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Sample records for red kidney bean

  1. Red kidney beans - to eat or not to eat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in kidney beans are responsible for this ...

  2. Phytohemagglutinins augment red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induced allergic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, B P; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-11-20

    Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a commonly consumed bean has been reported to induce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Phytohemagglutinins (PHAs, mainly PHA-P) contribute a major proportion of red kidney bean seeds. However, their roles in red kidney bean induced allergic reactions are still to be explored. This study was carried out to understand the role of PHAs in allergic manifestations using BALB/c mice and cultures of splenocyte, RBL-2H3 cells as well as bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs). Also, the characterization of allergic components from PHA-P was studied by LC-MS/MS. Enhanced levels of specific IgE and IgG1, clinical scores, cytokines and chemokines, β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene, prostaglandin D2 and abrupt histological changes in the intestine, lung and spleen indicated a pivotal role of PHA-P in red kidney bean allergy. Further, LC-MS/MS study revealed two IgE binding components of PHA-P as PHA-L and PHA-E. Enhanced specific IgE/IgG1 and β-hexosaminidase level elucidated the possible role of PHA-L and PHA-E in allergic manifestations. Furthermore, in the presence of IgE inhibitor piceatannol, reduced β-hexosaminidase release to some extent was noticed. The up regulated expression of GATA-3 and T-bet expression was observed in PHA-L as well as PHA-E groups. Taken together, this study revealed the fact that allergenicity potential of red kidney bean may get augmented due to the presence of different phytohemagglutinins. Although food allergy is an immune provocation induced mainly by dietary allergenic protein components of the food, the role of dietary lectins in the food induced allergic manifestations cannot be ruled out. Here we provide the systematic evidences about the allergenic potential of PHAs and further disclosed the culprit components as PHA-L and PHA-E. It is an important finding that the PHA-L and PHA-E can cause allergic manifestations via not only the IgE mediated pathway but also the non

  3. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, S. A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25-10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5-10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property.

  6. In vitro and in vivo volatile flavour analysis of red kidney beans by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Dings, L.; Buhr, K.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The volatile flavour released from red kidney beans was evaluated in vitro (in a model mouth system) and in vivo (in-nose). The dynamic release of the volatile flavour compounds was analysed by proton transfer reaction¿mass spectrometry. The flavour compounds were identified by gas

  7. Binding of isolectins from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to purified rat brush-border membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, D H; Banwell, J G

    1985-12-13

    Ingestion of red kidney bean phytohemagglutinin causes impaired growth and intestinal malabsorption, and facilitates bacterial colonization in the small intestine of weanling rats. We have studied interactions of the highly purified phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating (E4) and mitogenic (L4) isolectins with microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat small intestines. E4 and L4 were radioiodinated with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. E4 and L4 isolectins both bound to microvillous membrane vesicles. Binding was saturable and reversible. Each mg of membrane protein bound 744 +/- 86 micrograms E4 and 213 +/- 21 micrograms L4. The apparent Ka for E4 and L4 binding was 2.5 x 10(-6) and 13.0 x 10(-6) M-1, respectively. Binding of each 125I-labelled isolectin was abolished by 100-fold excess of unlabelled isolectin. In each case binding also was inhibited by appropriate oligosaccharide inhibitors, indicating that isolectin-microvillous membrane interactions were mediated by carbohydrate recognition. Patterns of saccharide inhibition of isolectin binding were different for E4 and L4. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated mutual noncompetitive inhibition of E4 and L4 binding consistent with steric hindrance. Therefore, E4 and L4 each bound to its own set of receptors. Based on the known saccharide specificities of E4 and L4, these data indicate that there are differences in expression of complex asparagine-linked biantennary and tri- or tetraantennary oligosaccharides at the microvillous surface. The data also provide the possibility that direct interactions of one or more phytohemagglutinin isolectins with intestinal mucosa in vivo may contribute to the antinutritional effects associated with ingestion of crude red kidney beans.

  8. Extraction and Purification of a Lectin from Red Kidney Bean and Preliminary Immune Function Studies of the Lectin and Four Chinese Herbal Polysaccharides

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    Yufang Hou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed micelles were used to extract lectin from red kidney beans and factors affecting reverse micellar systems (pH value, ionic strength and extraction time were studied. The optimal conditions were extraction at pH 4–6, back extraction at pH 9–11, ion strength at 0.15 M NaCl, extraction for 4–6 minutes and back extraction for 8 minutes. The reverse micellar system was compared with traditional extraction methods and demonstrated to be a time-saving method for the extraction of red kidney bean lectin. Mitogenic activity of the lectin was reasonably good compared with commercial phytohemagglutinin (extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris Mitogenic properties of the lectin were enhanced when four Chinese herbal polysaccharides were applied concurrently, among which 50 μg/mL Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides (APS with 12.5 μg/mL red kidney bean lectin yielded the highest mitogenic activity and 100 mg/kg/bw APS with 12.5 mg/kg/bw red kidney bean lectin elevated mouse nonspecific immunity.

  9. Isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B; Tsang, P W; Wang, J

    2001-07-01

    A homodimeric lectin adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kDa was isolated from red kidney beans. The hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. The lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. The N-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from Phaseolus vulgaris but showed some similarity to chitinases. It exerted a suppressive effect on growth of the fungal species Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus, and Rhizoctonia solani. The lectin had low ribonuclease and negligible translation-inhibitory activities.

  10. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  13. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  14. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated...

  15. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  16. of Kidney Bean, Soybean and Alfalfa Under Salt Stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    kidney bean, soybean and alfalfa under salt stress were investigated in the greenhouse. Growth and ... Continuous irrigation with water loaded with material in the soil, different substances are soluble salts results in ..... alfalfa at 100 mM Na,SO, was observed There appears to be no published work for both composts but ...

  17. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aluminium (0.345 to 0.499), galvanized iron (0.346 to 0.489), medium density fibreboard (MDF) (0.325 to 0.426) and glass (0.287 to 0.345) as the moisture content increased from 10.01 to 25.00% d.b. The shelling resistance of white kidney bean grains decreased as the moisture content increased from 105.18 to 71.44 N.

  18. Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of 26 kidney bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lijiao; Nie, Shaoping; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Cui, Steve W; Li, Yawen; Xu, Sifan; Wu, Yue; Wang, Junqiao; Bai, Zhouya; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-10-01

    Detailed characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans was performed. The kidney beans contained high levels of dietary fiber (29.32-46.77%), resistant starch (9.16-18.09%) and protein (22.06-32.63%) but low levels of lipid (1.05-2.83%) and sugars (1.55-9.07%). The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. The ratio of essential amino acid to the total amino acid was ranged from 0.29 to 0.36. The predominant fatty acid was polyunsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 47.54-67.26% of total fatty acids. The total tocopherol content was in the range of 12.83-68.35 μg/g, predominantly γ-tocopherol, followed by δ-tocopherol. In addition, certain levels of total phenolics and flavonoids with respective values of 0.25-3.79 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 0.19-7.05 mg rutin equivalent/g dry weight resulted in significant antioxidant activities. And a good correlation was observed between TPC and FRAP values (R2 = 0.8030). The results indicated that kidney beans are excellent sources of health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of raw and extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. pinto) in chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, I; Centeno, C; Viveros, A; Brenes, A; Marzo, F; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2006-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200, and 300 g/kg) of raw kidney bean and extruded kidney bean in broiler chick (0 to 21 d of age) diets on performance, digestive organ sizes, protein and amino acid digestibilities, intestinal viscosity, cecal pH, and blood parameters. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with 3 levels of kidney bean with and without extrusion. Positive control without kidney bean was used. Increasing the kidney bean content in the diet reduced weight gain and consumption, and increased the feed-to-gain ratio. Relative pancreas, liver, and jejunum weights, and intestinal viscosity were increased in response to increasing kidney bean concentration in the diet. The inclusion of different concentrations of kidney bean did not affect the apparent ileal digestibility of essential and nonessential amino acids, except for Met, Phe, and Cys, which were increased. Increasing kidney bean in the diet did not affect blood parameters, except for total protein, which was increased, and for androstenedione and testosterone, which were reduced. Extrusion significantly improved weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion. Relative pancreas, liver, and jejunum weights were reduced and spleen weight, cecal and intestinal viscosity were increased by extrusion. Apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and all essential and nonessential amino acids were improved by extrusion. Like-wise, extrusion increased significantly the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and testosterone. We concluded that the inclusion of kidney bean in chicken diets cause a negative effect on performance and CP and amino acid digestibilities, and modified digestive organ sizes, intestinal viscosity, cecal pH, and some blood parameters. These effects were counteracted by the extrusion of kidney bean. However, the inclusion of extruded kidney bean in a chick diet resulted in poorer

  20. Effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains from kidney bean, field pea and chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Thakur, Sheetal

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains of kidney bean, field pea and chickpea varieties/accession. Color of grains of different pulses was enhanced after canning. Grains L* (lightness) decreased while a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) increased after canning in all the pulses. Protein profiling of grains of different pulses after canning revealed that kidney bean and chickpea, respectively, had the least and the most thermally susceptible polypeptides. Kidney bean and chickpea showed higher Percentage washed drained weight (PWDW) than field pea. Pulse with more grain hardness and PWDW showed higher degree of grain splitting during canning. Grain splitting was also higher in dark colored accessions/varieties as compared to the light colored. Ferulic acid was the most predominant compound present in raw grains of different pulses. Raw kidney bean grains showed higher accumulation of catechin, chlorogenic, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid than those of chickpea and field pea. Canning caused reduction in all the phenolic compounds except gallic acid and most prominent effect of canning on protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic and ferulic acid was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  2. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India.

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    Ramkrashan Kasera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of IgE mediated food allergies has increased over the last two decades. Food allergy has been reported to be fatal in highly sensitive individuals. Legumes are important food allergens but their prevalence may vary among different populations. The present study identifies sensitization to common legumes among Indian population, characterizes allergens of kidney bean and establishes its cross reactivity with other legumes. METHODOLOGY: Patients (n = 355 with history of legume allergy were skin prick tested (SPT with 10 legumes. Specific IgE (sIgE and total IgE were estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Characterization of kidney bean allergens and their cross reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of major allergens of kidney bean was carried out by mass spectrometry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kidney bean exhibited sensitization in 78 (22.0% patients followed by chickpea 65 (18.0% and peanut 53 (15%. SPT positive patients depicted significantly elevated sIgE levels against different legumes (r = 0.85, p<0.0001. Sera from 30 kidney bean sensitive individuals exhibited basophil histamine release (16-54% which significantly correlated with their SPT (r = 0.83, p<0.0001 and sIgE (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Kidney bean showed eight major allergens of 58, 50, 45, 42, 40, 37, 34 and 18 kDa on immunoblot and required 67.3±2.51 ng of homologous protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Inhibition assays revealed extensive cross reactivity among kidney bean, peanut, black gram and pigeon pea. nLC-MS/MS analysis identified four allergens of kidney bean showing significant matches with known proteins namely lectin (phytohemagglutinin, phaseolin, alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among legumes, kidney bean followed by chick pea and peanut are the major allergic triggers in asthma and rhinitis patients in India

  3. Molecular identification and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented kidney beans flours (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. coccineus) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Gabriel D; Hébert, Elvira M; Saavedra, Lucila; Zárate, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods including (GTG)5-based PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to differentiate and identify the isolated LAB to species level. LAB counts ranged from around 0.89±0.81 to 8.74±0.03logcfu/g with a pH decline from 6.4 to 3.9 throughout fermentation. Four genera and nine species of LAB: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella cibaria and W. paramesenteroides were found on kidney beans. Twenty five LAB strains were assessed for their abilities to grow on kidney bean extracts, acidifying capacities (pH and acidification rates), amylolytic, proteolytic, tannase and gallate decarboxylase activities as well as pathogens inhibition by antimicrobials. Based on these properties E. durans CRL 2178 and W. paramesenteroides CRL 2182 were inoculated singly and combined in Alubia kidney bean flour and fermented for 24h at 37°C. LAB strains were beneficial for removing trypsin inhibitors and tannins from sourdoughs and for improving amino acids and phenolics contents, increasing the antioxidant activities of kidney bean matrices. Selected strains have potential as starter cultures for obtaining fermented bean products with high nutritional and functional

  4. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  5. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

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    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  6. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  8. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Srivastava, 2002), hemp (Saçılık et al., 2003), quinoa seeds (Vilche et al., 2003), vetch (Yalçın and Özarslan,. 2004), caper seed (Dursun and Dursun, 2005), sweet corn seed (Coşkun et al., 2006), black-eyed pea (Unal et al., 2006), Turkish Göynük Bombay beans (Tekin et al.,. 2006), some grain legume ...

  9. Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and haemoglobin concentrations and anthropometric indicators of school children with low vitamin A concentrations in a malaria-endemic setting. ... Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-23. Mean values for outcome variables were ...

  10. Polycystic kidneys in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2013-09-01

    An intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (Ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. Abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. On computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys concurrent with pancreatic cysts on histopathology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, polycystic kidneys have not been reported in this species.

  11. Chemical and Mechanical Weed Control Methods and Their Effects on Photosynthetic Pigments and Grain Yield of Kidney Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S Ghatari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the integrated management of weeds in red kidney bean, a split-plot experiment using randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013 in the Damavand County. In this experiment, the mechanical control treatments consisted of two levels (no cultivation and one cultivation asseigned to main plots and controlling chemical treatments consisted of six levels (non-application of herbicides, pre-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit with full dose of 1 liter per hectare, pre-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit a dose decreased 0.5 liters per hectare, post-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit dose reduced to 0.3 liters per hectare + 2 thousand citogate, post-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit with a reduced dose of 0.5 liters per hectare + 2 thousand citogate, post-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit full dose of 1 liter per hectar + 2 thousand citogate to subplots. The results showed that the effects of interaction between herbicide application and cultivation for traits of carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents, density of weeds and their dry weights were significant at 1 %, and grain yield at the 5% probability levels. The highest bean seed yield with an average of 5461.6 kg.ha-1 and lowest weed dry weight with an average of 345.9 kg.ha-1 were related to pre-emergence herbicide and cultivation with a dose of 1 liter per hectare treatment. The difference between full and reduced doses of chemical weed control was non-significant. It could be concluded that integrated mechanical and chemical weed control not only may increase seed yield but also reduce, environmental hazards.

  12. Effect of Heated Red Bean Pillow Application for College Women with Dysmenorrhea

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    Jeung-Im Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeDysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by severe and frequent cramps and pain. Effective treatment methods for dysmenorrhea are not yet fully understood. This research compares the effects of pain killers and heated red bean pillows.MethodsData were got on demographic data, menstrual cycle status, and activities of daily living (ADLs limitations, dysmenorrhea severity and menstrual pain scores. Following a 10% drop-out rate, 44 young women satisfied the inclusion criteria. To prevent any bias, the experimental and control groups were selected from different campuses. We used two sizes of red bean pillows: 15×18 cm, weighing 400g; and 13×11.5 cm, weighing 220g. For analysis, we used IBM SPSS statistics 19.0.ResultsNinety-nine point seven percentage of total subjects reported moderate to severe dysmenorrhea and 63.6% reported as moderate to severe daily activities limitations. The mean pain score with visual analogue scale was 80.2±9.42 of 100 and 86.4% used pain killers to alleviate menstrual discomfort in all the subjects. In both groups, all three variables showed significant improvement and the Moos's Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ scores changed significantly between menstrual and post-menstrual time point at within groups and not significantly different at premenstrual and menstrual time point at between groups. However, the MDQ score was significantly higher in experimental group than control group at post-menstruation time point and the degree of satisfaction was higher in the control group.ConclusionThis research shows that red-bean pillows on the abdomen are effective in assisting the ADL and diminishing pain severity. With regard to its safety the study indicates it can be a convenient and safe option for female students with menstrual discomfort in schoolas a non-pharmacological self-help.

  13. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  14. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-08

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Susmita [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Castillo-Michel, Hiram [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220-38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Sahi, Shivendra [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kidney bean roots uptake nCeO{sub 2} primarily without biotransformation. • Cerium reached the root vascular tissues through gaps in the Casparian strip. • On longer exposure to high concentration, roots demonstrate stress response. • In leaves, guaiacol peroxidase plays a major role in ROS scavenging. - Abstract: Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO{sub 2}) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼8 ± 1 nm nCeO{sub 2} (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO{sub 2} exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO{sub 2}, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO{sub 2}/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO{sub 2} exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  16. Multi-scale structure, pasting and digestibility of heat moisture treated red adzuki bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Binjia

    2017-09-01

    The pasting and digestibility of a red adzuki bean starch were simultaneously modulated by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) through altering the multi-scale structure. HMT, especially at high moisture content, could disrupt the granule integrity, semicrystalline lamellae, molecular order (crystallites) and molecular chains. Also, certain rearrangement of starch molecules occurred to form ordered structures with increased thermal stability as shown by DSC. This concomitant disordering and reassembly in the multi-scale structure converted the fractions of resistant starch (RS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) into that of slowly digestible starch (SDS). Furthermore, the emergence of thermally-stable orders increased the pasting temperature but suppressed the swelling of granules during heating. Hence, HMT-modified red adzuki starch may serve as a potential thickener/gelling agent with slow digestion rate for various foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Conservation of the active site motif in Aspergillus niger (ficuum) pH 6.0 optimum acid phosphatase and kidney bean purple acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, E J; Ullah, A H

    1998-02-13

    Aspergillus niger (ficuum) and the kidney bean purple acid phosphatases retained all the essential amino acids in the active site despite a low degree of total sequence homology. This high degree of homology in the sequence motif of A. niger fungal acid phosphatase (Apase6) active site with Kidney bean metallo phosphoesterase (KBPAP) and the absence of the RHG-XRXP sequence motif indicates Apase6 to be a metallophosphoesterase rather than a histidine acid phosphatase.

  18. Imazamox Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism in Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) and Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazamox is an imidazolinone herbicide used to control many grasses and broadleaf weeds in leguminous crops such as soybeans, alfalfa and dry beans; however, imazamox cannot be used on red lentils because of unacceptable injury. Studies were conducted to compare imazamox absorption, translocation a...

  19. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  20. Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2 on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79% out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%, GS-II (3.9% and GS-III (56.9%. BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.

  2. Contribution of minerals from fresh kidney bean leaves and grains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and zinc content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer after ashing the samples. Analysis showed that leaves had significantly (P<0.05) more iron than the fresh bean grains. For bean leaves, Maharagi soja had the highest level of iron (1653.9 mg/100g) followed by Nain De Kiondo (1061.1 mg/100g).

  3. Physical and cooking characteristics of some Indian kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulses are an essential component of our diet especially in developing world, information on their physical properties is needed for designing the machines, while cooking quality is important for consumer acceptance. Four kidney bean cultivars were evaluated for their composition, physical, cooking and textural properties. Protein, ash and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 in the range of 22.3–26.7%, 3.5–3.8% and 62.1–65.9%, respectively. Physical properties determined at 10.0% moisture revealed that the length, breadth, thickness and equivalent diameter of seeds varied significantly in the range of 11.45–16.45 mm, 6.65–7.00 mm, 4.70–6.13 mm and 7.31–9.24 mm, respectively. Bulk density varied from 0.78 to 0.81 g/mL and angle of repose from 15.20° to 18.67°. Hydration capacity and swelling capacity of the seeds varied significantly in the range of 0.12–0.42 g/seed and 0.09–0.28 mL/seed, respectively. Cooking time of unsoaked seeds differed significantly from 68.67 to 86.67 min. Soaking of seeds reduced cooking time by 15.33–30.67 min.

  4. Yield and Physiological Response of Red Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Cutting Irrigation off at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sadat Mohajerani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and graduall reduction of available water resources are the limiting factors of crop production. To investigate the effect of water deficit stress on yield and components of some red bean genotypes a split plot experiment in the form of randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch. The treatments consisted of full irrigation (control, cutting irrigation off during flowering stage, cutting irrigation off of pod filling stage and three genotypes of red bean (derakhshan, goli, and D81083. The results showed that the effect of cutting off irrigation during the growth stages on biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod was significant. The results also showed that the highest seed yield belonged to the full irrigation (control treatment, where D81083 and goli produced higher yields than derakhshan. Highest grain yield was belonged to goli at full irrigation (control treatment. Among the genotypes under study, D81083 had the lowest amount of reduction equal to 60 percent during cutting off irrigation at flowering stage. Number of seeds per pod decreased when irrigation was cutted off during the flowering stage. Derakhshan produced higher yield than the other genotypes and its seed per pod decreased by 38 percent. The results also revealed that red bean genotypes were very sensitive to deficite water stress. As a whole D81083 and goli genotypes were higher yielders than Derakhshan under limited water conditions.

  5. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  6. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P content was not affected by this thermal treatment. Rats fed raw kidney bean lost BW rapidly and the majority died by 9 d. Pretreatment of the beans by extrusion cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P < 0.01) food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  7. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  8. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Praw or dehulled meals. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (Praw or dehulled meals compared with those fed the control diet. The relative weight of the pancreas was significantly (Praw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Praw and dehulled meals, and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The structural alterations were attributed to intake of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in the processed seeds. In conclusion, aqueous heated kidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  9. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP as savory flavor from fermented red bean broth through stirred membrane cell using micro filtration membrane with pore size of 0.45 µm was performed to get fortified agent utilized in preparation of beans sauce. The objective of this work was to study an effect of pressure and kind of red bean broth extract on content of total protein, soluble protein and dry solid in the retentate and permeate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein used for fortified agent of red bean sauces. Preparation process of hydrolyzed vegetable protein was done using fixed rotary speed of 400 rpm, pressure of 20, 25 and 30 psi at room temperature. To investigate the effect of pressure on this separation, the feed were red bean broth extract fermented for 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Fermentation process were conducted using salt fermentation with inoculum of Rhizopus-C1, salt and red bean ratios of 30:10:60%. The analysis of flux and contents of total protein, dissolved protein and dry solid in the retentate and permeate was carried out, and the result of experiment showed that interaction of Red bean broth extract with 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of fermentation and operation condition of microfiltration membrane separation tends to affect on flux and content of total protein, dissolved protein and dry solid in retentate and permeate. Red bean broth extract for 6 weeks fermentation resulted higher protein content in permeate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein than in retentate. Permeate at pressure of 25 psi gives flux value of 0.0217 mL/cm2.minute and contents of total protein of 1.31 %, dissolved protein of 6.9 mg/g, and dry solid of 2.6%, while retentate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein or fortified agent indicate contents of total protein of 1.52%, dissolved protein of 4.15 mg/g, and dry solid of 3.64%. It was found that micro filtration process was able to increase dissolved protein content of about 3 times.   Keywords

  10. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    DING, MEI; SI, DAOYUAN; ZHANG, WENQI; FENG, ZHAOHUI; HE, MIN; YANG, PING

    2014-01-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in viv...

  11. Comparison of Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and Red Bean (Phaseolus calcaratus under different Intercropping Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a sustainable practice used in many developed and developing countries and an essential element of agricultural sustainability. Intercropping is simultaneous growing of two or more crops during a given season on same location. Such a method enables the utilization of common limiting resources more efficiently than the species grown separately. Using two species with different growth habits and the least competitive characteristics in intercropping, increases the efficiency of resources (light, water and nutrients and absorption in comparison with the sole cropping (Fernandez-Aparicio et al., 2008. The study of intercropping of borage (Borago officinalis L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. showed that the highest economic yield was achieved in monoculture and the lowest economic yield was obtained in four rows of borage plus four rows of bean, but the maximum land equivalent ratio was calculated in 2:2 intercropping. The aim of current study was to determine the best combination and efficiency of resource utilization in intercropping of additive series of chickpea and black cumin. The results were compared to respective monoculture and the advantages of intercropping was determined. The effects of planting different ratios of two crops on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. was also investigated. The results of intercropping of additive series showed that the highest grain and biological yield of chickpea were obtained through monoculture and the lowest grain and biological yield of chickpea achieved by planting ratio of 100% sesame and 10% chickpea. Materials and Methods To evaluate the effects of different intercropping arrangements of sunflower, sesame and red bean on growth characteristics, yield components and yield, a field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing seasons of 2009

  12. White beans provide more bioavailable iron than red beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron-biofortification of crops is a strategy that alleviates iron deficiency. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an attractive candidate for biofortification. However, beans are high in poly-phenols that may inhibit iron absorption. In vitro studies have shown that iron bioavailability from ...

  13. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to red kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The researcher had investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation in red idney and wheat in heavy metals tolerance in soil artificially contaminated with high oncentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. Metals accumulated by mycorrhizal wheat lants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting ...

  14. Red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients awaiting kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Gláucia Maria; da Silva, Sonia Leite; Alves, Tânia Maria de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Maria do Carmo Serpa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting kidney transplantation. Methods In this cross-sectional and prospective study, the serum of 393 chronic kidney disease patients on a transplant waiting list in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil were tested for red cell and leukocyte antibodies. In addition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results The average age in the sample of 393 patients was 34.1 ± 14 years. Slightly more than half (208; 52.9%) were male. The average numbers of transfusions and gestations were 3.1 ± 3.3 and 1.6 ± 6, respectively. One third (33.6%) were alloimmunized: 78% with leukocyte antibodies, 9.1% with red cell antibodies and 12.9% with both. Red cell antibodies were detected in 29 cases (7.4%), 17 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001). The most frequently detected red cell antibodies belonged to the Rh (24.1%) and Kell (13.8%) blood group systems. Leukocyte antibodies were detected in 30.5% of cases, 83 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001) and were more reactive to panel reactive antibodies (p-value < 0.0001). The mean alloreactivity to panel reactive antibodies was 47.7 ± 31.2%. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease patients on the transplant waiting list in Ceará, Brazil, display high rates of red cell (7.4%) and leukocyte (30.5%) alloimmunization. In this sample, alloimmunization was significantly associated with the number of transfusions and gender. PMID:23904808

  15. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs and ultraviolet-B (UV-B. Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds.

  16. The development of low glycemic index cookie bars from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) flour, and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Huriyati, Emy; Marsono, Yustinus

    2017-05-01

    Wholegrain foods are becoming increasingly popular as a high fiber dietary supplement recommended for people with diabetes. In Indonesia, the incidence of diabetes mellitus has almost doubled recently and poses a significant health risk with the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The present research aimed to develop cookie bars from foxtail millet, arrowroot flour, and kidney beans. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties were evaluated by selecting the best formula to test the glycemic index. Three formulae of cookie bars, which had different percentages of foxtail millet, kidney beans, and arrowroot flour were evaluated. The results showed that the three formulae (F1, F2, F3) had °Hue values of 53.77, 58.46, and 58.31, and breaking force of 8.37, 10.12, and 5.87 N, respectively. While all other nutritional content were significantly different between formulae, the total crude fat was not. The F2 cookie bar was selected and evaluated for the glycemic index because it has the best sensory properties, lowest total sugar and available carbohydrate content. F2 cookie bars that contain 15% foxtail millet, 15% arrowroot flour, and 30% of kidney beans have a glycemic index of 37.6 hence it could be classified as a low glycemic index cookie bar. In conclusion, our findings indicated that F2 cookie bars can be further developed as a suitable diabetic food since it has the best physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, and low glycemic index.

  17. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  18. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Wenqi; Feng, Zhaohui; He, Min; Yang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia.

  19. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States); Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sun, Youping [Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A& M University System, 1380 A & M Circle, El Paso, TX 79927 (United States); Barrios, Ana C. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Niu, Genhua [Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A& M University System, 1380 A & M Circle, El Paso, TX 79927 (United States); Margez, Juan P. Flores- [Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Departamento de Química y Biología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Anillo envolvente PRONAF y Estocolmo, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32310, México (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0–500 mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO{sub 2}) under greenhouse condition. After 52 days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65–111% with increasing nano-CeO{sub 2} concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5–250 mg/kg nano-CeO{sub 2} led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25–28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250 mg/kg nano-CeO{sub 2}. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. - Highlights: • Ce translocation to leaves was facilitated by higher organic matter (OM) in soil. • Lower soil OM increased leaf cover area in nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants. • Nano-CeO{sub 2} effects on metabolic processes were more

  20. Quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dominik D; Cushing, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer. We extracted data from 12 case-control studies, three cohort studies, and the Pooling Project of Diet and Cancer publication for which 13 international cohorts were evaluated. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to calculate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on high vs. low intake values. Sensitivity and influence analyses were conducted, including assessments of heterogeneity. The SRRE for all studies that reported results for red meat (included variables labeled 'red meat' or single red meat items, such as beef, pork, or liver) was 1.12 (95% CI: 0.98-1.29; p-value for heterogeneity=0.015), and the SRRE using only data from prospective cohorts was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.91-1.15) with minimal heterogeneity (p=0.741). Similarly, in a meta-analysis of the five studies that simultaneously adjusted for smoking, BMI, and total energy intake, the SRRE for red meat was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.91-1.15). No significant association was observed in the meta-analysis of processed meat consumption (SRRE=1.07; 95% CI: 0.94-1.23), although a significant association was observed when only data from cohort studies were analyzed (SRRE=1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.37). Although many of the summary results were positive, all were weak in magnitude, most were not statistically significant, and associations were attenuated among studies that adjusted for key potential confounding factors. In summary, the findings of this meta-analysis are not supportive of an independent relation between red or processed meat intake and kidney cancer.

  1. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  2. Comparison of color, anti-nutritional factors, minerals, phenolic profile and protein digestibility between hard-to-cook and easy-to-cook grains from different kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Thakur, Sheetal

    2017-03-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the differences among anti-nutritional factors in relation to mineral absorption and protein digestibility of Easy-to-cook (ETC) and Hard-to-cook (HTC) grains from different kidney bean (KB) accessions.HTC grains showed lower a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) values and L* value than ETC grains. HTC grains had significantly higher Ca and Zn and lower Cu, Mn and Fe than ETC grains. ETC and HTC grains showed significant variation in mineral, total phenolic content (TPC), tannin and phytic acid content. TPC and tannin content were significantly higher for HTC grains, on the contrary phytic acid content was lower than counterpart ETC grains. Protein and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) also varied significantly between HTC and ETC grains and was found to be lower for HTC grains. Majority of phenolic compounds (PCs) were present in bound state in both ETC and HTC grains. Moreover, HTC grains showed higher amount of chlorogenic acid and catechin content than ETC grains in bound form. ETC and HTC grains from dark color accessions showed higher catechin content.

  3. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2017-08-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Pbean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  4. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-05

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet.

  5. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  6. Genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity studies of a functional food mixture containing maltodextrin, white kidney bean extract, mulberry leaf extract, and niacin-bound chromium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Tien; Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Fa; Peng, Fu-Chuo; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2017-11-16

    Steady-fiber granule (SFG) is a functional food mixture that is composed of four major ingredients, resistant maltodextrin, white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) extract, mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract, and niacin-bound chromium complex. This study focused on determining the safety of SFG. Genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity were evaluated. SFG did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay using five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 system). SFG also did not induce clastogenic effects in Chinese hamster ovary cells with or without S9 treatment. Similarly, SFG did not induce genotoxicity in a micronucleus test conducted with mice. A dose-dependent 28-day oral toxicity assessment of SFG for rats revealed no significant effects on mortality, body weight, selected organ weights, and behavior. Evaluations of hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histopathology showed no adverse effects in rats treated with SFG. These results suggest that SFG has no significant mutagenic or toxic properties, and the no observed adverse effect level of SFG was defined as at least 5000 mg/kg/day orally for 28 days for male and female rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the ...

  8. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  9. The effect of red ginseng extract on superoxide dismutase activity in the kidney of gamma-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Soon [Kunsan Vocational College, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    This study was prepared to observe the change of enzyme activities in kidney treated with red ginseng extract in the gamma ray irradiated mice. Determine the activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase in the kidney a period of 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 4 day, 5 day after a saline injection or injection of red ginseng extract or gamma ray irradiated group into four classify. The activity SOD and catalase showed a tendency to increase and recovery at the early state but pay no regard. Where ase, the activity of peroxide restored and increased pay regard. A physiological saline injection group after gamma ray irradiation showed a tendency to diminish after remarkable increase of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase than control group. Injection group of red ginseng extract after gamma ray irradiation observed rapid recovery on activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase than a saline injection group. Experimental result suggested that injection of red ginseng extract after irradiation have the recovery effect on the changed of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase against radiation injury.

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Portugal: Evaluation of different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ana C; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria H; Matos, Manuela; Álvares, Sofia; Mendes, Andreia; Pinto, Maria L; Coelho, Ana C

    2017-03-28

    Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. The present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus). With that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the Centre-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and histopathology. Thirty-seven (4.2%) kidneys revealed acid-fast bacilli when screened with the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Map was detected by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in thirty (81.1%) of the Ziehl-Neelsen positive kidneys. Subsequent PCR and/or culture from the different organs of the 37 examined animals allowed us to detect 86.4% (32 animals) infected red deer. Our results suggest that renal involvement in Map infected deer may be underdiagnosed and thus the routine examination of this organ and its inclusion in PCR techniques designed for Map detection could substantially improve the diagnostic of paratuberculosis in red deer.

  11. Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: 1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from β-carotene to chlorophyll occurs

  12. Reduction of potassium content of green bean pods and chard by culinary processing. Tools for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pineda, Montserrat; Yagüe-Ruiz, Cristina; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In order to prevent a possible hyperkalemia, chronic renal patients, especially in advanced stages, must follow a low potassium diet. So dietary guidelines for chronic kidney disease recommend limiting the consumption of many vegetables, as well as to apply laborious culinary techniques to maximize the reduction of potassium. The aim of this work is to analyze potassium content from several vegetable, fresh products, frozen and preserved, as well as check and compare the effectiveness in potassium reduction of different culinary processes, some of them recommended in dietary guidelines such as soaking or double cooking. Sample potassium content was analyzed by triplicate using flamephotometry. The results showed significant reductions in potassium content in all culinary processes studied. The degree of loss varied depending on the type of vegetable and processing applied. Frozen products achieved greater reductions than the fresh ones, obtaining in some cases losses greater than 90%. In addition, it was observed how in many cases the single application of a normal cooking reached potassium reductions to acceptable levels for its inclusion in renal patient diet. The results shown in this study are very positive because they provide tools for professionals who deal with this kind of patients. They allow them to adapt more easily to the needs and preferences of their patients and increase dietary variety. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...... aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided...

  15. Protective effect of red wine on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain and kidney induced by feeding high cholesterol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Pedro; Espejo, Isabel; Muñoz, Maria C; Bujalance, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Tunez, Isaac

    2006-02-01

    The effect of red wine (400 ml/70 kg) on brain and kidney oxidative stress and antioxidative enzymes activities induced by cholesterol-enriched diet (supplemented with 1.65% of cholesterol (w/w) for 4 weeks) was studied in rats. When red wine (Montilla-Moriles, Cordoba, Spain) was simultaneously supplemented to high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, total cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products in the brain, kidney and erythrocytes significantly decreased compared with the high-cholesterol, while GSH content and antioxidative enzymes activities enhanced. On the other hand, the urinary excretion of urea, creatinine and albumin decreased significantly. These results suggest that red wine may have a neuro-nephroprotective effect against oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Expression of metallothionein in the liver and kidneys of the red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from an industrial metal smelting area of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec, Maciej; Kolenda, Rafał; Owczarek, Tomasz; Szkoda, Józef; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Socha, Piotr; Kołacz, Roman; Schierack, Peter; Żmudzki, Jan; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    The metallothionein 1 (MT1) coding sequence of red deer was identified and compared to orthologous sequences from other mammals. Over 90% identity was observed between red deer MT1 amino acid sequence and MT1 sequences of other ruminants. Liver and kidney samples of red deer were collected from the industrial zinc smelting site of Miasteczko Slaskie and from the Masuria Lake District serving as a pollution-free control site. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrometry technique (AAS). The levels of Cd in the liver of red deer from the metal smelting region was about 8 times higher than for the reference control site. Next, the expression of MT1 mRNA in the liver of red deer was quantified by the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the expression of MT1/2 protein in the liver and kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Positive correlations were found between expression levels for MT1 mRNA and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in liver of red deer, and with the age of animals. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the nuclear and cytoplasmatic expression in both liver and kidney tissues, but with no obvious relationship shown for the expression of MT1/2 protein and tissue metal levels. Our results showed that the analysis of MT expression levels in the red deer could not be used independently as a biomarker for identifying exposure to Cd, but could be co-analyzed with tissue metal levels to give better prognosis for environmental exposure to metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  18. Evaluation of liver and kidney function in favism patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Dorgalaleh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Backgrounds: G6PD deficiency is the most common enzymopathy of red blood cells. The clinical symptoms of favism are jaundice, hematuria and haemolytic anaemia that seem to affect liver and kidney in long term. Thus we evaluate kidney and liver function of favism patients in an endemic area of the disease with a high rate of fava beans cultivation. Methods: This study was performed on favism patients and healthy controls referring to Iranshahr central hospital. Liver and kidney function tests were performed. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference between these two groups (p 0.05. Conclusion: Due to abnormalities were seen in the liver function tests of these patients, we suggest that these tests be regularly performed for favism patients who are constantly exposed to oxidant agents. 

  19. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) Suggests Pathogen Coevolution with the Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Alexander B C; Mabagala, Robert B; Guzmán, Pablo; Gepts, Paul; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans, is one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in East Africa and other bean-growing regions. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Malawi and Tanzania, East Africa, and in Wisconsin, U.S., were characterized based on brown pigment production, pathogenicity on common bean, detection with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli- or X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans-specific PCR primer pair, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. The common bean gene pool (Andean or Middle American) from which each strain was isolated also was determined. In Malawi, X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans were isolated predominantly from Andean or Middle American beans, respectively. In Tanzania, X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans was most commonly isolated, irrespective of gene pool; whereas, in Wisconsin, only X. campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated from Andean red kidney beans. Three rep-PCR fingerprints were obtained for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains; two were unique to East African strains, whereas the other was associated with strains collected from all other (mostly New World) locations. RFLP analyses with repetitive DNA probes revealed the same genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains as did rep-PCR. These probes hybridized with only one or two fragments in the East African strains, but with multiple fragments in the other X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. East African X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on Andean beans, but were significantly less pathogenic on Middle American beans. In contrast, X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains from New World locations were highly pathogenic on beans of both gene pools. Together, these results indicate the

  20. A comparison of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of sword beans and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon Su; Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Si Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of non-fermented or Bacillus subtilis-fermented soybeans and sword beans (red and white). The total flavonoid content in both sword bean types was higher (1.9-2.5-fold) than that in soybeans. The total phenolic content in fermented red sword beans was 2.5-fold greater than that in non-fermented red sword beans. HPLC profiles revealed that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid were major phenolic components of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were higher in fermented red sword beans than in other beans. Non-fermented/fermented red sword beans had higher nitrite scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene and non-fermented/fermented soybeans. The hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans was higher (1.5-2.6-fold) than that of non-fermented/fermented soybeans. These results suggest that B. subtilis-fermented sword beans are potential natural antioxidant sources and anti-inflammatory agents for the food industry.

  1. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  2. Response of Dry Bean to Sulfentrazone Plus Imazethapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the Huron Research Station, Exeter, Ontario and from 2009 to 2011 at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus, Ridgetown, Ontario to evaluate the sensitivity of four market classes of dry bean to sulfentrazone applied preemergence at 105, 140, and 280 g ai/ha alone and in combination with imazethapyr at 37.5 g ai/ha. At 1 week after emergence (WAE, sulfentrazone alone or in combination with imazethapyr at all doses evaluated caused no significant visible injury in dry bean. At 2 WAE, sulfentrazone alone caused 1–11, 1–11, 1–5, and 3–19% visible injury, and sulfentrazone + imazethapyr caused 3–11, 2–10, 2–5, and 4–20% visible injury in black, cranberry, kidney, and white bean, respectively. At 4 WAE, sulfentrazone alone caused 1–7, 1–7, 0–4, and 1–16% visible injury and sulfentrazone + imazethapyr caused 1–8, 1–5, 1–3, and 2–14% visible injury in black, cranberry, kidney, and white bean, respectively. Sulfentrazone PRE caused slightly greater injury in black and white bean compared to cranberry and kidney bean. Generally, crop injury with sulfentrazone at rates up to 140 g ai/ha alone and in combination with imazethapyr at 37.5 g ai/ha was minimal with no adverse effect on plant height, shoot dry weight, seed moisture content, and yield. Based on these results, there is potential for preemergence application of sulfentrazone at rates up to 140 g ai/ha alone or in combination with imazethapyr at 37.5 g ai/ha in black, cranberry, kidney and white bean.

  3. Overview of Kidney Diseases in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood hyperlipidemia—higher-than-normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood edema—swelling, usually in ... eggs milk cheese chicken fish red meats beans yogurt cottage cheese Sodium . The amount of sodium children ...

  4. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated wi...

  5. 'Beans' or 'Sizzlin' Beans:' Words Get People Eating Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy-boosting green beans and shallots" or "smart-choice vitamin C citrus carrots." Indulgent. For example, phrases like "dynamite chili and tangy lime-seasoned beets," "sweet sizzlin' green beans and crispy shallots" or "twisted ...

  6. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney

  7. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  8. Association Between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and All-cause Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jing; Lin, Yan; Yang, Hongtao; Cao, Shili

    2017-05-01

    Considering results among previous studies regarding the relationship of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, we aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the potential association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. We conducted a systematic literature using electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Embase and Web of Science) to identify the studies reporting the association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. We searched the literatures published December 2016 or earlier. We used both fix-effects and random-effects models to calculate the overall effect estimate. A sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to find the origin of heterogeneity. We retrieved 9 studies with a total of 117,047 patients. For every 1% increase in RDW, the risk of all-cause mortality increased by 47% (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.35-1.61) with no statistical heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 44.5%, p = 0.094). When RDW was entered as a categorical variable, mortality risk was significantly increased (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.21-2.81). Heterogeneity among the studies was observed for all-cause mortality (I2 = 82.3%, p = 0.001). We also performed a predefined subgroup analyses according to study population. We found that for every 1% increase in RDW, the risk of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients increased by 36% (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.53). Our meta-analysis suggests that high levels of RDW probably increase the risk of all-cause mortality in CKD patients. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  10. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NKF Kidney Disease Community Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  11. Full of Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a genetics activity illustrating genetic variation, mutation, and influence of environmental factors on genotypic expression. Irridiated bean seeds are planted and observed (x-rayed by dentist's x-ray machine at different exposures and for different times). Questions to extend the activity are discussed. (Author/JN)

  12. Evaluation, Bean Dehuller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hopper unit is shown in Fig. 2. It is the de- vice through which the machine is fed or charged with bean seeds. It has a square base on which an inverted hollow pyramidal frustrum is attached. It is constructed from 1.5mm thick galvanised metal sheet and the square base is constructed with mild steel angle bar of 3mm.

  13. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  14. Aluminium-phosphate interactions in the rhizosphere of two bean species: Phaseolus lunatus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Cesco, Stefano; Tomasi, Nicola; Pinton, Roberto; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Plants differ in their response to high aluminium (Al) concentrations, which typically cause toxicity in plants grown on acidic soils. The response depends on plant species and environmental conditions such as substrate and cultivation system. The present study aimed to assess Al-phosphate (P) dynamics in the rhizosphere of two bean species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L., in rhizobox experiments. Root activity of the bean species induced up to a sevenfold increase in exchangeable Al and up to a 30-fold decrease in extractable P. High soluble Al concentrations triggered the release of plant-specific carboxylates, which differed between soil type and plant species. The results suggest that P. vulgaris L. mitigates Al stress by an internal defence mechanism and P. lunatus L. by an external one, both mechanisms involving organic acids. Rhizosphere mechanisms involved in Al detoxification were found to be different for P. vulgaris L. and P. lunatus L., suggesting that these processes are plant species-specific. Phaseolus vulgaris L. accumulates Al in the shoots (internal tolerance mechanism), while P. lunatus L. prevents Al uptake by releasing organic acids (exclusion mechanism) into the growth media. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the tiny filters within your kidneys (glomeruli) Polycystic kidney disease People with end-stage renal disease need ... and kidney failure, but it is not a cure. Some forms of kidney disease may return after transplant. The health risks ...

  16. Genetic variation for drought resistance in small red seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is low in major growing regions of Ethiopia mainly due to drought, caused by low and erratic rainfall. A field experiment was carried out at Gofa in Southern Ethiopia, to assess genetic variability for drought resistance in forty-nine small red seeded common bean genotypes ...

  17. Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-farm trials to determine the optimum combination of maize (Zea mays L.) density, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar and bean spatial arrangement to produce high yields of the intercrop combination were conducted in Chinyika Resettlement Area (CRA) and at Domboshava Training Centre (DTC) during the 1996/97 ...

  18. Microstructure of Black, Green and Red Gram

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Enamuthu; Crites, Shelly G.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    The three most commonly consumed legumes (grams or pulses) in India, black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), or urd , green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) or mung, and red gram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) or tur, were examined by scanning electron microscopy . Seed coat and internal features were examined to differentiate these legumes from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) , adzuki beans (Vigna angu/aris) and lentils (Lens culinaris). Cross-sections of the seed coats of black, green and re...

  19. The Effect of vermicompost on salt tolerance of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beyk Khurmizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, increasing production of waste as a result of population growth, increased food consumption, industrial development and urbanization growth, is regarded as a serious challenge. Vermicompost, as an end product of urban waste recycling with proper physicochemical features, can play an effective role in plant growth and development and also in reducing harmful effects of various environmental stresses on plants. For this purpose, a study with the aim of investigating the effects of vermicompost and salinity interactions on morphological traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Light Red Kidney seedlings was performed. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design, including five different volumetric ratios of vermicompost and sand (0:100; 10:90; 25:75; 50:50 and 75:25, and four levels of salinity (30, 60, 90 and 120 mmol l-1 NaCl, equal to 2.75, 5.50, 8.25 and 11 deciSiemens per meter (dS/m respectively, along with control (0.00, in three replications. Seeds were cultured in plastic pots and sampling of seedlings was done after 28 days. The results showed that in an environment without stress, vermicompost had significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the stem length, internodes number, area and dry weight of leaves, diameter, dry weight and total roots length, while having no significant effect on stem dry weight. The interaction between salinity and vermicompost has significant effect on the stem length, internodes number, the area and dry weight of leaves and dry weight of roots but no significant effect was observed on the stem dry weight, diameter and total roots length. Thus, in the low levels of salinity, all ratios of vermicompost and in high levels of salinity, high ratios of vermicompost can limit the negative effects of salinity on bean seedlings.

  20. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  1. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  2. Leukoreduction program for red blood cell transfusions in coronary surgery: association with reduced acute kidney injury and in-hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gianpaolo; Mastroianni, Ciro; Bancone, Ciro; Della Corte, Alessandro; Galdieri, Nicola; Nappi, Gianantonio; De Santo, Luca Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Leukocytes in allogeneic blood transfusions cause several immunomodulatory events. This before-and-after cohort study evaluated clinical outcomes after adoption of prestorage leukoreduction program for blood transfusions, with particular focus on acute kidney injury. One thousand thirty-four consecutive patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting between January 2004 and December 2007 were included. Propensity score analysis for transfusion was performed in the whole population; patients who were actually transfused were then divided according to leukoreduction. From these 2 groups, 147 pairs matched for propensity score were considered to evaluate with bivariate and multivariable analyses the effects of leukoreduction, with all-cause in-hospital mortality and morbidity as main outcomes. Unadjusted in-hospital mortalities were 6.6% for the entire cohort and 44.2% for those with acute kidney injury. In the matched population, after introduction of leukoreduction, mortality rates decreased to 5.4% (vs 11.4%) and acute kidney injury (RIFLE [Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End-stage renal disease] class R or greater) dropped from 51.7% to 41.5% (relative risk -20%, P < .045). No difference emerged regarding other major complications. At multivariable analysis, intra-aortic balloon pump, RIFLE score, and propensity score for transfusion proved independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Intra-aortic balloon pump and nonleukodepleted transfusion emerged as independent predictors of acute kidney injury. Multivariable analysis on the overall cohort of transfused patients confirmed that nonleukodepleted transfusion was an independent predictor of acute kidney injury. Leukoreduction of allogeneic blood products is associated with decreased acute kidney injury and mortality in highly transfused patients. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  4. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  5. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... or medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  6. Analyzing bean extracts using time-dependent SDS trapping to quantify the kinetic stability of phaseolin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Jane; Church, Jennifer; Ortiz-Perez, Brian; Addo, Samuel; Hill, Shakeema; Khalil, Areeg; Young, Malaney; Xia, Ke; Colón, Wilfredo

    2017-09-30

    In common beans and lima bean, the storage protein phaseolin is difficult to degrade and SDS-resistant, a sign of kinetic stability. Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are characterized by having a high-energy barrier between the native and denatured states that results in very slow unfolding. Such proteins are resistant to proteolytic degradation and detergents, such as SDS. Here the method SDS-Trapping of Proteins (S-TraP) is applied directly on bean extracts to quantify the kinetic stability of phaseolin in lima bean and several common beans, including black bean, navy bean, and small red bean. The bean extracts were incubated in SDS at various temperatures (60-75 °C) for different time periods, followed by SDS-PAGE analysis at room temperature, and subsequent band quantification to determine the kinetics of phaseolin unfolding. Eyring plot analysis showed that the phaseolin from each bean has high kinetic stability, with an SDS-trapping (i.e. unfolding) half-life ranging from about 20-100 years at 24 °C and 2-7 years at 37 °C. The remarkably high kinetic stability of these phaseolin proteins is consistent with the low digestibility of common beans and lima bean, as well as their relatively high germination temperatures. From a practical perspective, this work exemplifies that S-TraP is a useful and cost-effective method for quantifying the kinetic stability of proteins in biological extracts or lysates. Depending on the protein to be studied and its abundance, S-TraP may be performed directly on the extract without need for protein purification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. IN BEANS TO COMMON BLIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-12

    , Beebe, S.E. and Correa,. F.J. 1981. Comparing two inoculation techniques for evaluating resistance in beans to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. Proceedings 5th International conference of. Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

  8. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  10. Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón G; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Guzman-Maldonado, Horacio S; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-07-01

    Food consumption with different bioactive compounds could reduce the risk of diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After 4weeks of treatment with a cooked bean supplemented (10%) diet, animals fed with Flor de Mayo bean (FMB) exerted the greatest protective effect, since they presented the lowest blood glucose levels, consistent with an increase in blood insulin levels, a decrease in urine albumin and urea levels and an increase in creatinine clearance (P≤.05). Regarding the gene expression of kidneys evaluated using expressed sequence tag, consumption of cooked beans improved the expression of Glu1, Cps1, Ipmk, Cacna1c, Camk1, Pdhb, Ptbp3 and Pim1, which are related to the elimination of ammonium groups, the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative response, as well as cell signaling and apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects observed were not related to their polyphenolic and saponin profile, suggesting the activity of other bioactive compounds or the synergistic interaction of these compounds. These results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans (FMB) might be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  12. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  13. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense

  14. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  15. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  16. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leafy vegetables and beans with myoglobin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Masaaki; Fukukita, Akiko; Kodama, Riho; Miki, Haruka; Suzuki, Mayuko; Ikegami, Maya; Tamura, Noriko; Yasuda, Akari; Morikawa, Mami; Matsumura, Saki

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Antioxidant activity of seven leafy vegetables and four beans against five reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species was clearly characterized with a protocol using myoglobin as a reporter probe. Antioxidant activity of seven leafy vegetables and four beans against peroxyl radical, hydroxyl radical, hypochlorite ion, and peroxynitrite ion has been measured using myoglobin as a reporter probe (myoglobin method). Conventional DPPH method was also used to evaluate antioxidant activity of the samples. Difference of activity against different reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was characterized by plotting the data in a 5-axe cobweb chart. This plot clearly showed the characteristics of the antioxidant activity of the leafy vegetables and the beans. The samples examined in this work were categorized into four groups. (1) The samples showed high antioxidant activity against all ROS and RNS: daikon sprout, spinach, Qing-geng-cai, and onion. (2) The samples showed high antioxidant activity against peroxyl radical: red bean and soy bean. (3) The samples showed high antioxidant against hypochlorite ion: broccoli floret, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage. (4) The samples showed weak antioxidant activity against all ROS and RNS: cowpea and common beans. Our protocol is probably useful to characterize antioxidant activity of the crops of different cultivars, the crops obtained in different growing environments and growing seasons, the crops harvested at different age, and the crops stored in the different conditions, as well as the changes of activity during cooking process of the crops.

  18. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  19. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  20. Kidney Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sign of kidney disease or other urinary problems. albuminuria—a condition in which the urine has more-than-normal amounts of a protein called albumin. Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease. changes ...

  1. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Kidney Health Coach Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuining education Clinical trials Research Advocacy ... Become a Kidney Health Coach Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Current CSN Fellow Previous CSN award recipients ...

  2. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breath? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A A A What's in this article? ... uh-jist), a doctor who specializes in treating kidney diseases. The doctor will ask you about any concerns ...

  3. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney transplant offers more freedom and a better quality of life than dialysis. In making a decision about whether this is ... transplant, with little or no time spent on dialysis, can lead to better long-term ... life. Who can get a kidney transplant? Kidney patients ...

  4. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponge Kidney? Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ... both kidneys. Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ...

  6. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  7. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney injury. Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal ...

  8. Correlação linear e espsacial entre a produtividade de feijão e a porosidade de um Latossolo Vermelho de Selvíria (MS Linear and spatial correlation between common bean yield and porosity of a Red Latosol in Selvíria (MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Mahmoud Megda

    2008-04-01

    objective of this study was to investigate the linear and spatial variability and correlations between common bean yield and soil porosity. The bean grain yield of the irrigated cultivar Carioca IAC was analyzed in the growing season 2004/2005, in Selviria-MS, as well as macroporosity (MA, microporosity (MI and total porosity (TP, in a Dystroferric Red Latosol, at four depths: 1 (0.0-0.10 m, 2 (0.10-0.20 m, 3 (0.20-0.30 m and 4 (0.30-0.40 m. Soil and plant data were collected in a geostatistical grid with 135 points spaced 10 m apart, covering an area of 50 x 150 m. The data of the studied attributes did not vary randomly and the values were intermediate to low. They followed well-defined spatial standards, reaching between 11.70-104.40 m. On the other hand, the linear correlation between the plant and soil attributes was low, due to the high number of observations. Grain yield had the best linear correlations with MA1b, MI1 and TP3. From the spatial point of view, the inverse correlation between PG and #TP2 was outstanding. At the sites where #TP2 diminished (0.030-0.045 m³ m-3 the yield varied from 2,173 to 3,529 kg ha-1 and where it increased (0.045-0.076 m³ m-3 , the yield was between 1,630 and 2,173 kg ha-1. Therefore, the total soil porosity, evaluated in the 0.10-0.20 m layer (#TP2, indicated the importance of the contact root/soil and was in turn a satisfactory indicator of soil physical quality, with a view to the grain yield of irrigated common bean.

  9. Weed Azuki Bean, an Overlooked Representative

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms of prostrated and slightly branching Azuki bean (Phaseolus angularis W.F. Wight) grow naturally in the ruderal and cultivated fields in central Japan. These have larger leaves and thick stem, like the cultigen, and have easily dehiscent black pods similar to the wild Azuki bean (P. angularis var. nipponensis Ohwi). Two forms have seeds intermediate in size between the cultigen and wild Azuki beans. The black-seed form shows relatively larger plant stature and is seen in ruderal site...

  10. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  11. [The broad bean's syndrome in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, D

    1989-01-01

    The problem of broad bean's syndrome and lathyrism in ancient Greece has been deeply studied, with particular referrement to the hypothetic medica and mystical reasons of the Pythagoric order not to eat broad beans. It is impossible to prove Egyptian influence of Phythagora's precept, but we can, however, consider the hypothesis that they had noticed the potential deadly effect of broad beans' use, too, and wonder if their interduction had the same motivations.

  12. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  13. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML), XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker i...

  14. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok, E-mail: khoo@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the {sup 238}U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). {sup 238}U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of {sup 238}U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of {sup 238}U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of {sup 238}U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of {sup 238}U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of {sup 238}U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that {sup 238}U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  15. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  17. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Damage Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery ... Kidney Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Pain ...

  18. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  19. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys ... work, be active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is often “progressive”, which ...

  20. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... store Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Chronic kidney disease (CKD) www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney ... treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ...

  2. Genetic inferences in common bean differential cultivars to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum race 69/ Inferências genéticas em cultivares diferenciadoras de feijoeiro comum ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum raça 69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson R. Schuelter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by the Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc. et Magn fungus, is one of the most important diseases and can result in heavy yield losses to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Genetic inferences about resistance of cultivars: Michelite, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow, Cornell 49-242, PI 207262, AB 136, G 2333 and their 21 diallel hybrids were obtained in relation to the reaction to 69 race by using Hayman’s method. The results showed that dominance effects were higher than additive effects to resistance of the related race. The order of parents in relation to dominant genes concentration obtained was: G 2333, AB 136, PI 207262, Cornell 49-242, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow and Michelite. G 2333, AB 136 and PI 707262 parents are the most indicated for breeding programs to obtain anthracnose resistant cultivars.A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc cet Magn, é uma das mais importantes doenças e pode causar severas perdas ao cultivo do feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Inferências genéticas sobre a resistência de sete cultivares diferenciais de feijão comum (Michelite, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow, Cornell 49-242, PI 207262, AB 136, G 2333 e seus 21 híbridos dialélicos foram obtidas em relação à raça 69, por meio da metodologia de Hayman. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos dominantes foram superiores aos aditivos para resistência à referida raça. A ordem dos parentais em relação à concentração de genes dominantes obtida foi: G 2333, AB 136, PI 207262, Cornell 49-242, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow e Michelite. Os parentais G 2333, AB 136 e PI 707262 são os mais indicados para programas de melhoramento visando à obtenção de cultivares resistentes à antracnose.

  3. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  4. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the processing, utilization and challenges of African locust bean. (Parkia biglobosa) in Arigidi Akoko in Akoko Northwest Local Government Area of Ondo. State. A total of 3,446 locust bean sellers were identified and 5% of the sellers were sampled given the total of 172 respondents: 80 at ...

  5. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. EFFECT OF AFRICAN OIL BEAN SEED ( PENTACLETHRA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasma cholesterol level of rats fed with diets composed with Fu, F1, F2, F3 and F4 increased initially and decreased with the time of fermentation. Degree of fermentation of the African oil bean seed therefore affected the plasma cholesterol. KEYWORDS. Cholesterol, African bean seed, Pentaclethra macrophyllia, ...

  7. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to

  8. beans grown in an intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-02-10

    Feb 10, 2005 ... Sole crops were planted at the recommended PPD of 44 444 and 11 1 1 11 plants ha'l for maize and climbing beans, respectively. Maize in ...... Cali, Colombia. 54pp. Davis, J.H.C. and Garcia, S. 1983. Competitive ability and growth ofindetcrminate beans and maize for intercropping. CIAT Abstract on.

  9. the pan- africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    the forefront of efforts to accelerate the transition of beans from a subsistence crop to a modern commodity in. Sub-Saharan .... the versatility of the bean crop and its contribution to a ..... Shared breeding responsibilities under PABRA: involving 1) CIAT Headquarter breeding program in Colombia and the re gional breeding ...

  10. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  11. Proteome Characterization of Leaves in Common Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith M. Robison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a globally relevant food crop. The bean genome was recently sequenced and annotated allowing for proteomics investigations aimed at characterization of leaf phenotypes important to agriculture. The objective of this study was to utilize a shotgun proteomics approach to characterize the leaf proteome and to identify protein abundance differences between two bean lines with known variation in their physiological resistance to biotic stresses. Overall, 640 proteins were confidently identified. Among these are proteins known to be involved in a variety of molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, binding peroxidase activity, and hydrolase activity. Twenty nine proteins were found to significantly vary in abundance (p-value < 0.05 between the two bean lines, including proteins associated with biotic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first large scale shotgun proteomic analysis of beans and our results lay the groundwork for future studies designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen resistance.

  12. Modeling Isosteric Heat of Soya Bean for Desorption Energy Estimation Using Neural Network Approach Modelación de Calor Isostérico de Soya para Estimación de Energía de Desorción usando Red neural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amiri Chayjan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorption isotherm of soya bean (Glycine max (L. Merr. was obtained by the dynamic experimental method. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs were used for modeling soya bean equilibrium moisture content (EMC. Thermodynamic equations and trained ANN for prediction of two thermodynamic properties of net isosteric heat and entropy of soya bean were utilized. The ANN models were better compared with mathematical models. In this study, the isosteric heat and entropy of sorption of soya bean were separately predicted by two power models as a EMC function. Predictive power of the models was high (R² ≈ 0.99. At the moisture content above 11% (dry basis, db, isosteric heat and entropy of sorption of soya bean were smoothly decreased, while they were highest at moisture content about 8% (db. Isosteric heat and entropy would be useful in the storage simulation of dried soya bean. The ANN model predicts soya bean EMC more accurately than mathematical models. Hence, better equations could be developed for the prediction of heat of sorption and entropy based on data from the ANN model.La isoterma de desorción de soya (Glycine max (L. Merr. se obtuvo por el método experimental dinámico. Se usaron redes neuronales artificiales (ANN para modelación del contenido de humedad de equilibrio (EMC de soya. Se utilizaron ecuaciones termodinámicas y ANN dirigidas para predicción de dos propiedades termodinámicas, calor isostérico neto y entropía de soya. Los modelos ANN fueron mejores comparados con modelos matemáticos. En este estudio, el calor isostérico y entropía de absorción de soya fueron predichas separadamente por dos modelos de poder como una función de EMC. El poder predictivo de los modelos fue alto (R² ≈ 0.99. A un contenido de humedad superior a 11% (db, el calor isostérico y entropía de absorción de soya fueron ligeramente reducidos, y fueron las más altas a un contenido de 8% (db. El calor isostérico y entropía podrían ser útiles en

  13. Kidney disease among the Zuni Indians: the Zuni Kidney Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavini, Marina; Shah, Vallabh O; Stidley, Christine A; Tentori, Francesca; Paine, Susan S; Harford, Antonia M; Narva, Andrew S; Kessler, David S; Bobelu, Arlene; Albert, Carleton P; Bobelu, Jeanette; Jamon, Eunice; Natachu, Kathy; Neha, Donica; Welty, Thomas K; MacCluer, Jean W; Zager, Philip G

    2005-08-01

    There is an epidemic of kidney disease among the Zuni Indians. In collaboration with health care providers and research institutions, the Zuni Pueblo established the Zuni Kidney Project to reduce the burden of kidney disease. The Zuni Kidney Project conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of albuminuria, hematuria, and related risk factors. Neighborhood household clusters served as the sampling frame. Participants completed a questionnaire, donated blood and urine samples, and had blood pressure, height, and weight measured. This survey provided the foundation for ongoing studies to identify genetic and environmental risk factors for disease susceptibility and progression. Age and gender distributions among survey participants were similar to those in the eligible Zuni population. Prevalence of incipient albuminuria (IA) (0.03 or = trace 47.0% (40.7, 53.4); > or =50 red blood cell/microL 25.8% (20.3, 31.4%)] than nondiabetics [> or = trace 31.1% (28.5, 33.7%); > or =50 red blood cell/microL 16.6% (14.5, 18.7%)]. Hypertension was associated with albuminuria among diabetic and nondiabetic participants. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with albuminuria among nondiabetic participants. Diabetes and alcohol use were associated with hematuria. The high prevalences of albuminuria among nondiabetics and of hematuria among diabetics and nondiabetics are consistent with high rates of nondiabetic kidney disease among Zuni Indians with and without diabetes.

  14. Faba bean in microspore culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hautsalo, Juho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop functional method for producing doupled-haploid plants for faba bean. Microspore culture is an advanced method to produce doubled-haploids and it is based on the totipotent nature of plant cells, since even a microspore, which is an immature pollen cell with haploid genome, can develop into a plant. This plant is either haploid or doupled haploid depending on whether there has been chromosome doubling or not and because the chromosomes either do not ...

  15. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  16. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Nutrition Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & ... build-up of waste products, and other serious consequences in later years. Doses of medications must also ...

  17. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multicystic dysplastic kidney: does initial size matter? Pediatric Nephrology . 2012;27(8):1335–1340. Clinical Trials The ... all members of the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology Clinical Affairs Committee; Deepa H. Chand, M.D., ...

  18. Kidney removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lungs Breathing problems Infection, including in the surgical wound, lungs ( pneumonia ), bladder, or kidney Blood loss Heart ... work as well for awhile Hernia of your surgical wound Before the Procedure Always tell your health care ...

  19. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long beanBean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  20. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... All analyses were done in the Food Science and Technology laboratory in collaboration with the Department of Soil Science. Mineral analysis was performed on bean leaves and fresh bean grains after dry ashing [16]. Iron and zinc determination. About 100g of bean leaves and fresh bean grains for each ...

  1. factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    In order to meet this growing demand, adoption of better production technologies focusing on improving production and marketing of beans is necessary. In an effort to improve bean production in. Burundi, the bean improvement programme by. Pan-African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) in collaboration with Institut des ...

  2. Clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to cluster bean mutants from a bean mutation breeding programme, based on heterotic groupings. This was achieved by genotyping 16 bean genotypes, using 21 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) bean markers. From the results, three different clusters A, B and C, were obtained suggesting ...

  3. Epiphytic bacteria from various bean genotypes and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bean plants treated with bacterial antagonists had smaller disease lesions than the phosphate buffer, treated controls. These results suggest that phylloplane microflora from beans influence the development of common bacterial blight on the bean crop. These antagonists are promising potential biocontrol agents for bean ...

  4. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  5. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  6. Bionic kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, V

    2003-05-01

    Bionic Kidney is a project still in progress which aims at replacing all renal functions, which has been carried out in an ideal attempt to improve the overall results of Renal Replacement Therapy. It contains all the requisites for a complete rehabilitation from Uremia. As a futuristic mini-device implanted in the body, it should be a reliable support to Transplantation performance, considering the scarcity of kidney donors.

  7. Ectopic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 50-year-old male with no past medical history presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of right flank pain after stretching. His vital signs were within normal limits and physical exam was significant for tenderness to palpation over the right lateral chest wall. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Due to the patient’s uncertainty of the exact mechanism of injury, additional trauma could not be ruled out and a bedside focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST scan was performed, which was negative for free fluid, but notable for an absence of a right kidney. The patient was sent for a computed tomography (CT abdomen/pelvis to evaluate the etiology of symptoms and to address the absence of visualized kidney on ultrasound. Significant findings: CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a normal left kidney and an ectopic, malrotated right kidney located in the pelvis (see white arrow. Discussion: Renal ectopia is described as a malposition of the kidney, due to faulty migration from the fetal pelvis during early embryonic development. Evidence suggests an incidence ranging from 1:900 to 1:12,000.1-3 While most cases are asymptomatic and do not require intervention, complications include vesicoureteral reflux, urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, and renal calculi.4,5 Ultrasonography is indicated for the evaluation of free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis in the setting of trauma. In this case, the right upper quadrant ultrasound was negative for both free fluid and a right kidney, even with appropriate repositioning techniques.7 The absence of the right kidney on ultrasound in the setting of pain prompted the decision for further diagnostic imaging, which revealed an ectopic right kidney. The absence of a kidney on FAST exam should prompt the clinician to consider surgical (eg, nephrectomy or congenital (eg, renal ectopy explanations. Furthermore, pathophysiologic processes (eg, pyelonephritis

  8. Management of faba bean gall in faba bean producing area of Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Nigir Hailemariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean new disease (faba bean gall (Olpidium viciae (Kusano is the most destructive disease of faba bean ((Vicia faba L. in Ethiopia, particularly in Amhara, Tigray and some part of Oromia region. This problem needs immediate sound management strategy to maximize faba bean productivity. A field study was carried out in Geregera and Jama during the 2013 and 2014 main crop season and Maybar watershed in 2014 to verify the fungicide to faba bean gall. The objective of this study was evaluating effective fungicides for the management of faba bean new disease. The treatments were baylaton in the form of seed dressing and foliar spray; mancozeb, redomil, chlorotalonin and cruzet in the form of foliar spray and apron star and theram used as a foliar spray and also untreated check used as a comparison. The result showed that significantly differ between treatments (p

  9. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  11. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  13. Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Red Clover Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about red clover—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  14. Allelic relationships of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite and the proposal of a new anthracnose resistance gene, Co-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic resistance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite to races 8 and 64 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of bean anthracnose, was characterized. Crosses were made between Michelite and Mexico 222 cultivars and the F2 population was inoculated with race 64 in order to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in Michelite. The segregation of F2 population fitted in a ratio of 3R:1S, showing the presence of a dominant gene in Michelite gene conditioning resistance to race 64. Allelism tests were conducted with F2 populations derived from crosses between Michelite and AB 136, AND 277, BAT 93, Cornell 49-242, G 2333, Kaboon, Mexico 222, Michigan Dark Red Kidney (MRDK, Ouro Negro, Perry Marrow, PI 207262, TO, TU, and Widusa. All the cultivars (except Mexico 222 were resistant to race 64. While F2 derived from the Michelite x Mexico 222 was inoculated with race 8. Additionally, allelism tests indicated that the gene present in Michelite is independent from Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-7, Co-9 and Co-10 genes. The monogenic inheritance observed in Michelite and the independence of this gene from those previously characterized allow the authors to propose that the anthracnose resistant gene in Michelite should be named Co-11.

  15. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  16. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E; Rao, Idupulapati M; Blair, Matthew W; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  17. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000726.htm Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes To use the sharing ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  18. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Oliveira Batista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In breeding programs, understanding the potential of parents should be a way to spend significantly less time and costs to obtain new cultivars. For this, the objective of this study was to estimate the general and specific combining ability of parents aiming common bean breeding for resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW based on disease severity and reduction in plant growth. Eight common bean genotypes were crossed in a 3 x 5 partial diallel mating scheme to obtain F1 hybrids. The parents and their 15 F1 hybrids were evaluated for severity of Fusarium wilt, area under the disease progress curve, percentage of plant height reduction and plant shoot fresh weight reduction and grain yield. The resistance of common bean to FW is controlled by a few dominant genes. The reduction in plant growth is controlled by a different set of genes that can increase the selection efficiency of parents for common bean breeding.

  19. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print A ... pressure at a healthy level. continue Kinds of Kidney Diseases Like any complicated machine, not all kidneys work ...

  20. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ... Learn about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage ...

  1. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Oliveira Batista; Oliveira, Ana Maria Cruz e; Johnn Lennon Oliveira Silva; Alessandro Nicoli; Pedro Crescêncio Sousa Carneiro; José Eustáquio de Sousa Carneiro; Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior; Marisa Vieira de Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In breeding programs, understanding the potential of parents should be a way to spend significantly less time and costs to obtain new cultivars. For this, the objective of this study was to estimate the general and specific combining ability of parents aiming common bean breeding for resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) based on disease severity and reduction in plant growth. Eight common bean genotypes were crossed in a 3 x 5 partial diallel mating scheme to obtain F1 hybrids. The paren...

  2. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  3. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney School for: ¿Hablas Español? Haga clic aquí. Introduction View Online Download English Español Listen Printing multiple ... Listen Printing multiple copies? Read our licensing agreement Nutrition and Fluids for People on Dialysis People on ...

  4. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  5. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  6. Residual phosphate fertilization and Azospirillum brasilense in the common bean in succession to maize intercropped with Marandu grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Dickmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the alternatives for achieving sustainable agriculture and a reduction in production costs, especially with phosphate fertilisers, is to inoculate seeds with bacteria of the genus Azospirillum. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate residual phosphate fertilisation and Azospirillum brasilense, together with the contribution of straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass, on leaf nutritional content, yield components and winter bean yield. The experiment was carried out on the Teaching and Research Farm, of the School of Engineering at UNESP, located in Selvíria in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in a typic clayey dystrophic Red Latosol. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with four replications in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of beans sown on straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass on areas that had received five levels of P2O5 in the form of MAP, applied during an initial cultivation of black oats (0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 kg ha-1, both with and without inoculation of the oat and maize which preceded the beans with Azospirillum brasilense. Leaf nutrient content, leaf chlorophyll index (ICF, yield components and bean productivity were all evaluated. Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense of the black oat and maize seeds improved the nutritional status of the plants, but had a negative effect on grain yield. Fertilisation of the oat crop with phosphorus had a positive residual effect on the beans, with increases in yield components and grain yield.

  7. Phytogeographical origin of Madeiran common beans based on phaseolin patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emanuel Marques da Silva; Anísia Soraia Abreu Correia; Nuno Alexandre Amaral Lopes; Humberto Gil Moreira Nóbrega; José Filipe Teixeira Ganança; Ana Maria Domingues; Manhaz Khadem; Jan Jacek Slaski; Miguel Ângelo Almeida Pinheiro de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    ... electrophoresis system, based on lab-on-a-chip technology. Five common bean standard varieties with typical phaseolin patterns were used to determine the phytogeographical origin of the Madeiran common bean accessions...

  8. Natural incidence of bean viruses in the northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Rastgou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bean is considered as one of the most important legumes around the world. Viral diseases are a major yield reducing factor in bean production. Bean samples with virus-like symptoms like severe or mild mosaic, vein banding, leaf curling, blistering and necrosis were collected from different bean fields in Urmia (Northwest of Iran during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. Mixed infection of BCMV and BCMNV were found. BCMNV was the most frequent virus in this region whereas BYMV and TYLCV were each detected just in one sample. This is the first report of BCMNV, BCMV, BYMV, TSWV, TMV and TYLCV incidence on bean in Urmia, Iran.

  9. Performance of climber common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    pathogen co-adaptation in Malawi. Proceed- ings of Bean/Cowpea CRSP Eastern African Regionalisation. Workshop, Lilongwe, p. 7. Mloza Banda HR, Ferguson AE, Mkandawire ABC (2003). The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

  10. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  11. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  12. Potency of Traditional Insecticide Materials against Stored Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus is a major insect pest of stored common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris an important source of plant protein in many parts of the world, Tanzania inclusive. In rural Tanzania, most smallholder farmers apply traditional insecticide materials in the protection of bean from insect pests.

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Dryer for Processed Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying of fresh fermented locust beans condiments is highly important in marketing strategy. Performance test of the dryer for processed locust beans condiments (Iru) was carried out using an instrumented dryer designed and developed, this was used to dry two varieties of fermented locust beans (Iru Woro of initial ...

  14. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  15. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  16. Bacteriological Contamination of Soya Bean Flour Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soya bean (Glycine max) is a leguminous crop that is used as a staple food worldwide. The raw harvest is processed into various food forms like soya bean flour and processing methods increase the chances of bacterial contamination. This research work assessed the bacteria contamination of soya bean flour sold in and ...

  17. susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in uganda abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Internaciaonal de Agricultura Tropical, Cali,. Colombia. 40pp. Shade, R.E., Pratt, R.C. and Pomeroy, M.A. 1987. Development and mortality of the bean weevil,. Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on mature seeds of tepary beans,. Phaseolus acutifolius and common beans,. Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental.

  18. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  19. Inheritance of halo blight resistance in common bean | Chataika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halo blight caused by (Pseudomonas syringe pv. phaseolicola (Burkh) (Psp)) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) world-wide. Several races of the Psp exist and likewise some sources of resistance in common bean have been identified. CAL 143, is a CIAT-bred common bean line, which was ...

  20. Comparative evaluation of raw and urea/toasted velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trials lasting 28 days were conducted to investigate the nutritive value of raw and urea treated/toasted mucuna bean for broiler chicks. Raw mucuna bean contains 30.33% crude protein, 7.20% crude fibre, 6.9% ether extract and 5.0% ash. Mucuna bean seeds were divided into two batches. One batch was ground ...

  1. Development and use of microsatellite markers in Marama bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    the main focus for potential to be used in Marama bean genetic diversity studies. Microsatellite loci were isolated from the Marama bean germplasm using a modified FIASCO enrichment technique. Nine Marama bean microsatellite libraries, enriched for (AAG)7, (GTT)7, (AGG)7, (GAG)7, (CA)10, (CT)10, (TCC)7, (CA)15 and.

  2. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  3. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-01-01

    Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25...

  4. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  5. Kidney Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is Kidney Cancer in Children? Kidney (renal) tumors are very rare in children. Still, the three most common renal tumors ... treatable and curable. What are the Types of Kidney Cancer in Children? Male urinary tract Medical Illustration ...

  6. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  7. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease Tests & Diagnosis How can I tell if I have kidney disease? Early kidney disease usually doesn’t have any ...

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and ... people don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are ...

  9. The use of whole faba beans in emulsion gel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an economical protein source used in food and feed worldwide. It has high protein content and well-balanced amino acid composition. Since the starch fraction of faba beans causes problems in protein gelation, it hinders the use of whole faba beans for tofu production. Due to economical, ecological and nutritional reasons, it is worthwhile to develop a new way for producing whole faba bean tofu without discarding any part of faba beans. The aim of this thesis w...

  10. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  11. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose [Estacao Experimental de Agronomia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Centro de Acao Regional; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social e Bioestatistica

    2003-03-01

    Nitrogen ({sup 15}N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha{sup -1} of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with {sup 15}N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  12. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  13. Red Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AskMayoExpert. Conjunctivitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/red-eye/basics/definition/SYM-20050748 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  14. Red Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  15. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...... for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono...

  16. Kidneys and How They Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English English Español Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery ... Kidney Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Your ...

  17. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  18. 1 CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF WINGED BEANS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP30

    useful information on the possible uses of these under exploited food items for human consumption, food industry and other technological uses. The objectives of this study, therefore, are to determine the proximate, mineral and sugar composition of winged beans, pitanga cherries and orchid fruit, and the physico- chemical ...

  19. Forage potential of American potato bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    American potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing perennial leguminous vine that is native to the eastern half of the United States. In the wild, the plant prefers moist soils near bodies of water and full sunlight for at least part of the day. It grows well in waterlogged, acidi...

  20. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEAN WEEVIL (Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and 13.1mg of iron respectively; indication that insects are rich sources of Fe. Like other insects weevils are good sources of calcium, occasioned by their possession of exoskeleton which is composed of calcium (Ebong, 1993). (d). Table III reports the level of toxicants in bean weevil. The milligram per 100g dry matter of the.

  2. Release of "Bella" white bean cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Bella" Reg. No. GP-___, PI ______) is a multiple disease resistant white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar, adapted to the humid tropics that was developed and released cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. The breeding objective was to...

  3. Nutraceutical perspectives and utilization of common beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common beans contain a variety of phytochemicals such as polyphenolic compounds, alkaloids, fibre, saponins, steroids, lectins and terpenoids among others. These phytochemicals are believed to offer protective functions and physiological effects in the body. The nutraceutical properties that have been described for ...

  4. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  5. morphological diversity of tropical common bean germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Plant samples and study location. The materials used in this study were 284 bean accessions, including 15 lines from Colombia, one line from. Rwanda and 268 landraces, currently maintained at the National Crops Resources Research. Institute (NaCRRI) at Namulonge, Uganda (data not shown). Seven of the accessions ...

  6. biological nitrogen fixation by inoculated soya beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) by soya beans (Glycine max) was estimated using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) for varieties Davis, Kudu, Impala, Hardee, Geduld, and an unidentified variety, grown in pure and mixed cultures with maize (Zea mays) over two seasons. All varieties had higher levels of BNF when ...

  7. FUNGI OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN. SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blotter, ragdoll and agar plate methods in detecting seed-borne fungi of African yam bean,. Sphenoxtylis stenocaapa (Hochst ex. ... Murropluunina pliaseolina and Penicillin/n spp. were recorded more in the agar plate method than in the other fungi .... transferred to the deep-freezer (-20°C) for "24 hours“ only and incubated ...

  8. Breeding for bean anthracnose resistance: Matching breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 365 new bean lines were generated and 54 of these were introduced to 10 farming communities in four different ecological zones for evaluation using the participatory variety selection approach. Farmers were able to select eight promising lines, which were earmarked for new variety release. Out of the eight lines, ...

  9. Mung bean: technological and nutritional potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, P K; Linnemann, A R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Khetarpaul, N; Grewal, R B; Nout, M J R

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop's potential as food and to set research priorities. Results show that mung bean is a rich source of protein (14.6-33.0 g/100 g) and iron (5.9-7.6 mg/100 g). Grain color is correlated with compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids, while grain hardness is associated with fiber content. Physical properties like grain dimensions, sphericity, porosity, bulk, and true density are related to moisture content. Anti-nutrients are phytic acid, tannins, hemagglutinins, and polyphenols. Reported nutrient contents vary greatly, the causes of which are not well understood. Grain size and color have been associated with different regions and were used by plant breeders for selection purposes. Analytical methods require more accuracy and precision to distinguish biological variation from analytical variation. Research on nutrient digestibility, food processing properties, and bioavailability is needed. Furthermore, the effects of storage and processing on nutrients and food processing properties are required to enable optimization of processing steps, for better mung bean food quality and process efficiency.

  10. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  11. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  12. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design ... cloning with the aim of imparting pest resistance to plants. (Omitogun, et al. ..... The effects of M. incognita infection on growth parameters of 12 African yam bean accessions, S. stenocarpa, in a screen house experiment. Accession. Health.

  13. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  14. Determination of synthetic dyes in bean and meat products by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ding, Xiaoming; Zheng, Jiaxin; Liu, Dandan; Guo, Fei; Liu, Hongmin; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive and efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight synthetic dyes (Chrysoidin, Auramine O, Sudan(I-IV), Para Red, and Rhodamine B) in bean and meat products using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. A simple extraction procedure using acetonitrile has been applied for the extraction of these dyes from spiked bean and meat samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XTerra C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 5 μm) with a multistep gradient elution. Detection and quantification were performed using mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linear calibrations were obtained with correlation coefficients R(2) > 0.99. The limits of detection and quantification for the eight dyes were in the ranges of 0.03-0.75 and 0.1-2.0 μg/kg depending on matrices, respectively. The recoveries of these dyes in different food matrices were between 71.2 and 116.9% with relative standard deviations dyes at trace levels in bean and meat products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  16. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Architecture of Flooding Tolerance in the Dry Bean Middle-American Diversity Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a devastating abiotic stress that endangers crop production in the twenty-first century. Because of the severe susceptibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to flooding, an understanding of the genetic architecture and physiological responses of this crop will set the stage for further improvement. However, challenging phenotyping methods hinder a large-scale genetic study of flooding tolerance in common bean and other economically important crops. A greenhouse phenotyping protocol was developed to evaluate the flooding conditions at early stages. The Middle-American diversity panel (n = 272 of common bean was developed to capture most of the diversity exits in North American germplasm. This panel was evaluated for seven traits under both flooded and non-flooded conditions at two early developmental stages. A subset of contrasting genotypes was further evaluated in the field to assess the relationship between greenhouse and field data under flooding condition. A genome-wide association study using ~150 K SNPs was performed to discover genomic regions associated with multiple physiological responses. The results indicate a significant strong correlation (r > 0.77 between greenhouse and field data, highlighting the reliability of greenhouse phenotyping method. Black and small red beans were the least affected by excess water at germination stage. At the seedling stage, pinto and great northern genotypes were the most tolerant. Root weight reduction due to flooding was greatest in pink and small red cultivars. Flooding reduced the chlorophyll content to the greatest extent in the navy bean cultivars compared with other market classes. Races of Durango/Jalisco and Mesoamerica were separated by both genotypic and phenotypic data indicating the potential effect of eco-geographical variations. Furthermore, several loci were identified that potentially represent the antagonistic pleiotropy. The GWAS analysis revealed peaks at Pv08

  18. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound...

  19. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  20. Robotic assisted kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end stage renal disease. While open surgery remains the gold standard, minimally invasive surgery has recently been introduced for the recipient undergoing kidney transplantation. We review the evolution of techniques of minimally invasive surgery for kidney transplantation with specific emphasis on technical aspects of robotic assisted kidney transplantation.

  1. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  2. Mathematical models to describe the volumetric shrinkage rate of red beans during drying Modelos matemáticos para descrever a taxa de contração volumétrica de feijão-vermelho durante a secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the volumetric shrinkage rate of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds during air-drying under different conditions of air, temperature and relative humidity, and to adjust several mathematical models to the empiric values observed, and select the one that best represents the phenomenon. Six mathematical models were adjusted to the experimental values to represent the phenomenon. It was determined the degree of adjustment of each model from the value of the coefficient of determination, the behavior of the distribution of the residuals, and the magnitude of the average relative and estimated errors. The rate of volumetric shrinkage that occurred in bean seeds during drying is between 25 and 37%. It basically depends on the final moisture content, regardless of the air conditions during drying. The Modified Bala & Woods' model best represented the process.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a taxa de contração volumétrica de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. durante a secagem sob diferentes condições de ar, temperatura e umidade relativa, e ajustar vários modelos matemáticos para os valores empíricos observados, selecionando o que melhor representa este fenômeno. Foram ajustados seis modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais para representar o fenômeno. Determinou-se o grau de ajuste de cada modelo através dos valores de coeficiente de determinação, do comportamento da distribuição dos resíduos e da magnitude dos erros médios relativos e estimados. A taxa de contração volumétrica que as sementes de feijão sofreram durante a secagem é em torno de 25 a 37%, e é basicamente em função do teor de água final e praticamente independente das condições do ar de secagem. O modelo de Bala e Woods modificado foi o que melhor representou o processo.

  3. Photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in castor bean under conditions of above the optimal temperature and high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola França Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean plant, a Euphorbiaceae oil seed C3-metabolism rustic and drought-resistant plant, is cultivated in a wide range of environments due to its good adaptive capacity. However, given the current environmental changes, many biochemical and physiological impacts may affect the productivity of important crops, such as castor bean. This work aimed to evaluate the impacts of the castor bean gas exchange in response to high temperature and increased CO2concentration.Our experiment was conducted in a phytotron located at Embrapa Algodão in 2010. We adopted a completely randomized design, with four treatments in a factorial combination of two temperatures (30/20 and 37/30°C and two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol L-1; four replications were performed, obtained in five surveys over the growth cycle, for a total of 80 sample units. An infrared gas analyzer (IRGA - Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used for the quantification of the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration. An increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature negatively affected the physiology of the castor bean plants, decreasing the net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  4. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  5. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  6. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  7. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  8. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  10. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  11. Subunit heterogeneity in the lima bean lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D D; Etzler, M E; Goldstein, I J

    1982-08-10

    Three forms of lectin (components I, II, and III) from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) have been purified on an affinity support containing the synthetic type A blood group trisaccharide alpha-D-GalNAc-(1 leads to 3)-[alpha-L-Fuc-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-Gal-(1 leads to). Conversion of components I and II to component III has been achieved by reduction in 10(-2) M dithiothreitol. Isoelectric focusing of lima bean lectin in the presence of 8 M urea and beta-mercaptoethanol revealed charge heterogeneity of the lectin subunits. Three major subunit classes of apparent pI 7.05, 6.65, and 6.45, designated alpha, beta, and alpha', respectively, were identified; they occur in a relative abundance of 2:5:3. Green lima beans harvested before maturity lacked the alpha' subunit (pI 6.45) which appears to accumulate during seed maturation. The three subunits are glycoproteins of identical size and immunochemical reactivity. Identical NH2-terminal sequences were found for the three subunits. Amino acid analysis and tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the observed charge heterogeneity is probably due to differences in the primary structure of the subunits. Studies of subunit composition of charge isolectins provided evidence of nonrandom subunit assembly. A model is proposed involving pairing of a pI 6.65 subunit with either a pI 7.06 or 6.45 subunit to form dimeric units. Possible roles for subunit heterogeneity and ordered subunit assembly in determining the metal and sugar binding properties of lima bean lectin are discussed.

  12. Tolerance of dry bean cultivars to saflufenacil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Diesel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The herbicide saflufenacil is a Protox inhibitor, with differential translocation mode in comparison to other herbicides with the same mechanism of action. Selectivity, efficacy and safety to the environment are important characteristics for practical application of a herbicide in agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the tolerance of ten dry bean cultivars to saflufenacil, applied on preemergence. The experiment was conducted in split plot randomized blocks design with ten dry bean cultivars (IAPAR 81; IPR Tiziu, IPR Corujinha; BRS Estilo; BRS Talismã; BRS Esplendor; BRS Campeiro; BRS Radiante, BRS Vereda and Jalo Precoce allocated in plots and saflufenacil concentrations (0, 14.7 and 29.4 g ha- 1 in subplots. Evaluations were performed at 21 and 28 days after application (DAA and plant height at 28 and 35 DAA. At physiological maturity were evaluated plant height, first pod height , number of pods per plant, 400 grains weight and dry beans grain yield. The cultivar Talismã showed low sensitivity to the herbicide and the cultivar Jalo Precoce high sensitivity to the herbicide, considering all variables analyzed.

  13. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  14. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  15. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  16. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Drajat, Bambang; Agustian, Adang; Supriatna, Ade

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in International markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  17. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  18. A modified elliptical formula to estimate kidney collagen content in a model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jake A; Zhu, Janice; Duan, Bin; Li, Jingsong; Zhou, Ping; Paka, Latha; Yamin, Michael A; Goldberg, Itzhak D; Narayan, Prakash

    2018-01-01

    The extent of scarring or renal interstitial collagen deposition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can only be ascertained by highly invasive, painful and sometimes risky, tissue biopsy. Interestingly, while CKD-related abnormalities in kidney size can often be visualized using ultrasound, not only does the ellipsoid formula used today underestimate true renal size, but the calculated renal size does not inform tubulointerstitial collagen content. We used coronal kidney sections from healthy mice and mice with kidney disease to develop a new formula for estimating renal parenchymal area. While treating the kidney as an ellipse with the major axis (a) the polar distance, this technique involves extending the minor axis (b) into the renal pelvis to obtain a new minor axis, be. The calculated renal parenchymal area is remarkably similar to the true or measured area. Biochemically determined kidney collagen content revealed a strong and positive correlation with the calculated renal parenchymal area. Picrosirius red staining for tubulointerstitial collagen also correlated with calculated renal parenchymal area. The extent of renal scarring, i.e. kidney interstitial collagen content, can now be computed by making just two axial measurements which can easily be accomplished via noninvasive imaging of this organ.

  19. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  20. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Albuminuria: Albumin in the Urine Managing CKD Eating Right ... better. Having albumin in the urine is called albuminuria . A healthy kidney doesn’t let albumin pass ...

  1. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Pregnancy and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email A new baby is ... disease and pregnancy. Can a woman with "mild" kidney disease have a baby? That depends. There is good ...

  2. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating ...

  3. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Guide Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Print Email Diabetes mellitus, usually called diabetes, ... Asian Americans. What does diabetes do to the kidneys? With diabetes, the small blood vessels in the ...

  5. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a kidney health educator Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuining education Clinical trials Advocacy Advocate ... Become a kidney health educator Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Current CSN Fellow Previous CSN award recipients ...

  6. Tests for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Kidney Health Coach Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuining education Clinical trials Research Advocacy ... Become a Kidney Health Coach Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Current CSN Fellow Previous CSN award recipients ...

  7. National Kidney Foundation Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Foundation - 04/10/2017 National University of Malaysia Researcher Honored by National Kidney Foundation - 04/10/ ... Organizations”, a special report in The New England Journal of Medicine - 03/01/2017 Industry News New ...

  8. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  9. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  10. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  11. The Western Diet and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality.

  12. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen tree, with lesser quantities of seed coat and germ. (b) The...(o)(28) of this chapter. Beverages and beverage bases, nonalcoholic, § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter...

  14. agronomic qualities of genetic pyramids of common bean developed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... (BCMNV); and Pythium ultimum (P.ult) root rots were combined into the same genotype at CIAT, a process referred to as pyramiding. Common bean genetic pyramids could, therefore, offer long-term strategies for managing major common bean diseases. However, in the process of developing pyramids ...

  15. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  16. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  17. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  18. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  19. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  20. Economics of oil bean ( Pentaclethra macrophylla ), seed marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the economics of oil bean marketing in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo state. Forty- five marketers oil bean marketers were randomly selected from three markets of the study area. Primary data were collected using structural questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as ...

  1. Variability within the common bean phaseolus vulgaris germ plasm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bean production in Uganda is characterized by ... characterization of the available germ plasm form the discussion basis of this paper. ... was geographical origin, local variety name, seed colour the diversity noted within the present bean collection is a and size. By 1984 a total of204 landraces were collected, reflection of ...

  2. Effects of Fermented Soya Bean Supplements on Serum Insulin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Fermented Soya Bean Supplements on Serum Insulin and Leptin Levels of High Fat Diet-induced Type 2 ... Fermented Soya Bean and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rabbits. J. Afr. Ass. Physiol. Sci. 5 (2): December, 2017 .... Effect of soy and milk whey protein isolates and their hydrolysates on weight reduction in.

  3. Advances in the improvement of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change, high temperature and drought are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically the production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), native to the Sonora desert located in the northern part of Mexico and southwest o...

  4. Canning Quality Evaluation of Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed the optimum hydration coefficient value of 1.8 for all common bean varieties. Visual appearances, splits, degree of clumping, starchiness, flavor and taste and seed size were also determined through a visual rating procedure as canning quality traits. Awash Melka and Awash-1 bean varieties revealed a ...

  5. Effect of soya bean diet preparations on some haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats ...

  6. Determination of ochratoxin A levels in ivorian cocoa beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to monitor levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in terms of the marketability of Ivorian cocoa beans stored at the ports of Abidjan and San Pedro. Thus, 270 samples of cocoa beans were analyzed. Merchantability and OTA levels were determined respectively according to the Ivorian Coffee and Cocoa ...

  7. Epicatechin content and antioxidant capacity of cocoa beans from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural antioxidant has received more attention to be part of daily diet. Cocoa beans is one of the main sources of polyphenols especially epicatechin. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between antioxidant potential and epicatechin content of raw cocoa beans from different countries, namely Malaysia, ...

  8. Susceptibility of South African dry bean cultivars to bacterial diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry beans are an important crop in South Africa with the annual bean consumption being approximately 120 000 t. The crop is annually subjected to a number of biotic constraints such as bacterial diseases that can cause serious yield losses especially when the climate is conducive to diseases. The use of resistant ...

  9. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column

  10. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  11. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was followed by tryptamine (TAM), TRP and IAA. The results of Trichoderma harzianum inoculation in greenhouse tests showed variability in Flor de Mayo beans seedlings in response to physiological level and production parameters. The effect of Trichoderma in Flor de Mayo common bean showed that strain 802 had a ...

  12. Aluminium Tolerance of Four Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties ('Rosecoco'– GLP 2, 'Mwitemania'– GLP X 92, 'Mwezi Moja' – GLP 1004, and French bean – 'Amy') locally obtained from seed merchants in Kenya were investigated for their aluminium tolerance under two techniques of screening, namely root elongation and staining.

  13. 8566 assessment of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern. Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical,.

  14. Determinants of haricot bean market participation in Misrak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at analyzing commodity level determinants of output side market participation of haricot bean based on cross sectional primary data collected from 123 randomly selected haricot bean producers sample households in six kebeles in Misrak Badawacho District, Hadiya Zone, Southern Nations Nationalities ...

  15. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris has a great variability regarding the tolerance to salinity. In this work, we used fluridone as a tool to study the herbicide's effect on two salt stressed bean genotypes since fluridone alters photosynthetic pigments and blocks normal abscisic acid biosynthesis under salinity. Plants from two bean genotypes ...

  16. Interaction between faba bean cultivars and the Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of eight Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from root nodules of Faba bean plants which were collected from different Governorate in Egypt has been examined. After inoculation of faba bean seeds with each Rhizobium strain individually, we measured the growth promotion, nodule formation and plant ...

  17. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Rhizobium. INTRODUCTION. In Senegal, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) needs to be inoculated with elite Rhizobium strains in the growing area called Niayes zone (Diouf et al., 1999). Usually, seeds of common bean supplied to farmers are often treated with fungicide to prevent losses due to seed- borne pathogens.

  18. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  19. Small Scale Farmers' Knowledge on Grain Losses from Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss causes shortage, food insecurity, high prices and reduced intake; denying farmers' s access and affordability. In this study, 53.9% of ... Since beans are next to meat in food security and nutrition ... understanding while they cannot produce bush beans while in Huye District ( about 1700 masl) produce them. Likewise, the ...

  20. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  1. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree

  2. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Faba Bean ( Vicia faba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some species of rhizobial bacteria nodulating faba bean are characterized by phosphate solubilization. In order to study their in vitro and symbiotic characteristics, twelve rhizobial isolates nodulating faba bean were collected from acidic soil of Wollega, Ethiopia. Solubilization index of the isolates ranges from 1.25 to 2.10.

  3. Formulation of a complementary food fortified with broad beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty percent of mothers did not provide bean-based food for their children, with the most frequently reported reason being lack of knowledge of its nutrient value for young children. To a typical complementary food of barley-maize porridge, 10, 20 and 30% of cereal was replaced by processed broad beans (Vicia faba), ...

  4. Susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in Uganda | Ebinu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction in seed germination was related to the number of emergence holes and seed size; small bean seeds damaged by up to 2 bruchid emergence holes had a 7.1% reduction in germination, while large bean seeds with a similar number of emergence holes showed a 25% reduction in germination. Whereas this study ...

  5. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. 2Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical ... second only to maize as a food crop (Gethi et al., 1997). Despite its importance, bean ...... replacement of local common bean mixtures by high yielding angular leaf spot ...

  6. Time of haricot bean intercropping into the maize- based cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both years, highest total land equivalent ratio (LERt) values were obtained when planting of maize and haricot bean was done at the same time followed by planting of haricot bean 15 days after maize was planted indicating the advantages of intercropping over the sole planting. Partial LERm was always higher than ...

  7. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  8. Faba beans in diets for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of using the new faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar Kontu as a domestic protein source for growing-finishing pigs.In Experiment 1,120 pigs were used with a body weight (BWof 25–110 kg to study the effects of replacing 0, 25, 50, 75,and 100%of rapeseed meal with faba beans in barley +rapeseed meal based diets. Restrictedly fed grower and finisher diets contained 137–317 and 114–260 g kg–1 faba beans, respectively. A barley +soya bean meal based diet was included as a control. The replacement of rapeseed meal with faba beans exerted a quadratic effect on daily weight gain and on the feed conversion ratio of pigs in the growing period and during total fattening (P

  9. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase 2® is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread. Methods An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests to the white bread control. Results For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023 Conclusion Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345

  11. Effects of faba bean and faba bean hulls on expression of selected genes in the small intestine of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Baal, van J.; Meulen, van der J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) study in pigs, effects were studied of intestinal perfusion of ground faba beans (Vicia faba), faba bean hulls, or saline on intestinal net fluid absorption in intestinal segments either challenged or not with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

  12. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  13. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  14. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  15. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  16. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  17. Crushing of roasted Arabica coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with experimental research on the crushing of coffee beans of different kinds under quasi-static compression. The process of the crushing is described in details. It has been shown that there is variability in the crushing strength values. A relation between crushing strength and the coffee grain shape is also studied. Roasted Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica beans were used for analyses. Arabica coffees were produced in Colombia and Indonesia. Abbreviation in the square brackets indicates the coffee type and it is used in the text hereinafter. All Arabica samples were submitted to a light roast. The detail analysis of the experimental data shows that there is no significant relation between parameters describing the fracture behaviour of the grains and grain geometry. These parameters are also independent on the grain weight. Compression of the coffee grains leads to their crushing. The fracture force is different for the different kinds of the coffee. The same is fact valid also for the strain at the fracture and for the energy absorbed during the grain crushing. The obtained results suggest that the fracture parameters obtained at the compression loading are dependent only on the coffee brand and on the roasting conditions.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Croatian Common Bean Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudija Carović-Stanko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the majority of the common bean production is based on local landraces, grown by small-scale farmers in low input production systems. Landraces are adapted to the specific growing conditions and agro-environments and show a great morphological diversity. These local landraces are in danger of genetic erosion caused by complex socio-economic changes in rural communities. The low profitability of farms and their small size, the advanced age of farmers and the replacement of traditional landraces with modern bean cultivars and/or other more profitable crops have been identified as the major factors affecting genetic erosion. Three hundred accessions belonging to most widely used landraces were evaluated by phaseolin genotyping and microsatellite marker analysis. A total of 183 different multi-locus genotypes in the panel of 300 accessions were revealed using 26 microsatellite markers. Out of 183 accessions, 27.32% were of Mesoamerican origin, 68.31% of Andean, while 4.37% of accessions represented putative hybrids between gene pools. Accessions of Andean origin were further classified into phaseolin type II (“H” or “C” and III (“T”, the latter being more frequent. A model-based cluster analysis based on microsatellite markers revealed the presence of three clusters in congruence with the results of phaseolin type analysis.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Croatian Common Bean Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Liber, Zlatko; Vidak, Monika; Barešić, Ana; Grdiša, Martina; Lazarević, Boris; Šatović, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    In Croatia, the majority of the common bean production is based on local landraces, grown by small-scale farmers in low input production systems. Landraces are adapted to the specific growing conditions and agro-environments and show a great morphological diversity. These local landraces are in danger of genetic erosion caused by complex socio-economic changes in rural communities. The low profitability of farms and their small size, the advanced age of farmers and the replacement of traditional landraces with modern bean cultivars and/or other more profitable crops have been identified as the major factors affecting genetic erosion. Three hundred accessions belonging to most widely used landraces were evaluated by phaseolin genotyping and microsatellite marker analysis. A total of 183 different multi-locus genotypes in the panel of 300 accessions were revealed using 26 microsatellite markers. Out of 183 accessions, 27.32% were of Mesoamerican origin, 68.31% of Andean, while 4.37% of accessions represented putative hybrids between gene pools. Accessions of Andean origin were further classified into phaseolin type II ("H" or "C") and III ("T"), the latter being more frequent. A model-based cluster analysis based on microsatellite markers revealed the presence of three clusters in congruence with the results of phaseolin type analysis.

  20. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  1. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  2. Seeing Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is an invasion, of sorts: a legion of vases, each about five feet high, made of porcelain. Floridly patterned and scarlet red, they are placed throughout the Yale Center for British Art (YCBA, on every floor, in the galleries, in the library court, on the stairs. The installation, Made in China, is by the artist Clare Twomey. Its effect is most improbable, with a surreal, larger-than-life quality. It is as if caterers were about to deliver a banquet for thousands of people; or a factory floor had been teleported into the galleries; or as if ceramics were finally being recognized as a dominant genre in British art.

  3. Remote sensing monitoring of bean crop cultivated in the Boi Branco watershed (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Silva, Natália; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Marchamalo Sacristán, Miguel; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the concern of the effect of climate change on water availability on a global scale is getting bigger and bigger. In average, about 65 % of the world water consumption is devoted to irrigated agriculture. In countries such as Brazil, water scarcity has been a main issue in populated areas (i.e. São Paulo) in the last two years. This has affected not only water availability for the population but also irrigation water to maintain crop yield and Brazilian economy. Remote sensing is a tool broadly used in multiple fields of science such as water management in irrigated agriculture. Actually, there are several satellites moving around the earth, and they take images of every place in a weekly or biweekly basis. The images can be downloaded from the internet site at no cost by the users. Then, they are used to determine the vegetation index NDVI which is based in the energy reflected in red and infrared spectrum and it depends on the vegetation photosynthetic activity. Within the above context, this study focus on remote sensing monitoring of a bean crop located in the basin of Boi Branco, São Paulo - Brazil, which is irrigated by pivot center. The images from the Landsat and Modis satellites were downloaded throughout the bean growing period and then, they were processed and analyzed with the Qgis software. In addition, soil moisture was measured by several TDR probe sensors deployed in the irrigated area, and the leaf area index was measured as well in the field. Both variables were used to estimate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for each bean phenology state.

  4. Preparation of bean curds from protein fractions of six legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, R; Klamczynska, B; Baik, B K

    2001-06-01

    Chickpeas, lentils, smooth peas, mung beans, and faba beans were milled into flours and fractionated to protein and starch fractions. Compositions of the seeds, cotyledons, and flours were compared for each legume and the weight and protein recovery of each fraction analyzed. Bean curds were prepared from the protein fractions through heat denaturation of protein milk, followed by coagulation with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate. The effect of chickpea protein concentration and coagulant dosage on the texture of bean curds was evaluated using a texture analyzer. Textural analysis indicated that curd prepared at 2.3-3.0% protein concentration and 1.5% CaSO(4) dosage had better yield and better texture than curds prepared under other conditions. Bean curds prepared from chickpeas and faba beans exhibited the second highest springiness and cohesiveness after those from soybeans. Curds of mung beans and smooth peas, on the other hand, had the highest yields and the highest moisture contents. The protein yield of the first and second soluble extracts used for curd preparation accounted for approximately 90% of the total protein of the seeds.

  5. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  6. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  7. Nutritional and bioactive compounds of adzuki beans cultivars using chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Kirie Gohara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Azuki beans are small red grains rich in several essential nutrients used in traditional dishes in Asia that, nowadays present many applications around the world. This work aimed at evaluating angularis and niponensis cultivars from south region of Brazil. Both cultivars presented proximal composition similar to literature and the majority fatty acids were 18:2n-6, 16:0 and 18:3n-3. All samples showed polyunsatured fatty acids prevalence and nutritional indices and ratios considered adequate for biological system maintenance of a healthy organism. The grains presented significant contents of tocopherols and vitamin E activity, resulting in a high contribution to the dietary reference intake. Significant contents of iron, manganese and zinc were also found in the azuki beans, and they are very important mainly due to their function as cofactors in metabolic reactions. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids corroborated with other studies and contributed to the antioxidant activity. The principal components multivariate analysis allowed distinguishing the cultivars, and the two principal components could explain 92.28% of data variance.

  8. Nanomedicines for kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan M; Jaimes, Edgar A; Heller, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Nanomedicines have been the subject of great interest for the treatment, diagnosis, and research of disease; however, few specifically address kidney disorders. Nanotechnology can confer significant benefits to medicine, such as the targeted delivery of drugs to specific tissues. Nanomedicines in the clinic have increased drug solubility, reduced off-target side effects, and provided novel diagnostic tools. There is an increasing cohort of nanomaterials that may have implications for kidney disease. Here, we review nanomaterial properties that are potentially applicable to kidney research and therapy, and we highlight clinical areas of need that may benefit from kidney nanomedicines. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Lieske, John C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rule, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown.

  10. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  11. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  12. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  13. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  14. Effect of alkali treatments on the nutritive value of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, V; Sumathi, S

    1995-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatments of common bean seeds with red seed coat on the stability of antinutritional factors such as tannins, phytates and trypsim inhibitors, vitamins such as niacin and riboflavin and on protein quality has been studied. The samples were processed by soaking and pressure cooking in alkalies such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. At low temperature sodium carbonate and at high temperature sodium bicarbonate were found to be most effective in the extraction of tannins. At both low and high temperatures sodium carbonate was found to be more efficient in destruction of phytates. In the case of trypsin inhibitors, extraction at both low and high temperatures with sodium bicarbonate was most effective. Sodium hydroxide treatment was found to be better as far as the retention of niacin and riboflavin was considered.

  15. Utility of adzuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utility of adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of mungbean and related Vigna spp. HK Dikshit, D Singh, Akanksha Singh, Neelu Jain, Jyoti Kumari, TR Sharma ...

  16. Development of intermittent drought stress tolerant common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of intermittent drought stress tolerant common bean genotypes in Uganda. ... yielding and drought-tolerant are crucial in coping with the effects of drought, ... Thus, these genotypes could be useful sources of genes for drought ...

  17. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  18. EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 ... -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field stud- ies. Further ..... tain medicinal plant oil products.

  19. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  20. agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    1998; 2005) using. Agrobacterium obtained transgenic plants in. Adzuki bean, Phaseolus acutifolius but not in P. vulgaris. ..... have been toxic to the tissues subsequently making regeneration of multiple buds difficult. Also strain EHA 105 though ...

  1. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... 06, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/legumes/art-20044278 . ...

  2. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm is important for the implementation of measures addressed to their utilizations and conservation. The objective of this study was to characterize common bean in Uganda using polymorphic molecular markers for ...

  3. Sensory Evaluation and Proximate Analysis of African Yam Bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , was produced from the African Yam Bean (AYB). The AYB moimoi was compared with cowpea and soybean moimoi by a panel of eight (8) judges. The samples were compared for taste, colour, aroma texture and overall acceptabilityv For ...

  4. characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2011 $ ... BROWN SPOT PATHOGEN FROM DRY BEAN. PRODUCTION AREAS OF SOUTH AFRICA. H.T.H. MUEDI, D. FOURIE and N.W. MCLAREN1. Agricultural Research Council - Grain Crops Institute, 114 Chris Hani Street, Potchefstroom,.

  5. (11) EFFECT OF POWDERED CASTOR BEAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, to determine the effects of powdered castor oil seed. (Ricinus communis L.Euphorbiaceae) on kidney, liver, spleen of albino rats. The rats were in five groups, which were replicated three (3) times. The castor oil seed was turned to powdery form using pestle and mortal.

  6. Characterization and effect of light on the plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase of bean leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, P. A.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Proton excretion from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf cells is increased by bright white light. To test whether this could be due, at least in part, to an increase in plasma membrane (PM) ATPase activity, PM vesicles were isolated from primary leaves by phase partitioning and used to characterize PM ATPase activity and changes in response to light. ATPase activity was characterized as magnesium ion dependent, vanadate sensitive, and slightly stimulated by potassium chloride. The pH optimum was 6.5, the Km was approximately 0.30 millimolar ATP, and the activity was about 60% latent. PM vesicles were prepared from leaves of plants grown for 11 days in dim red light (growing slowly) or grown for 10 days in dim red light and then transferred to bright white-light for 1 day (growing rapidly). For both light treatments, ATPase specific activity was approximately 600 to 700 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, and the latency, Km, and sensitivity to potassium chloride were also similar. PM vesicles from plants grown in complete darkness, however, exhibited a twofold greater specific activity. We conclude that the promotion of leaf growth and proton excretion by bright white light is not due to an increase in ATPase specific activity. Light does influence ATPase activity, however; both dim red light and bright white light decreased the ATPase specific activity by nearly 50% as compared with dark-grown leaves.

  7. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Small Text Medium Text Large Text Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease YESTERDAY Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) resulted ...

  9. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000135.htm Kidney stones - self-care To use the sharing features on ... you how to do this. What is a Kidney Stone? A kidney stone is a solid piece of ...

  10. Wound morbidity after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, M. Matthijs; Alberts, Victor P.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Idu, Mirza M.

    2015-01-01

    Wound morbidity is an important surgical complication after kidney transplant. To assess risk factors for postoperative wound complications and the impact of such complications on outcomes of kidney transplant. Retrospectively, 108 consecutive kidney transplant patients between January 2010 and

  11. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  12. Genetic control of potassium content of common bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nerison Luís Poersch; Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro; Daniele Piano Rosa; Micheli Thaise Della Flora Possobom

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate possible maternal effects on potassium content of common bean seeds, as well as to estimate the heritability and selection gains in early hybrid generations for this character and to evaluate the efficiency of genetic selection to improve the nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Crosses with four cultivars from the Mesoamerican gene pool yielded the reciprocal F1 and F2 generations and the backcrossed populations (BCP1 and BCP2...

  13. Preparation and characterization of soaps made from soya bean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work deals with the preparation of soaps from neem oil and soya bean oil blends and analyses the soap produced. The soaps were produced using cold process technique by varying the percentage of oils; (soya bean oil and neem oil) in the ratio of 100%, 90/10%, 80/20%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%, 40/60%, ...

  14. Isoamylase profile of mung bean seedlings treated with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of high temperatures and GA3 were evaluated in terms of amylase isozymes in four mung bean genotypes. Twenty four hours old seedlings of four mung bean genotypes (NM 19-19, NM 20-21, NM 121-123 and NCM 89) were exposed to lethal temperature (50°C), pretreated with 40°C prior to lethal temperature with ...

  15. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  16. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  17. [Extracorporeal kidney surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A

    1983-12-01

    A report is given on the correlation between 50 planned extracorporal kidney operations and the 20 operations actually performed. The reasons for this relation, indications for the operations and operative techniques are discussed. Extracorporal kidney surgery is relatively seldom necessary with strict indication.

  18. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter medicines. How can I cope with the stress of managing my diabetes? Managing diabetes isn’t always easy. Feeling stressed, ... Learn more about healthy ways to cope with stress . Does diabetic kidney disease get worse over time? Kidney damage from diabetes can get worse over time. However, you can ...

  19. Diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity...... of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes...... controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30...

  20. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  1. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Nosworthy, Matthew G.; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A study to determine the protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the pro...

  2. [Chronic kidney disease in the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gutiérrez, José María; Slon Roblero, María Fernanda; Castaño Bilbao, Itziar; Izquierdo Bautista, Diana; Arteaga Coloma, Jesús; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is widely prevalent worldwide, with a special impact on elderly population. Around half of people aged over 75 meet diagnostic criteria for CKD according to the recent 'Kidney disease improving global outcomes' (KDIGO) 2012 clinical practice guideline on the evaluation and management of CKD. However, geriatric patients have characteristics that may not be addressed by general guidelines. Therefore, it is important to know the natural history of the disease, symptoms, and 'red-flags' that could help in the management of these patients. In this review, a complete approach is presented on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CKD in the geriatric population. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  4. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark coloredThe optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1 fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2 25 - 32 days after Ao, and (3 33 - 38 days after Ao.Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1 9 - 11 days after Ao, (2 12 - 22 days after Ao, (3 23 - 30 days after Ao, and (4 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

  5. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  6. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  7. Melatonin and serotonin profiles in beans of Coffea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Giridhar, Parvatam; Sankar, Kadimi Udaya; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2012-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) methods were applied to quantify the profiles of melatonin and serotonin (5-HT) in green and roasted beans of Coffea canephora (robusta) and Coffea arabica (arabica). Both melatonin and 5-HT were detected in green coffee beans (5.8±0.8μg/g dry weight (DW), 10.5±0.6μg/g DW) and also in roasted beans of C. canephora (8.0±0.9μg/g DW, 7.3±0.5μg/g DW). Melatonin (3.0±0.6μg/50mL) and 5-HT (4.0±0.7μg/50mL) were detected in coffee brew. In C. arabica, 5-HT was high in green beans (12.5±0.8μg/g DW) compared with roasted beans (8.7±0.4). The levels of melatonin were higher (9.6±0.8μg/g DW) in roasted beans compared with green beans (6.8±0.4μg/g DW). Both melatonin (3.9±0.2μg/50mL) and 5-HT (7.3±0.6μg/50mL) were detected in coffee brew. Because of the relevance of indoleamines as bioactive molecules with implications for food, nutritional sciences and human health, it was of interest to explore their levels in coffee, an important universal beverage. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Schistosomus Reflexus Causing Dystocia in a Red Sokoto Doe: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dystocia was observed in a primiparous one year old Red Sokoto doe (RSD) and was relieved manually, the fetus was observed to be monstrous and gross pathological examination showed cleft sternum, scoliosis, abdominal and thoracic evisceration, absence of diaphragm, pulmonary hypoplasia, malpositioned kidney ...

  9. Effect of autoclaving of sprouted Kidney beans and finger millet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N AgNO3 acidified with 1 ml HNO3. The amount of cyanide in the samples was determined by back titration with 0.02N KSCN (potassium ferrocynide) using ferric alum indicator to determine the residual AgNO3 remaining in the distillate.

  10. [Hereditary kidney diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-qin; Ding, Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Hong-wen

    2013-04-18

    About 10 to 15 percent of kidney diseases are inherited or related to genetic factors. While, hereditary kidney diseases have no specific clinical manifestations and react poorly to the therapy, as a result, about 30 percent of hospitalized children with chronic renal failure is due to hereditary kidney diseases in our country. Hereditary kidney diseases are related to many genes. Molecular genetic analysis plays an important role in the diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of hereditary kidney diseases. Our group have made a series of research in hereditary kidney diseases for nearly 30 years. Here we review the research work and the main results in hereditary kidney diseases of our group.

  11. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) as biological indicator for environmental pollution in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Miklós; Markov, Georgi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim were to establish the metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) levels of red fox liver and the kidney samples (n = 10) deriving from central part of Hungary and compare the results with other countries' data. According to our results the concentrations of residues of the targeted elements (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and kidney samples were, respectively in liver: Cu: 21.418, Zn: 156.928, Ni: 2.079, Co: 1.611, Pb: 1.678 and Cd: 0.499; and kidney samples: Cu: 9.236; Zn: 87.159; Ni: 2.514; Co: 2.455; Pb: 2.63 and Cd: 0.818. Pb levels of Hungarian red fox liver samples significantly exceed the values of Italian specimens' samples, whilst the same element's concentrations of Hungarian red fox kidney samples were higher than the results published in Germany.

  12. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  13. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle. Drinking lots of sugary, caffeinated , or sports drinks and eating a diet high in sodium (salt) ... in their diet limit consumption of soda/soft/sports drinks If dietary changes fail to prevent kidney stones, ...

  14. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Adjust Camps Resources LIVING DONATION Facts Types Being a Living Donor About the Operation Financing Living Donation Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Kidney/Pancreas Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/ ...

  15. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Acute kidney failure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    especially in ... medical professionals and nursing practitioners to identify risk factors of CKD, making early diagnoses and ... public as well as doctor and nurse practitioners is required nationally. The rewards for both SA kidney disease sufferers and ...

  17. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Inspidus Glomerular Diseases Goodpasture Syndrome Henoch-Schönlein Purpura IgA Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic ... will treat infections with antibiotics—medications that kill bacteria. If large cysts are causing pain, a health ...

  18. Kidney transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100087.htm Kidney transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  19. WINTER BEAN PRODUCTIVITY UNDER UROCHLOA STRAW FERTILIZED WITH NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍDIA RAQUEL COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during the years 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of Urochloa forage straw and nitrogen fertilization on soil properties, nutritional foliar content, index of foliar chlorophyll (IFC values, production components, and grains yields of winter bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ‘Pérola’ in the Cerrado lowlands region of Brazil. The treatments consisted of planting bean crops under straw of Urochloa brizantha ‘Xaraés’ and Urochloa ruziziensis, fertilized with urea - sourced N (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha - 1 . The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, and a factorial scheme of 2 × 5. The greater yield of U. brizantha dry matter in the two years of evaluation increased bean leaf nutrient levels. The nutritional increase with increasing N application rates showed that the straw produced by the forages had a positive effect on bean nutrition. The grain yield was satisfactory but was not affected by the forage species nor by changes in the N application rates. The Urochloa straw increased the soil organic matter (SOM, Ca, and Mg content in both evaluated years, affected the decomposition and mineralization of organic residues, and ensured the proper development of the bean plants.

  20. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  1. Physicochemical properties of nixtamalized black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Ramos, David; Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan de Dios; Véles-Medina, José Juan; Salazar, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of three nixtamalization processes using wood ashes, Ca(OH)2, and CaCl2 on the physicochemical properties of beans. Raw beans had C-type starch, 10.10% resistant starch (RS), and two DSC endotherms: 1) starch gelatinization, and 2) melting of amylose-lipid complexes plus protein denaturation. Nixtamalization increased the Ca and Fe content, decreased the RS content to 4.19-4.43%, and produced starch retrogradation. DSC and FT-IR analysis of the flours evidenced a "stabilizing" effect of cooking with NaCl and CaCl2 on bean proteins. In contrast, cooking with wood ashes and Ca(OH)2 produced denaturation of bean proteins, decreasing the second transition enthalpy and absorption bands of amide I, II and III. Results showed that traditional and classic nixtamalization of beans are alternatives to obtaining mineral fortified flours that could be used as ingredients in the elaboration of foods with a good nutritional profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Common bean yield under water suppression and application of osmoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J. de C. Bastos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the common bean crop grown with application of osmoprotectants based on algae of the genus Durvillaea potatorum in the winter crop season, with occurrence or not of water suppression. The experiment used a randomized block design, in split plots, arranged in a 4x7 factorial scheme, in which the plots were composed of four treatments - periods of water suppression (7, 14, 21 days and the control treatment: 100% of field capacity throughout the crop cycle and the subplots consisted of seven types of osmoprotectants. The treatments with osmoprotectants was applied during the full flowering of the common bean. Three days after application of osmoprotectants, the treatments with suppression of irrigation were established. The use of osmoprotectants based on algae of the genus Durvillaea does not affect the variables plant height, stem diameter, stem and pod dry matter, first pod height, number of pods per plant and number of grains per pod in common bean plants cultivated with occurrence of water suppression. Common bean plants under water restriction conditions have lower leaf and shoot dry matter and lower 100-grain weight. Common bean grain yield was influenced by the type of osmoprotectants and the water suppression period.

  3. Words denoting faba bean (Vicia faba in European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L took part in the 'agricultural revolution' of post-glacial Europe along with other grain legumes and cereals. In order to assess the diversity and the origin of the words denoting faba bean in the languages of Europe, a lexicological study was carried out with emphasis upon etymological dictionaries. The words in almost all modern Indo-European languages in Europe owe their origin to the Proto-Indo-European root *bhabh bhabhā, also denoting faba bean. The Proto-Altaic root *bŭkrV, denoting pea nut and cone, through the Proto-Turkic *burčak, denoting both pea and bean is responsible for the words in several modern Altaic languages of Europe while the others are borrowings from Arabic. The origin of the words in modern Caucasian languages is the Proto-Caucasian root *howł[ā], meaning both bean and lentil. The words in Uralic languages are either borrowings, mostly from Slavic, or derived from their own words denoting pea.

  4. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H.; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km2 soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha−1 yr−1 (30 kg P ha−1 yr−1 above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  5. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  6. Disease-resistance related sequences in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, M I; Vallejos, C E; McClean, P E

    1999-02-01

    Primers based on a conserved nucleotide binding site (NBS) found in several cloned plant disease resistance genes were used to amplify DNA fragments from the genome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Cloning and sequence analysis of these fragments uncovered eight unique classes of disease-resistance related sequences. All eight classes contained the conserved kinase 2 motif, and five classes contained the kinase 3a motif. Gene expression was noted for five of the eight classes of sequences. A clone from the SB3 class mapped 17.8 cM from the Ur-6 gene that confers resistance to several races of the bean rust pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus. Linkage mapping identified microclusters of disease-resistance related sequence in common bean, and sequences mapped to four linkage groups in one population. Comparison with similar sequences from soybean (Glycine max) revealed that any one class of common bean disease-resistance related sequences was more identical to a soybean NBS-containing sequence than to the sequence of another common bean class.

  7. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Mugabo; Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; George Annor; Bernard Rwubatse

    2017-01-01

    It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L) mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours) and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-tr...

  8. Amylolytic treatment on faba bean for producing emulsions and emulsion gels

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Tilak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein...

  9. Early diagnosis improves survival in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2012-02-01

    Kidney cancers account for 2-3% of all adult malignancies in the UK. Men are predominantly affected by renal cancer with an average age at diagnosis of 64 years. Renal (or clear) cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of kidney cancers. Early diagnosis improves survival with five-year survival rates for renal cancer of 70-94% for localised tumours in the UK. RCC should be suspected in the presence of localising symptoms such as flank pain, a loin mass or haematuria; constitutional upset including weight loss, pyrexia and/or night sweats; or with unexplained laboratory tests. Smoking, obesity and hypertension are the most important and most common risk factors. Environmental exposure to asbestos, cadmium and trichloroethylene are less common risk factors. Patients on chronic dialysis and renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of RCC in their native kidneys. If kidney cancer is suspected on history, physical examination or initial screening tests then a red flag ultrasound examination of the renal tracts should be requested. Dipstick urinalysis is of great value as asymptomatic haematuria may be the only abnormal test in the presence of non-specific symptoms such as weight loss or loin pain. Visible or non-visible haematuria, in the absence of proteinuria, suggests an underlying structural abnormality is present in the kidneys, ureters or bladder. Surgical removal of RCCs, where feasible, may result in cure in up to 40-60% of cases. Individuals too frail for major surgery may benefit from thermal ablation and cryotherapy. Agents that target the VEGF and mTOR pathways are considered first line in the treatment of metastatic RCC. Sunitinib, recommended by NICE, is administered orally and acts by inhibiting the VEGF receptor.

  10. Chronic kidney disease: diet

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine M.; Smyth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually first recognised by an elevated serum creatinine or low estimated GFR. Continued progression of kidney disease will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelonephritis, renovascu...

  11. Necroinflammation in Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mulay, Shrikant R.; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional causality between kidney injury and inflammation remains an area of unexpected discoveries. The last decade unraveled the molecular mechanisms of sterile inflammation, which established danger signaling via pattern recognition receptors as a new concept of kidney injury–related inflammation. In contrast, renal cell necrosis remained considered a passive process executed either by the complement-related membrane attack complex, exotoxins, or cytotoxic T cells. Accumulating da...

  12. Chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Glomerular cellular changes such as platelet infiltration, mesangial cell proliferation, increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, as well as tubulointerstitial changes that occur early in the development of the remnant kidney progression and other models of chronic renal insufficiency, were linked to the later development of kidney fibrosis. Nowadays, there is evidence that RAS inhibition, besides the effects on glomerular hemodynamics, influence other pathogenic ...

  13. Nanomedicines for Kidney Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ryan M.; Jaimes, Edgar A.; Heller, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicines have been the subject of great interest for the treatment, diagnosis, and research of disease; however few specifically address kidney disorders. Nanotechnology can confer significant benefit to medicine, such as the targeted delivery of drugs to specific tissues. Nanomedicines in the clinic have increased drug solubility, reduced off-target side effects, and provided novel diagnostic tools. There is an increasing cohort of nanomaterials which may have implications for kidney di...

  14. Women and kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Deborah B

    2013-09-01

    Kidney transplant is the best kidney replacement treatment for end-stage kidney disease. The first step in moving toward kidney transplantation is referral to a transplant center for transplant evaluation. Education of dialysis staff and health-care providers may help increase referrals for evaluation. Patient education has been shown to enhance patient completion of the evaluation process. Patients have difficulty asking others to donate a kidney, but this process can be improved with home and community education. Living donors are more likely to be women than men, especially spousal donors. Deceased donors are more likely to be males younger than 35 years of age. There is a slight decrease in the rate of transplantation of women as compared with men, although not statistically significant. Pretransplant development of anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies is more common amongst women and can be a barrier to successful transplantation and may prolong the waiting time for transplant. The long-term management of cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, and age-appropriate cancer screening need to be addressed with posttransplant recipients. Women have an overall increased patient and graft survival as compared with men after transplant. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteoprotegerin and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez-Barragán, Alejandra; Gómez-Barrera, Isaias; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Ucero, Alvaro C; González-Espinoza, Liliana; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is associated to increased mortality. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily receptor that inhibits the actions of the cytokines receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by preventing their binding to signaling receptors in the cell membrane. OPG-deficient mice display vascular calcification while OPG prevented calcification of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and protected kidney cells from TRAIL-induced death. OPG may be a biomarker in patients with kidney disease. Circulating OPG is increased in predialysis, dialysis and transplant CKD patients and may predict vascular calcification progression and patient survival. By contrast, circulating OPG is decreased in nephrotic syndrome. In addition, free and exosome-bound urinary OPG is increased in human kidney disease. Increased urinary OPG has been associated with lupus nephritis activity. Despite the association of high OPG levels with disease, experimental functional information available suggests that OPG might be protective in kidney disease and in vascular injury in the context of uremia. Thus, tissue injury results in increased OPG, while OPG may protect from tissue injury. Recombinant OPG was safe in phase I randomized controlled trials. Further research is needed to fully define the therapeutic and biomarker potential of OPG in patients with kidney disease.

  16. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour

    OpenAIRE

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were maltin...

  17. Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through biotechnological approach: A review. ... yield and quality. This review work examines the role of various techniques with reference to faba bean improvement. Key words: Vicia faba, faba bean, grain quality, resistance breeding, nitrogen fixation, zero tannin.

  18. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large

  19. Registration of common bacterial blight resistant cranberry dry bean germplasm line USCR-CBB-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bacterial blight is a serious disease of dry edible beans in warm humid climates. The disease is most prominent east of the continental divide in the U.S. Large seeded dry beans from the Andean gene pool, such as those in the cranberry bean market class are very susceptible to this disease. ...

  20. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal.

  1. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  2. Evaluation of Snap Bean Genotypes Combining Rust Resistance and Heat Tolerance Traits in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major biotic and abiotic constraints to snap bean production in East Africa include diseases such as common bean rust (caused by Uromyces appendiculatus) and high ambient temperatures that cause heat stress. Rust resistant snap beans that perform well under both cool and hot agro-ecological cond...

  3. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  4. Knowing beans: Human mirror mechanisms revealed through motor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Glenberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human mirror mechanisms (MMs respond during both performed and observed action and appear to underlie action goal recognition. We introduce a behavioral procedure for discovering and clarifying functional MM properties: Blindfolded participants repeatedly move beans either toward or away from themselves to induce motor adaptation. Then, the bias for perceiving direction of ambiguous visual movement in depth is measured. Bias is affected by a number of beans moved, b movement direction, and c similarity of the visual stimulus to the hand used to move beans. This cross-modal adaptation pattern supports both the validity of human MMs and functionality of our testing instrument. We also discuss related work that extends the motor adaptation paradigm to investigate contributions of MMs to speech perception and language comprehension.

  5. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the chronic toxicity of crude ricin from castor bean kernels on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pingping; Wang, Junsong; Dong, Ge; Wei, Dandan; Li, Minghui; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-07-29

    Ricin, a large, water soluble toxic glycoprotein, is distributed majorly in the kernels of castor beans (the seeds of Ricinus communis L.) and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or other folk remedies throughout the world. The toxicity of crude ricin (CR) from castor bean kernels was investigated for the first time using an NMR-based metabolomic approach complemented with histopathological inspection and clinical chemistry. The chronic administration of CR could cause kidney and lung impairment, spleen and thymus dysfunction and diminished nutrient intake in rats. An orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLSDA) of metabolomic profiles of rat biofluids highlighted a number of metabolic disturbances induced by CR. Long-term CR treatment produced perturbations on energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism and kynurenine pathway, and evoked oxidative stress. These findings could explain well the CR induced nephrotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity, and provided several potential biomarkers for diagnostics of these toxicities. Such a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach showed its ability to give a systematic and holistic view of the response of an organism to drugs and is suitable for dynamic studies on the toxicological effects of TCM.

  6. Dietary factors and risk of kidney stone: a case-control study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Zhao, Ai; Liu, Aiping; You, Lili; Wang, Peiyu

    2013-03-01

    Formation of kidney stones is a multifactorial disease, and diet and lifestyle are suggested to contribute remarkably to increased prevalence. The population of Guangzhou, China has a high prevalence rate of kidney stones; however, its risk factors are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary risk factors for kidney stones in southern China. A case-control study was carried out. This study was carried out at the Department of Health Management Center, Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital, China. This study involved 1,019 newly diagnosed kidney stone patients and 987 healthy control subjects. A questionnaire regarding dietary patterns and supplements was used to investigate the risk factors for kidney stone formation. Food intake frequency, beverage and alcohol consumption, food supplements, and anthropometry were assessed. In the analysis, we found positive associations of kidney stones with consumption of grains (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 4.02) and bean products (OR = 3.50; 95% CI = 1.61, 7.59) in women. The variable "fluid drinking" showed a significant protective effect against kidney stones in men (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.88). Consuming leafy vegetables more than 3 times per day was positively associated with stones in both men and women (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.91 and OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.48, 10.04, respectively). Other dietary factors, dietary supplements, and specific food were not related to kidney stone formation in Guangzhou, China. The results confirmed that specific diet can affect stone formation in the Chinese population, and varied risk factors were found for different genders. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. BEANS - a software package for distributed Big Data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    BEANS software is a web based, easy to install and maintain, new tool to store and analyse data in a distributed way for a massive amount of data. It provides a clear interface for querying, filtering, aggregating, and plotting data from an arbitrary number of datasets. Its main purpose is to simplify the process of storing, examining and finding new relations in the so-called Big Data. Creation of BEANS software is an answer to the growing needs of the astronomical community to have a versat...

  8. Medical image of the week: coffee bean and whirlpool signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease presented with altered mental status, poor oral intake, and multiple episodes of nausea and vomiting. An abdominal x-ray demonstrated dilated loops of bowel and the coffee bean sign concerning for sigmoid volvulus (Figure 1. The coffee bean sign occurs when a thick “inner wall” represents the double wall thickness of opposed loops of bowel while the thinner outer walls due single thickness. A contrast CT abdomen showed dilated sigmoid loop and whirlpool sign confirming sigmoid volvulus (Figure 2. She underwent a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and full recovery.

  9. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...

  10. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  11. Meta-QTL for resistance to white mold in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Renato C. C.; Oraguzie, O. Blessing; Soler, Alvaro; Arkwazee, Haidar; Myers, James R.; Ferreira, Juan J.; Song, Qijian; McClean, Phil; Miklas, Phillip N.

    2017-01-01

    White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major disease that limits common bean production and quality worldwide. The host-pathogen interaction is complex, with partial resistance in the host inherited as a quantitative trait with low to moderate heritability. Our objective was to identify meta-QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold from individual QTL identified across multiple populations and environments. The physical positions for 37 individual QTL were identified across 14 recombinant inbred bi-parental populations (six new, three re-genotyped, and five from the literature). A meta-QTL analysis of the 37 QTL was conducted using the genetic linkage map of Stampede x Red Hawk population as the reference. The 37 QTL condensed into 17 named loci (12 previously named and five new) of which nine were defined as meta-QTL WM1.1, WM2.2, WM3.1, WM5.4, WM6.2, WM7.1, WM7.4, WM7.5, and WM8.3. The nine meta-QTL had confidence intervals ranging from 0.65 to 9.41 Mb. Candidate genes shown to express under S. sclerotiorum infection in other studies, including cell wall receptor kinase, COI1, ethylene responsive transcription factor, peroxidase, and MYB transcription factor, were found within the confidence interval for five of the meta-QTL. The nine meta-QTL are recommended as potential targets for MAS for partial resistance to white mold in common bean. PMID:28199342

  12. Effects of phytoestrogens derived from soy bean on expression of adhesion molecules on HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C M de; Sá, M F Silva de; Toloi, M R Torqueti

    2012-04-01

    The risks of hormone replacement therapy have led to a search for new alternatives such as phytoestrogens, plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Isoflavones are the phytoestrogens most extensively studied and can be found in soybean, red clover and other plants. Due to this estrogen-like activity, phytoestrogens can have some effect on atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) have been extensively used to study the biology and pathobiology of human endothelial cells and most of the knowledge acquired is due to experiments with cultures of these cells. To evaluate the effects of the phytoestrogen extracts from Glycine max soy bean, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as a mixture of these extracts (Mix), on expression of adhesion molecules, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, by endothelial cell HUVEC, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. HUVEC were cultured in medium EBM(2), pretreated with isoflavones for 24 and 48 h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide; in addition, isoflavones were added, after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide, to HUVEC. We evaluated the production of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin on cell surface, by cell-based enzyme immunoassay, and of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin in culture supernatant, by ELISA. Genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as the Mix were able to reduce VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin on cell surface and in culture supernatant. Conclusion Isoflavones extracted from Glycine max soy bean, in vitro, presented antiatherogenic effects, reducing the expression of adhesion molecules and acting as preventive agents as well as therapeutic agents.

  13. Mapping Fusarium solani and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot resistance and root architecture quantitative trait loci in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...

  14. Bean – an important element of a healthy diet. Nutritional values analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wawryka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are a rich source of various nutrients. In the Polish culture, one of the varieties of beans has a special significance. Due to the appearance of seeds – on the bright seeds there are dark red spots in the shape of the Piast eagle – at the times of annexation, it was recognised as a symbol of patriotism. Cultivation was therefore banned then by the authority. Today, this bean variety was entered on the list of traditional products in Poland. Bean in Poland is one of the twelve Christmas Eve dishes. Health benefits of legumes have been known since the ancient times in many countries. Anticancer properties are due to the presence of enzymes which affect the division, differentiation, and apoptosis cells in the body. Rich in phytoestrogens, especially isoflavones, they protect women against the development of hormone-dependent cancers and reduce the symptoms associated with menopause. Rich in fibre, they regulate the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have prebiotic properties. They also reduce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. By influencing the expression of genes involved in β-oxidative fats and gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, they reduce triglyceride levels, LDL cholesterol and increase the levels of HDL cholesterol. Moreover, they help to maintain a normal body weight and reduce high blood pressure. It is therefore recommended particularly for people suffering from the metabolic syndrome or predisposed to its occurrence. It is advised to increase the content of legumes in our diet because of the health benefits and taste.

  15. Inheritance of resistance to races 69 and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in the common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Poletine

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivars, AB 136 and G 2333 both resistant to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races 69 and 453, were crossed with the cultivars Michelite and Perry Marrow (susceptible to both races, with Dark Red Kidney and Cornell 49242 (resistant to both races and F1 and F2 generations were obtained. Plants were inoculated using a spore suspension at 1.2 x 10(6 concentration. The reaction of F1 and F2 populations showed that Dark Red Kidney, Cornell 49242 and AB 136 cultivars had the dominant genes A (Co-1, Are (Co-2 and Co-6, respectively, was conferring resistance to races 69 and 453. The segregation data obtained from F2 populations indicated that G 2333 carried two dominant resistance genes Co-5 gene and another one Co-7 for 69 and 453 races. The dominant genes in G 2333 and its resistance to C. lindemuthianum race could be transferred to provide anthracnose resistance to susceptible cultivars relatively easy.Os cultivares AB 136 e G 2333 ambos resistentes às raças 69 e 453 de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum foram cruzados com os cultivares Michelite e Perry Marrow (suscetíveis à ambas as raças e com Dark Red Kidney e Cornell 49242 (resistentes à ambas as raças e, obtidas as gerações F1 e F2. As plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos, utilizando-se uma concentração de 1,2 x 10(6 esporos/ml de água. As reações das populações F1 e F2 evidenciaram que os cultivares Dark Red Kidney; Cornell 49242 e AB 136 possuem, respectivamente, os genes dominantes A (Co-1 Are (Co-2 e Co-6, os quais conferiram a resistência às raças 69 e 453. Os dados de segregação obtidos nas populações F2 indicaram que G 2333 carrega os genes dominantes de resistência Co-5 e Co-7. Os genes dominantes presentes em G 2333 e sua resistência às raças de C. lindemuthianum, poderão serem transferidos para cultivares suscetíveis com relativa facilidade.

  16. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Radovan

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria-peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217-231.

  18. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cena Rivero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD is a genetic disease which is characterized by the gradual emergence of cystic lesions in the kidneys, which replace the renal parenchyma causing deterioration of its function to stage 5. The PKD is one of the causes of Chronic Kidney Disease on renal replacement therapy (RRT. The Polycystic Kidney Disease has two patterns of inheritance: autosomal dominant pattern and the autosomal recessive pattern. The dominant form is more common but less severe than autosomal recessive form. PKD is known that is caused by mutations in several loci of the human genome. The autosomal dominant form can be caused by mutations in two different genes (PKD1 and PKD2, unlike the autosomal recessive form only has a causal gene (PKHD1. At present the international scientific community efforts toward deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of this entity for the purpose of developing therapeutic alternatives that avoid the appearance of cysts or progression of those already in place. The aim is to systematize the available scientific knowledge about Polycystic Kidney Disease and provide a source of consultation update on clinical characteristics and therapeutic options for patients with PKD

  19. red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin a and haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22. Preet K and D Punia Proximate composition, phytic acid, polyphenols and digestibility (in-vitro) of four brown cowpea varieties. Int. J Food Sci.Nutr, 2000;. 51:189-193. 23. Madode YE, Houssou PA, Linnemann AR, Hounhouigan DJ, Nout MJR and. MAJS van Boekel Preparation, consumption and nutritional composition ...

  20. Triglycerides in the human kidney cortex: relationship with body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Alexandru Bobulescu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04. Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis.

  1. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  2. The Kidney Development Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J A

    1999-01-01

    The Kidney Development Database is a bioinformatics resource dedicated to providing easily accessible information on gene expression during the development of the pro-, meso-, and metanephroi of a range of vertebrates. It also contains data on mutant phenotypes and on the effects of experimental manipulation of kidneys developing in culture. The database is searchable by gene name or by expression pattern. It is now being used as a test bed for more "advanced" search strategies that measure hypotheses of gene interactions against expression data to test for any clashes that would make the hypotheses untenable and that scan the database for potentially interesting correlations between changes in gene expression. The Kidney Development Database can be accessed free of charge via the World Wide Web at either of the following uniform resource locators (URLs); http://golgi.ana.ed.ac.uk/kidhome.html, and http://www.ana.ed.ac.uk/anatomy/database/kidbase/ kidhome.html.

  3. [Pregnancy and kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka-Harreis, M; Rump, L C

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in women of childbearing age reaches approximately 0.2%. Under physiological conditions pregnancy results in important hemodynamic changes on the maternal organism. In the case of chronic kidney disease these adaptations often are only partial. Physiological changes of immune response during pregnancy may contribute to the progress of renal disease. Regardless of the underlying kidney disease, one can assume that the better the glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure are the more favorable the course of pregnancy will be with the chance for a healthy child and stable renal function. To achieve this goal, a close interaction is required between gynecologist, nephrologist, and other specialists in a center with appropriate experience.

  4. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  6. A kidney's ingenious path to trimillennar preservation: Renal tuberculosis in an Egyptian mummy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos; Sousa, Sandra; Ikram, Salima

    2015-12-01

    Irtieru is a male mummy enclosed in cartonnage, dating to the Third Intermediate Period in the Egyptian collection of the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia in Lisbon. The computed tomography scans of this mummy showed a small dense bean-shaped structure at the left lumbar region. Its anatomical location, morphologic and structural analysis support a diagnosis of end-stage renal tuberculosis. If this diagnosis is correct, this will be the oldest example of kidney tuberculosis, and the first one recorded in an intentionally mummified ancient Egyptian. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Sumi; Tarigan, Radar; Lubis, Abdurrahim Rasyid; Zakiah, Ayu Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic Kidney Disease is an inherited condition that causes small, fluid-filled sacs called cysts to develop in the kidneys. The disease can be inherited in autosomal dominant and recessive forms. Estimates of PKD’s prevalence range from one in 400 to one in 1,000 people. In many cases, PKD does not cause signs or symptoms until cysts are half an inch or larger. When present, the most common symptoms are abdominal pain, haematuria, urinary tract infection, hypertension, renal stones and r...

  8. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the kidney is a very rare entity with no definite treatment protocol. Herein, we describe one such case with discussion of its diagnosis and management. The patient had a well circumscribed mass in right kidney extending into the inferior vena cava and metastasis to both the lungs. Right nephrectomy was performed and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis to be renal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. After surgical removal of the tumor, the patient was given chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Epirubicin, following which there was significant regression of lung nodules.

  9. Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Weaver, Amy L.; Lieske, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population.

  10. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency of intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Y.; A Koocheki; M. Nassiri Mahallati

    2016-01-01

    In order to study radiation use efficiency and radiation interception in intercropping of herb sweet basil and common bean, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran for the growing season of 2008. Treatments were 1) sole crop of bean , 2) sole crop of sweet basil, 3) strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows bean and two rows sweet basil), 4) strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows sweet basil and four...

  11. Energy drink-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Elisa; Oman, Kristy; Lefler, Mary

    2014-10-01

    To report a case of acute renal failure possibly induced by Red Bull. A 40-year-old man presented with various complaints, including a recent hypoglycemic episode. Assessment revealed that serum creatinine was elevated at 5.5 mg/dL, from a baseline of 0.9 mg/dL. An interview revealed a 2- to 3-week history of daily ingestion of 100 to 120 oz of Red Bull energy drink. Resolution of renal dysfunction occurred within 2 days of discontinuation of Red Bull and persisted through 10 months of follow-up. Rechallenge was not attempted. Energy-drink-induced renal failure has been reported infrequently. We identified 2 case reports via a search of MEDLINE, one of which occurred in combination with alcohol and the other of which was not available in English. According to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System, between 2004 and 2012, the FDA has received 166 reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption. Only 3 of the 166 (0.18%) described renal failure, and none were reported with Red Bull specifically. A defined mechanism for injury is unknown. Assessment of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicates a probable relationship between the development of acute renal failure and Red Bull ingestion in our patient. Acute kidney injury has rarely been reported with energy drink consumption. Our report describes the first English language report of acute renal failure occurring in the context of ingestion of large quantities of energy drink without concomitant alcohol. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Polycystic kidney disease Polycystic kidney disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder that affects the kidneys and ...

  13. Host-Parasite Relationship Between African Yam Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host-Parasite Relationship Between African Yam Bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ... Plant Products Research Journal ... Inoculated plants in the pots received 4,000 eggs of M. incognita while the field was confirmed to be infested with inoculum level of about 75 nematode larvae per 50 cm3 of soil sample. Results ...

  14. A sample for biodiversity in Turkey: Common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artvin province located in north-east region of Turkey is small province but has rich plant diversity due to its different geographical and ecological formation. Significant part of this province has been flooded by the dams which have been built. The common bean is a very important crop for Artvin's farmers. This study was ...

  15. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Intercropping of Faba bean (Vicia fabae) and field pea (Pisum sativum) is an important cropping system in the. Horro highlands of Ethiopia, but seed proportions balance is important to intercrop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum seed rates on component crop yield and land equivalent ...

  16. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to.

  17. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  18. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  19. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial

  20. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with field bean (P. vulgaris L. ) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP finely ground with 30 Grade % P and ...

  1. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only,. 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly ...

  3. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  4. Registration of ‘Powderhorn’ great northern bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Powderhorn' great northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. No. CV-305, PI 669449), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2013 as an upright, midseason cultivar with tolerance to white mold [caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary]. Powderhorn, was develo...

  5. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical and genetic variability of Pss isolates collected from dry bean producing areas in South Africa. Pure isolates were subjected to LOPAT tests and SyrB gene assessment. Biolog GN Microplates were used to assess carbon substrate utilisation. The SyrB gene was present in ...

  6. Resistance and inheritance of common bacterial blight in yellow bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additive genetic effects were observed in quantitative traits like days to flowering, plant height, days to maturity and yield. Therefore, resistance to common bacterial blight is controlled by a single dominant gene. The resistant parents Wilk 2 and VAX 6 could be used to improve bean varieties that are susceptible to common ...

  7. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... 2National Crops Resources Research Institute-Namulonge, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda. 3University of California, Department of Plant Sciences/MS1, Section of Crop and Ecosystem Sciences, 1 Shields. Avenue, Davis, CA ... wild beans ranging from northern Mexico to Colombia. (Mesoamerican ...

  8. inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. ... Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100,. Nairobi ..... Colombia. Santos-Filho, H.P., Ferraz, H.P. and Vieira, C. 1976. Inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Annual Report of the Bean ...

  9. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. ... Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop, produced mainly by small to medium ...... Cali, Colombia. Deeksha Joshi, Hooda, K.S., Bhatt, J.C., Mina,. B.L. and Gupta, H.S. 2009. Suppressive effects of composts on soil-borne and foliar diseases.

  10. development of intermittent drought stress tolerant common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... 1National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI-NARO), P. O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda. 2School of .... Colombia, high pod partition index, pod harvest index, low .... NaCRRI = National Crops Resources Research Institute, CIAT = International Center for Tropical Agriculture, BCMV = Bean.

  11. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean | Amugune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of two common bean varieties Mwitemania and Rose coco to in vitro Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation. Mature seed embryos germinated for 1-2 days on moist filter paper, were stab inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains LBA 4404 (pBI 121), EHA ...

  12. Sensory evaluation and proximate analysis of African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moimoi-like dish, similar to the very popular steamed cowpea dish, was produced from the African Yam Bean (AYB). The AYB moimoi was compared with cowpea and soybean moimoi by a panel of eight (8) judges. The samples were compared for taste, colour, aroma texture and overall acceptability. For texture, aroma ...

  13. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  14. Examination of genetic diversity in common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the pattern of genetic diversity in 45 genotypes of common bean, 19 RAPD primers were used. Of 253 bands produced, 236 bands (94.22%) were polymorphic in which maximum number (20 polymorphic bands) were observed in the profiles of the primer OPB-07. Highest PIC value (0.79) was observed for the ...

  15. Processing, utilization and challenges of African locust bean ( Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The processing/utilization challenges include unavailability of the product in large proportions in the study area, lack of water supply, stressful nature of the processing, poor packaging, lack of storage facilities, etc. Based on the results ... Key Words: African locust bean, utilization/processing, marketing, Ondo State, Tasboos ...

  16. Phenotypic and seed protein analysis in 31 Lima bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic and seed protein analyses were performed on 31 accessions of Lima bean assembled in Ghana. Data on 16 phenotypic characters consisting of eight quantitative and eight qualitative were analysed. There were significant differences among the accessions based on the eight quantitative characters. Seed ...

  17. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal seed systems, in order to increase ... This, however, makes the marketing of seed reliant on big buyers for redistribution among remote farming communities. ... This growth in bean demand provides trade opportunities for small ...

  18. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic ...

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only, 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which ...

  20. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  1. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  2. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The climbing bean on the fanners preferences of seed yield, resistance to disease~, seed size, cooking time, adaptability, days to maturity, (;Ooking time and seed .... The form er two are particularly large seeded; Umubano and Vuninkingi are well adapted to both medium and high altitude seed quality. Variety Ngwinurare ...

  3. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the ... PCoA, majority individuals of Metekel (L) tended to form separate group. The result of the study ... endospermic and vary greatly in size and color from the small black wild type to the ...

  4. Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was no beneficial effect of .... All diets were prepared and fed in mash form. Birds were fed ad libitum from wooden ..... The results of this study showed no in- fluence of diet on the sizes of giblets, viscera.

  5. Effect of Intercropping Collard with Beans or Onions on Aphid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Intercropping Collard with Beans or. Onions on Aphid Populations and Yields of Collard. Under High Altitude Conditions in Kenya. Mwanarusi Saidi* and F.M. Itulya. Department of Horticulture~1 Egerton University/-p.d.Box 536, Njoro,' Kenya'). Abstract. Collard (Brassica oleracea var,acephala D, C) is an important ...

  6. Nutritional improvement of an Egyptian breed of mung bean by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional improvement of an Egyptian breed of mung bean by probiotic lactobacilli. Ashraf A. Khalil. Abstract. Germination and/or fermentation processes for Egyptian breeds of mung seeds were carried out with three Lactobacillus strains namely, L. reuteri, L. case, and L. heleviticus. Results revealed increase in protein ...

  7. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Bel Air station, in Dakar using 15N isotope dilution technique and the non nodulating soybean (Glycine max) variety m129 as reference plant to test the compatibility of Dichlorofenthion-thiram (DCT) fungicide to the inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Paulista variety with ...

  8. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  9. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean [ Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC] and its response to colchicine-induced mutagenesis. ... For mutation induction, 20 seeds from accessionsTPt26 and TPt154 were soaked in three different concentrations of colchicine (5,10, 15mg/l) for 24, 48, and 72 hours, ...

  10. of Bean sUbfosciatus (Boh.) in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991). On-farm storage losses due to bean bruchids and farm- ers' control strategies: A Report on Travelling. Workshop in Eastern and Southern Africa 16. September - 10 October 1991. pp. 35,. Haines, c.P. (1991), Insects and Arachnids of Tropi-.

  11. Determination Of Lipid Contents Of Two New Soy Bean Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of fatty acids and sterols in oil is very important as they serve as the vital indicators of the activity and purity, respectively of the oils. A qualitative Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry study of oils from soy beans of two varieties (TGX 1802-1F, and TGX 1019-2EB) was done to determine their fatty acid, ...

  12. Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties ( haseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties ( haseolus vulgaris L.) with and without phosphorus fertilizer under irrigated and rain fed conditions in the ... The aim of the study was to examine the performance and select the best and well adapted varieties, as well as to determine the role of phosphorus on yield ...

  13. Ochratoxin A in Cocoa beans and cocoa based beverages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination was carried out on cocoa beans and cocoa based beverages commercialized in Nigeria using direct sensitive ELISA test. A total of 17 samples from shops and factories representing samples from farms, stores, port, processing sites and finished products from retailers were ...

  14. Multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop, produced mainly by small to medium scale farmers under various disease constraints. Disease resistant varieties can reduce reliance on fungicides, and enhance the capacities of smallholder farmers to meet the stringent European export ...

  15. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  16. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed ...

  17. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in mung bean germplasm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAPD profiles were used to identify the extent of diversity among 54 accessions of mung bean that included both improved and local land races. Out of the 40 primers screened, seven primers generated 174 amplification products with an average of 24.85 bands per primer. The RAPD profiles were analysed for Jaccard's ...

  18. Response of Common Bean to Rhizobium Inoculation and Fertilizers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Agronomy Journal. 84:1020-1028. Gobara, L.A.M,. A.A. Mahdi,. A.M. El-Til'ib and M.H.M. Abdel. (1993). Response of llaricot bean to inoculation, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in Sudan. East African. Agricultural and Forestry Journal.

  19. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was ...

  20. Structural features of acelated galactomannans from green Coffea arabica Beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Coenen, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.C.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from green Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C, 1 h). Galactomannans were isolated from the water extract using preparative anion-exchange chromatography. Almost all of the galactomannans eluted in two neutral populations, while almost all of the arabinogalactans

  1. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Field Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated Phosphorus Source in an Andosols in Kenya. C Owino-Gerroh, JK Keter, JP Mbuvi. Abstract. The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with ...

  2. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. sgfp- positive transgenic plants exhibited functional expression of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering.

  3. Iron beans in Rwanda: crop development and delivery experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HarvestPlus and its partners have successfully developed and delivered iron bean varieties to more than one million farming households in Rwanda, DRC, and Uganda to help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these countries. Focusing primarily on Rwanda, this chapter summarizes the ...

  4. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCMNV diseases into adapted, market class and farmers and consumers preferred bean genotype using marker assisted selection. The parents Mexico 54 and UBR(25)95 donor of Phg-2 and I/bc-3 genes for ALS and BCMV/BCMNV, respectively ...

  5. Isoamylase profile of mung bean seedlings treated with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simeen

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Heat stress is one of the common abiotic stresses and is the most harmful factor affecting the growth and productivity of ... samples of 0 h of all genotypes, similarly Amy 4 was specific to treated samples at 0 h harvest of NM. 20-21 and NCM ... Key words: Gibberellic acid, heat stress, Isoamylase, mung bean.

  6. Interaction of rose bengal with mung bean aspartate transcarbamylase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. The fluorescein dye, rose bengal in the dark: (i) inhibited the activity of mung bean aspartate transcarbamylase (EC 2.1.3.2) in a non-competitive manner, when aspartate was the varied substrate; (ii) induced a lag in the time course of reaction and this hysteresis was abolished upon preincubation with carbamyl ...

  7. Bean Nodulation Patterns in Soils of Different Texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IDepartment of Soil Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3008, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2Centro Internacion,al de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) A.A. 6713, Cali, Colombia. Abstract. This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture ...

  8. Chemical quality of common beans as influenced by genotype and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil acidity affects seed yield and crop quality negatively due to aluminium toxicity in most humid tropics where the crop is cultivated for food and cash income by smallholder farmers. This study was conducted to assess the effect of different exchangeable aluminium concentrations on bean chemical quality of two common ...

  9. acid on growth and yield components of common beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pods perplant, 100-seed mass and harvest index. The highest seed yields were equi valient to 1854 kg ha1 in 1997 ... In pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) (Singh et ah, 1978), and broad beans (Diethelm et al, 1986) ...... growth, chemical composition, flowering, pod yield and chemical composition of green seeds of pea plant ...

  10. design, fabrication and performance evaluation of beans dehuller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performance of the machine was evaluated and the results sh owed that the higher the feed regula- tor opening the higher the ... for beans as part of our local balance diet in Ni- geria. In recent ..... of Mr. Ojajuni, T. J., former student of Mechani-.

  11. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... The objective of this work was to identify, through the use of multivariate analysis, the spontaneous accesses of castor bean that show promising characteristics for inclusion in genetic improvement programs of this culture in Brazil. The study was conducted at the Paulista State University, Jaboticabal.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  13. variation for green bean caffeine, chlorogenic acid, sucrose and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    991 and 1.681 had relatively low (<1.00%) caffeine content and seem valuable to develop low caffeine coffee variety. Coffee berry disease resistant accessions, 7411.2 and 74158, had relatively higher green bean chlorogenic acid content indicating the association. Ageze is known for better cup quality and had the highest ...

  14. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or...

  15. Effects of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on nitrogen utilization and blood chemistry of West African Dwarf goats were assessed in a 3 months feeding trial. Eighteen West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 6.00 ± 0.15kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments with two replicates ...

  16. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    techniques, namely (i) sticks, (ii) strings, and (iii) maize intercropped with climbing beans during the cropping seasons 2010B and 2011A on 10 sites of ... Use of strings as staking materials can replace the use of sticks without a reduction in production. .... Production economics-theory of firm. An introduction to economics: ...

  17. Application of molecular markers in breeding for bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of molecular markers in breeding for bean common blight resistance in South Africa. ... resistance and presence of all markers found in Vax 4 confirmed transfer of resistance. Marker-assisted selection can successfully be implemented in breeding for common bacterial blight resistance in South African materials.

  18. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean meal as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and toasting on open fire at 100oC after sundrying. The processed beans were milled to pass through a four mm mesh and used for diet formulation. Six experimental diets were formulated each at brooding and rearing phase, with diet 1 as control, while soybean meal in the control diets were replaced with the horse eye ...

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire7-

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... The Ethiopian genetic center is considered to be one of the secondary centers of diversity for the ... accessions was developed, which represented different common bean production ecologies and seed .... The size of the bubbles does not correspond to number of genotypes sampled in each location.

  20. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    such as banana and sisal fibres has been identified to be a potential alternative. In Burundi, for instance, where banana fibre is sufficiently available, fibres can offer the benefit of reduced utilisation of stakes. The objective of this study was to identify the most suitable staking option of climbing beans in Burundi, targeting ...