandini, N M; Manjunath, G V

    2012-08-01

    Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia. Other causes were nutritional anaemia (16%), aplastic anaemia (14%), hypersplenism (10%), sepsis (9%) and leukaemia (5%). Less common causes were alcoholic liver disease, haemolytic anaemia, HIV, dengue, systemic lupus erythematosus, viral hepatitis, disseminated TB and multiple myeloma. Most of the patients were in the age group of 11-30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1.Generalised weakness and fatigue (88%) were the commonest presenting complaints. Haemoglobin level varied from 1-10 g/dl with majorIty (70%) of them in the range of 5.1-10 g/dI. TLC was in the range of 500-4000 cells/cmm. Most (34%) of them had 3100-4000 cells/cmm. Platelet count was in the range of 4000-1,40,000 cells/cmm. Reticulocyte count varied from 0.1%-15% with majority (82%) of them ranging from 0.1%-2%. The bone marrow cellularity was hypocellular in 14%, hypercellular in 75%, and normocellular in 11% of the patients. Pancytopenia is a relatively common entity with inadequate attention in Indian subcontinent. A comprehensive clinical and haematological study of patients with pancytopenia will usually help in the identification of the underlying cause. However in view of wide array of aetiologies, pancytopenia continues to be a diagnostic challenge for haematologists.

  1. Macroscopic to Microscopic Scales of Particulate Dosimetry: From Source to Fate in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional perspective with regards to particle dosimetry is achieved by exploring dosimetry across a range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic in scope. Typically, one thinks of dosimetry as what happens when a particle is inhaled, where it is deposited, and how it is clea...

  2. Trends of personal dosimetry at atomic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Seini [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo Factory, Radiation Equipment Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The individual dosimetry at the atomic power station is sorted for monthly dosimetry, daily dosimetry and special job dosimetry in high dose circumstance. Film badge (passive dosimeter) can measure gamma dose, beta dose and neutron dose respectively lower than about 0.1 mSv. While workers are in the radiation controlled area, they have to wear the dosimeters and the individual dose is accumulated for every one month. Recently the Silicon semiconductors detecting beta ray and neutron have been developed. With microcircuit technology and these new sensors, new multiple function dosimeter of the card size had been put to practical use. The result of dose measurement obtained by the electronic dosimeter is consistent well with the measurement of usual film badge and new dosimeter can determine the dose as low as 0.01 mSv. The result is stored in the non-volatile memory in the electronic personal dosimeter and held for more than one year without the power supply. The function to read data directly from the memory improves the reliability of the data protection. The realization of the unified radiation control system that uses the electronic personal dosimeter for monthly dosimetry is expected. (J.P.N.)

  3. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  4. Artificial neural networks in neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.; Mercado, G.A.; Perales M, W.A.; Robles R, J.A. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Depto. de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    An artificial neural network has been designed to obtain the neutron doses using only the Bonner spheres spectrometer's count rates. Ambient, personal and effective neutron doses were included. 187 neutron spectra were utilized to calculate the Bonner count rates and the neutron doses. The spectra were transformed from lethargy to energy distribution and were re-binned to 31 energy groups using the MCNP 4C code. Re-binned spectra, UTA4 response matrix and fluence-to-dose coefficients were used to calculate the count rates in Bonner spheres spectrometer and the doses. Count rates were used as input and the respective doses were used as output during neural network training. Training and testing was carried out in Mat lab environment. The artificial neural network performance was evaluated using the {chi}{sup 2}- test, where the original and calculated doses were compared. The use of Artificial Neural Networks in neutron dosimetry is an alternative procedure that overcomes the drawbacks associated in this ill-conditioned problem. (Author)

  5. IMBA Expert: internal dosimetry made simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, A; Puncher, M; James, A C; Marsh, J W; Jarvis, N S; Peace, M S; Davis, K; King, D J

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future).

  6. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului St, Magurele, Jud Ilfov, P.O.B. MG-6, RO-077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (∼10{sup −9} - 10{sup −8} Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  7. Beta-particle dosimetry in radiation synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shortkroff, S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Barnes, C.L. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Spitzer, A.I. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sledge, C.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Beta-particle dosimetry of various radionuclides used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was estimated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation coupled with experiments using reactor-produced radionuclides and radiachromic film dosimeters inserted into joint phantoms and the knees of cadavers. Results are presented as absorbed dose factors (cGy-cm{sup 2}/MBq-s) versus depth in a mathematical model of the rheumatoid joint which includes regions of bone, articular cartilage, joint capsule, and tissue (synovium) found in all synovial joints. The factors can be used to estimate absorbed dose and dose rate distributions in treated joints. In particular, guidance is provided for those interested in (a) a given radionuclide`s therapeutic range, (b) the amount of radioactivity to administer on a case-by-case basis, (c) the expected therapeutic dose to synovium, and (d) the radiation dose imparted to other, nontarget components in the joint, including bone and articular cartilage. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  9. Oxygen measurements to improve singlet oxygen dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves interactions between the three main components of light fluence, photosensitizer concentration, and oxygenation. Currently, singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) has focused on the first two of these components. The macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen has previously involved a fixed initial ground state oxygen concentration. A phosphorescence-based oxygen probe was used to measure ground state oxygen concentration throughout treatments for mice bearing radioactively induced fibroscarcoma tumors. Photofrin-, BPD-, and HPPH-mediated PDT was performed on mice. Model-calculated oxygen and measured oxygen was compared to evaluate the macroscopic model as well as the photochemical parameters involved. Oxygen measurements at various depths were compared to calculated values. Furthermore, we explored the use of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure tumor blood flow changes in response to PDT to improve the model calculation of reacted singlet oxygen. Mice were monitored after treatment to see the effect of oxygenation on long-term recurrence-free survival as well as the efficacy of using reacted singlet oxygen as a predictive measure of outcome. Measurement of oxygenation during treatment helps to improve SOED as well as confirm the photochemical parameters involved in the macroscopic model. Use of DCS in predicting oxygenation changes was also investigated.

  10. Reactor dosimetry and RPV life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.; Mitev, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Reactor dosimetry (RD) is a tool that provides data for neutron fluence accumulated over the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during the reactor operation. This information, however, is not sufficient for RPV lifetime assessment. The life management of RPV is a multidisciplinary task. To assess whether the RPV steel properties at the current stage (for actual accumulated neutron fluence) of reactor operation are still 'safe enough,' the dependence of material properties on the fluence must be known; this is a task for material science (MS). Moreover, the mechanical loading over the RPV during normal operation and accidence have to be known, as well, for evaluation, if the RPV material integrity in this loading condition and existing cracks is provided. The crack loading path in terms of stress intensity factor is carried out by structural analyses (SA). Pressure and temperature distribution over RPV used in these analyses are obtained from a thermal hydraulic (TH) calculation. The conjunction of RD and other disciplines in RPV integrity assessment is analyzed in accordance with the FFP (fitness for purpose) approach. It could help to improve the efficiency in multi-disciplinary tasks solutions. (authors)

  11. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  12. Implementation of IMRT and VMAT using Delta4 phantom and portal dosimetry as dosimetry verification tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daci, Lulzime, E-mail: lulzime.daci@nodlandssykehuset.no [Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø (Norway); Malkaj, Partizan, E-mail: malkaj-p@hotmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics Engineering and Physics Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana (Albania)

    2016-03-25

    In this study we analyzed and compared the dose distribution of different IMRT and VMAT plans with the intent to provide pre-treatment quality assurance using two different tools. Materials/Methods: We have used the electronic portal imaging device EPID after calibration to dose and correction for the background offset signal and also the Delta4 phantom after en evaluation of angular sensitivity. The Delta4 phantom has a two-dimensional array with ionization chambers. We analyzed three plans for each anatomical site calculated by Eclipse treatment planning system. The measurements were analyzed using γ-evaluation method with passing criteria 3% absolute dose and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). For all the plans the range of score has been from 97% to 99% for gantry fixed at 0° while for rotational planes there was a slightly decreased pass rates and above 95%. Point measurement with a ionization chamber were done in additional to see the accuracy of portal dosimetry and to evaluate the Delta4 device to various dose rates. Conclusions: Both Delt4 and Portal dosimetry shows good results between the measured and calculated doses. While Delta4 is more accurate in measurements EPID is more time efficient. We have decided to use both methods in the first steps of IMRT and VMAT implementation and later on to decide which of the tools to use depending on the complexity of plans, how much accurate we want to be and the time we have on the machine.

  13. Implementation of IMRT and VMAT using Delta4 phantom and portal dosimetry as dosimetry verification tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    In this study we analyzed and compared the dose distribution of different IMRT and VMAT plans with the intent to provide pre-treatment quality assurance using two different tools. Materials/Methods: We have used the electronic portal imaging device EPID after calibration to dose and correction for the background offset signal and also the Delta4 phantom after en evaluation of angular sensitivity. The Delta4 phantom has a two-dimensional array with ionization chambers. We analyzed three plans for each anatomical site calculated by Eclipse treatment planning system. The measurements were analyzed using γ-evaluation method with passing criteria 3% absolute dose and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). For all the plans the range of score has been from 97% to 99% for gantry fixed at 0° while for rotational planes there was a slightly decreased pass rates and above 95%. Point measurement with a ionization chamber were done in additional to see the accuracy of portal dosimetry and to evaluate the Delta4 device to various dose rates. Conclusions: Both Delt4 and Portal dosimetry shows good results between the measured and calculated doses. While Delta4 is more accurate in measurements EPID is more time efficient. We have decided to use both methods in the first steps of IMRT and VMAT implementation and later on to decide which of the tools to use depending on the complexity of plans, how much accurate we want to be and the time we have on the machine.

  14. 以带蒂筋膜瓣为膜引导骨再生屏障膜包裹接种自体骨髓间充质干细胞的非细胞型组织工程促进骨缺损修复的研究%Feasibility and effectiveness of using pedical fascial flap packing noncelluar tissue engineered bone with autologous red bone marrow and membrance guided bone regeneration technique in the process of bone defect repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振顺; 杨新明; 王耀一; 孟宪勇; 张瑛; 阴彦林

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究带蒂筋膜瓣为膜引导骨再生(MGBR)屏障膜的可行性及其在促进超临界骨缺损(ECSD)修复方面的实验疗效.方法:50只大白兔,尺骨造ECSD模型,A组单纯植入化骨(NTEB)(对照组),B组制备带蒂筋膜瓣包裹NTEB(实验组),术后对实验动物行一般情况观察、修复区X射线检查、大体观察和组织学检查、骨形态计量分析及生物力学测定分析.结果:各检查结果均显示B组优于A组.结论:以带蒂筋膜瓣为屏障膜具有MGBR作用,其包裹NTEB应用MGBR技术对促进ECSD修复疗效显著.%Objective To study the feasibility and effectiveness of using pedical fascial flap packing noncelluar tissue engineered bone with autologous red bone marrow and membrance guided bone regeneration (MGBR) technique in the process of bone defect repair. Methods 50 rabbits were used to make the experimental model of bilateral defect of the long bone and the periosteum in the ulna. Noncelluar tissue engineered bone (NTEB) was implanted in the bone defect area, one with nothing serving as the control group (group A). While the other wrapped by pedical fascial flap as the experimental group (group B). After the operation, X-ray exam, light density measurement, gross morphology and histological inspection, bone shape measurement analysis in the junctional zone and the biomechanics determination were conducted. Results X-ray films, gross morphology and histological inspection, bone shape measurement analysis , biomechanics determination:the group B was superior to the group A. Conclusions The pedical fascial flap can be used in the MGBR technique. And it has obvious effect on promoting the process of the exceed critical size defect repair.

  15. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis.

  16. Bone marrow transplantation. [Mice, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation.

  17. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetan Vikas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplant with mild visual impairment and no recovery.

  18. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  19. Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnot, C; Huang, S; Helms, J

    2006-11-24

    The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

  20. Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P T; Sivakumaran, M; Casey, M C; Liddicoat, A; Wood, J K

    1998-05-01

    A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis.

  1. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  2. RCT: Module 2.04, Dosimetry, Course 8769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course will introduce the types of instruments used to measure external and internal radiation to people. Dosimetry is the quantitative assessment of radiation received by the human body. Several types of dosimeters are used worldwide. This information is valuable to all radiological control personnel because dosimeters are the only direct method to measure and document personnel radiation exposure and ensure regulatory compliance with applicable limits. This course will cover dosimetry terms, Department of Energy (DOE) limits, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) administrative guidelines, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), LANL dosimetry, and bioassay assessment methods. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  3. Development of 3D Slicer based film dosimetry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K. M.; Robinson, A.; Pinter, C.; Fichtinger, G.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2017-05-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry has been widely adopted in the clinic as it is a convenient option for dose measurement and verification. Film dosimetry analysis is typically performed using expensive commercial software, or custom made scripts in Matlab. However, common clinical film analysis software is not transparent regarding what corrections/optimizations are running behind the scenes. In this work, an extension to the open-source medical imaging platform 3D Slicer was developed and implemented in our centre for film dosimetry analysis. This extension streamlines importing treatment planning system dose and film imaging data, film calibration, registration, and comparison of 2D dose distributions, enabling greater accessibility to film analysis and higher reliability.

  4. Effect of Ligustrazine on Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Signal Transduction Path in Irradiation Injured Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岚; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 任天华; 李登举; 徐惠珍; 路武

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ligustrazine on bone marrow hematopoietic microenvi-ronment and signal transduction in irradiation injured mice. Methods:After being irradiated by 6.0 Gy 60Coγ-ray, the mice in the ligustrazine group were orally given ligustrazine 4 mg/mouse twice a day to the endof the experiment. For the control group, normal saline was given instead of ligustrazine and the mice inthe normal group was untreated. The mice were sacrificed separately on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after ra-diation, bone marrow of them was taken and managed as follows: (1) Make stromal cell culture to observethe growth state and the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) of the cells; (2) Make the bone mar-row section to examine the pathological and immunohistochemistry changes, including the expression of fe-tal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) and Fvm: RAg. The data were recorded and compared among groups. Results:Af-ter radiation, the hematopoietic cells in bone marrow decreased and the micro-vessels dilated and congestedwith bleeding; bone marrow became thinner, red colored with cells of irregular shape and few cells adhereto the bottom of culture flask. These changes began to recover at the 7th day and approached to normalwithin 2 weeks. The recovery was better, earlier and quicker in the ligustrazine group than that in the con-trol group. The expression levels of Flk-1 decreased significantly. Conclusion: Ligustrazine could promotethe recovery of hematopoietic function of radiation damaged bone marrow, the mechanisms might bethrough improving the microenvironment and signal transduction path for recovery.

  5. Role of bone marrow macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simranpreet; Raggatt, Liza Jane; Batoon, Lena; Hume, David Arthur; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Pettit, Allison Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages, named for their phagocytic ability, participate in homeostasis, tissue regeneration and inflammatory responses. Bone and adjacent marrow contain multiple functionally unique resident tissue macrophage subsets which maintain and regulate anatomically distinct niche environments within these interconnected tissues. Three subsets of bone-bone marrow resident tissue macrophages have been characterised; erythroblastic island macrophages, haematopoietic stem cell niche macrophages and osteal macrophages. The role of these macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches is reviewed in detail.

  6. Bone marrow scan evaluation of arthropathy in sickle cell disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dorwart, B.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1976-04-01

    Twelve patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and arthropathy were studied, using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scans. Eight of 12 had decreased marrow radionuclide activity adjacent to painful joints, suggesting obliteration of vessels supplying bone marrow. Four patients without marrow defects on scanning had causes other than infarction for their joint symptoms, viz, small fractures, postinfectious synovitis, degenerative arthritis, and osteochondromas. Roentgenograms never showed bony abnormalities in five patients with marrow infarctions, and, in three others, showed defects several months later than did the marrow scans. Bone marrow scans offer a sensitive and early diagnostic aid in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies with arthropathy.

  7. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-10-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS). PRESAGE is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE/OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The "measured" dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE, EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in measurable region of PRESAGE dosimeter (approximately 90% of radius). The EBT and PRESAGE distributions agreed more closely with each other than with the calculated plan, consistent with penumbral blurring in the planning data which was acquired with an ion chamber. In summary, our results support the conclusion that the PRESAGE optical

  8. American Red Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know You’re Safe – Use Red Cross App and Website » Returning Home – Use Red Cross Flood Safety Steps » Red Cross Relief Efforts in the Caribbean & Mexico » At-a-Glance: Red Cross Response to Harvey, ...

  9. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  10. Current state of the art brachytherapy treatment planning dosimetry algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P; Pantelis, E; Karaiskos, P

    2014-09-01

    Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model-based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated into commercial systems for (192)Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are pre-configured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed vs accuracy. Their clinical use is hence straightforward. A basic understanding of these algorithms and their limitations is essential, however, for commissioning; detecting differences from conventional algorithms; explaining their origin; assessing their impact; and maintaining global uniformity of clinical practice.

  11. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of rare earth doped calcium aluminate phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Madhukumar; K Rajendra Babu; K C Ajith Prasad; J James; T S Elias; V Padmanabhan; C M K Nair

    2006-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) doped with different rare earth ions have been studied and their suitability for radiation dosimetry applications is discussed. It is observed that monocalcium aluminate doped with cerium is a good dosimeter having linear response up to about 4 kGy of radiation doses. Dopant concentration of 0.25 mol% cerium gives maximum TL emission. The well-defined single peak observed at 295°C can be advantageously used for high temperature dosimetry applications.

  12. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2009-09-24

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.( ) for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Office of River Protection and their Hanford Site contractors. The manual describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and the radiation protection programs of the Hanford Site contractors. Recommendations and guidance are also provided for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs.

  13. Dosimetry of the mixed field irradiation facility CALIBAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompier, F. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92265 Fontenay-aux-roses (France)], E-mail: francois.trompier@irsn.fr; Huet, C.; Medioni, R.; Robbes, I. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92265 Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Asselineau, B. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2008-02-15

    The dosimetry of the experimental reactor CALIBAN was established for photon and neutron components, and the kerma variations were evaluated according to position (distance from the core, height, angle with the median room axis). Dosimetry was performed with TLD (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for the photon component, and with passive silicon diodes, activation detectors (Au, In, Ni, Mg, Cu) and alanine pellets measured by EPR spectrometry for the neutron component. The neutron energy distribution was experimentally evaluated at various distances based on the activities measured at the activated foil using the SNAC2 software. It was then compared with those calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX.

  14. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  15. Applicability of superheated drop (bubble) detectors to reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d`Errico, F.; Curzio, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari; Alberts, W.G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Apfel, R.E.; Guldbakke, S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The characteristics of superheated drop (bubble) detectors (SDD`s) have been reviewed with respect to the possible application of these devices in reactor dosimetry. In particular, their ability to measure neutrons in the presence of a high noise level, elevated temperatures and intense {gamma} background has been investigated. Based on these studies, the use of SDD`s is proposed for the monitoring and analysis of neutron emission from spent fuel assemblies. Finally, the possibility to employ these detectors in radiation protection dosimetry around power plants is discussed.

  16. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929 cells...... and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS...

  17. 4D dosimetry and its applications to pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry of VMAT treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, F.; Wetterstedt, S. af; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a 4D dosimetry concept was developed. This concept included a method for calculation of 3D reference absorbed dose matrices at every control point of the delivery using a clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Further, the gamma evaluation method was extended to incorporate the 4th dimension of the TPS calculated dose distributions. The applications of the 4D dosimetry concept on pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry were investigated.

  18. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  19. In vivo dosimetry with radiochromic films in low-voltage intraoperative radiotherapy of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanzo, M.; Rink, A.; Dassie, A.; Massarut, S.; Roncadin, M.; Borsatti, E.; Capra, E. [Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Surgery, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: EBT2 radiochromic films were studied and used for in vivo dosimetry in targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT), a technique in which the Intrabeam system (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) is used to perform intraoperative partial breast irradiation with x-rays of 50 kV{sub p}. Methods: The energy of the radiation emitted by the Intrabeam with the different spherical applicators, under 1 and 2 cm of solid water, and under the tungsten impregnated rubber used for shielding of the heart in TARGIT of the breast, was characterized with measurements of half-value layer (HVL). The stability of response of EBT2 was verified inside this range of energies. EBT2 films were calibrated using the red and green channels of the absorption spectrum in the 0-20 Gy dose range delivered by the Intrabeam x-rays. The dependence of film response on temperature during irradiation was measured. For in vivo dosimetry, pieces of radiochromic films wrapped in sterile envelopes were inserted after breast conserving surgery and before TARGIT into the excision cavity, on the skin and on the shielded pectoralis fascia for treatments of the left breast. Results: HVLs of the Intrabeam in TARGIT of the breast correspond to effective energies of 20.7-36.3 keV. The response of EBT2 was constant inside this range of energies. We measured the dose to the target tissue and to organs at risk in 23 patients and obtained an average dose of 13.52 {+-} 1.21 Gy to the target tissue. Dose to the skin in close proximity to the applicator was 2.22 {+-} 0.97 Gy, 0.29 {+-} 0.17 Gy at 5-10 cm from the applicator, and 0.08 {+-} 0.07 Gy at more than 10 cm from the applicator. Dose to the pectoral muscle for left breast treatment was 0.57 {+-} 0.23 Gy. Conclusions: Our results show that EBT2 films are accurate at the beam energies, dose range, and irradiation temperature found in TARGIT and that in vivo dosimetry in TARGIT with EBT2 films wrapped in sterile envelopes is a feasible procedure. Measured

  20. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotskova, O; Jenkins, C; Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed.

  1. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  2. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a /sup 137/Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiationsensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  4. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in a child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary acquired pure red cell aplasia is a rare occurrence in childhood. An eleven-year old boy presented to us with pallor, which required multiple packed red cell transfusions. He did not have hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice or lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow examination revealed the diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia. All possible investigations were done to exclude secondary causes of pure red cell aplasia. No secondary cause was found on investigations. Rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies were positive. He was started on oral steroids, to which he did not respond. He was then given cyclosporine A. Response to cyclosporine was dramatic and the child now does not require any transfusions.

  5. Standard Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosimeters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance on determining the performance characteristics of dosimeters and dosimetry systems used in radiation processing. 1.2 This guide describes the influence quantities that might affect the performance of dosimeters and dosimetry systems and that should be considered during dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization. 1.3 Users of this guide are directed to existing standards and literature for procedures to determine the effects from individual influence quantities and from combinations of more than one influence quantity. 1.4 Guidance is provided regarding the roles of the manufacturers, suppliers, and users in the characterization of dosimeters and dosimetry systems. 1.5 This guide does not address how the dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information is to be used in radiation processing applications or in the calibration of dosimetry systems. Note 1—For guidance on the use of dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information for the selection and use o...

  6. Interest of numerical dosimetry in radiation protection: mean of substitution or measurements consolidation?; Interet de la dosimetrie numerique en radioprotection: moyen de substitution ou de consolidation des mesures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, T.; Chau, Q. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DPHD/SDOS), Service Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ferragut, A.; Gillot, J.Y. [SAPHYMO, 91 - Massy (France)

    2003-07-01

    The use of calculation codes allows to reduce the costs and the time limits. These codes brings to operators elements to reinforce their projected dosimetry. In the cases of accidental overexposure, the numerical dosimetry comes in complement of clinical and biological investigations to give an estimation as precise as possible of the received dose. For particular situations where it does not exist an adapted instrumentation, the numerical dosimetry can substitute to conventional techniques used by regulatory dosimetry (project for aviation personnel). (N.C.)

  7. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the

  8. Clinical utility of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red cell disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Alden; Good, David; Reis, Marciano

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoiesis involves proliferation and differentiation of small population of hematopoietic stem cells resident in the bone marrow into mature red blood cells. The determination of the cellular composition of the blood is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of therapy. Flow cytometric analysis is increasingly being used to characterize the heterogeneous cell populations present in the blood and the hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation pathways of the bone marrow. Here we discuss the role of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red blood cell disorders. First, we discuss flow cytometric analysis of reticulocytes. Next, we review salient quantitative methods that can be used for detection of fetal-maternal hemorrhage (FMH). We also discuss flow cytometric analysis of high hemoglobin F (HbF) in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), red cell survival and red cell volume. We conclude by discussing cell cycle of erythroid cells.

  9. Bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride. A clinical value for the hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-10-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride (/sup 111/In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific.

  10. Pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation patient: inside the erythroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Labbadia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy is reported here. The patient presented with anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin treatment. Bone marrow cytomorphology was highly suggestive of parvovirus pure red cell aplasia, which was confirmed with serology and polymerase chain reaction positive for parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. After the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin the anemia improved with a rising number of the reticulocytes.

  11. Anesthetic management of a pregnant patient with a pure red cell aplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channabasavaraj S Sanikop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell disorder is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the maturation of erythrocytes. Erythroblats are virtually absent in the bone marrow. Surgery poses a very high-risk for these patients because of the several complications that can occur in the perioperative period. In this case report, we report a pregnant patient with a pure red cell aplasia who was optimized pre-operatively and underwent cesarean section under sub-arachnoid block.

  12. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of novel PET probes targeting the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenberg, Johannes [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Ahmanson Biological Imaging Division, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria); Radu, Caius G.; Tran, Andrew Q.; Phelps, Michael E.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Benz, Matthias; Fueger, Barbara; Czernin, Johannes; Schiepers, Christiaan [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Ahmanson Biological Imaging Division, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Witte, Owen N. [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage, a metabolic pathway involved in the production and maintenance of a balanced pool of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) for DNA synthesis. dCK phosphorylates and therefore activates nucleoside analogs such as cytarabine, gemcitabine, decitabine, cladribine, and clofarabine that are used routinely in cancer therapy. Imaging probes that target dCK might allow stratifying patients into likely responders and nonresponders with dCK-dependent prodrugs. Here we present the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of three fluorinated dCK substrates, {sup 18}F-FAC, L-{sup 18}F-FAC, and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC, developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of dCK activity in vivo. PET studies were performed in nine healthy human volunteers, three for each probe. After a transmission scan, the radiopharmaceutical was injected intravenously and three sequential emission scans acquired from the base of the skull to mid-thigh. Regions of interest encompassing visible organs were drawn on the first PET scan and copied to the subsequent scans. Activity in target organs was determined and absorbed dose estimated with OLINDA/EXM. The standardized uptake value was calculated for various organs at different times. Renal excretion was common to all three probes. Bone marrow had higher uptake for L-{sup 18}F-FAC and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC than {sup 18}F-FAC. Prominent liver uptake was seen in L-{sup 18}F-FMAC and L-{sup 18}F-FAC, whereas splenic activity was highest for {sup 18}F-FAC. Muscle uptake was also highest for {sup 18}F-FAC. The critical organ was the bladder wall for all three probes. The effective dose was 0.00524, 0.00755, and 0.00910 mSv/MBq for {sup 18}F-FAC, L-{sup 18}F-FAC, and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC, respectively. The biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FAC, L-{sup 18}F-FAC, and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC in humans reveals similarities and differences. Differences may be explained by different probe

  13. In vivo dosimetry: trends and prospects for brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertzscher, Gustavo; Rosenfeld, A.; Beddar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The error types during brachytherapy (BT) treatments and their occurrence rates are not well known. The limited knowledge is partly attributed to the lack of independent verification systems of the treatment progression in the clinical workflow routine. Within the field of in vivo dosimetry (IVD)...

  14. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  15. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  16. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub...

  17. Retrospective dosimetry using unheated quartz: A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Most attempts to apply retrospective dosimetry to building materials have made use of heated (sensitised) items such as brick or tile ceramic. Unfired materials, such as concrete, are far more widespread in the industrial environment, but unfortunately these cannot be assumed to contain a negligi...

  18. Dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources for brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, R; Gray, L

    1987-06-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am emit primarily 60 keV photons which, because of multiple Compton scattering, produce dose distributions in water that are comparable to those from 226Ra or 137Cs. However, americium gamma rays can be shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials since the half value layer thickness is only 1/8th of a mm of lead for americium gamma rays as compared to a value of 12 mm for 226Ra gamma rays. This may allow effective in vivo shielding of critical organs, for example; the bladder can be partially shielded by hypaque solution, and the rectum and sigmoid colon by barium sulfate. In addition, the exposure to medical personnel involved in intracavitary application and patient care may be reduced substantially by the use of relatively thin lead aprons and light weight, portable shields. To investigate the feasibility of 241Am sources for intracavitary irradiation, dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources have been performed and a computer model for the determination of dose distributions around encapsulated cylindrical sources of 241Am has been developed and tested. Results of dosimetry measurements using ionization chambers, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, a scanning scintillation probe, and film dosimetry, confirm theoretical predictions that these sources can deliver dose rates adequate for intracavitary irradiation. Further dosimetry measurements in simulated clinical situations using lead foils and test tubes filled with hypaque or barium sulfate, confirm the predicted effectiveness of in vivo shielding which can be readily achieved with 241Am sources.

  19. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  20. Advances in kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robin; Healy, Brendan; Holloway, Lois; Kuncic, Zdenka; Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2014-03-01

    This topical review provides an up-to-date overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry. Kilovoltage x-ray beams have the property that the maximum dose occurs very close to the surface and thus, they are predominantly used in the treatment of skin cancers but also have applications for the treatment of other cancers. In addition, kilovoltage x-ray beams are used in intra operative units, within animal irradiators and in on-board imagers on linear accelerators and kilovoltage dosimetry is important in these applications as well. This review covers both reference and relative dosimetry of kilovoltage x-ray beams and provides recommendations for clinical measurements based on the literature to date. In particular, practical aspects for the selection of dosimeter and phantom material are reviewed to provide suitable advice for medical physicists. An overview is also presented of dosimeters other than ionization chambers which can be used for both relative and in vivo dosimetry. Finally, issues related to the treatment planning and the use of Monte Carlo codes for solving radiation transport problems in kilovoltage x-ray beams are presented.

  1. Eurados trial performance test for neutron personal dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordy, J.M.; Stadtmann, H.; Ambrosi, P.;

    2001-01-01

    measured, but particular problems were noted in the determination of intermediate energy fields and large incident angles, demonstrating the difficulties of neutron personal dosimetry. Of particular concern from a radiological protection point of view was the large number of results underestimating...... personal dose equivalent. A considerable over-response was noted in a few cases....

  2. Application of spherical micro diodes for brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisman, Andrey, E-mail: andreybr@ariel.ac.i [Medical Physics, Ariel University Center, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Shani, Gad [Biomedical Engineering, Ben Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-03-15

    The research presented in this paper demonstrates the feasibility and the advantages of using spherical micro diodes for radiation dosimetry. The spherical symmetry of the diode response is demonstrated, compared to that of planar diodes. The application of the spherical diode described here is for radiotherapy dosimetry, particularly brachytherapy. Measurements were done in PMMA phantoms. The advantage of the spherical diode is that it can be used for radiation measurement in a 4{pi} geometry, it was demonstrated by measurements in both axial and azimuthal planes. The diodes were found to respond equally to radiation coming from all directions, directly from the source or due to scattered radiation within the medium. In the present work 1.8 mm diameter silicone diodes were used. The small size of these spherical diodes provides local dose measurement and can be used for in situ dosimetry while treatment takes place. Treatment planning correction can be made accordingly. Commercially available seeds of the isotopes I{sup 125} and Pd{sup 103} were used as radiation sources. The spherical diodes response was compared with that of planar diodes XRB generally used for UV and X-ray dosimetry, and with TLD measurements. We have also compared the measured results with Monte Carlo simulation, applying the MCNP code and with calculations shown in the TG-43 report.

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry using natural and synthetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for use in radiation dosimetry is reviewed. A broad description is given of OSL techniques developed at Riso National Laboratory and at Oklahoma State University, and recent collaborative investigations on the properties of a variety...

  4. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  5. Fast 2D phantom dosimetry for scanning proton beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, SN; van Luijk, P; Schippers, JM; Meertens, H; Denis, JM; Vynckier, S; Medin, J; Grusell, E

    1998-01-01

    A quality control system especially designed for dosimetry in scanning proton beams has been designed and tested. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd2O2S:Tb), mounted at the beam-exit side of a phantom, and observed by a low noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The purpose of

  6. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  7. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations.

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry using natural and synthetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for use in radiation dosimetry is reviewed. A broad description is given of OSL techniques developed at Riso National Laboratory and at Oklahoma State University, and recent collaborative investigations on the properties of a variety of n......, and unseparated materials such as bricks and porcelain items....

  9. Quality control for X-ray dosimetry with Fricke dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann de [Centro Regional de Cincias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: lsouza@cnen.gov.br; Austerlitz, C. [East Carolina University, NC (United States)]. E-mail: camposc@ecu.edu

    2007-07-01

    It is a well-established fact that the success of radiation therapy is dependent on the accurate dosimetry of the radiation beam used. This dosimetry must include equipment performance as well. A system for Fricke dosimetry was used for this purpose. The Fricke solution and a parallel ionization chamber (used for comparison) were irradiated with an X-ray beam from a Pantak X-ray equipment. The ionization chamber was positioned at a distance of 500 mm of the focal point, in the central axis of the X-ray field which is defined as 100x100 mm{sup 2} at the calibration distance. A plexiglas phantom appropriate to hold the polypropylene tube was used to irradiate the vials with the Fricke solution. The irradiated solutions were transferred directly from the polypropylene vials to 10 mm length cuvettes and the optical densities were measured in 304 nm using a Beckman Counter Model DU 640 spectrophotometer. Three institutions were visited to verify their procedures and two were in accordance with the lAEA recommended procedures for soft X-ray dosimetry. The results of the measurements performed in the institutions visited show that the Fricke dosimeter system developed can be used for quality control for soft X-ray equipment. (author)

  10. Chemical dosimetry techniques for various applications under different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, B L; Narayan, G R; Nilekani, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry for various applications under different geometrical arrangements. These applications include: gamma chambers, blood irradiators, radiotherapy using both sup 6 sup 0 Co and accelerators, animal irradiations with different types of radiation sources, fluid irradiators for sludge and rubber latex and industrial electron irradiators. The dosimeters used were Fricke, FBX and alanine/glutamine (spectrophotometric readout).

  11. Precision dosimetry system suited for low temperature radiation damage experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    A calorimetric system for dosimetry on a beam of charged particles is described. The calorimeter works at liquid helium temperature. The total dose may be measured with an accuracy of 0.3%, and the dose per area with 0.4%. No theoretical corrections are needed. © 1967 The American Institute...

  12. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  13. The personal dosimetry in Mexico; La dosimetria personal en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A. [Proxtronics/ Asesoria Integral en Dosimetria Termoluminiscente S.A. de C.V., Canal de Miramontes 2030-14, Col. Educacion, 04400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: aidtsa@avantel.net

    2006-07-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  14. Development of probabilistic internal dosimetry computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values ( e.g. the 2.5th, 5th, median, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases of

  15. SEVENTH DOE WORKSHOP ON PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E J

    1978-10-24

    This workshop was the seventh of a series and was held on October 23-24. 1978, at the Central Electricity Generating Board, HQ, London, England. Typically~ attendees at the Workshop were concerned with one of three activities: studying and refining existing techniques in an attempt to quantify already-known parameters with greater precision, looking for ways to apply existing neutron dosirr:etry techniques to a specific local problem, identifying the needs and weaknesses of existing systems, with the goal of improving and passibly simplifying field measurements. The types of neutron dosimetry techniques discussed by participants included albedo dosimeters, track etch, and TLD. One speaker reported on NTA film, noting that fading could be eliminated by drying the emulsion in dry nitrogen before field use. There were no reports on tissue equivalent proportional counters or activation analysis. One participant discussed a metal oxide silicon dosimeter. The need to develop a consistent standard terminology, as well as calibration sources and techniques, on both the national and international level was evident. The need for standardization is particularly acute in the U.S. Techniques for evaluating dosimeter response in the field should he standardized, since several different instruments with widely different response characteristics are currently being used. The choice of instruments is often parochial. Also. the type and use of phantoms should be standardized. Neutron dose assignment is significantly affected by the position of the dosimeter on the body. for example, a typical albedo dosimeter may give differences of up to 20% depending on whether it is worn on the belt or chest. Larger errors are encountered with front-to-back (angular} orientation. 1n an attempt to minimize such errors~ at least two European facilities are using neutron dosimeter belts, which provide dosimeters both in front and in back of the wearer. The gamma-to-neutron ratio around nuclear power

  16. Generalized EPID calibration for in vivo transit dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Cilla, Savino; Greco, Francesca; Gargiulo, Laura; Azario, Luigi; Sabatino, Domenico; Piermattei, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers are studying new in vivo dosimetry methods based on the use of Elelctronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) that are simple and efficient in their daily use. However the need of time consuming implementation measurements with solid water phantoms for the in vivo dosimetry implementation can discourage someone in their use. In this paper a procedure has been proposed to calibrate aSi EPIDs for in vivo transit dosimetry. The dosimetric equivalence of three aSi Varian EPIDs has been investigated in terms of signal reproducibility and long term stability, signal linearity with MU and dose per pulse and signal dependence on the field dimensions. The signal reproducibility was within ± 0.5% (2SD), while the long term signal stability has been maintained well within ± 2%. The signal linearity with the monitor units (MU) was within ± 2% and within ± 0.5% for the EPIDs controlled by the IAS 2, and IAS 3 respectively. In particular it was verified that the correction factor for the signal linearity with the monitor units, k(lin), is independent of the beam quality, and the dose per pulse absorbed by the EPID. For 6, 10 and 15 MV photon beams, a generalized set of correlation functions F(TPR,w,L) and empirical factors f(TPR,d,L) as a function of the Tissue Phantom Ratio (TPR), the phantom thickness, w, the square field side, L, and the distance, d, between the phantom mid-plane and the isocentre were determined to reconstruct the isocenter dose. The tolerance levels of the present in vivo dosimetry method ranged between ± 5% and ± 6% depending on the tumor body location. In conclusion, the procedure proposed, that use generalized correlation functions, reduces the effort for the in vivo dosimetry method implementation for those photon beams with TPR within ± 0.3% as respect those here used.

  17. A preliminary note on the visual changes in femur marrow fat as an indicator of femur fat percentage of springbok Antidorcas Marsupialis and blesbok Damaliscus Dorcas Phillipsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Els

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes occuring in marrow fat reserves of animals have been used as an indicator of their physical condition (Cheatum, 1949; Riney, 1955. Cheatum correlated his visual estimate with a chemical analysis and Riney used four different condition classes on red deer  (Cervus elaphus for both colour and texture.

  18. Role of intracellular freezing in the death of cells cooled at supraoptimal rates. [Preservation of erythrocytes, bone marrow cells, and yeasts by freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1976-01-01

    Cooling velocity is one of the major factors that determines whether viable cells can be frozen to temperatures that permit indefinite storage. Cooling either too slowly or too rapidly tends to be damaging. Optimum cooling rates are reported for mouse marrow stem cells, yeast, and human red cells.

  19. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Pure red cell aplasia caused by D-penicillamine treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tishler, M; Kahn, Y.; Yaron, M

    1991-01-01

    A 40 year old woman with rheumatoid arthritis developed pure red cell aplasia after treatment with D-penicillamine 500 mg/day. D-Penicillamine was stopped and short term treatment with steroids resulted in complete recovery of bone marrow.

  1. Shifting bone marrow edema of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosikasuwan, Josh B.; Schultz, Elizabeth [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, NY 11030, Manhasset (United States); Miller, Theodore T. [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, NY 11030, Manhasset (United States); Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 825 Northern Boulevard, NY 11021, Great Neck (United States); Math, Kevin [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, First Avenue at 16th Street, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe shifting bone marrow edema in the knee as the MR imaging feature of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee. Five men, aged 45-73 years, were referred by orthopedic surgeons for MR imaging evaluation of knee pain, which had been present for 2 weeks to 6 months. One patient had a prior history of blunt trauma. None had risk factors for osteonecrosis. Four patients had two MR examinations and the patient with prior blunt trauma had four. Plain radiographs were obtained in all patients. In all cases, a large area of marrow edema initially involved a femoral condyle, with migration of the bone marrow edema to the other femoral condyle, tibia, and/or patella occurring over a 2- to 4-month period. Adjacent soft tissue edema was present in all five patients, while none had a joint effusion. Radiographs of two patients showed generalized osteopenia. In the absence of acute trauma or clinical suspicion of infection, a large area of bone marrow edema without a zone of demarcation may represent intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis. Demonstration of shifting bone marrow edema on follow-up examinations suggests this diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agool, Ali [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center Twente, Hengelo (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vellenga, Edo [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Hematology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, {sup 99m}Tc-sulphur colloid, {sup 111}In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. (orig.)

  3. A study of four radiochromic films currently used for (2D) radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiantian; Luthjens, Leonard H.; Gasparini, Alessia; Warman, John M.

    2017-04-01

    We have measured the dose, D, and dose rate, D', dependences of the radiation-induced change in optical absorption of four radiochromic films currently used for (2D) dosimetry: GafChromic® types EBT3, MD-V3, HD-V2 and HD-810. We have irradiated the films using two 60Co γ-ray sources with dose rates of 2 and 30 Gy/min and a 200 kVp X-ray source with dose rates from 0.2 to 1.0 Gy/min. The 48-bit RGB image files of the films, obtained using an Epson V700 flatbed scanner, were color-channel separated and the red, green and blue pixel levels, P(D), were determined using ImageJ software. The relationship P(D)/P(0)=[1+hD/m]/[1+D/m] is found to provide a good description of the dose dependence for all four films at all dose rates. The parameter h is the "plateau level" of P(D)/P(0) approached at high doses, i.e. P(∞)/P(0). The parameter m is the "median-dose" for which P(D)/P(0)(1+h)/2 which is the half point in the dynamic range of the particular film. The best-fit values of m over the dose rate range from 0.2 to 25 Gy/min using the red pixels were 1.42±0.03, 11.1±0.4, 63.6±0.9 and 60.6±1.6 Gy for EBT3, MD-V3, HD-V2 and HD-810 respectively. Using the green pixels the median dose is 1.8 times larger for the first 3 films and 2.5 times larger for HD-810. The blue pixels are considered unsuitable for dosimetry because of the large value of h (>0.4) and the resulting small dynamic range.

  4. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  5. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, K.L.; Schwanke, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer`s dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain.

  6. SU-E-T-475: Improvements to Total Body Irradiation Dosimetry Efficiency with EBT3 Radiochromic Film and a Template System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M; Pope, D; Whitaker, M [Chris O’Brien LifeHouse, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard regimen is a 12 Gy / 6 fraction bi-daily technique. To evaluate the delivered dose homogeneity to the patient, EBT3 Gafchromic film is positioned at the head, neck, chest, pelvis and groin for all fractions. A system has been developed to simply and accurately prepare and readout the films for patient dose assessment. Methods: A process involving easy preparation and analysis has been produced to minimise the time requirements for TBI dosimetry. One sheet of EBT3 film is used to prepare treatment dosimeters for all fractions, including calibration films, and an automated dose analysis system for easy evaluation and calculation of estimated in-vivo doses was developed. A desktop scanner is used with a dedicated TBI film template to accurately position the films for Image J analysis and extraction. Dental wax bolus and zip-lock bag holders are used to hold the EBT3 film in place during irradiation. Results: To adequately provide dosimetry information for a 6 fraction, TBI patient, only one sheet of Gafchromic EBT3 film is required. The dosimeters are cut, using a template, into 19 mm squares which are then placed between two 30 mm x 30 mm x 4.5 mm wax blocks for bolus. All packages are prepared before the first treatment fraction. The scanning and analysis process can be completed in less than 10 minutes after a 240 min development period. Results have shown that a high level of accuracy and reproducibility can be achieved using the template system provided. Conclusion: Gafchromic EBT3 film provides an adequate in-vivo dosimetry measure for TBI patients. Using a template based system on a dedicated desktop scanner, in-vivo results can be ascertained quickly and accurately.

  7. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, J. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems of Oak Ridge Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Atkins, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  8. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  9. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)... Hurricane Matthew: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent ... communities Port-au Prince, 3 November 2016 —Since Hurricane Matthew struck Haiti one month ago, the Haiti Re... ...

  10. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Goka, Bamenla Q; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy....... Detection of the Plasmodium antigens, lactate dehydrogenase (Optimal), aldolase and histidine rich protein 2 (Now malaria) were used to differentiate between patients with (1) no malaria, (2) recent cleared malaria, (3) persistent P. falciparum infection. Red cell distribution width (RDW), plasma levels...

  11. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Zaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I. The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II. Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: In group I, there were 2.6 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p = 0.34. In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:70-5Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells

  12. Bone marrow cells and myocardial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Sheng; Trester, Cathy

    2004-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years. Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the clinical application of HSC plasticity in regenerative medicine. Preclinical studies in animals suggest that the use of this kind of treatment can reconstruct heart blood vessels, muscle, and function. Some clinical study results have been reported in the past 2 years. In 2003, reports of myocardial regeneration treatment increased significantly. Other studies include observations on the cell surface markers of transplanted cells and treatment efficacy. Some investigations, such as HSC testing, have focused on clinical applications using HSC plasticity and bone marrow transplantation to treat different types of disorders. In this review, we focus on the clinical application of bone marrow cells for myocardial regeneration.

  13. Dosimetry for {sup 177}Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617: a new radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delker, Andreas; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Brunegraf, Anika; Gosewisch, Astrid; Gildehaus, Franz Josef; Bartenstein, Peter; Boening, Guido [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Kratochwil, Clemens; Haberkorn, Uwe [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department for Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Tritschler, Stefan; Stief, Christian Georg [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Dosimetry is critical to achieve the optimal therapeutic effect of radioligand therapy (RLT) with limited side effects. Our aim was to perform image-based absorbed dose calculation for the new PSMA ligand {sup 177}Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in support of its use for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Whole-body planar images and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were acquired in five patients (mean age 68 years) for during two treatment cycles at approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after administration of 3.6 GBq (range 3.4 to 3.9 GBq) {sup 177}Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617. Quantitative 3D SPECT OSEM reconstruction was performed with corrections for photon scatter, photon attenuation and detector blurring. A camera-specific calibration factor derived from phantom measurements was used for quantitation. Absorbed doses were calculated for various organs from the images using a combination of linear approximation, exponential fit, and target-specific S values, in accordance with the MIRD scheme. Absorbed doses to bone marrow were estimated from planar and SPECT images and with consideration of the blood sampling method according to the EANM guidelines. The average (± SD) absorbed doses per cycle were 2.2 ± 0.6 Gy for the kidneys (0.6 Gy/GBq), 5.1 ± 1.8 Gy for the salivary glands (1.4 Gy/GBq), 0.4 ± 0.2 Gy for the liver (0.1 Gy/GBq), 0.4 ± 0.1 Gy for the spleen (0.1 Gy/GBq), and 44 ± 19 mGy for the bone marrow (0.012 Gy/GBq). The organ absorbed doses did not differ significantly between cycles. The critical absorbed dose reported for the kidneys (23 Gy) was not reached in any patient. At 24 h there was increased uptake in the colon with 50 - 70 % overlap to the kidneys on planar images. Absorbed doses for tumour lesions ranged between 1.2 and 47.5 Gy (13.1 Gy/GBq) per cycle. The salivary glands and kidneys showed high, but not critical, absorbed doses after RLT with {sup 177}Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617. We suggest that {sup 177}Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 is suitable for radiotherapy, offering tumour

  14. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids.

  15. Blood and Bone Marrow Evaluation for Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Daniel F

    2016-10-01

    Evaluation of peripheral blood and bone marrow for an indication of persistent eosinophilia can be a challenging task because there are many causes of eosinophilia and the morphologic differences between reactive and neoplastic causes are often subtle or lack specificity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the differential diagnosis for eosinophilia, to recommend specific steps for the pathologist evaluating blood and bone marrow, and to emphasize 2 important causes of eosinophilia that require specific ancillary tests for diagnosis: myeloproliferative neoplasm with PDGFRA rearrangement and lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  16. EPR/PTFE dosimetry for test reactor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehar, D.W.; Griffin, P.J.; Quirk, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with materials such as alanine is well established as a technique for measurement of ionizing radiation absorbed dose in photon and electron fields such as Co-60, high-energy bremsstrahlung and electron-beam fields [1]. In fact, EPR/Alanine dosimetry has become a routine transfer standard for national standards bodies such as NIST and NPL. In 1992 the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia National Laboratories implemented EPR/Alanine capabilities for use in routine and calibration activities at its Co-60 and pulsed-power facilities. At that time it also investigated the usefulness of the system for measurement of absorbed dose in the mixed neutron/photon environments of reactors such as the Sandia Pulsed Reactor and the Annular Core Research Reactor used for hardness testing of electronics. The RML concluded that the neutron response of alanine was a sufficiently high fraction of the overall dosimeter response that the resulting uncertainties in the photon dose would be unacceptably large for silicon-device testing. However, it also suggested that non-hydrogenous materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) would exhibit smaller neutron response and might be useful in mixed environments. Preliminary research with PTFE in photon environments indicated considerable promise, but further development was not pursued at that time. Because of renewed interest in absorbed dose measurements that could better define the individual contributions of photon and neutron components to the overall dose delivered to a test object, the RML has re-initiated the development of an EPR/PTFE dosimetry system. This effort consists of three stages: 1) Identification of PTFE materials that may be suitable for dosimetry applications. It was speculated that the inconsistency of EPR signatures in the earlier samples may have been due to variability in PTFE manufacturing processes. 2) Characterization of dosimetry in

  17. Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

  18. SU-E-T-275: Dose Build Up and Bolusing Characteristics for Total Body Irradiation Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M; Pope, D; Whitaker, M [Chris O’Brien LifeHouse, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard regimen is a 12 Gy / 6 fraction bi-daily technique. To evaluate the delivered dose homogeneity to the patient, EBT3 Gafchromic film is positioned at the head, neck, chest, pelvis and groin for all fractions. This work investigates and quantifies the build-up dose characteristics at TBI distances and requirements for in-vivo dosimetry bolusing. Methods: Percentage dose build up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSD’s using parallel plate ionisations chambers (Attix) and EBT3 Gafchromic film. Measurements were made to open fields at different field sizes as well as large 40cm × 40cm fields with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point. Results: Percentage surface dose measured values for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20 % up to 65.5 % for fields of 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. With the introduction of 1cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments the surface dose values increased up to 83% to 90%, depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 3mm water equivalent bolus / scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Conclusion: Build up dose characteristics exist at long (300cm) SSD’s including treatments using Perspex scattering plates placed at various distances form the patient during TBI treatment. Top accurately assess the applied dose during treatment, in-vivo dosimeters such as Gafchromic EBT3 should have at least 3mm bolus / scatter material placed over them to measure actual applied doses.

  19. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Nobuyuki

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  20. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  1. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases....... This enables MRI to detect differences between fatty, fibrotic, aplastic and hypercellular marrow in patients with haematological disease. MRI can evaluate the distribution of bone marrow disease because it has the potential for visualization of almost the entire bone marrow compartment. However, MRI is unable...... to establish the primary diagnosis in haematological bone marrow disease with diffuse hypercellular marrow. In case of insufficient biopsy, MRI can provide important differential diagnostic information as well as guidance for further biopsy attempts. MRI is a useful complement to morphological bone marrow...

  2. TU-F-201-01: General Aspects of Radiochromic Film Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  3. New luminescence measurement facilities in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapp, Torben; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2012-01-01

    thermoelectrically cooled NIR sensitive PMT (detection window peak at 855 nm, FWHM 27 nm). Software and electronics have been modified to allow standard TL and OSL measurements in the same sequence as RL measurements. Together with a new bleaching source based on a high-power UV LED (395 nm; 700 mW/cm2......This paper gives a review of recent developments in luminescence measurement facilities on the Risø TL/OSL reader including radio-luminescence (RL), exo-electron and violet stimulation attachments, and a method for characterising and if necessary correcting for beta irradiation source non......-uniformity.We first describe improvements to the existing RL option to allow near infra-red detection (NIR) during irradiation by the built-in 90Sr/90Y beta source. The RL optical signal is collected by a liquid light guide through an F34-901 interference filter and detection is based on a dedicated...

  4. Dosimetry using HS GafChromic films the influence of readout light on sensitivity of dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secerov, Bojana [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Mike Alasa BB, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Dakovic, Marko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Borojevic, Nenad [National Cancer Research Center of Serbia, Pasterova 14, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Bacic, Goran, E-mail: ggbacic@ffh.bg.ac.r [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia)

    2011-03-21

    Various forms of Gafchromic films that are increasingly used for dosimetry in radiotherapy offer the prospect of reproducible and accurate high-resolution two-dimensional dose measurements, but there are many unresolved issues regarding the optimal choice of densitometric procedure used for the film's optical density (OD) readout. There are conflicting requirements for scanners (sensitivity, availability, price) and commercial document scanners appears to be a reasonable option, hence we analyzed the measured sublinear dose response of these scanners. Using measured film absorption spectra we were able to make quantitative distinction between various factors affecting the sublinearity and to demonstrate that the dose response curve can be predicted for any selected light source used for scanning. We also used the commercial narrow bandpass filters in conjunction with document scanners to investigate whether such an inexpensive option can improve their sensitivity, but results were not encouraging. Finally, we analyzed the suitability of proposed fitting equations for the calibration of the dose response and found that their reliability largely depends on the dose range used for the calibration.

  5. Three-dimensional dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging of polymer gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young Taek; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Mi Wha; Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang Ok; Chu, Seong Sil; Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging of polymer gel was recently introduced. This dosimetry system is based on radiation induced chain polymerization of acrylic monomers in a muscle equivalent gel and provide accurate 3 dimensional dose distribution. We planned this study to evaluate the clinical value of this 3-dimensional dosimetry. The polymer gel poured into a cylindrical glass flask and a spherical glass flask. The cylindrical test tubes were for dose response evaluation and the spherical flasks, which is comparable to the human head, were for isodose curves. T2 maps from MR images were calculated using software, IDL. Dose distributions have been displayed for dosimetry. The same spherical flask of gel and the same irradiation technique was used for film and TLD dosimetry and compared with each other. The R2 of the gel respond linearly with radiation doses in the range of 2 to 15 Gy. The repeated dosimetry of spherical gel showed the same isodose curves. The isodose curves were identical to dose distributions from treatment planning system especially high dose range. In addition, the gel dosimetry system showed comparable or superior results with the film and TLD dosimetry. The 3-dimensional dosimetry for conformal radiation therapy using MRI of polymer gel showed stable and accurate results. Although more studies are needed for convenient clinical application, it appears to be a useful tool for conformal radiation therapy.

  6. Phantom positioning variation in the Gamma Knife® Perfexion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saraiva, Crystian [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of small volume ionization chamber has become required for the dosimetry of equipment that use small radiation fields. A pinpoint ionization chamber is ideal for the dosimetry of a Gamma Knife® Perfexion (GKP) unit. In this work, this chamber was inserted into the phantom, and measurements were performed with the phantom in different positions, in order to verify if the change in the phantom positioning affects the dosimetry of the GKP. Three different phantom positions were performed. The variation in the result is within the range allowed for the dosimetry of a GKP equipment. (author)

  7. Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phiri, K.S.; Calis, J.C.J.; Kachala, D.; Borgstein, E.; Waluza, J.; Bates, I.; Brabin, B.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly used method of grading marrow iron remains highly subjective. AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in fragmen

  8. Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phiri, K.S.; Calis, J.C.J.; Kachala, D.; Borgstein, E.; Waluza, J.; Bates, I.; Brabin, B.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly used method of grading marrow iron remains highly subjective. AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in

  9. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Following Interleukin-2 Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice P. Dutcher MD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma underwent systemic treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2. Anemia requiring transfusion of 1 unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs was required during the second week of IL-2 therapy. One month following completion of high-dose IL-2 treatment, she was hospitalized for severe, symptomatic anemia and received 5 units of PRBCs. She was referred back for evaluation. A complete hematologic evaluation was performed including antiviral serology, evaluation for hemolysis, complete iron studies, and finally bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The diagnosis was pure red cell aplasia, and no inciting viral cause could be ascertained. She required PRBCs for 5 months following IL-2 therapy. It was concluded that IL-2 was the cause of her red cell aplasia. This subsequently resolved spontaneously, and she had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, respectively, 1 and 2 years after treatment.

  10. Application of biological dosimetry in accidental radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, M.; Batora, I.; Kolesar, D.; Stojkovic, J. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta); Gaal, P.; Sklovsky, A. (Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cizova, O. (Sexuologicka Ambulancia KUNZ, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-03-01

    The case is described of accidental irradiation of a male person with /sup 137/Cs of an activity of 24.71 GBq. The first estimate induced a reasonable suspicion that the absorbed dose could be very high and life-threatening. On the other hand the clinical picture, usual laboratory examinations, findings in the fluorescent blood count, the analysis of chromosomal count of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, the spermiogram, and the negative post-irradiation porphyrinuria suggested that the absorbed dose could be much lower than the original estimate. The results of dosimetry obtained after the reconstruction of the accident by measuring on a phantom revealed that the actual dose was very close to that presumed from the results of biological dosimetry during the first days of examination of the patient.

  11. Relative dosimetry by Ebt-3; Dosimetria relativa por EBT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon A, M. A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez O, J. O., E-mail: madla16@hotmail.com [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In the present work relative dosimetry in two linear accelerator for radiation therapy was studied. Both Varian Oncology systems named Varian Clinac 2100-Cd and MLC Varian Clinac i X were used. Gaf Chromic Ebt-3 film was used. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams on both Linacs. Both calibration and Electron irradiations were carried out with the ionization chamber placed at the isocenter, below a stack of solid water slabs, at the depth of dose maximum (D max), with a Source-to-Surface Distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Calibration and dosimetric measurements photons were carried out under IAEA-TRS 398 protocol. Results of relative dosimetry in the present work are discussed. (Author)

  12. ACS Algorithm in Discrete Ordinates for Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adaptive Collision Source (ACS method can solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. This is similar to, and essentially an extension of, the first collision source method. Previously, the ACS methodology has been implemented into the TITAN discrete ordinates code, and has shown speedups of 2–4 on a simple test problem, with very little loss of accuracy (within a provided adaptive tolerance. This work examines the use of the ACS method for a more realistic problem: pressure vessel dosimetry with the VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled reactor dosimetry benchmark. The ACS method proved to be able to obtain accurate results while being approximately twice as efficient as using a constant quadrature in a standard source iteration scheme.

  13. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  14. On multichannel film dosimetry with channel-independent perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, Ignasi; Hudej, Rihard; Strojnik, Andrej; Casar, Božidar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Different multichannel methods for film dosimetry have been proposed in the literature. Two of them are the weighted mean method and the method put forth by Micke et al and Mayer et al. The purpose of this work was to compare their results and to develop a generalized channel-independent perturbations framework in which both methods enter as special cases. Methods: Four models of channel-independent perturbations were compared: weighted mean, Micke-Mayer method, uniform distribution and truncated normal distribution. A closed-form formula to calculate film doses and the associated Type B uncertainty for all four models was deduced. To evaluate the models, film dose distributions were compared with planned and measured dose distributions. At the same time, several elements of the dosimetry process were compared: film type EBT2 versus EBT3, different waiting-time windows, reflection mode versus transmission mode scanning, and planned versus measured dose distribution for film calibration and for gamma-...

  15. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  16. Identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts (Juglans regia) using EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A.; Salama, E.; Sami, A.; Mansour, A.; El-Sayed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an easy, fast, and reliable tool for identification of irradiated food. Untreated nuts may encounter hazards of carrying several pathogens or microbial contamination; walnuts are of specific importance due to their nutritional and medicinal values, and hence walnut processing via gamma irradiation is a necessary step. EPR was employed for the identification and dosimetry of Cs-137 gamma-irradiated walnuts (shells and kernels). Several important parameters were studied, such as spectral features, microwave power dependence of signal intensities, and short- and long-term time dependences. Responses of walnut shells and kernels to different radiation doses in the range 0-10 kGy were investigated. Results confirmed that EPR is a suitable tool for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts using either their shells or only kernels.

  17. The specifics of dosimetry for food irradiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Florent; Strasser, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Dose measurement applied to food irradiation is obviously a very important and critical aspect of this process. It is described in many standards and guides. The application of appropriate dosimetry tools is explained. This helps to ensure traceability of this measurement and number of dosimeters available on the market are well studied even though theirs response should be characterized while used in routine processing conditions. When employed in low energy radiation fields, these dosimeters may exhibit specific response compared to the usual Cobalt 60 source irradiation. Traceable calibration or correction factor assessment of this energy dependency is mandatory. It is to mention that the absorbed dose is measured in the dosimeter itself and unfortunately not in/on the food product. However, existing dosimetry systems fulfill all relevant requirements.

  18. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes a five year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective dosimetry methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities. This research program has focused on validation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a dosimetry tool and on optimization of the technique by reducing the lower limits of detection, simplifying the process of sample preparation and analysis and speeding analysis to allow greater throughput in routine measurement situations. The authors have investigated the dosimetric signal of hard tissues in enamel, deorganified dentin, synthetic carbonated apatites and synthetic hydroxyapatite. This research has resulted in a total of 27 manuscripts which have been published, are in press, or have been submitted for publication. Of these manuscripts, 14 are included in this report and were indexed separately for inclusion in the data base.

  19. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  20. Computer simulations for internal dosimetry using voxel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinase, Sakae; Mohammadi, Akram; Takahashi, Masa; Saito, Kimiaki; Zankl, Maria; Kramer, Richard

    2011-07-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, several studies have been conducted on the use of voxel models for internal dosimetry. Absorbed fractions (AFs) and S values have been evaluated for preclinical assessments of radiopharmaceuticals using human voxel models and a mouse voxel model. Computational calibration of in vivo measurement system has been also made using Japanese and Caucasian voxel models. In addition, for radiation protection of the environment, AFs have been evaluated using a frog voxel model. Each study was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Consequently, it was concluded that these data of Monte Carlo simulations and voxel models could adequately reproduce measurement results. Voxel models were found to be a significant tool for internal dosimetry since the models are anatomically realistic. This fact indicates that several studies on correction of the in vivo measurement efficiency for the variability of human subjects and interspecies scaling of organ doses will succeed.

  1. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badikov, S.A. [JSC Energy and Industry Analytica, 127287, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  2. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  3. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia, E-mail: isatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina, E-mail: lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear; Barbosa, Renata F., E-mail: profcelta@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias do Mar

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  4. Pain and Anxiety During Bone Marrow Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M.; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2013-01-01

    A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed

  5. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  6. Pain and Anxiety During Bone Marrow Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M.; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2013-01-01

    A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed

  7. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Duerr, Hans-Roland [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.baur@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  8. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  9. Feasibility of portal dosimetry for flattening filter-free radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Robert W; Rixham, Philip A; Weston, Steve J; Cosgrove, Vivian P

    2016-01-08

    The feasibility of using portal dosimetry (PD) to verify 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) IMRT treatments was investigated. An Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with an Agility collimator capable of delivering FFF beams and a standard iViewGT amorphous silicon (aSi) EPID panel (RID 1640 AL5P) at a fixed SSD of 160 cm were used. Dose rates for FFF beams are up to four times higher than for conventional flattened beams, meaning images taken at maximum FFF dose rate can saturate the EPID. A dose rate of 800 MU/min was found not to saturate the EPID for open fields. This dose rate was subsequently used to characterize the EPID for FFF portal dosimetry. A range of open and phantom fields were measured with both an ion chamber and the EPID, to allow comparison between the two. The measured data were then used to create a model within The Nederlands Kanker Instituut's (NKI's) portal dosimetry software. The model was verified using simple square fields with a range of field sizes and phantom thicknesses. These were compared to calculations performed with the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS) and isocentric ion chamber measurements. It was found that the results for the FFF verification were similar to those for flattened beams with testing on square fields, indicating a difference in dose between the TPS and portal dosimetry of approximately 1%. Two FFF IMRT plans (prostate and lung SABR) were delivered to a homogeneous phantom and showed an overall dose difference at isocenter of ~0.5% and good agreement between the TPS and PD dose distributions. The feasibility of using the NKI software without any modifications for high-dose-rate FFF beams and using a standard EPID detector has been investigated and some initial limitations highlighted.

  10. Report on the Personnel Dosimetry at AB Atomenergi during 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.

    1966-10-15

    This report presents the results of the personnel dosimetry at AB Atomenergi during 1965. No doses exceeding the recommendations of ICRP were reported. For AB Atomenergi the average external total body dose during the year was 60 mrem which corresponds to 89.4 manrem. 31200 gamma films and 5850 neutron films were evaluated. 2067 urine analyses and 692 measurements of body activity were made.

  11. JENDL dosimetry file 99 (JENDL/D-99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Institute; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    2002-01-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File 99 (JENDL/D-99), which is a revised version of the JENDL Dosimetry File 91 (JENDL/D-91), has been compiled and released for the determination of neutron flux and energy spectra. This work was undertaken to remove the inconsistency between the cross sections and their covariances in JENDL/D-91 since the covariances were mainly taken from IRDF-85 although the cross sections were based on JENDL-3. Dosimetry cross sections have been evaluated for 67 reactions on 47 nuclides together with covariances. The cross sections for 34 major reactions and their covariances were simultaneously generated, and the remaining 33 reaction data were mainly taken from JENDL/D-91. Latest measurements were taken into account in the evaluation. The resultant evaluated data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-6 format. In order to confirm the reliability of the evaluated data, several integral tests have been carried out: comparisons with average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast/thermal reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. It was found from the comparisons that the cross sections calculated from JENDL/D-99 are generally in good agreement with the measured data. The contents of JENDL/D-99 and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form in the Appendix. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo physical dosimetry for small photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perucha, M.; Rincon, M.; Leal, A.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Nunez, L. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica

    2001-07-01

    Small field dosimetry is complicated due to the lack of electronic equilibrium and to the high steep dose gradients. This works compares PDD curves, profiles and output factors measured with conventional detectors (film, diode, TLD and ionisation chamber) and calculated with Monte Carlo. The 6 MV nominal energy from a Philips SL-18 linac has been simulated by using the OMEGA code. MC calculation reveals itself as a convenient method to validate OF and profiles in special conditions, such as small fields. (orig.)

  13. Monte Carlo simulations to replace film dosimetry in IMRT verification

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzfried, Thomas; Rickhey, Mark; Treutwein, Marius; Koelbl, Oliver; Bogner, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Patient-specific verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans can be done by dosimetric measurements or by independent dose or monitor unit calculations. The aim of this study was the clinical evaluation of IMRT verification based on a fast Monte Carlo (MC) program with regard to possible benefits compared to commonly used film dosimetry. 25 head-and-neck IMRT plans were recalculated by a pencil beam based treatment planning system (TPS) using an appropriate quality assu...

  14. Luminescence dosimetry: recent developments in theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeever, S.W.S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence have been used in applications in solid state physics, radiation dosimetry and geological dating for several decades. This paper gives a generalized description of these methods in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and in doing so highlights similarities and differences between the methods. Recent advances in both the theory and application of the techniques are highlighted with numerous specific examples. (Author)

  15. In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the passing of The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed “modified risk”. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference titled “In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products” to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro smoke and aerosol/vapor exposure systems, as well as the various approaches and challenges to quantifying the complex exposures, in in vitro pulmonary models developed for evaluating adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposures. The four core topics covered were, 1) Tobacco Smoke And E-Cigarette Aerosols, 2) Air-Liquid Interface-In Vitro Exposure Systems, 3) Dosimetry Approaches For Particles And Vapors; In Vitro Dosimetry Determinations and 4) Exposure Microenvironment/Physiology Of Cells. The two and a half day workshop included presentations from 20 expert speakers, poster sessions, networking discussions, and breakout sessions which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance these technologies. Here, we will re

  16. Advanced Corneal Cross-Linking System with Fluorescence Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper describes an advanced system that combines corneal cross-linking with riboflavin with fluorescence dosimetry, the ability to measure riboflavin diffusion within the cornea both before and during UVA treatment. Methods and Results. A corneal cross-linking system utilizing a digital micromirror device (DMD was assembled and used to measure diffusion coefficients of 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran in porcine eyes. A value of (3.3±0.2×10−7 cm2/s was obtained for the stroma. Diffusion coefficients for the transepithelial formulation of 0.1% riboflavin in 0.44% saline and 0.02% BAK were also measured to be 4.7±0.3×10−8 cm2/s for epithelium only and (4.6±0.4×10−7 cm2/s for stroma only. Riboflavin consumption during a UVA treatment was also demonstrated. Conclusion. A new advanced corneal cross-linking system with fluorescence dosimetry of riboflavin has been demonstrated. It is hoped that this method may play a significant role in determining the underlying mechanisms of corneal cross-linking and assist with the development of additional riboflavin formulations. Moreover, dosimetry may prove valuable in providing a method to account for the biological differences between individuals, potentially informing cornea-specific UVA treatment doses in real time.

  17. Characterisation of OSL and OSLN droplets for dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, L F; D'Agostino, E; Vaniqui, A C S; Saldarriaga, C; Vanhavere, F; De Deene, Y

    2014-10-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neutron dosimetry, there is no dosemeter that is capable of measuring neutron doses independently of the neutron spectrum with good accuracy. Carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) is a sensitive material for ionising radiation (beta-ray, X ray and electron) and has been used for applications in personal and medical dosimetry as an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter. Al2O3:C has a low sensitivity to neutron radiation; this prevents its application to neutron fields, representing a disadvantage of Al2O3:C-OSL when compared with LiF, which is used as a thermoluminescent detector. Recently an improvement for neutron dosimetry (Passmore and Kirr. Neutron response characterisation of an OSL neutron dosemeter. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2011; 144: 155-60) uses Al2O3:C coated with (6)Li2CO3 (OSLN),which gives the high-sensitive response as known for Al2O3:C with the advantage of being also sensitive to thermal neutrons. In this article, the authors compare small-size detectors (droplets) of Al2O3:C (OSL) and of Al2O3:C+(6)Li2CO3 (OSLN) and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of both materials, regarding size vs. response.

  18. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  19. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  20. Effects of Ligustrazine on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfates in Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天华; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 戴琪琳; 孙岚

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effects of ligustrazine on bone marrow heparan sulfates (HS) expression in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice, the syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg ligustrazine twice a day. On the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day after BMT, peripheral blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted, and the expression levels of HS in bone marrow and on the stromal cell surfaces were detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay respectively. In ligustrazine-treated group, the white blood cells (WBC) and BMNC on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day and platelets (PLT) on the 7th, 10th day were all significantly more than those in control group (P<0.05). The bone marrow HS expression levels in ligustrazine-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05) on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day. However, the HS expression levels on the stromal cell surfaces showed no significant difference between the two groups on the 18th day (P>0. 05). It was concluded that ligustrazine could up-regulate HS expression in bone marrow, which might be one of the mechanisms contributing to ligustrazine promoting hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  1. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.F. Chauffaille

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis. Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05. Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05. GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  2. Bone marrow: its contribution to heme catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähönen, Y; Anttinen, M; Vuopio, P; Tenhunen, R

    1976-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) and biliverdin reductase (BR), the two NADPH-dependent enzymes involved in the degradation of hemoglobin and its derivatives, were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 5 hematologically normal persons, 4 patients with chronic leucemia (CL), 11 patients with acute leucemia (AL), 8 patients with refractory sideroblastic anemia (RA), 7 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IA), 5 patients with hemolytic anemia (HA), and 7 patients with secondary anemia (SA) to determine the enzymatic capacity of the bone marrow in different hematologic disorders for heme catabolism. HO activity in the bone marrow of normal persons was 0.42 +/- 0.28 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 2.15 +/- 1.34; in AL, 0.39 +/- 0.25; in RA, 0.58 +/- 0.37; in IA, 0.41 +/- 0.28; in HA, 2.56 +/- 1.40; and in SA, 1.72 +/- 1.06. BR activity, respectively, was in normal persons 8.7 +/- 2.4 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 13.6 +/- 9.1; in AL, 3.8 +/- 3.1 in RA, 5.1 +/- 2.7; in IA, 5.5 +/- 3.7; in HA, 17.0 +/- 7.2; and in SA, 10.5 +/- 4.2. On the basis of these findings it seems evident that both oxygenase and biliverdin reductase activities of the bone marrow are capable of adaptive regulation. The physiologic role of bone marrow in heme catabolism seems to be of significant importance.

  3. Dosimetry in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases. Background and practice; Dosimetrie bei Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankungen. Hintergrund und Durchfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockisch, A.; Sonnenschein, W.; Jentzen, W.; Hartung, V.; Goerges, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases (focal = [toxic adenoma], multifocal, disseminated autonomy, Grave's disease or clinical relevant goitre) needs to be and can be performed individually for each patient. Most frequently a radioiodine test is performed applying a small activity of iodine-131 ({sup 131}I). The paper discusses some protocols for pre- or posttherapeutic dosimetry and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. All are based on the volumetry of the target tissue as well as the radioiodine kinetics in the target volume what may be represented by maximum uptake and half life of iodine retention in the thyroid. Possible disturbances and measuring uncertainties of these parameters are presented and discussed. In spite of the discussed uncertainties in dosimetry, due to its high therapeutic width radioiodine therapy is a very successful procedure to cure hyperthyroidism or to reduce goitre volume with only little side effects. (orig.)

  4. Dosimetry using radiosensitive gels in radiotherapy: significance and methods; Dosimetrie par gels radiosensibles en radiotherapie. Interet et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibon, D. [Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille Cedex (France); Bourel, P. [Lab. de Biophysique, Inst. de Technologie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lille (France); Castelain, B. [Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille Cedex (France); Marchandise, X.; Rousseau, J. [Lab. de Biophysique, Inst. de Technologie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lille (France)

    2001-02-01

    The goal of conformal radiotherapy is to concentrate the dose in a well-defined volume by avoiding the neighbouring healthy structures. This technique requires powerful treatment planning software and a rigorous control of estimated dosimetry. The usual dosimetric tools are not adapted to visualize and validate complex 3D treatment. Dosimetry by radiosensitive gel permits visualization and measurement of the three-dimensional dose distribution. The objective of this work is to report on current work in this field and, based on our results and our experience, to draw prospects for an optimal use of this technique. Further developments will relate to the realization of new radiosensitive gels satisfying, as well as possible, cost requirements, easy realization and use, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) sensitivity, tissue equivalence, and stability. Other developments focus on scanning methods, especially in MRI to measure T1 and T2. (author)

  5. Bone marrow processing for transplantation using Cobe Spectra cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dobrila; Nonković, Olivera Šerbić; Radonjić, Zorica; Kuzmanović, Miloš; Zečević, Zeljko

    2013-06-01

    Concentration of bone marrow aspirates is an important prerequisite prior to infusion of ABO incompatible allogeneic marrow and prior to cryopreservation and storage of autologous marrow. In this paper we present our experience in processing 15 harvested bone marrow for ABO incompatible allogeneic and autologous bone marrow (BM) transplantation using Cobe Spectra® cell separator. BM processing resulted in the median recovery of 91.5% CD34+ cells, erythrocyte depletion of 91% and volume reduction of 81%. BM processing using cell separator is safe and effective technique providing high rate of erythrocyte depletion and volume reduction, and acceptable recovery of the CD34+ cells.

  6. Metrological aspects of the dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics; Metrologische Aspekte der Dosimetrie in der Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueermann, Ludwig [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Dosimetrie fuer die Roentgendiagnostik'

    2013-06-15

    The author describes the evaluation methods in dosimetry with special regards to the air kerma. Furthermore application-specific quantities in radiography, mammography, and computer tomography are described. Then quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics and the determination of the organ dosis and the effective patient dosis are described. Finally the requirements on the uncertainties of dose measurements in X-ray diagnostics are considered. (HSI)

  7. Lithium Chloride Modulates Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lithium chloride (LiCl has long been used as a psychiatric medication; however, its role in the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of LiCl on the differentiation of BMSCs. Methods: The roles of LiCl in osteogenic and adipogenic processes were observed using alizarin red staining and oil red O staining, respectively. The effects of LiCl on the Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh pathways were investigated. Results: Our data showed that LiCl effectively promoted osteogenesis and inhibited adipogenesis by simultaneously affecting the Wnt and Hh pathways. Conclusion: These results suggest that LiCl influences the differentiation of BMSCs directly through the Wnt and Hh pathways and thus may be a candidate drug for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  8. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  9. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-11-16

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the

  10. Updating and extending the IRDF-2002 dosimetry library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAPC-Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Zolotarev, K.I.; Pronyaev, V.G. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-07-01

    The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 released in 2004 by the IAEA (see http://www-nds.iaea.org/irdf2002/) contains cross-section data and corresponding uncertainties for 66 dosimetry reactions. New cross-section evaluations have become available recently that re-define some of these dosimetry reactions including: (1) high-fidelity evaluation work undertaken by one of the authors (KIZ); (2) evaluations from the US ENDF/B-VII.0 and candidate evaluations from the US ENDF/B-VII.1 libraries that cover reactions within the International Evaluation of Neutron Cross-Section Standards; (3) European JEFF3.1 library; and (4) Japanese JENDL-4.0 library. Additional high-threshold reactions not included in IRDF-2002 (e.g., {sup 59C}o(n,3n) and {sup 209}Bi(n,3n)) have been also evaluated to characterize higher-energy neutron fields. Overall, 37 new evaluations of dosimetry reactions have been assessed and intercomparisons made with integral measurements in reference neutron fields to determine whether they should be adopted to update and improve IRDF-2002. Benchmark calculations performed for newly evaluated reactions using the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 235}U thermal fission and {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectra show that calculated integral cross sections exhibit improved agreement with evaluated experimental data when compared with the equivalent data from the IRDF-2002 library. Data inconsistencies or deficiencies of new evaluations have been identified for {sup 63}Cu(n,2n), {sup 60}Ni(n,p) {sup 60m+g}Co, {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}), and {sup 232}Th(n,f) reactions. Compared with IRDF-2002, the upper neutron energy boundary was formally increased from the actual maximum energy of typically 20 MeV up to 60 MeV by using the TENDL-2010 cross sections and covariance matrices. This extension would allow the updated IRDF library to be also used in fusion dosimetry applications. Uncertainties in the cross sections for all new evaluations are given in the form of

  11. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program of Ulchin Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents the analysis of the first Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) set of the Unit 4. The analysis is part of the comprehensive EVND surveillance program in all PWRs in Korea. Currently, EVND sets are installed in 16 PWR operating in Korea and dosimetry sets have been analyzed. On the other hand, unique design features arising from the KSNP's cavity configuration as well as special transport analysis considerations are discussed in this paper. Because of the geometrical similitude of the KSNPs, the design considerations of the Ulchin Unit 4 EVND are also applicable to the KSNP Yonggwang Units 3 through 6 and Ulchin Units 3, 5 and 6. The results show quantitative comparison between the analytical results and the dosimetry measurements irradiated during cycle 9. The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life and that material specimens be used to measure damage associated with the end-of-life fast neutron exposure of the reactor vessel. The EVND Program at Korean PWRs has been designed primarily to provide a long term monitoring of fast neutron exposure distributions within the reactor vessel wall that could experience significant radiation induced increases in reference nil ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) over the service lifetime of the plant. When used in conjunction with dosimetry from internal surveillance capsules and with the results of neutron transport calculations, the EVND measurements allow the projection of embrittlement gradients with a minimum uncertainty. Through plant walk downs it was determined that conventional installation from the nozzle gallery was not possible due to the fact that the reactor vessel insulation support C-channels are welded to the bottom of the Upper Lateral Support, thus, precluding the lowering of EVND support chains. A solution was developed that would required the installation

  12. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses.

  13. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  14. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Ray, S; Kundu, S; Chakrabarti, P

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  15. Peripheral red blood cell split chimerism as a consequence of intramedullary selective apoptosis of recipient red blood cells in a case of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Marco; Isgrò, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid; Fraboni, Daniela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; Alfieri, Cecilia; Roveda, Andrea; De Angelis, Gioia; Cardarelli, Luisa; Ribersani, Michela; Andreani, Marco; Lucarelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC) has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80% circulating donor red blood cells (RBC). The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  16. Peripheral Red Blood Cell Split Chimerism as a Consequence of Intramedullary Selective Apoptosis of Recipient Red Blood Cells in a Case of Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marziali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80%  circulating donor red blood cells (RBC. The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow  level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  17. Fibrillin-1 microfibrils influence adult bone marrow hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Silvia; Bigarella, Carolina L; Del Solar, Maria; Ghaffari, Saghi; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that fibrillin-1 assemblies regulate the fate of skeletal stem cells (aka, mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs]) by modulating TGFβ activity within the microenvironment of adult bone marrow niches. Since MSCs can also influence hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activities, here we investigated adult hematopoiesis in mice with Cre-mediated inactivation of the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene in the mesenchyme of the forming limbs (Fbn1(Prx1-/-) mice). Analyses of 3-month-old Fbn1(Prx1-/-) mice revealed a statistically significant increase of circulating red blood cells, which a differentiation assay correlated with augmented erythropoiesis. This finding, together with evidence of fibrillin-1 deposition in erythroblastic niches, supported the notion that this extracellular matrix protein normally restricts differentiation of erythroid progenitors. Whereas flow cytometry measurements identified a decreased HSC frequency in mutant relative to wild type mice, no appreciable differences were noted with regard to the relative abundance and differentiation potential of myeloid progenitor cells. Together these findings implied that fibrillin-1 normally promotes HSC expansion but does not influence cell lineage commitment. Since local TGFβ hyperactivity has been associated with abnormal osteogenesis in Fbn1(Prx1-/-) mice, 1-month-old mutant and wild type animals were systemically treated for 8weeks with either a pan-TGF-β-neutralizing antibody or an antibody of the same IgG1 isotype. The distinct outcomes of these pharmacological interventions strongly suggest that fibrillin-1 differentially modulates TGFβ activity in HSC vs. erythroid niches.

  18. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  19. In vivo dosimetry using a single diode for megavoltage photon beam radiotherapy: implementation and response characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, V C; Beddar, A S; Kinsella, T J; Sibata, C H

    2001-01-01

    The AAPM Task Group 40 reported that in vivo dosimetry can be used to identify major deviations in treatment delivery in radiation therapy. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using one single diode to perform in vivo dosimetry in the entire radiotherapeutic energy range regardless of its intrinsic buildup material. The only requirement on diode selection would be to choose a diode with the adequate build up to measure the highest beam energy. We have tested the new diodes from Sun Nuclear Corporation (called QED and ISORAD-p--both p-type) for low-, intermediate-, and high-energy range. We have clinically used both diode types to monitor entrance doses. In general, we found that the dose readings from the ISORAD (p-type) are closer of the dose expected than QED diodes in the clinical setting. In this paper we report on the response of these newly available ISORAD (p-type) diode detectors with respect to certain radiation field parameters such as source-to-surface distance, field size, wedge beam modifiers, as well as other parameters that affect detector characteristics (temperature and detector-beam orientation). We have characterized the response of the high-energy ISORAD (p-type) diode in the low- (1-4 MV), intermediate- (6-12 MV), and high-energy (15-25 MV) range. Our results showed that the total variation of the response of high-energy ISORAD (p-type) diodes to all the above parameters are within +/-5% in most encountered clinical patient treatment setups in the megavoltage photon beam radiotherapy. The usage of the high-energy buildup diode has the additional benefit of amplifying the response of the diode reading in case the wrong energy is used for patient treatment. In the light of these findings, we have since then switched to using only one single diode type, namely the "red" diode; manufacturer designation of the ISORAD (p-type) high-energy (15-25 MV) range diode, for all energies in our institution and satellites.

  20. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  1. Methods and Models of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, PNNL-MA-860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2003-01-03

    This manual describes the technical basis for the design of the routine radiobioassay monitoring program and assessments of internal dose. Its purpose is to provide a historical record of the methods, models, and assumptions used for internal dosimetry at Hanford, and serve as a technical reference for radiation protection and dosimetry staff.

  2. Strategies for CT tissue segmentation for Monte Carlo calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, Poul-Erik; Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: CT images are used for patient specific Monte Carlo treatment planning in radionuclide therapy. The authors investigated the impact of tissue classification, CT image segmentation, and CT errors on Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose estimates in nuclear medicine. Methods: CT errors...... patient specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine. Accurate dosimetry was obtained with a 13-tissue ramp that included five different bone types....

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow:Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ragab Nouh; Ahmed Fathi Eid

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance(MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast andnon-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1 W, fat-suppressed T2 W and short tau inversion recovery(STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrastedenhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up.

  4. WE-EF-207-05: Monte Carlo Dosimetry for a Dedicated Cone-Beam CT Head Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Xu, J; Dang, H; Stayman, J W; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V E; Siewerdsen, J H [Johns Hopkins University, Balitmore, MD (United States); Wang, X; Foos, D H [Carestream Health, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) is an attractive platform for point-of-care imaging of traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage. This work implements and evaluates a fast Monte-Carlo (MC) dose estimation engine for development of a dedicated head CBCT scanner, optimization of acquisition protocols, geometry, bowtie filter designs, and patient-specific dosimetry. Methods: Dose scoring with a GPU-based MC CBCT simulator was validated on an imaging bench using a modified 16 cm CTDI phantom with 7 ion chamber shafts along the central ray for 80–100 kVp (+2 mm Al, +0.2 mm Cu). Dose distributions were computed in a segmented CBCT reconstruction of an anthropomorphic head phantom with 4×10{sup 5} tracked photons per scan (5 min runtime). Circular orbits with angular span ranging from short scan (180° + fan angle) to full rotation (360°) were considered for fixed total mAs per scan. Two aluminum filters were investigated: aggressive bowtie, and moderate bowtie (matched to 16 cm and 32 cm water cylinder, respectively). Results: MC dose estimates showed strong agreement with measurements (RMSE<0.001 mGy/mAs). A moderate (aggressive) bowtie reduced the dose, per total mAs, by 20% (30%) at the center of the head, by 40% (50%) at the eye lens, and by 70% (80%) at the posterior skin entrance. For the no bowtie configuration, a short scan reduced the eye lens dose by 62% (from 0.08 mGy/mAs to 0.03 mGy/mAs) compared to full scan, although the dose to spinal bone marrow increased by 40%. For both bowties, the short scan resulted in a similar 40% increase in bone marrow dose, but the reduction in the eye lens was more pronounced: 70% (90%) for the moderate (aggressive) bowtie. Conclusions: Dose maps obtained with validated MC simulation demonstrated dose reduction in sensitive structures (eye lens and bone marrow) through combination of short-scan trajectories and bowtie filters. Xiaohui Wang and David Foos are employees of Carestream Health.

  5. Results of investigating the characteristics of bone marrow in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, their clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Timonina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the specific features of hematopoiesis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, the authors analyzed the indicators of 41 bone marrow aspirates in relation to the clinical and morphological characteristics of the tumor and micrometastases detected in bone marrow. Puncture samples were morphologically and molecularly examined at the Laboratory of Hematopoiesis Immunology, N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center. The found changes in the bone marrow cell composition in HNSCC patients showed themselves as an increase in the relative count of segmented neutrophils and a decrease in the level of immature granulocytes with no alternations in the neutrophil maturation index and in the percentage of granulocyte lineage cells. Bone marrow hypocellularity is a characteristic feature of high-grade HNSCC. The significantly enhanced leuko-erythroblastic ratio was due to a reduction in red blood cells: the erythroid cell maturation index rose, by increasing the percentage of bone marrow oxyphilic normoblasts in patients with locally advanced HNSCC. A highly sensitive method for detecting mRNA of the specific squamous cell carcinoma protein E48 was perfected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting, followed by an enzyme immunoassay that could recognize bone marrow micrometastases in 35 % of the patients with HNSCC. The patients with found bone marrow micrometastases showed a significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatophilic normoblasts and a significant increase in granulocytes in the presence of normal values of lymphocytes and other cellular elements of myelograms. It was established that in the presence of regional lymph node involvement, bone marrow micrometastases were significantly more frequently in the patients with HNSCC and tumor progression over a period of up to 9 months. 

  6. Technical considerations for implementation of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.; Duzenli, C.

    2005-04-01

    Gel dosimetry is the most promising 3D dosimetry technique in current radiation therapy practice. X-ray CT has been shown to be a feasible method of reading out polymer gel dosimeters and, with the high accessibility of CT scanners to cancer hospitals, presents an exciting possibility for clinical implementation of gel dosimetry. In this study we report on technical considerations for implementation of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. Specifically phantom design, CT imaging methods, imaging time requirements and gel dose response are investigated. Where possible, recommendations are made for optimizing parameters to enhance system performance. The dose resolution achievable with an optimized system is calculated given voxel size and imaging time constraints. Results are compared with MRI and optical CT polymer gel dosimetry results available in the literature.

  7. Preliminary study for precision dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in radiotherapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzadi, N. N.; Kim, I. J.; Yi, C. Y. [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research for Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    EPR (Electron paramagnetic resonance) dosimetry for radiotherapy dose range (1-10 Gy) is still being established.Alanine is an important material for EPR dosimetry because in terms of density and radiation absorption properties, it is water equivalent. High repeatability and high reproducibility of alanine spectrum measurement makes it possible to estimate the irradiation dose accurately. This baseline study has been carried out to establish precision EPR dosimetry in therapeutic photon range. For that purpose, an EPR dosimetry system has been setup and repeatability as well as reproducibility of measurements using alanine dosimeter have been evaluated. Effect of anisotropy of alanine dosimeter in spectrometer cavity has also been observed. EPR dosimetry system is set up at KRISS. It is found that reproducibility of the system at therapeutic photon range is 1.5 % - 6.6 %.

  8. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  9. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  10. The Red Mansion Banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the Red Mansion Banquet came from the famous Qing Dynasty classic novel, A Dream of Red Mansions. Each of its courses has, based on descriptions from the book, been carefully planned by the Grand View Garden Hotel chefs. Diners’ senses of sight, sound, and taste are thus regaled with the finest in food, wine and music.

  11. Red Sandalwood Treasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2003-01-01

    HAVE you ever come across red sandalwood, a timber so rare as to render it precious? In ancient Asia it was regarded as equal to old and jade. Only the Emperor of China and members of his family had furniture made from red sandalwood, and 10-inch long panels of this material decorated Napoleon's coffin.

  12. Bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a dual role for CD36 in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febbraio Maria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBC to different host cells, ranging from endothelial to red blood cells, is associated to malaria pathology. In vitro studies have shown the relevance of CD36 for adhesion phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum iRBC such as sequestration, platelet mediated clumping and non-opsonic uptake of iRBC. Different adhesion phenotypes involve different host cells and are associated with different pathological outcomes of disease. Studies with different human populations with CD36 polymorphisms failed to attribute a clear role to CD36 expression in human malaria. Up to the present, no in vivo model has been available to study the relevance of different CD36 adhesion phenotypes to the pathological course of Plasmodium infection. Methods Using CD36-deficient mice and their control littermates, CD36 bone marrow chimeric mice, expressing CD36 exclusively in haematopoietic cells or in non-haematopoietic cells, were generated. Irradiated CD36-/- and wild type mice were also reconstituted with syngeneic cells to control for the effects of irradiation. The reconstituted mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and analysed for the development of blood parasitaemia and neurological symptoms. Results All mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells as well as chimeric mice expressing CD36 exclusively in non-haematopoietic cells died from experimental cerebral malaria between day 6 and 12 after infection. A significant proportion of chimeric mice expressing CD36 only in haematopoietic cells did not die from cerebral malaria. Conclusion The analysis of bone marrow chimeric mice reveals a dual role of CD36 in P. berghei ANKA infection. Expression of CD36 in haematopoietic cells, most likely macrophages and dendritic cells, has a beneficial effect that is masked in normal mice by adverse effects of CD36 expression in non-haematopoietic cells, most likely endothelial cells.

  13. Bone Marrow Failure Secondary to Cytokinesis Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    have assessed the role of FA pathway in mitosis and confirmed that murine FA-deficient hematopoietic stem cells exhibit p53- mediated growth defects...results suggest that bone marrow failure in FA may be caused, in part, by p53- mediated cellular defects and underscore the importance of... mediated apoptosis of HSCs due to cytokinesis failure. The major goal of the project was to assess whether the p53- mediated apoptosis due to

  14. HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    Institute NIH National Institutes of Health NK Natural Killer NLM National Library of Medicine NMDP National Marrow Donor Program OCR /ICR...the underlying biology and medicine of ARS. A training course, NMDP Basic Radiation Training (BRT) course, was created and distributed to physicians...Rio de Janeiro Biology : • Introduction to Radiation Biology : Michael Robbins, Ph.D. - Wake Forest University School of Medicine • Biodosimetry

  15. Acceleration of Immune Reconstitution after Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice by Bone Marrow Stromal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦凤华; 蒋激扬; 李爱玲; 金永柱; 郝洁; 谢蜀生

    2003-01-01

    To observe potential effect of the engineered bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 secreting IL-6 (QXMSCIL-6) on accelerating immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice, QXMSC1 was transfected with the eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNAIL-6, which contained hIL-6 cDNA by liposome-mediated gene transfecting technique. G418-resistance clone was selected by limiting dilution. The highest secreting clone was selected by ELISA assay and used in animal experiments. The recipient mice (BALB/c) were lethally irradiated and cotransplanted syngeneic bone marrow (107/mice) and the QXMSCIIL-6 (5×105/mice). Lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS, helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp), cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor (CTLp), plaque-forming cell (PFC), delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) were examined 30, 60 days in post transplantation respectively. The results showed that lymphocytes proliferation to ConA and LPS, HTLp, CTLp increased, DTH and PFC were improved by cografted stromal cells QXMSCIIL-6 on 30, 60 days after BMT. These results demonstrated that the bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 IL-6 transfected with IL-6 (QXMSC11L-6) accelerated immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  16. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  17. A clinical overview of bone marrow edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow edema (BME is a descriptive term which identifies a specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pattern that can be observed in a number of clinical entities, which are often characterized by pain as their main symptom, but show significant differences in terms of histopathological findings, causal mechanisms and prognosis. Bone marrow lesions in the subchondral bone of subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA seem to be associated with pain and progression of cartilage damage over time. Some histopathological studies of advanced OA have shown a prevalent fibrosis and bone marrow necrosis. BME of the subchondral bone in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts and has a predictive value of further development of erosions. In spondyloarthritis, BME of the sacroiliac joints identifies an active sacroiliitis and is associated with histological inflammation and radiographic progression, whereas the relationship between BME lesions of the spine and syndesmophyte development is still controversial. BME syndromes (BMES, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip, regional migratory osteoporosis, and transient post-traumatic BMES, are characterized by a BME pattern on MRI and a self-limiting course. The potential evolution of BMES toward osteonecrosis is still controversial.

  18. Tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendra, J.R.; Halil, O.; Barrett, A.J.; Selwyn, S. (Westminster Medical School, London (UK))

    1982-11-13

    A brief report is presented of a case of tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation complicated by radiation-induced pneumonitis. A 30-year-old army sergeant received a bone-marrow transplant from his brother for the treatment of a granulocytic sarcoma after local radiotherapy to the tumour. Six years earlier he had sustained an open, compound fracture of the left tibia and fibula while on army exercise. At the time a pin and plate had been inserted and booster anti-tetanus administered. Bone-marrow transplantation was performed after total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A was given against graft-versus-host disease. Fifty four days after transplantation tetanus was diagnosed and death followed 14 days later. Necropsy disclosed radiation-induced pneumonitis, but no organisms were cultured from the lungs or the old fracture site. It is suggested that spores were incorporated into the wound site before surgery and that oxygenation around the plate became compromised after transplantation, permitting germination of dormant spores, immunosuppression allowing development of the disease.

  19. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  20. A Fatal Case of Immune Hyperhemolysis with Bone Marrow Necrosis in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singavi, Arun; Johnson, Susan T.; Field, Joshua J.

    2017-01-01

    In patients with sickle cell disease, hyperhemolysis is a rare but life-threatening complication of transfusion. In this case report, we describe a 61 year-old woman with hemoglobin sickle cell (SC) disease and history of alloimmunization who developed hyperhemolysis associated with a transfusion. She was found to have a warm and a clinically-significant cold autoantibody. Severe anemia (Hb 2.7 g/dL) with reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia prompted a bone marrow biopsy, which demonstrated extensive bone marrow necrosis. Despite treatment, the bone marrow failure did not improve and the patient died on hospital day 38. This case illustrates the potential risks of transfusion in a patient with sickle cell disease, especially one with previous hemolytic reactions. While uncommon, hyperhemolysis can cause death, in this case by extensive bone marrow necrosis. In patients with sickle cell disease, judicious use of red cell transfusions with phenotypically-matched units can diminish, but never completely abrogate, the risks associated with transfusion. PMID:28286630